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Title:
2, 4, 6-SUBSTITUTED PYRIDYL DERIVATIVE COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS BETA-SECRETASE INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/103043
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to 2, 4, 6-substituted pyridyl derivative compounds which are inhibitors of the beta-secretase enzyme and that are useful in the treatment of diseases in which the beta-secretase enzyme is involved, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The invention is also directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising these compounds and the use of these compounds and compositions in the treatment of such diseases in which the beta-secretase enzyme is involved.

Inventors:
Barrow, James C. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Mcgaughey, Georgia B. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Nantermet, Philippe G. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Rajapakse, Hemaka A. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Selnick, Harold G. (126 East lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Stauffer, Shaun R. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Vacca, Joseph P. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Stachel, Shawn J. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Coburn, Craig A. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Stanton, Matthew G. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/013480
Publication Date:
November 03, 2005
Filing Date:
April 20, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MERCK & CO., INC. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Barrow, James C. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Mcgaughey, Georgia B. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Nantermet, Philippe G. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Rajapakse, Hemaka A. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Selnick, Harold G. (126 East lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Stauffer, Shaun R. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Vacca, Joseph P. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Stachel, Shawn J. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Coburn, Craig A. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Stanton, Matthew G. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
International Classes:
C07D401/04; C07D413/04; C07D413/14; C07D417/04; C07D417/14; (IPC1-7): C07D413/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004022523A2
Foreign References:
US4518601A
Other References:
See also references of EP 1740581A1
J.T. HUSE ET AL. J. BIOL. CHEM. vol. 277, no. 18, 03 May 2002, pages 16278 - 16284
K.C. CHEN; W.J. HOWE BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMM vol. 292, 2002, pages 702 - 708
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MERCK & CO., INC. (126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, NJ, 07065-0907, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A compound of formula (I): (D wherein: X is selected from the group consisting of wherein Rl 1 and Rl2 are independently selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) CiiO alkyl, (c) C210 alkenyl, (d) C2IO alkynyl, (e) C312 cycloalkyl, and (f) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and naphthyl; wherein said alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or aryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ϋ) OH, (iii) CN, (iv) Ciio alkyl (v) C312 cycloalkyl, and (vi) OCi10 alkyl, Yl is N and Y.
2. and Y3 are each CH, or Y.
3. is N and Yl and Y3 are each CH, or Y3 is N and Yl and Y.
4. are each CH; A is selected from the group consisting of (1) hydrogen, (2) Ciio alkyl, and (3) C2IO alkenyl, wherein said alkyl or alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) C312 cycloalkyl, (c) OH, (d) CN, (e) OCilθ alkyl, (f) phenyl, or (g) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl, and said phenyl and heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ii) OH, (iii) CN, (iv) 0Ci_io alkyl, (v) Clio alkyl, or (vi) C312 cycloalkyl; Q is Co3 alkyl, wherein said alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (1) halo, (2) C312 cycloalkyl, (3) OH, (4) CN, (5) OCilo alkyl, and (6) CiIO alkyl; Rl is (1) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl, (2) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl, (3) Ciio alkyl, and (4) C38 cycloalkyl, said cycloalkyl optionally fused to a C610 aryl group, wherein said alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) Ciio alkyl, wherein said alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, (c) OH, (d) CN, (e) OCiio alkyl, (f) C312 cycloalkyl, or (g) NR8R9; R2 is selected from the group consisting of (1) OH, and (2) NR8R9; wherein R& and R9 are selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) Ciio alkyl, and (c) Co6 alkylC610 aryl, or when R2 is NR8R9, and R^ and A are hydrogen, then Q, Rl and R9 may be linked together to form the group CH2CH2CH2, or when R.2 is NR8R9, then Q, Rl and A may be linked together to form a 4 or 5 carbon alkyl chain, wherein one or more of the carbon atoms in the alkyl chain may be replaced with an N, O or S atom, or an SO2 group; R.
5. is selected from the group consisting of (1) Ciio alkyl, or (2) C312 cycloalkyl, wherein said alkyl and cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) OH, (c) CN, (d) OCMO alkyl, (e) Ciio alkyl, (f) C3I2 cycloalkyl, (g) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl, or (h) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl, and said aryl and heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ϋ) OH, (iii) CN, (iv) OCi10 alkyl, (v) C312 cycloalkyl, or (vi) Ci10 alkyl; R7 is selected from the group consisting of (1) hydrogen, (2) Ci10 alkyl, (3) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and naphthyl; wherein said alkyl or aryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) OH, (c) CN, (d) 0Ciio alkyl, (e) C312 cycloalkyl, (f) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl, or (g) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl; wherein said cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ϋ) OH, (iii) CN, (iv) OCiio alkyl, (v) C312 cycloalkyl, or (vi) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl; or R4 and R7 may be linked to form a CH2CH2CH2 group; R.
6. and R.
7. re independently selected from the group consisting of (1) hydrogen, (2) Ci10 alkyl, (3) C2lθ alkenyl, (4) C2IO alkynyl, and (5) Ciio alkylC3i2 cycloalkyl, wherein said alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) OH, (c) CN, (d) Ciio alkyl (e) C312 cycloalkyl, (f) 0Ciio alkyl, (g) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl, wherein said heteroaryl may be unsubstituted or substituted with halogen; (h) phenyl, or (i) NR8R9; or R5 and Rδ are joined together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached to form a 46 membered ring, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) Ci10 alkyl, (b) C312 cycloalkyl, (C) (CH2)nphenyl, (d) C2IO alkenyl, and (e) C2IO alkynyl wherein said alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ϋ) OH, (iii) CN, (iv) OCiio alkyl, or (v) C3I2 cycloalkyl; and said cycloalkyl and phenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ii) Ci10 alkyl, (iii) OH, (iv) CN, (v) C312 cycloalkyl, or (vi) OCiio alkyl; n is O, 1, 2, 3 or 4; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and individual enantiomers and diastereomers thereof.
8. 2 The compound of Claim 1 wherein Yl is N and Y^ and Y^ are each CH.
9. 3 The compound of Claim 1 wherein Rl is phenyl and Q is CH2 4 The compound of Claim 1 wherein R^ is NR8R9.
10. 5 The compound of Claim 1 wherein A is Ci6 alkyl.
11. 6 The compound of Claim 1 wherein R4 and R7 are Ciio alkyl.
12. The compound of Claim 1 wherein X is a thiazole selected from the group consisting of.
13. The compound of Claim 1 which is a compound of formula (D) (H) wherein A, X, Yl, γ2, γ3, Q, Rl, R2; R4, R5 and R7 are as defined in Claim 1 above, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and individual enantiomers and diastereomers thereof.
14. The compound of Claim 10 wherein Yl is N and γ2 and γ3 are each CH.
15. The compound of Claim 10, wherein Rl is phenyl and Q is CH2.
16. The compound of Claim 10, wherein R2 is NR8R9.
17. The compound of Claim 10 wherein X is an oxadiazole selected from the group consisting of.
18. The compound of Claim 10 wherein X is an oxazole selected from the group consisting of.
19. The compound of Claim 10 wherein X is a thiazole selected from the group consisting of.
20. The compound of Claim 10, wherein R5 is hydrogen or Cl_io alkyl, wherein said CiIO alkyl is substituted or unsubstititued with one or more: (1) halo, (2) OH, O) CN, (4) phenyl, (5) OCiio alkyl, or (6)NR8R9.
21. The compound of Claim 17, wherein R5 is Ci_io alkyl, wherein said Ci_io alkyl is substituted or unsubstititued with one or more halo.
22. A compound of formula (EI) (in) wherein A, X, Q, Rl, R.2, R4, R5; R6 and R7 are as defined in Claim 1, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and individual enantiomers and diastereomers thereof.
23. The compound of Claim 1 which is selected from the group consisting of and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
24. The pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
25. A method for treating Alzheimer's disease in a patient in need thereof comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
Description:
TΓΓLE OF THE INVENTION 2,4,6-SUBSTITUTED PYRIDYL DERIVATIVE COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS BETA-SECRETASE INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims priority under 35 U.S. C. § 119(e) from U.S. provisional applications serial nos. 60/563,612, filed April 20, 2004; 60/630,539, filed November 23, 2004; and 60/653,037, filed February 15, 2005.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The invention is directed to a class of novel 2, 4, 6-substituted pyridine derivative compounds which are useful as inhibitors of the β-secretase enzyme, and to the treatment of diseases in which the β-secretase enzyme is involved, such as Alzheimer's Disease.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the abnormal deposition of amyloid in the brain in the form of extra-cellular plaques and intra-cellular neurofibrillary tangles. The rate of amyloid accumulation is a combination of the rates of formation, aggregation and egress from the brain. It is generally accepted that the main constituent of amyloid plaques is the 4kD amyloid protein (βA4, also referred to as Aβ, β -protein and βAP) which is a proteolytic product of a precursor protein of much larger size. The amyloid precursor protein (APP or AβPP) has a receptor-like structure with a large ectodomain, a membrane spanning region and a short cytoplasmic tail. The Aβ domain encompasses parts of both extra-cellular and transmembrane domains of APP, thus its release implies the existence of two distinct proteolytic events to generate its NH2- and COOH-termini. At least two secretory mechanisms exist which release APP from the membrane and generate soluble, COOH-truncated forms of APP (APPS). Proteases that release APP and its fragments from the membrane are termed "secretases." Most APP5 is released by a putative α-secretase which cleaves within the Aβ protein to release α-APPs and precludes the release of intact Aβ. A minor portion of APP5 is released by a β- secretase ("β-secretase"), which cleaves near the NH2-terminus of APP and produces COOH-terminal fragments (CTFs) which contain the whole Aβ domain. Thus, the activity of β-secretase or β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme ("BACE") leads to the abnormal cleavage of APP, production of Aβ, and accumulation of β amyloid plaques in the brain, which is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (see R. N. Rosenberg, Arch. Neurol, vol. 59, Sep 2002, pp. 1367-1368; H. Fukumoto et al, Arch. Neurol, vol. 59, Sep 2002, pp. 1381-1389; J.T. Huse et al, J. Biol. Chem., vol 277, No. 18, issue of May 3, 2002, pp. 16278-16284; K.C. Chen and WJ. Howe, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm, vol. 292, pp 702-708, 2002). Therefore, therapeutic agents that can inhibit β-secretase or BACE may be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The compounds of the present invention are useful for treating Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting the activity of β-secretase or BACE, thus preventing the formation of insoluble Aβ and arresting the production of Aβ.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to 2,4,6-substituted pyridyl derivative compounds useful as inhibitors of the β-secretase enzyme, and are useful in the treatment of diseases in which the β- secretase enzyme is involved, such as Alzheimer's disease. The invention is also directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising these compounds, and the use of these compounds and compositions in the treatment of such diseases in which the β-secretase enzyme is involved.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to compounds of formula (I):

(I)

wherein:

X is selected from the group consisting of

wherein Rl 1 and R.12 are independently selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) -Ci-io alkyl, (c) C2-10 alkenyl, (d) C2-10 alkynyl, (e) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, and (f) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and naphthyl; wherein said alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or aryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ϋ) -OH, (iii) -CN, (iv) - Ci-io alkyl (v) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, and (vi) -O-Ci-10 alkyl,

γl is N, and Y2 and γ3 are each CH, or, or Y2 is N, and Yl and γ3 are each CH, or Y3 is N, and Yl and Y2 are each CH;

A is selected from the group consisting of (1) hydrogen, (2) -Ci-io alkyl, and (3) -C2-IO alkenyl, wherein said alkyl or alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, (c) -OH, (d) -CN, (e) -O-Ci-io alkyl, (f) phenyl, or (g) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl,

and said phenyl and heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ii) -OH, (iii) -CN, (iv) -O-Ci-10 alkyl, (v) -Ci_io alkyl, or (vi) -C3-I2 cycloalkyl; Q is -Co-3 alkyl, wherein said alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (1) halo, (2) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, (3) -OH, (4) -CN, (5) -O-Ci-io alkyl, and (6) -Cl-IO alkyl;

Rl is (1) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl, (2) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl, (3) -Ci-io alkyl, and (4) C3-8 cycloalkyl, said cycloalkyl optionally fused to a Cβ_iθ aryl group, wherein said alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) -Ci_io alkyl, wherein said alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, (c) -OH, (d) -CN, (e) -O-Ci-io alkyl, (f) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, and (g) -NR8R9;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of (1) -OH, and (2) -NR8R9, wherein R^ and R9 are selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) Ci-io alkyl, and (c) Co-6 alkyl-C6-lθ aryl, or when R2 is NR8R9, and R& and A are hydrogen, then Q, Rl and R9 may be linked together to form the group -CH2CH2CH2-, or when R.2 is NR8R9, then Q, Rl and A may be linked together to form a 4 or 5 carbon alkyl chain, wherein one or more of the carbon atoms in the alkyl chain may be replaced with an N, O or S atom, or an SO2 group;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of (1) -Ci-io alkyl, or (2) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, wherein said alkyl and cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) -OH, (c) -CN, (φ -O-Ci-io alkyl, (e) -Cl-10 alkyl, (f) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, (g) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl, or (h) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl,

and said aryl and heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ii) -OH, (iii) -CN, (iv) -O-Ci-io alkyl, (v) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, or (vi) -Ci-io alkyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of (1) hydrogen, (T) -Cl-10 alkyl, and (3) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and naphthyl; wherein said alkyl and aryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) -OH, (c) -CN, (d) -O-Ci-iO alkyl, (e) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, (f) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl, or (g) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl;

wherein said cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ii) -OH, (iii) -CN, (iv) -O-Ci-io alkyl, (v) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, or (vi) aryl selected from the group consisting of phenyl and napthyl;

or R4 and R7 may be linked to form a -CH2CH2CH2- group;

R.5 and R6 are independently selected from the group consisting of (1) hydrogen, (2) -Ci-io alkyl, (3) -C2-IO alkenyl, (4) -C2-IO alkynyl, and (5) -Ci-io alkyl-C3_i2 cycloalkyl; wherein said alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) halo, (b) -OH, (c) -CN, (d) - Ci-iO alkyl (e) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, (f) -O-Ci-10 alkyl, (g) heteroaryl selected from the group consisting of pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, triazinyl, pyranyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thiophenyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indynyl and benzoxazolyl, wherein said heteroaryl may be unsubstituted or substituted with halogen; (h) phenyl, or (i) -NR8R9;

or R5 and R.6 are joined together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached to form a 4-6 membered ring, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (a) -Ci-IO alkyl, (b) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, (c) - (CH2)n-phenyl, (d) -C2-IO alkenyl, or (e) -C2-IO alkynyl, wherein said alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ϋ) -OH, (iii) -CN, (iv) -O-Ci-io alkyl, or (v) -C3-12 cycloalkyl; and said cycloalkyl and phenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more (i) halo, (ii) -Ci-io alkyl, (iii) -OH, (iv) -CN, (v) -C3-12 cycloalkyl, or (vi) -O-Ci-10 alkyl; n is O, 1, 2, 3 or 4; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and individual enantiomers and diastereomers thereof. In a preferred embodiment, Yl is N and γ2 and Y3 are each CH. In one embodiment, the invention is directed to compounds of formula (I) wherein Rl is phenyl, unsubstituted or substituted, and Q is preferably CH2. Preferably, Rl is unsubstituted phenyl. In other embodiments, Rl is heteroaryl. Preferred Rl heteroaryl groups include pyridyl (2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl), thienyl (preferably 2-thienyl or 3-thienyl), thiazole and indynyl. In other embodiments, Rl is Ci_i2 alkyl or a C3..8 cycloalkyl group. Preferred Cl_i2 alkyl Rl groups include Ci-6 alkyl (preferably unsubstituted Ci_6 alkyl , including methyl and isopropyl.) Preferred C3-8 cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl, preferably unsubstituted. Two of the ring carbon atoms from the cycloalkyl group may be linked to form a C6-12 aryl. An exemplary fused group of this embodiment is:

In another embodiment, the invention is directed to compounds of formula (I) wherein R2 is NR8R9, and preferably both Rδ and R9 are hydrogen. In another embodiment of compounds of formula (I), when R2 is NR8R9 and R& and A are each hydrogen, then Q, Rl and R9 may be linked together to form the group -CH2CH2CH2-, thereby forming a pyrrolidinyl group. In another embodiment of compounds of formula (I), when R2 is NR8R9, then Q, Rl and A are linked together to form a 4 or 5 carbon alkyl chain, wherein one or more of the carbon atoms in the alkyl chain may be replaced with an N, O or S atom, or an SO2 group. In another embodiment of compounds of formula (I), R2 is OH. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (I), A is Cχ-10 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted (preferably unsubstituted), preferably Ci-6 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted (preferably unsubstituted), and even more preferably methyl. In alternative embodiments, A may be hydrogen. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (I), R5 and R6 are joined together with the nitrogen atom to which they are both linked to form a pyrrolidine ring. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (T), R4 and R^ are Cl_io alkyl, preferably Cχ-6 alkyl. More preferably, R4 is methyl or isopropyl and R7 is methyl. In one embodiment of the compounds of formula (I), X is an oxadiazole selected from the group consisting of

In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (I), X is an oxazole selected from the group consisting of

In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (I), X is a thiazole selected from the group consisting of

In still additional embodiments of the compounds of formula (I), X is 1,2,4-triazine

furan

pyrazole

pyrimidine

In another embodiment, the invention is directed to compounds of formula (II)

(π)

wherein A, X, Yl, γ2, γ3, Q; Rl, R2, R4; R5 and R7 are as defined above, and RlO is hydrogen or Cl-6 alkyl, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and individual enantiomers and diastereomers thereof. In a preferred embodiment of the compounds of formula (II), Yl is N and γ2 and Y3 are each CH . In one embodiment of the compounds of formula (II), Rl is phenyl and Q is CH2- Preferably, Rl is unsubstituted phenyl. In another embodiment, the invention is directed to compounds of formula (II) wherein R2 is NR8R9, and preferably both R^ and R9 are hydrogen. In another embodiment of compounds of formula (II), R2 is OH. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (II), RlO is hydrogen. In an alternative embodiment, RlO 1S C\-Q alkyl, preferably methyl, ethyl or isopropyl. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (H), A is Ci_io alkyl, preferably Ci-6 alkyl, more preferably methyl. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (II), R4 and R7 are Ci-io alkyl, preferably Ci_6 alkyl. More preferably, R4 is methyl or isopropyl and R7 is methyl. In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (II), R.5 is hydrogen or , Ci-io alkyl, wherein said Ci-io alkyl is substituted or unsubstititued with one or more: (1) halo (preferably fluoro), (2) -OH, (3) -CN, (4) phenyl, (5) -OCi-io alkyl, or (6)-NR8R9 (preferably RB and R9 are each Ci_io alkyl). In compounds of formula (II), preferred R5 groups include hydrogen, methyl, benzyl and -Ci-ioalkyl-NR8R9, wherein R^ and R9 are each Q-io alkyl. In one embodiment of the compounds of formula (K), X is an oxadiazole selected from the group consisting of

In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (II), X is an oxazole selected from the group consisting of

In another embodiment of the compounds of formula (IT), X is a thiazole selected from the group consisting of

In still additional embodiments of the compounds of formula (II), X is 1,2,4-triazine

furan

pyrazole

pyrimidine

When RlO is hydrogen, a preferred enantiomeric configuration of compounds of formula (II) are compounds having a trans-S,S configuration at the methyl-cyclopropyl-methyl moiety, as depicted below in formula (DA):

(HA) In another embodiment, the invention is directed to compounds of formula (HI)

wherein A, X, Q, Rl, R2, R4, R5; R6 and R7 are as defined above, and RlO is hydrogen or Cl-6 alkyl, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and individual enantiomers and diastereomers thereof. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a compound which is selected from the title compounds of the following Examples and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. As used herein, the term "alkyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, means a saturated straight or branched chain hydrocarbon radical having the number of carbon atoms designated (e.g., Ci-io alkyl means an alkyl group having from one to ten carbon atoms). Preferred alkyl groups for use in the invention are Ci_6 alkyl groups, having from one to six carbon atoms. Exemplary alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, and the like. As used herein, the term "alkenyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, means a straight or branched chain hydrocarbon radical having a single carbon-carbon double bond and the number of carbon atoms designated (e.g., C2-10 alkenyl means an alkenyl group having from two to ten carbon atoms). Preferred alkenyl groups for use in the invention are C2-6 alkenyl groups, having from two to six carbon atoms. Exemplary alkenyl groups include ethenyl and propenyl. As used herein, the term "cycloalkyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, means a saturated monocyclic, polycyclic or bridged cyclic hydrocarbon radical having the number of carbon atoms designated (e.g., C342 cycloalkyl means a cycloalkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms). Preferred cycloalkyl groups include C3_8 cycloalklyl groups, especially C3-8 monocyclic cycloalkyl groups. Exemplary monocyclic cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and the like. Exemplary bridged cycloalkyl groups include adamantly and norbornyl. As used herein, the term "aryl," by itself or as part of another substituent, means an aromatic or cyclic radical having the number of carbon atoms designated (e.g., Q5-10 aryl means an aryl

group having from six to ten carbons atoms). Preferred aryl groups for use in the invention include phenyl and naphthyl. The term "halo" or "halogen" includes fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. As used herein, the term "heteroaryl," by itself or as part of another substituent, means an aromatic cyclic group having at least one ring heteroatom (O, N or S). Exemplary heteroaryl groups for use in the invention include furyl, pyranyl, benzofuranyl, isobenzofuranyl, chromenyl, thienyl, benzothiophenyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridyl,pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, indolyl, indazolyl, benzimidazolyl, quinolyl, indynyl and isoquinolyl. When a heteroaryl group as defined herein is substituted, the substituent may be bonded to a ring carbon atom of the heteroaryl group, or on a ring heteroatom (Le., a nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur), which has a valence which permits substitution. Preferably, the substituent is bonded to a ring carbon atom. Similarly, when a heteroaryl group is defined as a substituent herein, the point of attachment may be at a ring carbon atom of the heteroaryl group, or at a ring heteroatom (i.e., a nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur), which has a valence which permits attachment. Preferably, the attachment is at a ring carbon atom. Some of the compounds of the instant invention have at least one asymmetric center. Additional asymmetric centers may be present depending upon the nature of the various substituents on the molecule. Compounds with asymmetric centers give rise to enantiomers (optical isomers), diastereomers (configurational isomers) or both, and it is intended that all of the possible enantiomers and diastereomers in mixtures and as pure or partially purified compounds are included within the scope of this invention. The present invention is meant to encompass all such isomeric forms of these compounds. The independent syntheses of the enantiomerically or diastereomerically enriched compounds, or their chromatographic separations, may be achieved as known in the art by appropriate modification of the methodology disclosed herein. Their absolute stereochemistry may be determined by the x-ray crystallography of crystalline products or crystalline intermediates that are derivatized, if necessary, with a reagent containing an asymmetric center of known absolute configuration. If desired, racemic mixtures of the compounds may be separated so that the individual enantiomers are isolated. The separation can be carried out by methods well known in the art, such as the coupling of a racemic mixture of compounds to an enantiomerically pure compound to form a diastereomeric mixture, followed by separation of the individual diastereomers by standard methods, such as fractional crystallization or chromatography. The coupling reaction is often the formation of salts using an enantiomerically pure acid or base. The diastereomeric derivatives may then be converted to the pure enantiomers by cleavage of the added chiral residue. The racemic mixture of the compounds can also be separated directly by chromatographic methods using chiral stationary phases, which methods are well known in the art. Alternatively, any enantiomer of a compound may be obtained by stereoselective synthesis using optically pure starting materials or reagents of known configuration by methods well known in the art. In the compounds of formulas (I) to (IH), the carbon atom to which R^, A and Q are bonded is typically a chiral carbon. As a result, the compounds of formulas (I)-(III) may be present as racemates, or in the stereochemically pure (R) or (S) forms. The isomeric forms for compounds of formula (I) are depicted below:

or

Rl

The first configuration depicted above (which is typically the (R) configuration, e.g. when A is CH3, R^ is NH2, Q is -CH2- and Rl is phenyl) is preferred. The compounds claimed in this invention can be prepared according to the following general procedure methods (Schemes 1-25), and the specific examples 1-94. In Scheme 1, an amino acid derivative of type 1 is converted to the corresponding hydrazinyl amide 3 via a two step sequence. To access commercially unavailable amino acid derivatives, a two step alkylation of glycine Schiff base 4 can be used. Schiff base deprotection, Boc protection and ester hydrolysis provides an alternate route to compound 2. The alkylation of 4 for the synthesis of 5 may be performed in an enantioselective manner as described in the literature (see K. Maruoka et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 5228-5229 and M. North et al, Tetrahedron Lett. 2003, 44, 2045-2048). Scheme 1

In Scheme 2, N-protected amino acid 2 is converted to carboxamide 6a (or thiocarboxamide 6b), then dehydrated to give nitrile 7. Treatment of 7 with NH2OH-HCl under mildly basic conditions affords hydroxyamidate 8. Scheme 2

c

Burgess ba l Reagent

In Scheme 3, reduction of amino acid 1 with in-situ generated BH3 affords the

corresponding amino alcohol, which can then be N-protected to afford compound 9. Oxidation of 9 affords aldehyde 10, which can then be transformed to imine 11 under mild conditions.

Scheme 3

11 10

Synthesis of amino alcohol 12 is shown in Scheme 4. Epoxidation of 10, followed by opening with ammonia affords amino alcohol 12. Scheme 4

10 12 Scheme 5 illustrates the preparation of the regioisomeric aminoalcohol 13: Synthesis of the Ellman derivative of aldehyde 10, addition of vinyl Grignard, ozonolysis and reductive workup, followed by Ellman auxiliary removal. ,

Scheme 5

10 13

Scheme 6 depicts the preparation of bromoketone 14, via the diazoketone derived from acid 2.

Scheme 6

NHBoc NHBoc un JL 1. JBUOCOCI1 CH2N2 f

T O Q Ri 22. aaαqHHBBrr Br ϊ o Q ^

2 14

Scheme 7 describes the preparation of intermediates 15-18, to be used in the elaboration of various heterocycles. Alternatively, one of the chloro groups can be left intact to allow for R5R6N introduction late, after the heterocycle X has been constructed (intermediates 15'-18'). Note that, if needed, the second chloro group can also be left intact for replacement with -(R7)N-SO2R4 after the

heterocycle X has been constructed.

Scheme 7

15 : Y = NR5R6

17 : Y = NR5R6 17' : Y = CI

Schemes 8-21 describe the preparation of various heterocycles X. Synthesis of the 1,3,4 oxadiazoles of type 19 could be accomplished by coupling acids 15 with hydrazinyl amide 3, followed by cyclodehydration with Burgess reagent, and Boc deprotection (Scheme 8). Scheme 8

Alternatively, acyl-hydrazides can be directly derived from acids of type 15 to allow the late incorporation of various aminoacid derivatives in the oxadiazole ring. Finally late introduction of the Rl group can be performed from Schiff bases of type 45 (Scheme 8A).

Scheme 8A

benzopheneone imine

The synthesis of one of the two possible 1,2,4 oxadiazoles is shown in Scheme 9. Coupling acids 15 with hydroxyamidate 11, followed by cyclodehydration under basic conditions and Boc deprotection affords oxadiazole 20.

Scheme 9

The synthesis of the other possible 1,2,4 oxadiazoles can be achieved fromnitrile 17. A sequence similar to that described above affords oxadiazole 21 (Scheme 10).

Scheme 10

The synthesis of 1,2,4 triazole 22 is described in Scheme 11. Transformation of nitrile 17 to the corresponding imidate under basic conditions, followed by refluxing with hydrazinyl amide 3 and Boc deprotection affords the requisite heterocycle. Scheme 11

Imidazole 24 is prepared as described in Scheme 12. Coupling of 12 with formic acid and oxidation, followed by ring closure affords imidazole 23. Transformation of bromide 16 to the corresponding boronic acid via lithium halogen exchange, palladium mediated coupling with imidazole 23, and Boc deprotection completes the reaction sequence to compound 24.

Scheme 12

c

12 3. NH4OAc 23

The synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole 26 is described in Scheme 13. Aryl azide formation via a diazonium intermediate obtained from aniline 18, followed by cycloaddtion with an appropriate electron deficient alkyne affords 25. Ellman sulfmyl imine formation, nucleophile addition, followed by chiral axiliary cleavage complete the synthesis of 26. Scheme 13

25

The synthesis of oxazoles 27, thiazoles 28 and imidazoles 29 is shown in Scheme 14. Reduction of acid 15, oxidation to the aldehyde, epoxidation, epoxide opening with ammonia, followed by coupling the resulting amino alcohol with acid 2 and oxidation affords a common intermediate ketoamide. Cyclodehydration under the described conditions gives access to 27, 28 or 29. Scheme 14

A second series of regioisomeric oxazoles and thiazoles can be synthesized from aryl bromide 16, as described in Scheme 15. Cross coupling, Sharpless asymmetric amination and coupling with acid 2 gives a common intermediate amide-aldehyde. Application of conditions described above provides oxazole 30, thiazole 31, as well as an alternate route to imidazole 29. Scheme 15

Scheme 16 shows an alternative mode of preparation for heterocycles 29-31. Acid 15 is converted to the corresponding bromoketone, via the intermediate diazoketone. Displacement with carboxamide 6a and cyclization, followed by Boc removal affords oxazole 30. Displacement with thiocarboxamide 6b and cyclization, followed by Boc removal affords thiazole 31. Displacement with acid 2 and cyclization in the presence of an ammonia source, followed by Boc removal affords imidazole 29. Scheme 16

Shown below in Scheme 17 is the synthesis of a third series of regioisimeric oxazoles 32, thiazoles 33 and imidazoles 34. Coupling acid 15 with amino alcohol 12, cyclodehydration under the appropriate conditions followed by Boc deprotection provides the desired compounds. Scheme 17

The synthesis of a fourth possible permutation of oxazoles 35, thiazoles 36 is shown in Scheme 18. EDC coupling of aminoalcohol 13 with the acid 15 gives a common intermediate aldehyde- amide. Cyclodehydration under the appropriate conditions will give the desired five membered heterocycle. Scheme 18

Scheme 19 shows an alternative mode of preparation for heterocycles 34-36. Displacement of bromoketone 14 with acid 15, cyclization in the presence of an ammonia source, followed by Boc removal affords imidazole 34. Displacement with carboxamide 37 and cyclization, followed by Boc removal affords oxazole 35. Displacement with thiocarboxamide 38 and cyclization, followed by Boc removal affords thiazole 36. Scheme 19

Isoxazoles of type 40 can be prepared as described in Scheme 20. Cross coupling of aryl bromide 16 with TMS acetylene and deprotection gives 39. Cycloaddition with the nitrile oxide derivative prepared from the in-situ oxidation of 11, followed by Boc deprotection gives 40. Scheme 20

The synthesis of the second isoxazole regioisomer can be accomplished using a sequence similar to that described in Scheme 20. Aldehyde 10 can be elaborated to alkyne 41 utilizing Corey- Fuchs methodology. Acid reduction, oxidation and hydroxy imidate formation gives 42. In situ nitrile oxide generation from 41 and cycloaddition, followed by Boc group removal affords isoxazole 43. Scheme 21

Scheme 22 describes the preparation of intermediates 49, to be used in the elaboration of oxadiazoles of type 50. Carboxylic acid 48 can also be used for the elaboration of various heterocycles as described in previous schemes. Scheme 22

49

1. 3, coupling 2. Burgess Reagent 3. Boc removal Scheme 23 depicts the synthesis of compounds of the invention having a pyrazole or pyrrolidine X group. Scheme 23

1 . DMF NHPNHR8

2, Boc deprotection

15' : Y 1. DMF NH2C(R9)=NH2 2. Boc deprotection

Scheme 24 describes the preparation of intermediates 54, to be used in the elaboration of oxadiazoles of type 55. Carboxylic acid 54 can also be used for the elaboration of various heterocycles as described in previous schemes. Scheme 24

54

1. 3, coupling

2. Burgess Reagent 3. Boc removal

Scheme 25 depicts the synthesis of compounds of type 58. Diazotization of commercial 2-chloro-4-amino-6-chloropyridine and iodination followed by Suzuki cross-coupling provides furan aldehyde 56. Grignard addition followed by oxidation and subsequent organometallic addition provides intermediate alcohol 57. Incorporation of R4 and R7 as before, followed by Ritter reaction, R5and R6 installation and azide reduction provides final structures of type 58. Scheme 25

56

The term "substantially pure" means that the isolated material is at least 90% pure, and preferably 95% pure, and even more preferably 99% pure as assayed by analytical techniques known in the art. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to salts prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic bases or acids including inorganic or organic bases and inorganic or organic acids. The compounds of the invention may be mono, di or tris salts, depending on the number of acid functionalities present in the free base form of the compound. Free bases and salts derived from inorganic bases include aluminum, ammonium, calcium, copper, ferric, ferrous, lithium, magnesium, manganic salts, manganous, potassium, sodium, zinc, and the like. Particularly preferred are the ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts. Salts in the solid form may exist in more than one crystal structure, and may also be in the form of hydrates. Salts derived from pharmaceutically acceptable organic non-toxic bases include salts of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines, and basic ion exchange resins, such as arginine, betaine, caffeine, choline, N,N'-dibenzylethylene-diamine, diethylamine, 2-diethylaminoethanol, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-ethyl- morpholine, N-ethylpiperidine, glucamine, glucosamine, histidine, hydrabamine, isopropylamine, lysine, methylglucamine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, polyamine resins, procaine, purines, theobromine, triethylamine, trimethylamine, tripropylamine, tromethamine, and the like. When the compound of the present invention is basic, salts may be prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic acids, including inorganic and organic acids. Such acids include acetic, trifluoroacetic, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, camphorsulfonic, citric, ethanesulfonic, fumaric, gluconic, glutamic, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, isethionic, lactic, maleic, malic, mandelic, methanesulfonic, mucic, nitric, pamoic, pantothenic, phosphoric, succinic, sulfuric, tartaric, p-toluenesulfonic acid, and the like. Particularly preferred are citric, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, trifluoroacetic, maleic, phosphoric, sulfuric, fumaric, and tartaric acids. The present invention is directed to the use of the compounds disclosed herein as inhibitors of β-secretase enzyme activity or β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme ("BACE") activity, in a patient or subject such as a mammal in need of such inhibition, comprising the administration of an effective amount of the compound. The terms "β-secretase enzyme," "β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme," and "BACE" are used interchangeably in this specification. In addition to humans, a variety of other mammals can be treated according to the method of the present invention. The present invention is further directed to a method for the manufacture of a medicament or a composition for inhibiting β-secretase enzyme activity in humans and animals comprising combining a compound of the present invention with a pharmaceutical carrier or diluent. The compounds of the present invention have utility in treating, ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease. For example, the compounds may be useful for the prevention of dementia of the Alzheimer's type, as well as for the treatment of early stage, intermediate stage or late stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The compounds may also be useful in treating, ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of diseases mediated by abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (also referred to as APP), and other conditions that may be treated or prevented by inhibition of β-secretase. Such conditions include mild cognitive impairment, Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, degenerative dementia, Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis of the Dutch-Type (HCHWA-D), Creutzfeld- Jakob disease, prion disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive supranuclear palsy, head trauma, stroke, Down syndrome, pancreatitis, inclusion body myositis, other peripheral amyloidoses, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The subject or patient to whom the compounds of the present invention is administered is generally a human being, male or female, in whom inhibition of β-secretase enzyme activity is desired, but may also encompass other mammals, such as dogs, cats, mice, rats, cattle, horses, sheep, rabbits, monkeys, chimpanzees or other apes or primates, for which inhibition of β-secretase enzyme activity or treatment of the above noted disorders is desired. The compounds of the present invention may be used in combination with one or more other drugs in the treatment of diseases or conditions for which the compounds of the present invention have utility, where the combination of the drugs together are safer or more effective than either drug alone. Additionally, the compounds of the present invention may be used in combination with one or more other drugs that treat, prevent, control, ameliorate, or reduce the risk of side effects or toxicity of the compounds of the present invention. Such other drugs may be administered, by a route and in an amount commonly used therefor, contemporaneously or sequentially with the compounds of the present invention. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention include those that contain one or more other active ingredients, in addition to the compounds of the present invention. The combinations may be administered as part of a unit dosage form combination product, or as a kit or treatment protocol wherein one or more additional drugs are administered in separate dosage forms as part of a treatment regimen. Examples of combinations of the compounds of the present invention with other drugs in either unit dose or kit form include combinations with: anti-Alzheimer's agents, for example other beta- secretase inhibitors or gamma-secretase inhibitors; tau phosphorylation inhibitors; blockers of Aβ oligomer formation; p25/CDK5 inhibitors; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; NSAID's including ibuprofen; vitamin E; anti-amyloid antibodies; NK1/NK3 receptor antagonists; anti-inflammatory compounds, such as (R)-flurbiprofen; CB-I receptor antagonists or CB-I receptor inverse agonists; antibiotics such as doxycycline and rifampin; N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as memantine; cholinesterase inhibitors such as galantamine, rivastigmine, donepezil, and tacrine; growth hormone secretagogues such as ibutamoren, ibutamoren mesylate, and capromorelin; histamine H3 antagonists; AMPA agonists; PDE TV inhibitors; GABAA inverse agonists; neuronal nicotinic agonists; P-450 inhibitors such as ritonavir; or other drugs that affect receptors or enzymes that either increase the efficacy, safety, convenience, or reduce unwanted side effects or toxicity of the compounds of the present invention. The foregoing list of combinations is illustrative only and not intended to be limiting in any way. The term "composition" as used herein is intended to encompass a product comprising specified ingredients in predetermined amounts or proportions, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts. This term in relation to pharmaceutical compositions is intended to encompass a product comprising one or more active ingredients, and an optional carrier comprising inert ingredients, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination, complexation or aggregation of any two or more of the ingredients, or from dissociation of one or more of the ingredients, or from other types of reactions or interactions of one or more of the ingredients. In general, pharmaceutical compositions are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing the active ingredient into association with a liquid carrier or a finely divided solid carrier or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product into the desired formulation. In the pharmaceutical composition the active object compound is included in an amount sufficient to produce the desired effect upon the process or condition of diseases. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention encompass any composition made by admixing a compound of the present invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Pharmaceutical compositions intended for oral use may be prepared according to any method known to the art for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and such compositions may contain one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sweetening agents, flavoring agents, coloring agents and preserving agents in order to provide pharmaceutically elegant and palatable preparations. Tablets may contain the active ingredient in admixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients which are suitable for the manufacture of tablets. These excipients may be, for example, inert diluents, such as calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, lactose, calcium phosphate or sodium phosphate; granulating and disintegrating agents, for example, corn starch, or alginic acid; binding agents, for example starch, gelatin or acacia, and lubricating agents, for example magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc. The tablets may be uncoated or they may be coated by known techniques to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby provide a sustained action over a longer period. Compositions for oral use may also be presented as hard gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with an inert solid diluent, for example, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or kaolin, or as soft gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with water or an oil medium, for example peanut oil, liquid paraffin, or olive oil. Other pharmaceutical compositions include aqueous suspensions, which contain the active materials in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. In addition, oily suspensions may be formulated by suspending the active ingredient in a vegetable oil, for example arachis oil, olive oil, sesame oil or coconut oil, or in a mineral oil such as liquid paraffin. Oily suspensions may also contain various excipients. The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may also be in the form of oil-in-water emulsions, which may also contain excipients such as sweetening and flavoring agents. The pharmaceutical compositions may be in the form of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension, which may be formulated according to the known art, or may be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration of the drug. The compounds of the present invention may also be administered by inhalation, by way of inhalation devices known to those skilled in the art, or by a transdermal patch. By "pharmaceutically acceptable" it is meant the carrier, diluent or excipient must be compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not deleterious to the recipient thereof. The terms "administration of or "administering a" compound should be understood to mean providing a compound of the invention to the individual in need of treatment in a form that can be introduced into that individual's body in a therapeutically useful form and therapeutically useful amount, including, but not limited to: oral dosage forms, such as tablets, capsules, syrups, suspensions, and the like; injectable dosage forms, such as IV, IM, or IP, and the like; transdermal dosage forms, including creams, jellies, powders, or patches; buccal dosage forms; inhalation powders, sprays, suspensions, and the like; and rectal suppositories. The terms "effective amount" or "therapeutically effective amount" means the amount of the subject compound that will elicit the biological or medical response of a tissue, system, animal or human that is being sought by the researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. As used herein, the term "treatment" refers to the treatment of the mentioned conditions, particularly in a patient who demonstrates symptoms of the disease or disorder. As used herein, the term "treatment" or "treating" means any administration of a compound of the present invention and includes (1) inhibiting the disease in an animal that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the diseased (i.e., arresting further development of the pathology and/or symptomatology), or (2) ameliorating the disease in an animal that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the diseased (i.e., reversing the pathology and/or symptomatology). The term "controlling" includes preventing treating, eradicating, ameliorating or otherwise reducing the severity of the condition being controlled. The compositions containing compounds of the present invention may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy. The term "unit dosage form" is taken to mean a single dose wherein all active and inactive ingredients are combined in a suitable system, such that the patient or person adminstering the drug to the patient can open a single container or package with the entire dose contained therein, and does not have to mix any components together from two or more containers or packages. Typical examples of unit dosage forms are tablets or capsules for oral administration, single dose vials for injection, or suppositories for rectal administration. This list of unit dosage forms is not intended to be limiting in any way, but merely to represent typical examples of unit dosage forms. The compositions containing compounds of the present invention may conveniently be presented as a kit, whereby two or more components, which may be active or inactive ingredients, carriers, diluents, and the like, are provided with instructions for preparation of the actual dosage form by the patient or person adminstering the drug to the patient. Such kits may be provided with all necessary materials and ingredients contained therein, or they may contain instructions for using or making materials or components that must be obtained independently by the patient or person administering the drug to the patient. When treating, ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease or other diseases for which compounds of the present invention are indicated, generally satisfactory results are obtained when the compounds of the present invention are administered at a daily dosage of from about 0.1 mg to about 100 mg per kg of animal body weight, preferably given as a single daily dose or in divided doses two to six times a day, or in sustained release form. The total daily dosage is from about 1.0 mg to about 2000 mg, preferably from about 0.1 mg to about 20 mg per kg of body weight. In the case of a 70 kg adult human, the total daily dose will generally be from about 7 mg to about 1,400 mg. This dosage regimen may be adjusted to provide the optimal therapeutic response. The compounds may be administered on a regimen of 1 to 4 times per day, preferably once or twice per day. Specific dosages of the compounds of the present invention, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, for administration include 1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 30 mg, 80 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg and 500 mg. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be provided in a formulation comprising about 0.5 mg to 1000 mg active ingredient; more preferably comprising about 0.5 mg to 500 mg active ingredient; or 0.5 mg to 250 mg active ingredient; or 1 mg to 100 mg active ingredient. Specific pharmaceutical compositions useful for treatment may comprise about 1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 30 mg, 80 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg and 500 mg of active ingredient. It will be understood, however, that the specific dose level and frequency of dosage for any particular patient may be varied and will depend upon a variety of factors including the activity of the specific compound employed, the metabolic stability and length of action of that compound, the age, body weight, general health, sex, diet, mode and time of administration, rate of excretion, drug combination, the severity of the particular condition, and the host undergoing therapy. The utility of the compounds in accordance with the present invention as inhibitors of β- secretase enzyme activity may be demonstrated by methodology known in the art. Enzyme inhibition is determined as follows. ECL Assay: A homogeneous end point electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay is employed using a biotinylated BACE substrate. The Km of the substrate is greater than 100 μM and can not be determined due to the limit of solubility of the substrate. A typical reaction contains approximately 0.1 nM enzyme, 0.25 μM of the substrate, and buffer (50 mM NaOAc, pH 4.5, 0.1 mg/ml BSA, 0.2% CHAPS, 15 mM EDTA and 1 mM deferoxamine) in a total reaction volume of 100 μl. The reaction proceeds for 30 min and is then stopped by the addition of 25 μL of 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0. The resulting enzymatic product is assayed by adding a ruthenylated antibody which specifically recognizes the C-terminal residue of the product. Streptavidin coated magnetic beads are added into the solution and the samples are subjected to M-384 (Igen Inc., Gaithersburg, MD) analysis. Under these conditions, less than 10% of substrate is processed by BACE 1. The enzyme used in these studies is soluble (transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic extension excluded) human protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. To measure the inhibitory potency for compounds, solutions of inhibitor in DMSO (12 concentrations of the inhibitors are prepared starting from 100 μM with three fold series dilution) are included in the reaction mixture (final DMSO concentration is 10 %). All experiments are conducted at rt using the standard reaction conditions described above. To determine the IC50 of the compound, a four parameter equation is used for curve fitting. The errors in reproducing the dissociation constants are typically less than two-fold. HPLC assay: A homogeneous end point BDPLC assay is employed with the substrate (coumarin-CO-REVNFEVEFR), which is cleaved by BACE 1 to release the N-terminal fragment attached with coumarin. The Km of the substrate is greater than 100 μM and can not be determined due to the limit of solubility of the substrate. A typical reaction contains approximately 2 nM enzyme, 1.0 μM of the substrate, and buffer (50 mM NaOAc, pH 4.5, 0.1 mg/ml BSA, 0.2% CHAPS, 15 mM EDTA and 1 mM deferoxamine) in a total reaction volume of 100 μl. The reaction is proceeded for 30 min and the reaction is stopped by the addition of 25 μL of 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0. The resulting reaction mixture is loaded on the HPLC and the product is separated from substrate with 5 min linear gradient. Under these conditions, less than 10% of substrate is processed by BACE 1. The enzyme used in these studies is soluble (transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic extension excluded) human protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. To measure the inhibitory potency for compounds, solutions of inhibitor in DMSO (12 concentrations of the inhibitors are prepared and the concentration rage is dependent on the potency predicted by ECL) are included in the reaction mixture (final DMSO concentration is 10 %). All experiments are conducted at rt using the standard reaction conditions described above. To determine the IC50 of the compound, four parameters equation is employed for curve fitting. The errors in reproducing the dissociation constants are typically less than two-fold. In particular, the compounds of the following examples had activity in inhibiting the beta-secretase enzyme in one or both of the aforementioned assays, generally with an IC50 from about 1 nM to 100 μM. Such a result is indicative of the intrinsic activity of the compounds in use as inhibitors of the beta-secretase enzyme activity. Several methods for preparing the compounds of this invention are illustrated in the Schemes and Examples herein. Starting materials are made according to procedures known in the art or as illustrated herein. The following examples are provided so that the invention might be more fully understood. These examples are illustrative only and should not be construed as limiting the invention in any way.

Intermediate I: R-N-(ferNbutoxycarbonyl)-α-methylphenylalaninhvdrazamide ("Scheme 1)

Step A: Boc protection

To a slurry of D-α-methyl phenylalanine (1.0Og, 5.58 mmol) in 20 mL dioxane was added 3N NaOH (7.4 mL, 22.32 mmol) and Boc2θ (1.28g, 5.86 mmol). The reaction was allowed to proceed for 14h. The pH

was lowered to ~1 by adding IN HCl dropwise, diluted with water, and extracted aqueous with EtOAc (3x). Dried combined organics over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to obtain the desired product as a

white foam. This was used without further purification. lH NMR (J4-MeOH) δ 7.25-7.17 (m, 3H), 7.12 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.27 (d, J = 13.4 Hz, IH), 3.15 (d, J = 13.4 Hz, IH), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.39 (s, 3H). LCMS [(M-Boc)+H]+ = 180

Step B: Hydrazinyl amide formation To a solution of R-N-B oc-α-methyl phenylalanine from step A (1.5Og, 5.37 mmol) in 25 mL CH3CΝ was

added EDC (1.75g, 9.13 mmol), followed by hydrazine (0.421 mL, 13.43 mmol). A white precipitate formed immediately, and the solution gradually turned clear over Ih. The reaction was allowed to proceed at rt overnight, when it was quenched by the addition of saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution, and diluted with EtOAc. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was washed with fresh EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to afford a white foam, which was used without further purification. lH NMR (^4-MeOH) δ 7.27-7.20 (m, 3H), 7.11 (d, J

= 7.7 Hz, 2H), 3.30 (d, J = 13.5 Hz, IH), 3.02 (d, J = 13.5 Hz, IH), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.31 (s, 3H). LCMS [[(M-Boc)+H]+ = 194 Intermediate II: R-N-(ter^-butoxycarbonyl)-a-methylphenylalaninamide (Scheme 2)

To a solution of N-Boc-D-alpha-methyl phenylalanine (2.04g, 7.30 mmol) in 26 mL CH2CI2 was added EDC (1.54g, 8.03 mmol), followed by HOAt (0.845g, 6.21 mmol). After 30 min at rt, 15 mL DMF was added, the reaction was cooled to -10° C, and gaseous ammonia was bubbled through the reaction for 50 min. The reaction was quenched by the addition of satd. aqueous ΝaHCθ3 and diluted with EtOAc. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was washed with fresh EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with aqueous 3M LiCl and brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by normal phase chromatography (0->6% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford the desired carboxamide as a white solid. lH NMR (Ai-MeOH) δ7.96 (br s, IH), 7.28-7.13 (m, 3H), 7.12 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 6.39 (br s, IH), 5.81 (br s, IH), 3.32 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, IH), 3.10 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, IH), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.40 (s, 3H). LCMS [(M-Boc)+H]+ = 179.

Intermediate HI: ferf-butyl (3R-amino-l-benzyl-2RS-hvdroxy-l-methylpropyl)carbamate (Schemes 3,4)

NHBoc

Step A: Reduction To a solution of D-alpha-methyl-phenylalanine (1.74 g, 9.71 mmol) in 30 mL THF at rt was added NaBH4 (0.92 g 24.27 mmol) in one portion. The solution was cooled to 0° C. Iodine (2.46 g, 9.71 mmol) in 5 mL THF was added dropwise over 30 min. After the addition was complete, the reaction was heated to reflux for 2 days. The reaction was then cooled to 0° C and quenched by the addition of methanol until the bubbling subsided. The reaction mixture was acidified by the addition of 6N HCl until pH 1, stirred at 50 0C for 30 min and concentrated in vacuo. Purification using ion exchange chromatography (SCX cartridge) afforded 2R-amino-2-methyl-3-phenylpropan-l-ol I as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.35-7.18 (m, 5H), 3.36 (A of AB, d, J = 10.4 Hz, IH), 3.31 (B of AB, d, J = 10.4 Hz, IH), 2.70 (s, 2H), 1.04 (s, 3H).

Step B: B oc protection A solution of 2R-amino-2-methyl-3-phenylpropan-l-ol (4.14g, 25 mmol) and ditertbutyldicarbonate (7.1 g, 32.5 mmol) was stirred at rt for 16 h, concentrated in to provide tert-butyl (l-benzyl-2R-hydroxy-l- methylethyl)carbamate), as a white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.35-7.15 (m, 5H), 4.48 (br s, IH), 4.17 (br s , IH), 3.76-3.62 (m, 2H), 3.19 (A of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 2.81 (B of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 1.47 (s, 9H), 1.07 (s, 3H).

Step C: Oxidation To a solution of tert-buty\ (l-benzyl-2R-hydroxy-l-methylethyl)carbamate (6.7 g, 25.2 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) and DMSO (25 mL) was added triethylamine (10.5 ruL, 75.7 mmol) and sulfurtrioxide- pyridine (10 g, 63.1 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 3.5 h, diluted with EtOAc, washed with 10% KHSO4, saturated NaHCθ3, water, brine and aq LiCl, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0-20% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide tert-butyl (1- benzyl-l-methyl-2R-oxoethyl)carbamate as a white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 9.53 (s, IH), 7.35-7.22 (m, 3H), 7.12-7.00 (m, 2H), 4.84 (br s, IH), 3.17 (A of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 3.08 (B of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 1.51 (s, 9H), 1.27 (s, 3H).

Step D: Epoxidation To a solution of N-( tert-butyl (l-benzyl-l-methyl-2R-oxoethyl)carbamate (1 g, 3.80 mmol) in acetonitrile (15 mL) was added 6 drops water, trimethylsulfonium iodide (775 mg, 3.80 mmol) and potassium hydroxide (511 mg, 9.11 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 600C, sealed, for 1.5h, additional trimethylsulfonium iodide (775 mg, 3.80 mmol) and potassium hydroxide (511 mg, 9.11 mmol) were added and the reaction was stirred at 60 0C, sealed, for 3 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with sat'd aq ΝaHCθ3, brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo to provide tert-butyl (l-methyl-l-oxiran-2R-yl-2-phenylethyl)carbamate as an oil. MS (ES, M+H) 278.

Step E: Epoxide opening A solution of tert-butyl (1 -methyl- l-oxiran-2R-yl-2-phenylethyl)carbamate (986 mg, 3.56 mmol) in EtOH (35 mL) and NH4OH (35 mL) was stirred at 60 0C, sealed, for 16h, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0-30% (10% NH4θH/MeOH)/CH2Cl2) to provide tert-butyl (3R-amino-l-benzyl-2RS-hydroxy-l-methylpropyl)carbamate as a thick oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD, 1:1 diastereomeric mixture) δ 7.30-7.14 (m, 5H), 4.01 (br d, J = 9.2 Hz, 0.5 H), 3.54 (dd, J = 10.0, 2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.39 (br s, 0.5 H), 3.36 (br s, 0.5H), 2.94-2.56 (m, 4H), 1.47 (s, 9H), 1.03 (s, 1.5 H), 0.99 (s, 1.5 H).

Intermediate IV: N 2~r(fer£-butoxycarbonyl)airuno1-2-methyl-3-pyridm-4-ylpropa noic acid ("Scheme 1)

Step A: Schiff base formation To a solution of alanine methyl ester hydrochloride (10.0 g, 71.6 mmol) in 100 mL CH2CI2 was added benzophenone imine (12.0 mL, 71.6 mmol). A white ppt gradually came out of solution as the reaction was allowed to proceed at rt for 15 h. The reaction was diluted with H2O and CH2CI2, and the layers were separated, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Νa2S04, filtered and concentrated to afford methyl-N-(diphenylmethylene)alaninate as a viscous oil which was used without further purification. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 7.62 (m, 2H), 7.47-7.29(m, 6H), 7.19-7.16 (m, 2H), 4.16 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.7 (s, 3H, 1.40 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

Step B: Alkylation To a solution of methyl N-(diphenylmethylene)alaninate from Step A (9.78 g, 36.6 mmol) in 60 ml DMF at O0C was added a IM solution of sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in THF (45.72 ml, 45.72 mmol) over a 20 min period. After 30 min, a solution of 4-picolyl chloride hydrochloride (3.00 g, 18.29 mmol) in 40 ml DMF was added to the reaction via canula over a 25 min period. The reaction was warmed to rt and stirred for 5h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl and extracted with EtOAc (3x ). The combined organic layers were washed with 3M LiCl (2x) and brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-40% EtOAc/hexanes) afforded methyl 2-[(diphenylmethylene)amino]-2-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylpropanoa te as a white solid (5.28 g, 81%). LCMS [M+H] = 359.2. 1H NMR (J4-MeOH) δ 8.51 (dd, J=4.5, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 7.56 (dd, J=8.4, 1.4 Hz, 2H), 7.40-7.37 (m, 4H), 7.34-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.26-7.23 (m, 2H), 7.10-7.07 (m, 2H), 3.33 (A of AB, d, J=13.0 Hz, IH), 3.27 (s, 3H), 3.18 (B of AB, d, J=12.9 Hz, IH), 1.32 (s, 3H). Step C: Removal of Schiff base To a suspension of methyl 2-[(diphenylmethylene)amino]-2-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylpropanoa te from Step B (5.28 g, 14.73 mmol) in 75 ml of 1:1 MeOH/THF was added 6N HCl (3.68 ml, 22.10 mmol). The reaction was concentrated in vacuo after stirring for 1.5 h at rt. Purification using ion exchange chromatography (SCX cartridge) afforded methyl 2-amino-2-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylpropanoate as a yellow oil (2.76 g, 97%). LCMS [M+H] = 195.3. 1H NMR (J4-MeOH) δ 8.43 (dd, J=4.6, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 7.24 (dd, J=4.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.09 (A of AB, d, J=12.9 Hz, IH), 2.90 (B of AB, d, J=13.0 Hz, IH), 1.39 (s, 3H).

Step D: Boc protection To a suspension of methyl 2-amino-2-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylpropanoate from Step C (2.76 g, 14.21 mmol) in 70 ml THF at O0C was added di-te?t-butyl dicarbonate (4.03 g, 18.47 mmol). After 30 min, the reaction was warmed to rt and allowed to proceed over night. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc and washed with saturated aqueous NH4CI, water, and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification on silica gel chromatography (0-60% EtOAc/CH2Cl2) afforded methyl 2-[(te?t-butoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-methyl-3-pryidin-4-ylpropan oate as a yellow solid (3.22 g, 77%). LCMS [M+H] = 295.2. 1H NMR (400MHz, J4-MeOH) δ 8.43 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.44 (A of AB, d, J=13.2 Hz, IH), 3.12 (B of AB, d, J=13.2 Hz, IH), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.30 (s, 3H).

Step E: Saponification To a solution of methyl 2-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-methyl-3-pryidin-4-ylpropan oate from Step D (0.25 g, 0.85 mmol) in 4.25 ml of 1: 1 MeOH/THF was added 3N NaOH (0.43 ml, 1.27 mmol). The reaction was allowed to proceed at 5O0C for 1 h, at which point it was cooled to rt and quenched with 6N HCl (0.21 ml, 1.27 mmol). The reaction was concentrated in vacuo to yield 2-[(tert- butoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylpropanoic acid NaCl as a white solid. LCMS [M+H] = 281.3. 1H NMR (400 MHz, J4-MeOH) δ 8.44 (d, J=5.3 Hz, 2H), 7.28 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.43 (A of AB, d, J=12.6 Hz, IH), 3.33 (B of AB, d, J=12.3 Hz, IH), 1.47 (s, 9H), 1.41 (s, 3H). Intermediate V: N-(ter?-butoxycarbonyl)-2.5-dimethylnorleucme (Scheme 1)

N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2,5-dimethylnorleucine was prepared from isobutyl iodide and the alanine Schiff based as described for the preparation of intermediate IV.

Intermediate A: Ν-benzyl-l-(2-trαn.s'-methylcvclopropvl)methanamine

Step A: Coupling In a 2L flask trans-crotonoic acid (15.0 g, 174 mmol), benzyl amine (20.5 g, 192 mmol) and DIPEA (36.7 g, 192 mmol) were dissolved in 700 mL of dichloromethane. To this solution at rt EDC-HCl (36.7 g, 192 mmol) was added as a solid portion wise and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was poured onto 10% aq. KHSO4 (25OmL). The layers were separated and washed once again with 10% aq. KHSO4. The organic layer was subsequently washed with H2O (20OmL) followed by brine (15OmL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness to white crystals of (2£)-N-benzylbut-2-enamide: 1H ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 57.28 (m, 5H), 6.85 (sext, J = 6.8 Hz, IH), 5.78 (dd, J = 15.2, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 4.47 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.82 (dd, J = 7.2, 1.6 Hz, 3H).

Step B: Cyclopropanation In an Erlenmeyer flask containing Et2θ (300 mL) and aq. 40% KOH (11 ImL) with vigorous stirring was added l-methyl-3-nitro-l-nitrosoguanidine (11.1 g, 67 mmol) portionwise over 5 min. at rt. Upon complete addition stirring was ceased and the aq. layer frozen in a -78° bath. The ether layer was decanted into an Erlenmeyer with KOH pellets. The contents allowed to stand for 5 min., decanted into a third flask with KOH pellets and then poured onto a Et2O/THF solution (200 mL/50 mL) containing (2£)-N-benzylbut-2-enamide (3.0 g, 17.1 mmol from step A). Pd(OAc)2 (180 mg, 0.9 mmol) was subsequently added and the reaction allowed to warm to rt and stir for Ih. Nitrogen was bubbled through the reaction for lOmin. The mixture was washed with H2O (150 mL). The organic layer was isolated and subsequently dried over Na2SO4. Solvent removal and purification by flash chromatography on Siθ2 (EtOAc/hexanes) gave N-benzyl-ϊrans^-methylcyclopropanecarboxamide (83%): lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.28 (m, 5H), 5.81 (br s, IH), 4.43 (dd, J = 5.6, 2.4 Hz, 2H), 1.37 (m, IH), 1.17 (m, IH), 1.07 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.04 (overlapping m, IH), 0.56 (m, IH). Preparative chiral HPLC is optionally performed to afford the preferred enantiomer tra?ιs-S,S. In the following intermediates and examples, either the preferred enantioner trans-S,S or the racemic mixture trans-S,S and trans-R,R were used without discrimination. For simplification, the methyl-cyclopropyl-methyl moiety is drawn as fraw.s-racemic.

Step C: Reduction A 50OmL flask charged with N-benzyl-frans-2-methylcyclopropanecarboxamide (from step B, 3.9 g, 20.6 mmol) in THF (8OmL). BH3-THF (1.0 M, 105mL, 105 mmol) was added dropwise via an addition funnel. Upon complete addition (10 min.) the mixture was refluxed for 5h. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt and quenched carefully with MeOH (15mL). The mixture was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in dichloromethane and washed with 3M KOH. The organic layer was isolated, washed with brine, then dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The crude material was treated with IN HCl in dioxane for Ih at 50 0C. The mixture was concentrated to give hydrochloride salt as a white solid. The solid was dissolved in sat. aq. NaHCθ3 (80 mL) and extracted with CHCI3 (2x150 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4 and the solvent removed via rotorary evaporation to give after drying in vacuo N-benzyl-l-(2-?ra7ts-methylcyclopropyl)methanamine as an off-white semi-solid (quant.): lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.28 (m, 5H), 3.80 (s, 2H), 2.50 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 2.4 (br s, IH), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.69 (m, IH), 0.52 (m, IH), 0.23 (m, 2H).

Intermediate B: Ν-methyl-l-(2-tmn^-methylcvclopropyl)methanamine

To a solution of N-benzyl-l-(2-£røns-methylcyclopropyl)methenamine (8 g, 45.6 mmol, intermediate A) in DCE (240 mL) and MeOH (120 mL) was added formaldehyde (34 mL, 456 mmol, 37% aqueous) and NaBH(OAc)3 (19.3 g, 91 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for Ih, treated with sat'd aq NaHCO3, concentrated near dryness, diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, treated with HCl (50 mL, 50 mmol, IM Et2θ), and concentrated in vacuo to afford N-benzyl-methyl-l-(2-?ra7w-methylcyclopropyl)methanamine as the hydrochloride which was hydrogenated in the presence of 20% Pd(OH)2/C (616 mg), in EtOH (400 mL), at 60 0C, under 1 atm H2 for 2h. Filtration and concentration in vacuo provided N-methyl-1- (2-£rαrcj-methylcyclopropyl)methanamine as the hydrochloride. lH NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 2.88 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 1.09 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.78-0.70 (m, 2H), 0.52-0.50 (m, IH), 0.50- 0.40 (m, IH).

Intermediate C: 2-{benzvir(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl1amino)-6- rmethyKmethylsulfonvPaminolisonicotinic acid (Scheme 7)

Step A: Sulfonamide incorporation Methyl 2,6-dichloroisonicotinate (5.0g, 24.3 mmol), methyl(methylsulfonyl)amine (3.18g, 29.12 mmol), potassium phosphate (7.22g, 34.0 mmol), Xantphos (0.87g, 1.50 mmol) and tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium (0.68g, 0.51 mmol) were added to a dry, argon flushed flask. Dioxane (195 mL) was added, the solution degassed with argon and the reaction was heated to 100 0C for 16 hours. The reaction was cooled to rt, filtered through celite and evaporated in vacuo. Flash chromatography (silica, 0-50% EtOAc/QHtøCtø) gave methyl 2-chloro-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinate as a yellow oil: lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.88 (s, IH), 7.68 (s, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 3.44 (s, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H).

Step B: Hydrolysis To a solution of methyl 2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinate (2 g, 7.18 mmol) inl:l THF:MeOH (60 mL) added a NaOH (9.3 mL, 9.3 mmol, IN). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 0.5 h, acidified to pH 3-4 with IN HCl, extracted with dichloromethane (x2), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to provide 2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinic acid as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.88 (s, IH), 7.63 (s, IH), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H).

Step C: Animation A suspension of 2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinic acid (1.2g, 4.53 mmol), Intermediate A (1.85g, 10.55 mmol), potassium phosphate (3.18g, 15.1 mmol), and palladium bis(tri-f- butylphosphine) (0.13g, 0.25 ramol) in degassed DMA (10 mL) was sealed in a glass tube and heated to 130 0C for 4 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and brine, acidified to pH 3-4 with IN HCl, extracted with dichloromethane and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken in EtOAc, washed with aq LiCl (x3), dried on Na2SO4, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 2-7% (1% AcOH in MeOH)/CH2Cl2) to provide 2-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)ami no]isonicotinic acid as an oil. IK NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.35-7.15 (m, 5H), 7.06 (s, IH), 7.03 (s, IH), 4.59-4.28 (m, 2H), 3.55 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 5.6 Hz, IH), 3.29 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 7.2 Hz, IH), 3.28 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 0.97 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.84-0.74 (m, IH), 0.66-0.56 (m, IH), 0.40-0.31 (m, IH), 0.29-0.21 (m, IH).

Intermediate D: 2-(methvir(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyllamino|-6-

rmethvKmethylsulfonvDaminolisonicotinic acid (Scheme 7)

2-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6-[methyl(me thylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinic acid was prepared from 2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotmic acid and N-msthyl-l-(2-trans- methylcyclopropyl)methenamine using a similar procedure as described in intermediate C preparation, step C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.02 (s, IH), 6.96 (s, IH), 3.55 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.0 Hz, IH), 3.29 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 7.2 Hz, IH), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.82-0.66 (m, 2H), 0.48-0.41 (m, IH), 0.28-0.22 (m, IH).

Intermediate E: N-(4-(bromoacetyl)-6-{methyir(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyllami nolpyridin-2-

yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 16) To a solution of Intermediate D (250 mg, 0.76 mmol) in THF (3 mL) cooled to -78° C was added N- methylmorpholine (0.088 mL, 0.8 mmol) and isobutyl chloroformate dropwise (0.104 mL, 0.8 mmol), and the reaction mixture was stirred at -78° C for 0.5h. The reaction mixture was filtered on celite, rinsed with diethyl ether. The filtrate and rinsate was cooled to -20° C and treated with diazomethane (3.5 mL, Et2θ solution prepared from 150 mL Et2θ, 40 mL 40% aqKOH and 13.2 g l-methyl-3-nitro-l- nitrosoguanidine). After stirring at -20° C for 1.5 h, the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to rt, 5 mL diazomethane solution was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 0.5 h, concentrated in vacuo (rt bath and HOAc in trap). The residue was dissolved in Et2θ and EtOAc, washed with water, brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in Et2θ (5 mL), cooled to -20° C, treated with 62% HBr (0.25 mL), stirred at -20° C for 0.3 h, diluted with Et2θ, washed with water, sat. aq. NaHCθ3, brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to provide crude N-(4-(bromoacetyl)-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]ami no}pyridin-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide as yellow oil. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.96 (s, IH), 6.80 (s, IH), 4.40 (s, 2H), 3.52 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.36 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.78-0.62 (m, 2H), 0.44-0.38 (m, IH), 0.31- 0.26 (m, IH).

Intermediate F: N-(4-(2-amino-l-hydroxyethyl)-6-{methyir(2- methylcyclopropyDmethyll amino |pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 14)

Step A: Reduction To a solution of Intermediate D (815 mg, 2.49 mmol) in THF (10 mL) cooled to 0 0C was added BH3- THF (7.5 mL, 7.5 mmol, IM THF) and the reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2.5 h, carefully quenched with MeOH, then IN HCl, diluted with EtOAc, washed with IN HCl, sat'd aq ΝaHC03, brine, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 25-70% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide N-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyOmethyllaminoJpyridin^-yO-N-methylmethanesul fonamide as a thick oil. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.51 (s, IH), 6.38 (s, IH), 4.63 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.50 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.31 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.10 (s, 3H), 3.07 (s, 3H), 1.84 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, IH), 1.02 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 3H), 0.77-0.60 (m, 2H), 0.42-0.35 (m, IH), 0.27-0.21 (m, IH).

Step B: Oxidation To a solution of N-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]a mino}pyridm-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide (480 mg, 1.53 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) and DMSO (2.5 mL) was added triethylamine (1.07 mL, 7.66 mmol) and Sθ3-pyridine (975 mg, 6.13 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 0.5 h, diluted with EtOAc, washed with IN HCl, sat'd aq NaHCO3, brine, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 25-50% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide N-(4-formyl-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyri din-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide. 1H ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 9.94 (s, IH), 6.92 (s, IH), 6.72 (s, IH), 3.53 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.40 (s, 3H), 3.36 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.15 (s, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.78-0.62 (m, 2H), 0.45-0.37 (m, IH), 0.31-0.24 (m, IH).

Step C: Epoxidation and epoxide opening To a solution of N-(4-formyl-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyri din-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide (435 mg, 1.40 mmol) in acetonitrile (5 mL) was added 5 drops water, trimethylsulfonium iodide (342 mg, 1.68 mmol) and potassium hydroxide (188 mg, 3.35 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 65° C, sealed, for 3h, diluted with EtOAc, washed with sat'd aq ΝaHC03, brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo to provide N-methy l-N-(6-{ methyl [(2- methy Icy clopropyl)methyl] amino }-4-oxiran-2-ylpyridin-2-yl)methanesulfonamide, used as is in the next step. A solution of N-methyl-N-(6-{ methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -4-oxiran-2-ylpyridin- 2-yl)methanesulfonamide (440 mg, 1.35 mmol) in EtOH (10 mL) and NH4OH (15 mL) was stirred at 60° C, sealed, for 16h, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 5-15% (10% NH4θH/MeOH)/CH2Cl2) to provide N-(4-(2-amino-l-hydroxyethyl)-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide as a thick oil. IK ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 6.52 (s, IH), 6.47 (s, IH), 4.58 (X' of A'B'X', dd, J = 7.6, 4.0 Hz, 2H), 3.54 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.35 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.08 (s, 3H), 3.86 (A' of A'B'X', dd, J = 13.2, 4.0 Hz, IH), 2.76 (B' of A'B'X', dd, J = 13.2, 7.6 Hz, IH), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.80-0.65 (m, 2H), 0.46-0.39 (m, IH), 0.25-0.18 (m, IH). Intermediate G: N-(fert-butoxycarbonyl)-N-(2-oxo-2-{2-|methyir(2- methylcvclopropyPmethyH amino 1-6- FmethyKmethylsulf onyl)amino1pyridin-4-yl } ethyl)-α-D- methylphenylalaninamide (Scheme 14)

Step A: Coupling A solution of Intermediate F (330 mg, 096 mmol), N-Boc-D-alpha-methyl phenylalanine (323 mg, 1.16 mmol), EDC (240 mg, 1.25 mmol), HOAt (157 mg, 1.16 mmol) and diisopropylethyl amine (0.34 mL, 1.93 mmol) in DMF (9 mL) was stirred at rt for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with water and brine, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 30-65% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide N-(fer£-butoxycarbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-{2- { methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl } ethy I)-D- α-methylphenylalaninamide as a pale yellow foam, which was carried directly into the oxidation step.

Step B: Oxidation To a solution of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-{2-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl } ethyl)-D-α- methylphenylalaninamide (458 mg, 0.76 mmol) in DCM (6mL) and DMSO (1.5 mL) was added triethyl amine (0.53 mL, 3.79 mmol) and sulfurtrioxide-pyridine (483 mg, 3.03 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 1.5 h, diluted with EtOAc, washed with 10% KHSO4, saturated NaHCO3 and brine, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0-50% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide N-(føτt-butoxycarbonyl)-N-(2-oxo-2-{2-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6-[methyl(methylsulfonyi)amino]pyridin-4-yl } ethy I)-D-(X- methylphenylalaninamide as an orange oil. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.38-7.10 (m, 5H), 6.91 (s, IH), 6.75 (s, IH), 4.82 (br s, IH), 4.78-4.62 (m, 2H), 3.53 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.7, 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.43 (A of AB, d, J = 14.4 Hz, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.36 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.7, 6.6 Hz, IH), 3.16 (s, 3H), 3.15 (B of AB, d, I = 14.4 Hz, IH), 3.13 (s, 3H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.46 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.80-0.62 (m, 2H), 0.46-0.38 (m, IH), 0.31-0.24 (m, IH). Intermediate H: fert-butyl riR~benzyl-l-methyl-3-((2-lmethvir(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyllarnino|-6-rmethyl(methylsulfonyl)am inolisonicotinoyl}amino')-2- oxopropylicarbamate (Scheme 17)

tert-butyl [ lR-benzy 1- 1 -methyl-3-( { 2- { methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinoyl}amino)-2-oxopropy l]carbamate was prepared by the coupling of Intermediate DI and Intermediate D) and ensuing hydroxyl oxidation using the same procedure as described for the preparation of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-N-(2-oxo-2-{2-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropy^methyllaminoJ-ό-tmethyKmethylsulfony^amino jpyridm^-yljethyO-D-α- methylphenylalaninamide (intermediate G). lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.36-7.22 (m, 3H), 7.13- 7.08 (m, 2H), 6.88 (br s, IH), 6.79 (s, IH), 6.72 (s, IH), 4.74 (br s, IH), 4.68-4.58 (m, IH), 4.44-4.34 (m, IH), 3.53 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.0, 6.0 Hz, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.40-3.30 (A of AB and B of ABX, m, 2H), 3.14 (s, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 3.05 (B of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.32 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.78-0.62 (m, 2H), 0.44-0.36 (m, IH), 0.29-0.22 (m, IH).

Intermediate J: ethyl 2-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyllamino}-6- rmethyl(methylsulfonyl)amino1ρyridine-4-carboximidoate (Scheme 7, 11)

Step A: Νitrile preparation (scheme 7) A suspension of Intermediate D (250 mg, 0.76 mmol), ammonium chloride (204 mg, 3.82 mmol), EDC (176 mg, 0.92 mmol), HOAt (104 mg, 0.76 mmol) and diisopropylethyl amine (0.67 mL, 3.82 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was stirred at rt for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with water, 10% KHSO4, saturated aq NaHCθ3, aq LiCl, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken in THF (5mL), treated with Burgess reagent (219 mg, 0.92 mmol) and irradiated under microwave (Smith Synthesizer) at 80 0C for 5 min, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0-30% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide N-(4-cyano-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide. lfϊ ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.73 (s, IH), 6.48 (s, IH), 3.47 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.37 (s, 3H), 3.33 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.09 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 3H), 0.78-0.62 (m, 2H), 0.45-0.37 (m, IH), 0.32-0.25 (m, IH).

Step B: Imidate preparation. Through a solution of N-(4-cyano-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyrid in-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide (180 mg, 0.58 mmol) in EtOH (10 mL) cooled to 0 0C, was bubbled HCl(g) for 10 min. The reaction mixture was sealed, allowed to warm to rt and stirred for 3 h. Nitrogen was bubbled through the reaction mixture for 10 min and the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. Trituration with diethyl ether provided ethyl 2- {methyl [(2-methy Icy clopropyl)methyl] amino} -6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridine-4-carboximidoate as the hydrochloride and bright yellow solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 6.96 (s, IH), 6.88 (s, IH), 4.63 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.44 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.8, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 1.61 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.84-0.68 (m, 2H), 0.50-0.43 (m, IH), 0.29-0.23 (m, IH).

Intermediate K: (2,2-difluoroethyl) r(2-methylcvclopropyl)methvl1 amine

Step A: Coupling In a 500-mL flask difiuoroacetic acid (0.78 g, 8.2 mmol), N-benzyl-l-(2-fr-α«s- methylcyclopropyl)methanamine (1.3 g, 7.42 mmol) and DIPEA (4.2 g, 32.6 mmol) were dissolved in 100 mL of dichloromethane. To this solution at rt BOP (3.3 g, 7.42 mmol) was added as a solid portionwise and stirred one hour. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash column chromatography (silica, 0-10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to provide 1.45g (77%) of amide as a clear oil: lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.31 (m, 5H), 6.19 (td, J = 51, 20 Hz, IH), 4.75 (m, 2H), 3.24 (m, 2H), 0.99 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 3H), 0.62 (m, 2H), 0.31 (m, 2H); LCMS [M+H]+ = 254.1.

Step B: Reduction In a round-bottom flask N-benzyl-2,2-difluoro-N-{ [-2-methylcyclopropylmethyl] -methyl }acetamide (1.45 g, 5.7 mmol) was dissolved in 75 mL anhydrous THF. To this solution was added BH3-THF (18.9 mmol, 18.9 mL of a IM solution in THF). The reaction was equipped with a reflux condenser and heated to reflux for 16 hours. The reaction was cooled to 0° C and quenched with methanol followed by concentrated HCl (5 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The crude mixture was then concentrated in vacuo and partitioned between 10% NaOH/ethyl acetate. The organics were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated in vacuo. Purification by flash column chromatography (silica, 0-10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave 1.25g (91%) of the amine as a clear oil: ^H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.31 (m, 5H), 5.75 (tt, 56.5, 4.5 Hz, IH), 3.78 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, IH), 3.73 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, IH), 2.92 (td, J = 15, 3.8 Hz, 2H), 2.56 (dd, J = 13.2, 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.37 (dd, J = 13.2 Hz, 7.0 Hz, IH), 1.03 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.54 (m, 2H), 0.25 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H); LCMS [M+H]+ = 240.2.

Step C: Hydrogenation •A solution of N-benzyl-2,2-difluoro-N-[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]ethanam ine (1.25 g, 5.2 mmol) and hydrochloric acid (5.7 mmol, 1.44 mL of a 4M solution in dioxane) in ethanol (50 mL) was degassed with nitrogen and treated with palladium hydroxide (125 mg). The reaction was placed under a hydrogen atmosphere and stirred vigorously for 1 hour. The reaction was filtered through celite, washed with methanol and concentrated in vacuo to give (2,2-difluoroethyl)[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amine as a pale yellow oil: lH NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.35 (tt, 48, 3 Hz, IH), 3.56 (td, J = 15.6, 3.1 Hz, 2H), 3.03 (m, 2H), 1.11 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (m, 2H), 0.60 (m, IH), 0.50 (m, IH).

Intermediate L: A/r,N-dimethyl-N'-r(2-methylcvclopropyl)methyllproρane-l ,3-diamine

Step A: Coupling In a 100-mL flask acrylic acid (0.17 g, 2.4 mmol), N-benzyl-l-(2-£rørcs-methylcyclopropyl)methanamme (0.5 g, 2.4 mmol) and DIPEA (0.64 g, 4.9 mmol) were dissolved in 20 mL of dichloromethane. To this solution at rt EDC (0.68 g, 3.5 mmol) was added as a solid portionwise and stirred 15 hours. The reaction was partitioned between IM HCl and methylene chloride. The organics were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated in vacuo and carried into next reaction crude.

Step B: Michael Addition. In a 50-mL flask acrylamide (crude from step A) in methanol (10 mL) was treated with dimethylamine (4.5 mmol, 2.2 mL of a 2M solution in methanol). The reaction was stirred for 1 hour at ambient temperature then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (2.5- 15% MeOH/methylene chloride) to provide 0.47g (75% 2-steps) of N1-benzyl-N3,N3-dimethyl-N1-[(2- methylcyclopropyl)-methyl]-β-alaninamide as a clear oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.24 (m, 5H), 4.68 (m, 2H), 3.21 (m, 2H), 2.67 (m, 4H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 0.97 (m, 3H), 0.58 (m, 2H), 0.29 m, 2H). LCMS [M+H]+ = 275.4.

Step C: Reduction In a round-bottom flask N1-benzyl-N3,N3-dimethyl-N1-[(2-methylcyclopropyl)-methyl]- -alaninamide (0.47. g, 1.7 mmol) was dissolved in 10 mL anhydrous THF. To this solution was added BH3-THF (5.1 mmol, 5.1 mL of a IM solution in THF). The reaction was equipped with a reflux condenser and heated to reflux for 16 hours. The reaction was cooled to 00C and quenched with methanol followed by concentrated HCl (5 mL). The resulting mixture was heated to reflux for 16 hours. The crude mixture was then concentrated in vacuo and partitioned between 10% NaOH/ethyl acetate. The organics were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated in vacuo. Purification by reverse phase chromatography gave 0.42g (49%) of Nl-benzyl-N3,N3-dimethyl-N1-[(2- methylcyclopropy^methyljpropane-ljS-diaminium bis^rifluoroacetate) as a clear oil: LCMS [M+H]+ = 261.5.

Step D: Hydrogenation A solution of Nl-benzyl-N3,N3-dimethyl-N1-[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]pro pane-l,3-diaminium bis(trifluoroacetate) (0.42 g, 0.86 mmol) in ethanol (50 mL) was degassed with nitrogen and treated with palladium hydroxide (75 mg). The reaction was placed under a hydrogen atmosphere and stirred vigorously for 1 hour. The reaction was filtered through celite, washed with methanol and concentrated in vacuo to give N,N-dimethyl-N-[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]propane-l,3-diam inium bis(trifluoroacetate) as a pale yellow oil. Intermediate M: (2-fluoroethyl)r(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyll amine

Prepared from fluoroacetic acid using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate K. IK NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 9.79 (bs, IH), 4.98 (bd, J = 46.3, 2H), 3.42 (m, 2H), 3.03 (bs, 2H), 1.12 (bs, 3H), 1.01 (bs, IH), 0.87 (bs, IH), 0.66 (bs, IH), 0.50 (bs, IH).

Intermediate N: (2-methoxyethyl)r(2-methylcvclopropyl)methyll amine

Prepared from methoxyacetic acid using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate K. ^H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.98 (bs, IH), 3.64 (bs, 2H), 3.38 (bs, 3H), 3.27 (bs, 2H), 3.00 (bs, 2H), 1.06 (d, J : 5.3 Hz, 3H), 0.79 (bs, 2H), 0.51 (m, 2H).

Intermediate O: NJV-dimethyl-A^-r(2-methylcyclopropyl)memyl1 ethane- 1 ,2-diamine

Prepared from N,N-dimethylglycine using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate K. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 3.49 (m, 4H), 2.98 (m, 2H), 2.96 (s, 6H), 1.09 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (m, 2H),

0.61 (m, IH), 0.49 (m, IH). Intermediate P: {(lSVr(15,25r)-2-methylcvclopropynethyl)amine

Step A. (2E)-l,l-diethoxybut-2-ene Crotonaldehyde (23.64 mL, 285.35 mmol), triethyl orthoformate (57.02 mL, 342.42 mmol) and ammonium nitrate (2.28 g, 28.54 mmol) were combined in 60 mL EtOH. After 22 h at ambient temperature, the reaction was diluted with EtOAc (60 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (40 mL). The aqueous layer was back extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine (40 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give 36.5 g (89%) of l,l-diethoxybut-2-ene. IH NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 5.84 (m, IH); 5.54 (m, IH); 4.82 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, IH); 3.64 (m, 2H); 3.49 (m, 2H); 1.73 (m, 3H); 1.21 (m, 6H).

Step B. diisopropyl (4S,5S)-2-[(lE)-prop-l-enyl]-l,3-dioxolane-4,5-dicarboxylate A solution of (2E)-l,l-diethoxybut-2-ene (32.20 g, 223.27 mmol), (-)-diisopropyl D-tartrate (64.64 mL, 245.60 mmol) and pyridinium tosylate (2.24 g, 8.93 mmol) in 100 mL benzene was heated to 95 0C to distill off the solvent and EtOH produced. After 7 h at 95 0C, the reaction was cooled to it and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (10->30% EtOAc/hexanes) yielded 35.37 g (55%) of diisopropyl (4S,5S)-2-[(lE)-prop-l-enyl]-l,3-dioxolane-4,5-dicarboxylate as an orange oil. IH NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 6.03 (m, IH); 5.86 (m, 2H); 5.12 (m, 2H); 4.71 (d, J = 3.84 Hz, IH); 4.63 (d, J = 3.84 Hz, IH); 1.78 (m, 3H); 1.30 (d, J = 6.23 Hz, 12H); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 287.

Step C. diisopropyl (4S,5S)-2-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]-l,3-dioxolane-4,5-di carboxylate To a -20 0C solution of intermediate diisopropyl (4S,5S)-2-[(lE)-prop-l-enyl]-l,3-dioxolane-4,5- dicarboxylate (4.10 g, 14.32 mmol) in 60 mL hexanes was added IM diethylzinc in hexanes (42.96 mL, 42.96 mmol). Diiodomethane (6.92 mL, 85.92 mmol) was added dropwise with vigorous stirring. After 1 h at -20 0C, the reaction was refrigerated at -5 0C. After 17 h at -5 0C, the reaction was stirred at 0 0C for an additional 5 h and then quenched with cold saturated ammonium chloride solution (100 mL) and extracted with Et2O (100 mL x 3). The combined organics were washed w/ aqueous sodium thiosulfate (100 mL) and brine (100 mL), filtered, dried over Na2SO4, filtered again and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (10->30% EtOAc/hexanes) yielded 3.85 g (89%) of diisopropyl (4S,5S)-2-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]-l,3-dioxolane-4,5-di carboxylate as a yellow oil. IH NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 5.12 (m, 2H); 4.78 (d, J = 6.41 Hz, IH); 4.66 (d, J = 4.21 Hz, IH); 4.57 (d, J = 4.22 Hz, IH); 1.30 (m, 12H); 1.09 (d, J = 5.68 Hz, 3H); 0.94 (m, 2H); 0.67 (m, IH); 0.39 (m, IH); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 301.

Step D. 2-methyl-N-{(lE)-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]methylidene}pr opane-2-sulfinamide To a solution of diisopropyl (4S,5S)-2-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]-l,3-dioxolane-4,5-di carboxylate (0.450 g, 1.50 mmol) in 5 mL CH2Cl2/200 uL H2O was added p-toluenesulfonic acid (0.071 g, 0.38 mmol) . Reaction heated to reflux at 50 0C. After 16 h at 50 0C, the reaction was cooled to rt. Water droplets sitting at the top of the reaction were removed. Copper (H) sulfate (0.507 g, 2.85 mmol) and R- (+)-tert-butanesulfinamide (0.173 g, 1.43 mmol) were added. After 5.5 h at ambient temperature, the reaction was filtered over a pad of celite. The celite was washed with CH2Cl2 (200 mL) and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (0->50% EtOAc/hexanes) yielded 0.245 g (92%) of 2-methyl-N-{(lE)-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]methylidene}ρ ropane-2-sulfmamide as a clear, colorless residue. IH NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.46 (d, J = 7.69 Hz, IH); 1.62 (m, IH); 1.25 (m, 2H); 1.10 (m, 12H); 0.82 (m, IH); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 188.

Step E. 2-methyl-N-{(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethyl}propan e-2-sulfinamide To a -78 0C solution of 2-methyl-N-{(lE)-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]methylidene}pr opane-2- sulfinamide (0.300 g, 1.60 mmol) in 5 mL CH2Cl2 was added 3M methylmagnesium bromide in Et2O (1.07 mL, 3.20 mmol). After 2 h at -78 0C, the reaction was warmed to rt. After 1 h at ambient temperature, the reaction was quenched with saturated ammonium chloride solution (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (30 mL x 2). The combined organics were washed with brine (15 mL), dried over Na2Sθ4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (0->80% EtOAc/hexanes) yielded 0.224 g (69%) of -methyl-N-{(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2- methylcyclopropyl]ethyl}propane-2-sulfinamide as a clear, colorless residue. IH NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 2.77 (m, IH); 1.31 (d, J = 6.50 Hz, 3H); 1.21 (s, 9H); 1.03 (d, J = 5.77 Hz, 3H); 0.54 (m, 3H); 0.30 (m, IH); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 204.

Step F. (lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethanaminium chloride To a 0 0C solution of 2-methyl-N-{(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethyl}propan e-2-sulfmamide (0.210 g, 1.03 mmol) in 4 mL MeOH was added 2M HCl in Et2O (0.52 mL, 1.03 mmol). Reaction stirred from 00C to rt over 18 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The resulting material was taken up in Et2O (4 mL) and concentrated in vacuo twice to give (lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethanaminium chloride as a white solid. IH NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 2.60 (m, IH); 1.37 (d, J = 6.59 Hz, 3H); 1.08 (d, J = 6.04 Hz, 3H); 0.77 (m, IH); 0.64 (m, 2H); 0.42 (m, IH); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 100.

Intermediate Q: |(lR)-l-r(l£2S)-2-methylcvclopropyl1ethyllamine

Prepared using protocol as described for intermediate P, with the modification of S-(+)-tert- butanesulfinamide being used in step D. LC/MS [M+H]+ = 100.

Intermediate R: |(lSyi-f(l.S,2SV2-methylcvclopropyHpropvl|amine

Prepared using protocol as described for intermediate P, with the modification of ethylmagnesium bromide being used in step E. LC/MS [M+H]+ = 114.

Intermediate S : ( 1 S)-2-methyl- 1 -IY 1 S,2S)-2-methylcvclopropyllpropan- 1-amine

Prepared using protocol as described for intermediate P, with the modification of isopropylmagnesium bromide being used in step E. LC/MS [M+H]+ = 128.

Intermediate T: (2-{ rfer^-butyl(dimethyl)silylloxy}ethyl)r(2-methylcvclopropyl)- methvllamine

Prepared from (fert-butyl(dimethyl)silyloxy)ethyl amine using a similar procedure as described for Intermediate B. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 3.74 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 2H), 2.76 (m, 2H), 2.52 (m, 2H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (s, 9H), 0.68 (m, IH), 0.55 (m, IH), 0.29 (m, IH), 0.24 (m, IH), 0.07 (s, 6H).

Intermediate a: 2-1 (l^-difluoroethvDrCΣ-methylcyclopropyDmethyliaminol-ό- rmethvKmethylsulfonvPaminolisonicotic acid Prepared from Intermediate K using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. LCMS [M+H]+ = 378.3.

Intermediate b: 2- j (2-methoxyethyl)r(2-methylcyclopropyl)methynamino)-6- rmethvKmethylsulfonvDaminolisonicotic acid

Prepared from Intermediate N using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. LCMS [M+H]+ = 372.3.

Intermediate c: 2-1 (2,2-difluoroethyl)r(2-methylcvclopropyl)methvnamino)-6- rdsopropylsulfonylXmethvDaminolisonicotinic acid Prepared from Intermediate K and (isopropylsulfonyl)methylamine using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. IR NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.09 (s, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 6.08 (td, J = 56.4, 4.2 Hz, IH), 3.93 (m, 2H), 3.46 (m, IH), 3.44 (s, 3H), 3.32 (dd, J = 15.0, 6.6 Hz, IH), 1.41 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H), 1.06 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.74 (m, 2H), 0.45 (m, IH), 0.35 (m, IH). LCMS [M+H]+ = 406.5.

Intermediate d: 2-{ (2-fluoroethyl)r(2-methylcvclopropyl)methyllamino)-6- [(isopropylsulfonvDCmethvDaminolisonicotic acid

Prepared from Intermediate M and (isopropylsulfonyl)methylamine using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. LCMS [M+H]+ = 388.0.

Intermediate e: 2-[(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)aminol-6-{ (2-methoxyethyl)["(2- methylcyclopropyDmethvn amino jisonicotinic acid

Prepared from Intermediate N and (isopropylsulfonyl)methylamine using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.01 (s, IH), 6.98 (s, IH), 3.99 (m, IH), 3.75 (m, IH), 3.59 (m, IH), 3.47 (m, IH), 3.44 (s, 3H), 3.36 (s, 3H), 3.34 (m, IH), 1.40 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 6H), 1.05 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 3H), 0.74 (m, 2H), 0.43 (m, IH), 0.29 (m, IH). LCMS [M+H]+ = 400.5. Intermediate f: 2-{ r2-(dimethylamino)ethylir(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyllamino)- 6- r(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)aminolisonicotinic acid

Prepared from Intermediate O and (isopropylsulfonyl)methylamine using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.95 (s, IH), 6.85 (s, IH), 4.00 (m, 2H), 3.88 (m, IH), 3.44 (m, 2H), 3.43 (s, 3H), 3.34 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 2.95 (bs, 6H), 1.38 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 6H), 1.03 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.70 (m, 2H), 0.45 (m, IH), 0.31 (m, IH). LCMS [MH-H]+ = 413.3.

Intermediate g: 2-{ r3-(dimethylamino)propylir(2-methylcyclopropyl')rriethyllami nol-6- r(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)aminolisonicotinic acid

Prepared from Intermediate L and (isopropylsulfonyl)methylamine using a similar procedure as described in Intermediate C. LCMS [M+H]+ = 427.4.

Intermediate h: tert-buty\ ri-(5-|2-chloro-6-rmethyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl} -1.3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl)-lR-methyl-2-ρhenylethvHcarbamate (Scheme 8) Step A. Coupling To a solution of 2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino)isonicotinic acid (0.200 g, 0.76 mmol) in 3 mL DMF was added triethylamine (0.13 mL, 0.91 mmol), intermediate I (0.222 g, 0.76 mmol), HOAt (0.123 g, 0.91 mmol) and EDC (0.174 g, 0.91 mmol). After 17 h at ambient temperature, the reaction was diluted with EtOAc (60 mL), washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (30 mL) and brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (20->80% EtOAc/hexanes) yielded 0.544 g (99%) of acyl hydrazide as a clear, colorless residue. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.71 (s, IH); 7.53 (s, IH); 7.29 (m, 3H); 7.15 (d, J = 6.59 Hz, 2H); 3.50 (d, J = 13.55 Hz, IH); 3.42 (s, 3H); 3.11 (s, 3H); 3.05 (d, J = 13.73 Hz, IH); 1.47 (s, 9H); 1.43 (s, 3H); LC/MS [M-C4H7]+ = 484.

Step B. Cyclodehydration To a solution of acyl hydrazide from step A (0.550 g, 1.02 mmol) in 5 mL DCE was added Burgess reagent (0.971 g, 4.07 mmol). Reaction microwaved at 120 0C for 10 min and directly purified by normal phase chromatography (0->50% EtOAc/hexanes) to yield tert-butyl (lR)-l-(5-{2-chloro-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2 -yl)-l-methyl-2-phenylethylcarbamate as a white foam. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.89 (s, IH); 7.72 (s, IH); 7.29 (m, 3H); 7.08 (m, 2H); 3.60 (d, J = 13.55 Hz, IH); 3.46 (s, 3H); 3.38 (d, J = 13.55 Hz, IH); 3.15 (s, 3H); 3.15 (s, 3H); 1.70 (s, 3H); 1.42 (s, 9H); [M+H]+ = 522.

Intermediate i. fer?-butyll l-r5-(2-chloro-6-lmethyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyllamino)p yridm-4-yl)- 1 ,3 ,4-oxadiazol-2-yll - lR-methvl-2-phenvlethvl I carbamate

Step A: Nucleophilic animation A solution of 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (0.25g, 1.3 mmol), methyl-[(methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amine hydrochloride (0.53g, 3.9 mmol) and cesium carbonate (1.25g, 6.5 mmol) in 5 mL DMF was heated to 120 0C in a sealed tube for 72 hr. The reaction was partitioned between IM HCl and ethyl acetate. The organics were washed with water (4x), brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated in vacuo to give 0.3g (90%) of crude 2-chloro-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}isonico tinic acid as a brown oil: LCMS (M+H) = 255.0.

Step B: Coupling A solution of 2-chloro-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}isonico tinic acid (0.33g, 1.3 mmol), N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-D-α-methylphenylalaninhydrazamide (0.38g, 1.3 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (0.17g, 1.3 mmol) in 10 mL methylene chloride was treated with BOP (0.57g, 1.3 mmol). Upon stirring at ambient temperature for one hour the reaction was treated with additional hydrazamide (0.19g, 0.65 mmol) and BOP (0.29g, 0.65 mmol). After one hour, the reaction was evaporated in vacuo and purified by reverse phase LC to give 0.224g (33%) of tert-buty\{ l-benzyl-2- oxo-2-[2-(2-chloro-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]ami no}isonicotinoyl)hydrazino]-lR- methylethyl} carbamate as an orange solid: LCMS (M+H) = 530.3.

Step C: Cyclodehydration A solution of tert-bvAy\{ l-benzyl-2-oxo-2-[2-(2-chloro-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } isonicotinoyl)hydrazino] - lR-methylethyl Jcarbamate (0.22g, 0.42 mmol) in 2 mL THF was treated with Burgess reagent (0.22g, 0.93 mmol). The reaction was sealed and heated to 1300C in the microwave reactor for 5 min. An additional 2 equivalents of Burgess reagent was added and the vessel re-sealed and re-heated for 5 min. The reaction was evaporated in vacuo and purified by flash column chromatography (25-40% ethyl acetate:hexanes) to give fø7t-butyl{ l-[5-(2- chloro-6- { methyl [(2-methylcy clopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-4-y I)- 1 ,3 ,4-oxadiazol-2-yl] - lR-methyl-2- phenylethyl} carbamate as a yellow oil: 1H ΝMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.28 (m, 3H), 7.06 (m, 2H), 7.00 (s, 2H), 3.57 (m, 2H), 3.39 (m, 2H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 1.73 (s, 3H), 1.56 (s, 9H), 1.05 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.72 (m, 2H), 0.45 (m, IH), 0.29 (m, IH). LCMS (M+H) = 512.2.

Intermediate k: tert-hutyl ri-(2-|2-chloro-6-rmethyl('methylsulfonyl)amino1pyridin-4-yl )-L3-oxazol-5- vl)-lR-methvl-2-ρhenvlethyllcarbamate

Step A. coupling To a solution of 2-chloro-6-[methyl(methysulfonyl)amino]isonicotinic acid (1.80 g, 6.79 mmol) in 10 mL DMF was added triethylamine (1.14 mL, 8.15 mmol), intermediate IV (2.00 g, 8,15 mmol), HOAt (1.11 g, 8.15 mmol) and EDC (1.56 g, 8.15 mmol). After 3.5 h at ambient temperature, the reaction was diluted w/ EtOAc (100 mL), washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL) and brine (50 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (0->70% EtOAc/hexanes and 0-7% MeOHZCH2Cl2) yielded 3.18 g (87%) of tert-butyl (lR)-l-benzyl-3-({2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]is onicotinoyl}amino)-2-hydroxy-l- methylpropylcarbamate as a white solid. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.66 (d, J = 2.58 Hz, IH); 7.50 (d, J = 4.58 Hz, IH); 7.31 (m, 3H); 7.18 (m, 2H); 4.05 (m, IH); 3.84 (m, IH); 3.59 (m, IH); 3.43 (s, 3H); 3.23 (d, I = 13.92 Hz, IH); 3.09 (s, 3H); 2.68 (d, J = 13.55 Hz, IH); 1.45 (s, 9H); 1.21 (s, 3H); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 541.

Step B. Oxidation To a -20 0C solution of tert-butyl ( IR)-I -benzyl-3-({ 2-chloro-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinoyl}amino)-2-hydroxy- l -methylpropylcarbamate (0.400 g, 0.74 mmol) in 8 mL CH2Cl2M- mL DMSO was added triethylamine (0.41 mL, 2.96 mmol). After 5 min, a solution of pyridine sulfur trioxide (0.471 g, 2.96 mmol) in 3 mL DMSO was added via cannula. After 16 h at ambient temperature, the reaction was quenched with brine (10 mL) and extracted with Et2O (15 mL). The aqueous layer was back extracted with Et2O (10 mL x 2). The combined organics were washed with 10% aqueous sodium bisulfite (10 mL), and brine (10 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography (20->70% EtOAc/hexanes) yielded 0.335 g (84%) of tert-butyl (lR)-l-benzyl-3-({2-chloro-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinoyl}amino)-l-methyl-2 -oxopropylcarbamate as a white solid. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.69 (d, J = 1.01 Hz, IH); 7.51 (d, J = 0.92 Hz, IH); 7.31 (m, 3H); 7.12 (m, 2H); 4.62 (m, IH); 4.41 (m, IH); 3.44 (s, 3H); 3.11 (s, 3H); 1.48 (s, 9H); 1.31 (s, 3H); LC/MS [M-C4H7J+ = 483.

Step C. Cyclodehydration To a solution of tert-butyl (lR)-l-benzyl-3-({2-chloro-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinoyl}amino)-l-methyl-2 -oxopropylcarbamate (0.190 g, 0.35 mmol) in 2 mL toluene was added Burgess reagent (0.504 g, 2.12 mmol). The reaction was microwaved at 1300C for 30 min. The clear yellow, top layer of the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and purified by normal phase chromatography (0->50% EtOAc/hexanes) to give tert-butyl (lR)-l-(2-{2- chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3-oxaz ol-5-yl)-l-methyl-2- phenylethylcarbamate. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.86 (s, IH); 7.69 (s, IH); 7.28 (m, 3H); 7.04 (m, 3H); 3.45 (s, 3H); 3.13 (m, 4H); 1.60 (s, 3H); 1.42 (s, 9H); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 521.

Intermediate 1: A/'-(4-(hydrazmocarbonyl)-6-{methyir(2-methylcvclopropyl)rne thyllamino)pyridin- 2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide

Step A; Coupling To a solution of Intermediate D (1.95 g, 5.96 mmol) and Boc-hydrazine (0.866 g, 6.55 mmol) in 25 mL DMF was added EDC (1.37 g, 7.15 mmol) and HOAt (0.080 g, 0.596 mmol). The reaction was allowed to proceed for 15h, then quenched by the addition of 3M LiCl and diluted with EtOAc. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was washed with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with 3M LiCl (2x) and brine, dried over Na2S0_j., filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by normal phase chromatography (15->65% EtOAc/hexanes) to afford the desired coupled adduct as a white foam. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 5 8.17 (br s, IH), 6.74 (s, IH), 6.70 (s, IH), 6.23 (br s, IH), 3.50 (dd, J = 14.5, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.30 (dd, J = 14.5, 8.3 Hz, IH), 3.08 (s, 3H), 3.06 (s, 3H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 1.00 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 3H), 0.74-0.60 (m, 2H), 0.37 (m, IH), 0.23 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H]+ = 442.

Step B; Deprotection HCl was bubbled through a solution of product from Step A (2.50 g, 5.662 mmol) in 100 mL CH2CI2 at 0° C for 10 min. The solution went bright yellow. The reaction was warmed to rt for 30 min, then concentrated to afford a yellow solid which was used without further purification. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 67.55 (s, IH), 7.35 (s, IH), 3.44 (m, 2H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 3.22 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 0.92 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 3H), 0.72 (m, IH), 0.63 (m, IH), 0.40 (m, IH), 0.23 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H]+ = 342.

Intermediate m: N-(4-(5-{ l-r(diphenylmethylene)aminolethyl|-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-γl)-6- {methvir(2-methylcvclopropyl)methyllarrrino}pyridin-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide

To a solution of N-(4-[5-(l-aminoethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide (0.544 g, 1.26 mmol, example 22) in 10 mL CH2CI2 was added benzophenone imine (0.25 mL, 1.51 mmol). A white precipitate appeared gradually through the course of the reaction. The reaction was allowed to proceed for 15h, when a further aliquot of benzophenone imine was added (0.160 mL, 0.894 mmol). After a further 24h, the reaction was diluted with H2O and EtOAc, and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was washed with EtOAc(2x), the combined organics were washed with brine, dried over Νa2Sθ4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by normal phase chromatography (2->35% EtOAc/hexanes) to afford N-(4-(5-{ l-[(diphenyl methylene)amino]ethyl}-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-6- {methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl) methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide as a yellow foam. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 7.63 (m, 4H), 7.54-7.50 (m, 4H), 7.48 (m, 2H), 7.05 (s, IH), 6.99 (s, IH), 4.95 (q, J = 6.5 Hz, IH), 3.52 (dd, J = 14.3, 6.2 Hz, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.34 (dd, J = 14.3, 6.3 Hz, IH), 3.14 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 1.67 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.74 (m, IH), 0.65 (m, IH), 0.40 (m, IH), 0.25 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H]+ = 559. Intermediate n: Tert-butyl ((2E)-l-benzyl-4-{2-|benzyir('2-methylcyclopropyl)metliyllam ino|-6- rmethyl(methylsulfonyl)amino1pyridin-4-yl 1-1 -methyl-4-oxobut-2-en- 1 -vDcarbamate ("Scheme 24)

Step A: Preparation of Weinreb amide

To a solution of intermediate C (1.0 g, 2.23 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane was added N,O- dimethylhydroxlamine hydrochloride (226 mg, 2.32 mmol), diisopropylethylamine (574 μL, 3.48 mmol), EDC (577 mg, 3.01 mmol), and HOAt (347 mg, 2.55 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred at rt for 16 h, then poured onto 0.3N HCl (20 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organics were washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (75 mL) followed by brine (75 mL) and then dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated. Purification by automated flash chromatography (silica gel cartridge, 0 - 100% ethyl acetate/hexanes over 20 minutes) afforded 2-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }-6-[(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)amino]-N-methoxy-N- methylisonicotinamide as a yellow oil. LCMS [M+H] = 475.1.

Step B: Preparation of methyl ketone To a -780C solution of 2- {benzyl [(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino} -6- [(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)amino]-N-methoxy-N-methylisonico tinamide (860 mg, 1.81 mmol) from Step A in 6 mL dry THF was added methylmagnesium bromide (3.62 mL, 10.8 mmol, 3M solution in diethyl ether). The reaction mixture was allowed to slowly warm to 0 °C over 1 h, at which time it was poured onto 20 mL of sat. ammonium chloride and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 30 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine (30 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated. Purification by automated flash chromatography (silica gel cartridge, 0 - 100% ethyl acetate/hexanes over 35 minutes) afforded N-(4-acetyl-6-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyri din-2-yl)-N- methylpropane-2-sulfonamide as a bright yellow solid. LCMS [M+H] = 430.1.

Step C: Aldol condensation To a -78°C solution of N-(4-acetyl-6-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyri dm-2-yl)-N- methylpropane-2-sulfonamide (100 mg, 0.23 mmol) from Step B in 1.5 πiL dry THDF was added lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (244 /xL, 0.49 mmol, 2M solution in THF), and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir for 15 min. To this mixture was added a solution of tert-butyl (lR)-l-benzyl-l-methyl-2- oxoethylcarbamate (61 mg, 0.23 mmol, prepared according to preparation of intermediate m up to step C) dissolved in 1 mL dry TBDF. The solution was allowed to slowly warm to rt and then allowed to stir for an additional 16 h, at which time it was quenched with a saturated solution of ammonium chloride (15 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 25 mL). The combined organics were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated. Purification by reverse-phase chromatography afforded tert-butyl (1R,2E)-1- benzyl-4-{2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6-[(i sopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)amino]pyridin- 4-yl}-l-methyl-4-oxobut-2-enylcarbamate, intermediate n, as an orange oil. LCMS [M+H] = 675.3.

EXAMPLE 1 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyOmethyllaminoJpyridin^-y^-N-methylmethanesul fonamide (Scheme 8)

Step A: Coupling To a solution of Intermediate C (100 mg, 0.25 mmol) and Intermediate I (87 mg, 0.30 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added HOAt (37 mg, 0.27 mmol) and EDC (57 mg, 0.30 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, treated with N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-D-α-methylphenylalaninhydrazamide (20 mg, 0.07 mmol, intermediate I), stirred at rt for 1 h, diluted with EtOAc, washed with water, aq LiCl (x3), dried over Νa2Sθ4, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 10-50% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide tert-butyl [lR-benzyl-2-oxo-l-methyl-2-(2-{2-{methyl[(2~ methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinoyl}hydrazino)ethyl]c arbamate as a white foam. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 9.35 (br s, IH), 8.64 (br s, IH), 7.38-7.14 (m, 10H), 6.79 (s, 2H), 4.88 (A of AB, d, J = 17.2 Hz, IH), 4.83 (B of AB, d, J = 17.2 Hz, IH), 4.66 (s, IH), 3.60-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.36-3.24 (m, IH), 3.28 (s, 3H), 3.07 (B of AB, d, J = 14.0 Hz, IH), 2.84 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 0.98 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.86-0.76 (m, IH), 0.65-0.55 (m, IH), 0.39-0.31 (m, IH), 0.30-0.23 (m, IH).

Step B: Cyclodehydration and Boc removal A solution of tert-butyl [lR-benzyl-2-oxo-l-methyl-2-(2-{2-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinoyl}hydrazino)ethyl]c arbamate (140 mg, 0.21 mmol) and methoxycarbonylsulfamoyl-triethylammonium hydroxide (197 mg, 0.83 mmol, Burgess reagent) in THF (5mL) was irradiated under microwave (Smith Synthesizer) at 120° C for 10 min, concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0-30% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide tert-butyl [l-(5-{2- { benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl } - 1 ,3 ,4- oxadiazol-2-yl)-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl] carbamate. Boc removal by exposure to HCl (g) saturated EtOAc for 0.5 h, concentration and lyophilization from dioxane/water afforded N-(4-[5-(l-amino-l- methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-6-{benzyl[(2-met hylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2- yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide as the hydrochloride. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33-7.18 (m, 8H), 7.08-7.02 (m, 3H), 6.94 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, IH), 4.98-4.82 (m, 2H), 3.74-3.66 (m, IH), 3.48-3.36 (m, IH), 3.41 (s, 3H), 3.34-3.26 (m, 2H), 2.96 (s, 3H), 1.82 (s, 3H), 0.98 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.91-0.81 (m, IH), 0.73-0.62 (m, IH), 0.48-0.39 (m, IH), 0.29-0.19 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C30H36N6O3S: 561.2643, found: 561.2655. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 2 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridine-2-yl)-N-methylmethan esulfonamide A solution of tert-butyl [l-(5-{2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3»4-oxadiazol- 2-yl)-lR-methyl-2-phenylethyl]carbamate (94 mg, 0.14 mmol, from Example 1) in EtOH (10 mL) and TFA (0.011 mL, 0.14 mmol) was hydrogenated over 20% Pd(OH)2/C (20 mg), at 40 0C, under 1 arm H2, for 3h. Filtration and concentration, followed by Boc removal (HCl(g) saturated EtOAc), concentration and trituration in Et2O afforded N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{ [(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridine-2-yl)-N-methylmethan esulfonamide hydrochloride as a pale yellow solid. 1H ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.35-7.30 (m, 3H), 7.11-7.05 (m, 2H), 6.99 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, IH), 6.93 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, IH), 3.45 (br s, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 3.28-3.20 (m, 2H), 3.19 (s, 3H), 1.82 (s, 3H), 1.06 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.90-0.80 (m, IH), 0.73-0.65 (m, IH), 0.47-0.41 (m, IH), 0.31-0.24 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C23H30Ν6O3S: 471.2173, found: 471.2175. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 3 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } pyridine-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulf onamide

Prepared from 2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinic acid and Ν-methyl-l-(2-?rans- methylcyclopropyl)methenamine using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C24H32N6O3S: 485.2330, found: 485.2355. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example. EXAMPLE 4 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylpropane -2-sulfonamide

Prepared from 2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6- [methyl(isopropylsulfonyl)amino]isonicotinic acid (prepared from methyl(isopropylsulfonyl)amine using a similar procedure as described in the preparation of intermediate C) and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-D-α- methylphenylalaninhydrazamide using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C32H40Ν6O3S: 589.2955, found: 589.2920.

Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 5 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{[(2- methylcyclopropyOmethy^aminoJpyridine^-y^-N-methylpropane^-s ulfonamide

Prepared from Example 4 using a similar procedure as described in Example 2. HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C25H34Ν6O3S: 499.2486, found: 499.2499.

Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example. EXAMPLE 6 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{(2,2-difluoroethyl)[(2- methy Icy clopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 8)

Prepared from Intermediate P using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS [M+ 1]+ calc'd = 535.2298, found = 535.2288. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

, EXAMPLE 7 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{(2-methoxyethyl)[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 8)

Prepared from Intermediate Q using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS [M+l]+ calc'd = 529.2592, found = 529.2591. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 8 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{(2,2-difluoroethyl)[(2- methylcyclopropyOmethyllaminoJpyridin^-y^-N-methylpropane^-s ulfonamide (Scheme 8) Prepared from Intermediate R using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS [M+l]+ calc'd = 563.2611, found = 562.2603. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 9 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{(2-fluoroethyl)[(2- methylcyclopropy^methyyaminoJpyridin^-y^-N-methylpropane^-su lfonamide (Scheme 8)

Prepared from Intermediate S using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS [M+l]+ calc'd = 545.2705, found = 545.2727. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 10 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{(2-methoxyethyl)[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridm-2-yl)-N-methylpropane- 2-sulfonamide (Scheme 8) Prepared from Intermediate T using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS [M+l]+ calc'd = 557.2905, found = 557.2900. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S, S, R example.

EXAMPLE Il N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{ [2-(dimethylamino)ethyl][(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylpropane-2-sulfonamide (Scheme 8)

Prepared from Intermediate U using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. LCMS [MH-H]+ = 570.4. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 12 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-{[3-(dimethylamino)propyl][(2- methy Icy clopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylpropane-2-sulfonamide (Scheme 8)

Prepared from Intermediate V using a similar procedure as described in Example 1. HRMS [M+l]+ calc'd = 584.3378, found = 584.3382. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 13 N-[4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl]-6-({ l-[(15,2S)-2- methy Icy clopropyl] ethyl }amino)pyridin-2-yl]-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Schemeδ, 2nd line)

Step A. Pd coupling To a solution of (lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethanaminium chloride (intermediate P, 0.045 g, 0.33 mmol) and tert-butyl (lR)-l-(5-{2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4 -yl}-l,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl)-lR-methyl-2-phenylethylcarbamate (intermediate h, 0.173 g, 0.33 mmol) in 1 mL DMF was added K3PO4 (0.352 g, 1.66 mmol) and Pd(P/Bu3)2 (0.025 g, 0.05 mmol). The sealed reaction was heated at 110 0C for 12 h and then diluted with EtOAc (30 mL) and filtered over a pad of celite. The celite was washed with EtOAc (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and purified by normal phase chromatography (0->50% EtOAc/hexanes) followed by reverse phase LC. The resulting material was diluted with EtOAc (40 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (20 mL). The aqueous layer was back extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine (40 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give 0.030 g (16%) of tert-butyl (IR)- lR-methyl-l-(5-{2-({(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethy l}amino)-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2 -yl)-2-phenylethylcarbamate as a yellow residue. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.27 (m, 3H); 7.03 (m, 3H); 6.79 (s, IH); 3.55 (d, J = 13.46 Hz, IH); 3.43 (m, 2H); 3.37 (s, 3H); 3.15 (s, 3H); 1.71 (s, 3H); 1.42 (s, 9H); 1.29 (d, J = 6.41 Hz, 3H); 1.07 (d, J = 5.77 Hz, 3H); 0.67 (m, 2H); 0.50 (m, IH); 0.26 (m, IH); LC/MS [MH-H]+ = 585.

Step B. B oc removal HCl(g) was bubbled through a 00C solution of tert-butyl (lR)-l-methyl-l-(5-{2-({(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2- methylcyclopropyl]ethyl}arrjino)-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)am ino]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2- phenylethylcarbamate (0.030 g, 0.05 mmol) in 1 mL CH2Cl2 for 5 min. After 10 min at 00C, the reaction was then concentrated in vacuo and taken up in DMF. Purification by reverse phase LC followed by lyophilization yielded 0.008 g (27%) of (2R)-2-(5-{2-({(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2- methylcyclopropyl] ethyl } amino)-6-[methyl(methylsulf onyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl } - 1 ,3 ,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- 1 - phenylpropan-2-aminium trifluoroacetate as a white solid. NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.31 (m, 3H); 7.05 (m, 2H); 6.91 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, IH); 6.84 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, IH); 3.55 (m, IH); 3.40 (s, 2H); 3.16 (s, 3H); 1.83 (s, 3H); 1.28 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 1.06 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H); 0.67 (m, 2H); 0.53 (m, IH); 0.21 (m, IH); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 485.

Additional compounds wherein X is an oxadiazole were prepared as described in Table 1. References to Methods A and B refer to Scheme 8, Method A and Scheme 8, Method B, respectively.

Table I - Oxadiazole Examples

EXAMPLE 39 N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-oxazol-5-yl]-6 -{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide (Scheme 16)

A solution of Intermediate E (100 mg, 0.25 mmol) and Intermediate II (103 mg, 0.37 mmol) in DMF (0.5 mL) was heated at 120 0C for Ih. The crude product was purified by preparative HPLC (5 -> 95% CH3CΝ/H2O, 0.1% added TFA, C18 PRO YMC 20x150 mm) to afford tert-butyl [lR-methyl-l-(4-{2- { methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } -6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl } -1 ,3- oxazol-2-yl)-2-phenylethyl]carbamate. Boc removal (HCl(g) saturated EtOAc), concentration and purification by preparative HPLC (5 -> 95% CH3CN/H2O, 0.1% added TFA, C18 PRO YMC 20x150 mm) afforded N-(4-[2-( lR-amino-1 -methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l ,3-oxazol-5-yl] -6-{ methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide as a TFA salt. 1H ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.58 (s, IH), 7.32-7.26 (m, 3H), 7.02-6.96 (m, 2H), 6.92 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, IH), 6.84 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, IH), 3.62-3.53 (m, IH), 3.43-3.26 (m, 3H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.14 (s, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 3H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.81-0.66 (m, 2H), 0.48-0.41 (m, IH), 0.27-0.21 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C25H33Ν5O3S: 484.2377, found: 484.2400. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 40 N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-oxazol-5-yl]-6 -{methyl[(2- methy Icy clopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 14)

A solution of Intermediate G (25 mg, 0.04 mmol) and Burgess reagent (40 mg, 0.17 mmol) in THF (0.5 mL) was irradiated under microwave (Smith Synthesizer) at 80° C for 25 min, concentrated under a flow on N2 and purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0-40% EtOAc/hexanes). Boc removal with HCl (1 mL, 4 mmol, 4M in dioxane) followed by lyophilization provided N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2- phenylethyl)-l,3-oxazol-5-yl]-6-{methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl )methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide as a TFA salt. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.84 (s, IH), 7.32-7.26 (m, 3H), 7.04-6.97 (m, 2H), 6.92 (s, IH), 6.81 (s, IH), 3.70-3.57 (m, IH), 3.50-3.36 (m, IH), 3.42 (s, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 6H), 1.84 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.84-0.706 (m, 2H), 0.54-0.44 (m, IH), 0.34-0.26 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C25H33Ν5O3S: 484.2377, found: 484.2390. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 41 N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-thiazol-5-yl]- 6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 14)

A solution of Intermediate G (50 mg, 0.08 mmol) and Lawson's reagent (134 mg, 0.33 mmol) in acetonitrile (0.8 mL) was irradiated under microwave (Smith Synthesizer) at 850C for 15 min and at 90 0C for 15 min (Boc was also removed in the same reaction), concentrated under a flow on N2 and purified by preparative HPLC (5 -> 95% CH3CN/H2O, 0.1% added TFA, C18 PRO YMC 20x150 mm) to provide N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-tliiazol-5-yl] -6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)niethyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethan esulfonamide as a TFA salt. MS (ES, M+H) 500. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 42 N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-imidazol-5-yl] -6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Scheme 14)

A mixture of Intermediate G (50 mg, 0.08 mmol) and ammonium acetate (64 mg, 0.83 mmol) was melted at 150 0C for 15 min (partial loss of Boc). The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to rt, diluted with saturated NaHCO3, extracted with EtOAc (x3). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo. Boc removal with TFA in DCM (5 mL, 10% TFA in DCM), concentration in vacuo, purification by preparative HPLC (5 -> 95% CH3CN/H2O, 0.1% added TFA, C18 PRO YMC 20x150 mm) and lyophilization provided N-(4-[2-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2- phenylethyl)-l,3-imidazol-5-yl]-6-{methyl[(2-methylcycloprop yl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide as a TFA salt. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.76 (s, IH), 7.29-7.21 (m, 3H), 7.06 ( s, 2H), 6.92-6.86 (m, 2H), 3.66-3.56 (m, IH), 3.48-3.35 (m, IH), 3.41 (A of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 3.34 (s, 3H), 3.26 (B of AB, d, J = 13.6 Hz, IH), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 1.74 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.85-0.70 (m, 2H), 0.51-0.45 (m, IH), 0.31-0.25 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C25H34Ν6O2S: 483.2537, found: 483.2548. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S, S, R example.

EXAMPLE 43 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-oxazol-2-yl]-6 -{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide (Scheme 17)

Example 43 was prepared from Intermediate H, using a similar procedure as described for the preparation of Example 7. lH ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.32-7.26 (m, 3H), 7.22 (s, IH), 7.14 (s, IH), 7.06-6.99 (m, 3H), 3.62 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.2 Hz, IH), 3.45 (A of AB, d, J = 13.7 Hz, IH), 3.43 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 2.3 Hz, IH), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.26 (B of AB, d, J = 13.7 Hz, IH), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 1.73 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.2 Hz, 3H), 0.86-0.70 (m, 2H), 0.52-0.44 (m, IH), 0.30-0.24 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C25H33Ν5O3S: 484.2377, found: 484.2374. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 44 iV-[4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-oxazol-2-yl]- 6-({ l-[(15,21S)-2- methylcyclopropyl] ethyl } amino)pyridin-2-yl] -N-methylmethanesulf onamide

Step A. Pd coupling To a solution of (lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethanaminium chloride (intermediate P, 0.039 g, 0.29 mmol) and tert-butyl (lR)-l-(2-{2-chloro-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4 -yl}-l,3- oxazol-5-yl)-l-methyl-2-phenylethylcarbamate (intermediate k, 0.050 g, 0.10 mmol) in 1 mL DMF was added K3PO4 (0.122 g, 0.58 mmol) and Pd(P?Bu3)2 (0.007 g, 0.01 mmol). After 16 h at ambient temperature, the sealed reaction was heated at 1100C for 8.5 h and then filtered over a pad of celite. The celite was washed with EtOAc (60 mL). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue taken up in DMF and purified by reverse phase LC. The resulting material was diluted with EtOAc (40 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (20 mL). The aqueous layer was back extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give 0.028 g (50%) of tert-butyl (lR)-l-methyl-l-(2-{2- ( { ( lS)-l-[( lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethyl } amino)-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl } -1 ,3- oxazol-5-yl)-2-phenylethylcarbamate as a yellow residue. (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.28 (m 3H); 7.06 (d, J = 0.91 Hz, IH); 7.03 (m, 2H); 6.93 (s, IH); 6.76 (s, IH); 3.50 (m, IH); 3.36 (m, 4H); 14 (m, 4H); 1.60 (s, 3H); 1.42 (s, 9H); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 584.

Step B. B oc Removal HClω was bubbled through a 0 0C solution of tert-butyl (lR)-l-methyl-l-(2-{2-({(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2- methylcyclopropyl]ethyl}amino)-6-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amin o]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3-oxazol-5-yl)-2- phenylethylcarbamate (0.028 g, 0.05 mmol) in 1 mL CH2Cl2 for 5 min. After 10 min at 0 0C, the reaction was concentrated in vacuo and taken up in DMF. Purification by reverse phase LC followed by lyophilization yielded (2R)-2-(2-{2-({(lS)-l-[(lS,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]ethyl}ami no)-6- [methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-l,3-oxazol-5-yl)- l-phenylpropan-2-aminium as a white solid. (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 7.27 (m, 3H); 7.19 (s, IH); 7.01 (m, 3H); 6.89 (d, J = 0.92 Hz, IH); 3.53 (m, IH); 3.45 (d, J = 13.37 Hz, IH); 3.33 (s, 3H); 3.24 d, J = 13.55 Hz, IH); 3.14 (s, 3H); 1.71 (s, 3H); 1.27 (d, J = 6.41 Hz, 3H); 1.94 (d, J = 5.67 Hz, 3H); 0.66 (m, 2H); 0.53 (m, IH); 0.20 (m, IH); LC/MS [M+H]+ = 484.

Additional oxazole derivatives were prepared as described below in Table 3.

TABLE 3 - Oxazole Derivatives

EXAMPLE 49 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-l,3-thiazol-2-yl]- 6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide (Scheme 17)

Example 49 was prepared from Intermediate H, using a similar procedure as described for the preparation of Example 8. IH ΝMR (400 MHz, CD30D) δ 7.55 (s, IH), 7.26-7.20 (m, 3H), 7.05-7.00 (m, 2H), 6.99 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, IH), 6.90 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, IH), 3.59 (A of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.4 Hz, IH), 3.42 (B of ABX, dd, J = 14.4, 6.8 Hz, IH), 3.37 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 3.09 (s, 2H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.85-0.68 (m, 2H), 0.50-0.42 (m, IH), 0.29-0.21 (m, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd. for C25H33Ν5O2S2: 500.2149, found: 500.2149. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example. > EXAMPLE 50 N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3 -yl]-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridm-2-yl)-N-methylmethanes ulfonamide (Scheme 11)

A solution of Intermediate I (17 mg, 0.06 mmol), Intermediate J (20 mg, 0.05 mmol) and diisopropylethyl amine (0.013 mL, 0.08 mmol) in EtOH (1 mL) was sealed and heated to 150 0C for 2 days. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and purified preparative HPLC (5 -> 95% CH3CN/H2O, 0.1% added TFA, C18 PRO YMC 20x150 mm) to provide N-(4-[5-(lR-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4H-l,2,4- triazol-3 -yl] -6- { methyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino } pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide as the TFA salt. lΗ ΝMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.30-7.22 (m, 3H), 7.13 (s, IH), 7.04 (s, IH), 7.02-6.96 (m, 2H), 3.65-3.56 (m, IH), 3.48-3.42(m, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.36 (s, 2H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 1.78 (s, 3H), 1.04 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.86-0.70 (m, 2H), 0.52-0.44 (m, IH), 0.30-0.23 (m, IH). Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 51 N-(4-[5-(l-aminoethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Alt. Scheme 8) Step A: Coupling To a solution of Intermediate 1 (0.610 g, 1.614 mmol) and N-Boc-alanine (0.336 g, 1.78 mmol) in 10 mL DMF was added Hunig's base (0.564 mL, 3.23 mmol), EDC (0.371 g, 1.94 mmol) and HOAt (0.025 g, 0.161 mmol). After 15h, the reaction was diluted with 3M LiCl and EtOAc, and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was washed with EtOAc (2x), the combined organics were washed with 3M LiCl (2x) and brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by normal phase chromatography (35->90% EtOAc/hexanes) to afford the desired coupled adduct as a yellow foam. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) 6 9.11 (br s, IH), 8.97 (br s, IH), 8.00 (s, IH), 6.76 (s, IH), 6.69 (s, IH), 5.09 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, IH), 3.47 (dd, J = 14.5, 6.2, IH), 3.32 (s, 3H), 3.29 (dd, J = 14.5, 7.0 Hz, IH), 3.07 (s, 3H), 2.93 (s, 3H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.41 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.00 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.68 (m, IH), 0.62 (m, IH), 0.36 (m, IH), 0.23 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H]+ = 513.

Step B: Dehydration To a solution of product from Step A (0.763 g, 1.49 mmol) in 7 mL 1,2-dichloroethane was added Burgess reagent (1.42 g, 5.95 mmol). The slurry was microwaved at 120° C for 10 min, then poured directly on top of a silica gel column for normal phase purification (10->55% EtOAc/hexanes). The desired product, was obtained as a yellow foam. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 7.01 (s, IH), 6.93 (s, IH), 5.12 (m, IH), 3.52 (dd, J = 14.5, 6.3 Hz, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.33 (dd, J = 14.5, 7.0 Hz, IH), 3.15 (s, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 1.63 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.01 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 3H), 0.73 (m, IH), 0.67 (m, IH), 0.41 (m, IH), 0.26 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H]+ = 495.

Step C: Deprotection

HCl was bubbled through a solution of product from Step B (0.532 g, 1.08 mmol) in 15 mL EtOAc at 0° C for 5 min. The bright yellow solution was warmed to it for Ih, then concentrated to afford N-(4-[5- (l-aminoethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-6-{methyl[(2-methylcycl opropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N- methylmethanesulfonamide as a yellow foam which was used without further purification. 1H NMR (d4- MeOH, 400 MHz) δ 7.15 (s, IH), 7.05 (s, IH), 4.95 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, IH), 3.61 (dd, J = 14.5, 8.1 Hz, IH), 3.43 (dd, J = 14.5, 6.9 Hz, IH), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 1.79 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.01 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 3H), 0.82-0.75 (m, 2H), 0.47 (m, IH), 0.25 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H]+ = 395. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example. EXAMPLE 52 N-(4- [5-( 1-amino- 1 -methyl-2-pyridin-4-ylethyl)- 1 ,3 ,4-oxadiazol-2-yl] -6- { [(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethane sulfonamide (Alt. Scheme 8)

N-(4-[5-(l-amino-l-methyl-2-pyridin-4-ylethyl)-l,3,4-oxad iazol-2-yl]-6-{ [(2- methy Icy clopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide was prepared from Intermediate HI and intermediate 1 using a procedure similar to that described in Example 70. 1H ΝMR (dt-MeOH) δ 8.77 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (d, J=6:4 Hz, 2H), 6.96 (d, J=I 1.7 Hz, 2H), 3.78 (app ABX, JAB, JAX, JBX=13.5 HZ, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 3.24 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H), 1.06 (d, J=6.0, 3H), 0.87-0.81 (m, IH), 0.72-0.66 (m, IH), 0.43 (dt, J=8.7, 4.6 Hz, IH), 0.26 (dt, J=8.6, 4.8 Hz, IH). HRMS (ES, M+H) calcd for C22H29N7O3S: 472.2126, found: 472.2163. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S, S, R example.

Table IV - Oxadiazole Derivates

EXAMPLE 87 N-(4-[5-(l-amino-l-methyl-2-(4-fluoropheny)lethyl)-l,3,4-oxa diazol-2-yl]-6-{methyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino} pyridine-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide (Alt. Scheme 8, 2nd line)

To a solution of Intermediate m (0.051 g, 0.091 mmol) in 0.80 mL DMF at 0°C was added IM ΝaHMDS in THF (0.13 mL, 1.30 mmol), and the reaction turned deep blue. After 5 min, 4-fluorobenzyl bromide as a IM solution in DMF (0.180 mL, 0.180 mmol) was added via syringe, and the reaction went yellow when the addition was complete. After 30 min, 0.125 mL H2O and 0.025 mL IH HCl was added. After 1.5h, 0.125 mL IN HCl was added, and the reaction was allowed to proceed for 15h, then loaded onto an SCX ion exchange catridge, which was eluted with MeOH, followed by 2M NH3 in MeOH. Impure desired product was isolated from the basic fractions, which was further purified by preparative HPLC (5 -> 95% CH3CN/H2O over 30min, 0.1% added TFA, C18 PRO YMC 20x150 mm) to afford N-(4-{5-[l- amino-2-(4-fluorophenyl)- 1 -methylethyl] - 1 ,3 ,4-oxadiazol~2-yl } -6- { methyl [(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylmethanesulfonamide as a flocculent yellow solid after lyophilization. 1H NMR (J4-MeOH, 400 MHz) δ 7.12-7.03 (m, 5H), 6.91 (s, IH), 3.59 (dd, J = 14.8, 6.2 Hz, IH), 3.43-3.39 (m, 3H), 3.31 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 1.84 (s, 3H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.80-0.70 (m, 2H), 0.46 (m, IH), 0.26 (m, IH); High resolution mass spec (FT/ICR) calc M+H=503.2235 found 503.2279. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

Additional oxadiazole derivatives were prepared as described below in Table 5.

Table 5 - Oxadiazole Derivatives

EXAMPLE 91

Step A: 4-Amino 2,6-dichloropyridine (2.0 g, 12.2 mmol) was suspended in toluene (50 mL) to wliich was added benzaldehyde (6.24 mL, 30.7 mmol). The reaction was heated to reflux for 12 h and water was collected using a Dean-Stark apparatus. The solvent was then removed in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in ethanol (25 mL) and heated to 50° C. NaBH4 (1.86 g, 61 mmol) was added portionwise. The reaction was then heated to 75° C for 2 h. The solvent was removed in vacuo, water (100 mL) was added and the solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic layer were washed with brine (1 x 100 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (20 % EtOAc/Hex) afforded the benzyl aniline (2.93 g, 94%).

LCMS [M+H] = 253.1

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.40-7.14 (m, 5H), 6.46 (s, 2H), 4.35 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H)

Step B: To a solution of the aniline from step A (0.079 g, 0.31 mmol) was added bromomethylcyclopropane (0.05 g, 0.37 mmol) followed by NaH (60 % dispersion, 0.014 g, 0.37 mmol). The solution was stirred at rt for 30 min, then quenched with H2O. The solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL) afterwhich the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (15 % EtOAc/ Hex) affored the cyclopropyl methyl aniline (0.078 g, 81 %).

LCMS [M+H] = 307.1

1HNMR (CDCl3) δ 7.36-7.13 (m, 5H), 6.51 (s, 2H), 4.64 (s, 2H), 3.29 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 1.08-1.6 (m, IH), 0.60-0.55 (m, 2H), 0.24-0.21 (m, 2H)

Step C: A dioxane solution ( 2 mL) of dichloropyridine from step B (0.078 g, 0.25 mmol), N-methyl methyl sulfonamide (0.033 g, 0.30 mmol), K3PO4 (0.075 g, 0.35 mmol), and Xanphos (0.01 g, 0.17 mmol) was degassed via argon purge for 15 min. Pd2(dba)3 (0.005 g, 0.05 mmol) was added and the solution was heated to 100° C for 12 h. The solution was cooled and diluted with H2O (30 mL). The solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography ( 20% EtOAc/ Hex) affored the desired sulfonamide (0.034 g, 35 %). LCMS [M+H] = 380.3

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.35-7.19 (m, 3H), 7.16 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 6.68 (s, 1 H), 6.46 (s, IH), 4.62 (s, 2H), 3.31 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.93 (s, 3H), 1.12-1.08 (m, IH), 0.58-0.55 (m, 2H), 0.24-.21 (m, 2H).

Step D: To a solution of the sulfonamide from step C in DMF (4 mL) was added zinc cyanide (0.17 g, 1.45 mmol) followed by Pd(PPh3)4 (0.017 g, 0.15 mmol). The solution was heated to 85° C for 48 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with H2O (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3, x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 x 5OmL), dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (30 % EtO Ac/Hex) afforded the cyanopyridine (0.27 g, 81%).

LCMS [M+H] = 371.1

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.36-7.26 (m, 3 H), 7.15 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 6.87 (s, IH), 6.82 (s, IH), 4.68 (s, 2H), 3.36 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 2.92 (s, 3H), 1.12-1.09 (m, IH), 0.61 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 0.27 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H).

Step E: To a solution of the cyanopryidine from step D (0.15 g, 0.41 mmol) in 9:1 EtOHTH2O (10 mL) was added solid KOH (0.26 g, 4.1 mmol). The solution was heated to 85° C for 16 h. The solution was cooled, acidified with IN HCl, and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organics layers * were washed with brine (1 x 50 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was used without further purification. To a solution of the carboxylic acid in DCM (5 mL) was added hydrazinylphenylalanine (0.16 g, 0.59 mmol), DIPEA (0.023 g, 1.78 mmol) and BOP reagent (0.25 g, 0.59 mmol). The reaction was stirred at rt for 1 h followed by purification by silica gel chromatography (5 % MeOH/chloroform) to afford the diketohydrazine (0.30 g, 77%)

LCMS [M+H] = 665.1

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.41-7.16 (m, HH), 6.83 (s, IH), 4.72 (s, 2H), 3.57 (d, J = 14 Hz, IH), 3.39 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.10 (d, J = 14 Hz, IH), 2.91 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.13-1.10 (m, IH), 0.59-0.55 (m, 2H), 0.25 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 2H). Step F: To a 1,2-dichloroethane solution (3 mL) of the diketohydrazine from step E (0.30 g, 0.46 mmol) was added burgess reagent (0.33 g, 1.4 mmol). The solution was microwaved at 120° C for 8 min. Purification by silica gel chromatography afforded the desired oxadiazole (0.29 g, 62%)

LCMS [M+H] = 647.1

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.39-7.04 (m, HH), 6.75 (s, IH), 4.73 (s, 2H), 3.54-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.41 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 3.03 (s, 3H), 1.72 (br s, 3H), 1.41 (br s, 9H), 1.24-1.13 (m, IH), 0.60 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 0.26 (q, J = 5.3 Hz, 2H).

Step G: To a methanol (5 mL) solution of the oxadiazole from step F (0.027 g, 0.05 mmol) was added TFA (1.5 mL) followed by a catalytic amount Of Pd(OH)2. The solution was the placed under a H2 atmosphere via a balloon for 20 min. The solution was filtered through celite and concentrated in vacuo to afford the fully deprotected amino pyridine.

LCMS [M+H] = 457.1

1H NMR (CD3OD) d 7.31-7.21 (m, 3H), 7.21 (s, IH). 7.08 (m, 2H), 6.69 (s, IH), 3.46 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 3.36 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.08 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (s, 3H), 1.14-1.08 (m, IH), 0.59 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 0.30 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 2H).

EXAMPLE 92 N-(4-{5-[(lR)-l-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl]-lH-pyrazol-3-y l}-6-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}pyridm-2-yl)-N-methylpropane- 2-sulfonamide

To a solution of Intermediate n (62 mg, 0.09 mmol) in 0.5 mL DMF was added anhydrous hydrazine (14 μL, 0.46 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated at 900C for 18 h and then cooled to rt. To this was added 2 mL water and 3 mL ethyl acetate. The organic layer was isolated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to dryness. Purification by reverse-phase chromatography yielded tert- butyl (lR)-l-(3-{2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6- [(isopropylsulfony^CmethyOaminolpyridm^-yll-lH-pyrazol-S-y^- l-methyl^-phenylethylcarbamate, which was dissolved in 1 mL 20% TFA in dichloromethane. After 1 hour, the solution was concentrated to afford titled example, N-(4-{5-[(lR)-l-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl]-lH-pyrazol-3-y l}-6-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylpropane-2-sulfonamide. l H NMR (400MHz, ^4-MeOH) δ 7.31-7.19 (m, 9H), 7.01-6.99 (m, 2H), 6.76 (s, IH), 6.71 (s, IH), 6.61 (s, IH), 4.96-4.76 (m, 2H), 3.81-3.74 (m, IH), 3.69-3.63 (m, IH) 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.35-3.22 (m, 4H), 1.70 (s, 3H), 1.14 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H), 0.94 (d, J = 6 Hz, 3H), 0.87-0.84 (m, IH), 0.66-0.60 (m, IH), 0.42-0.38 (m, IH), 0.26-0.21 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H] = 587.2. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 93 N-(4- { 6-[( IR)- 1 -amino- 1 -methyl-2-phenylethyl]pyrimidin-4-yl } -6- { benzyl [(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl] amino }pyridin-2-yl)-N-methylpropane-2-sulfonamide

Step A: Condensation A suspension of 69 mg (1.01 mmol) sodium ethoxide in 1 mL DMA was added dropwise to a solution of 81 mg (1.01 mmol) formamidine hydrochloride in 1 mL DMA and the mixture was stirred vigorously for 5 min. A solution of Intermediate n (68 mg, 0.10 mmol) in 1 mL DMA was added dropwise to the first mixture, and the resulting mixture was heated to 1100C 30 min. and then allowed to cool to rt. Water (10 mL) was added and the mixture extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 15 mL). The combined organics were washed with 3M aq. LiCl (3 x 25 mL), washed with brine (25 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated. Purification by reverse phase chromatography afforded tert-butyl (lR)-l-(6-{2-{benzyl[(2- methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6-[(isopropylsulfonyl)(methy l)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-3,4- dihydropyrimidin-4-yl)-l-methyl-2-phenylethylcarbamate as a yellow oil. LCMS [M+H] = 701.3 Step B: Oxidation and Deprotection To a solution of tert-butyl (lR)-l-(6-{2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]arnino}-6- [(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)amino]pyridin-4-yl}-3,4-dihydrop yrimidin-4-yl)-l-methyl-2- phenylethylcarbamate from Step A above (49 mg, 0.07 mmol) in 2 mL toluene was added dichlorodicyanoquinone (24 mg, 0.11 mmol). The resulting solution was heated at 120 degrees for 30 min., then cooled to rt and concentrated to dryness. Purification by reverse phase chromatography yielded tert-butyl (lR)-l-(6-{2-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)methyl]amino}-6- [(isopropylsulfonyl)(methyl)arrjino]pyridin-4-yl}pyrimidin-4 -yl)-l-methyl-2-phenylethylcarbamate, which was taken up in 1 mL 20% TFA in dichloromethane. The mixture was allowed to sit for 1 hour, and was concentrated to afford the title compound N-(4-{ 6-[(lR)-l-amino-l-methyl-2- phenylethyl]pyrimidin-4-yl}-6-{benzyl[(2-methylcyclopropyl)m ethyl]amino}pyridin-2-yl)-N- methylpropane-2-sulfonamide. J H NMR (400MHz, J4-MeOH) δ 9.29 (s, IH), 7.66-7.65 (m, IH), 7.31- 7.21 (m, 8H), 7.02-7.01 (m, 2H), 6.96-6.93 (m, 2H), 4.98-4.60 (m, 2H), 3.83-3.66 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.35-3.25 (m, 4H), 1.81 (s, 3H), 1.16 (d, J = 6.8 Hz), 0.96 (dd, J = 6 Hz, J = 1.8 Hz, 3H) 0.90-0.82 (m, IH), 0.70-0.62 (m, IH), 0.45-0.40 (m, IH), 0.28-0.24 (m, IH); LCMS [M+H] = 599.1. Use of the preferred enantiomer trans-S,S from Intermediate A, step B, affords the preparation of the preferred enantiopure S,S,R example.

EXAMPLE 94 N-{ 2-{ 5-[(li?)-l-amino-l-methyl-2-phenylethyl]-l ,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl }-6- [(cyclopropylmethyl)(methyl)arrήno]pyridin-4-yl}-N-methylme thanesulfonamide

Step A: A solution containing 6.52 g (40.0 mmol) of 4-amino-2,6-dichloropyridine in 200 mL of pyridine was treated with 22.8 g (200 mmol) methanesulfonyl chloride and heated at 6O0C over 72h. The reaction mixture was cooled and the solvent was evaporated. The resulting residue was redissolved in 200 mL of dichloromethane and washed with NaHCO3 (50 mL), water (3 x 50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (20% EtOAc/hexanes) afforded the desired sulfonamide (5.30 g, 55%) along with 3.44 g (27 %) of the unwanted bis sulfonamide.

LCMS [Mn-H] = 241.1

Step B: A solution containing 5.00 g (20.7 mmol) of the sulfonamide from step A in 12.5 g (176 mmol) of cyclopropylamine was heated at 125°C in a sealed tube. After 72h the reaction mixture was cooled and evaporated to leave a brown residue that was purified by silica gel chromatography (60 % EtOAc/hexanes) to give the desired aminopyridine (3.42 g, 60%).

LCMS [M+H] = 276.1

Step C: To a 00C solution containing 1.00 g (3.62 mmol) of the aminopyridine from step B and 1.13 g (7.98 mmol) of methyl iodide in 15 mL of DMF was added 191 mg (7.98 mmol) of sodium hydride. The solution was stirred to it over 17 h and quenched with 5 mL of water. The reaction mixture was diluted with 100 mL of ether and washed with water (6 x 10 mL) then brine (10 mL). The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (30 % EtO Ac/Hex) afforded the methylated aminopyridine (1.00 g, 91%).

LCMS [M+H] = 304.1

Step D: To a solution containing 1.00 g (3.29 mmol) of the chloropyridine from step C in 15 mL of DMF was added zinc cyanide (773 mg, 6.58 mmol) followed by Pd(PPh3^ (761 mg, 0.658 mmol). The solution was heated to 90° C for 24 h before the reaction mixture was cooled and diluted with ether (100 mL) then washed with H2O (6 x 10 mL). The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (30% EtOAc/Hex) afforded the desired cyanopyridine (2.66 g, 81%).

LCMS [M+H] = 295.2

Step E: To a solution of the cyanopryidine from step D (150 mg, 0.51 mmol) in 9:1 EtOHZH2O (10 mL) was added solid KOH (286 mg, 5.1 mmol). The solution was heated to 85° C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was cooled, acidified with 3N HCl, and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organics layers were washed with brine (1 x 50 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was used without further purification. To a solution of the carboxylic acid in DCM (5 mL) was added hydrazide intermediate I (140 mg, 0.48 mmol), DIPEA (186 mg, 1.43 mmol) and BOP reagent (212 mg, 0.48 mmol). The reaction was stirred at rt for 1 h and loaded directly onto a silica column (50 % EtOAc/hexanes) to afford the desired hydrazide (150 mg, 53%)

LCMS [M+H] = 589.1

Step F: To a 1,2-dichloroethane solution (3 mL) of the hydrazide from step E (150 mg, 0.255 mmol) was added Burgess reagent (182 mg, 0.764 mmol). The solution was microwaved at 140° C for 8 min. Purification by silica gel chromatography afforded the desired oxadiazole (90 mg, 62%).

LCMS [M+H] = 571.1

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.29-7.19 (m, 5H), 7.05 (m, 2H), 6.79 (s, IH), 5.23 (bs, IH), 3.54-3.41 (m, 4H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.92 (s, 3H), 1.76 (m, 3H), 1.41 (br s, 9H), 1.24-1.13 (m, IH), 0.50 (m, 2H), 0.26 (m, 2H).

Step G: To a DCM (5 mL) solution of the oxadiazole from step F (50 mg, 0.083 mmol) was added TFA (1.5 mL). The solution was stirred for 30 min and concentrated. Trituration with ether afforded 50 mg (100%) of the desired compound as its TFA salt.

LCMS [M+H] = 471.1

1H NMR (CD3OD) δ 7.41 (s, IH), 7.37-7.25 (m, 3H), 7.05 (m, 2H), 6.75 (s, IH), 3.54-3.41 (m, 4H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 1.86 (m, 3H), 1.24-1.13 (m, IH), 0.50 (m, 2H), 0.26 (m, 2H).

The following abbreviations are used throughout the text: Me: methyl Bu: butyl i-Bu: isobutyl t-Bu: tert butyl Et: ethyl Pr: propyl i-Pr: isopropyl Ar: aryl Ph: phenyl Py: pryridine Ac: acetyl EDC: ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide HOAt: 1 -hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole HOBt: 1-hydroxybenzotriazole DMF: N,N' -dimethyl formamide THF: tetrahydrofuran DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide EDTA: ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid Boc: tert-butyloxy carbonyl BOP: Benzotriazol-l-yloxy-tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate CHAPS: 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-l-propanesu lfonate TEA: triethylamine TFA: trifluoroacetic acid NaHMDS: sodium hexamethyldisilazide NCS: N-chloro succinimide DCE: dichloroethane DIPEA: diisopropylethylamine DCM: dichloromethane DIC: N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide DCA: 1,2-dichloroethene DMA: N,N-dimethylacetamide aq: aqueous rt: room temperature HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography

While the invention has been described and illustrated with reference to certain particular embodiments thereof, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various adaptations, changes, modifications, substitutions, deletions, or additions of procedures and protocols may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is intended, therefore, that the invention be defined by the scope of the claims that follow and that such claims be interpreted as broadly as is reasonable.