To accelerate the operation speed in returning an interface shape between a first liquid and a second liquid to initial static state in an optical element using electro-wetting phenomenon.
The optical element includes a first liquid having polarity or electrical conductivity, a second liquid that is immiscible with the first liquid, having a specific gravity substantially equal to that of the first liquid, and having nonpolarity or insulation, a first substrate portion, a second substrate portion, a sidewall portion connecting the first substrate portion to the second substrate portion, and an accommodating portion sealing the first liquid and the second liquid therein. The first substrate portion includes a first electrode, the second substrate portion includes a second electrode, and the sidewall portion includes a third electrode. In deforming an interface shape between the first liquid and the second liquid from the static state, similarly to the prior art, voltage is applied between the second and third electrodes, and in returning the interface shape between the first liquid and the second liquid to the initial static state, voltage is applied between the first and third electrodes.
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