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Title:
3,3-(DISUBSTITUTED)CYCLOHEXAN-1-OL DIMERS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1996/020157
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to novel 3,3-(disubstituted)cyclohexan-1-ol dimers and related compounds, pharmaceutical compositions containing these compounds, and their use in treating allergic and inflammatory diseases and for inhibiting the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF).

Inventors:
Christensen IV, Siegfried B.
Karpinski, Joseph M.
Application Number:
PCT/US1995/013323
Publication Date:
July 04, 1996
Filing Date:
October 10, 1995
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Smithkline
Beecham
CORPORATION
Christensen IV, Siegfried B.
Karpinski, Joseph M.
International Classes:
A61K31/085; A61P29/00; A61P37/00; A61P37/08; A61P43/00; C07C43/23; C07C43/253; C07C45/67; C07C49/753; C07C69/616; C07D233/66; (IPC1-7): C07C69/76; C07C233/00; C07C41/00
Other References:
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, Volume 123, S. CHRISTENSEN, "Preparation of Cyanocyclohexane Compounds as Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors", Abstract No. 143338; & WO,A,95 09836, issued 13 April 1995.
See also references of EP 0799182A4
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Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. L A compound of Formula I wherein: Rl is independently (CR4R5)nC(O)O(CR4R5)mR6 (CR4R5)nC(O)NR4(CR4R5)mR6, (CR4R5)nO(CR4R5)mR6, or (CR4R5)rR6 wherein the alkyl moieties may be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more fluorines; m is 0 to 2; n is 1 to 4; r is 0 to 6; R4 and R5 are independently selected from hydrogen or a Ci2 alkyl; R6 is independently hydrogen, methyl, hydroxyl, aryl, halo substituted aryl, aryloxyC 1 3 alkyl, halo substituted aryloxyC 1 3 alkyl, indanyl, indenyl, C7 11 polycycloalkyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, furanyl, tetrahydropyranyl, pyranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, thienyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, thiopyranyl, C36 cycloalkyl, or a C 6 cycloalkyl containing one or two unsaturated bonds, wherein the cycloalkyl or heterocyclic moiety may be unsubstituted or substituted by 1 to 3 methyl groups, an ethyl group, or an hydroxyl group; provided that: a) when R6 is hydroxyl, then m is 2; or b) when R6 is hydroxyl, then r is 2 to 6; or c) when R6 is 2tetrahydropyranyl, 2tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 2tetrahydrofuranyl, or 2tetrahydrothienyl, then m is 1 or 2; or d) when R6 is 2tetrahydropyranyl, 2tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 2tetrahydrofuranyl, or 2tetrahydrothienyl, then r is 1 to 6; e) when n is 1 and m is 0, then R6 is other than H in (CR4R5)nO(CR4R5)m 6; X is independently YR2, fluorine, NR4R5, or formyl amine; Y is independently O or S(O)nϊ. m' is a number having a value of 0, 1 , or 2; W is alkyl of.
2. to 6 carbons, alkenyl of.
3. to 6 carbon atoms or alkynyl of.
4. to 6 carbon atoms; X2 is independently O or NR8; X3 is independently hydrogen or X; R2 is independently selected from CH3 or CH2CH3 unsubstituted or substituted by 1 or more fluorines; s is 0 to 4; Z is independently OR14, OR15, SR14, S(O)m'R7> S(O)2NRK)Rl4* NRlθRl4, NRi4C(O)R9, NRιoC(Y')Rl4, NRioC(O)OR7, NRιoC(Y')NRιoRl4, NRiθS(O)2NRιoRl4, NRlθC(NCN)NRlθRl4, NRioS(O)2R7, NRιoC(CR4Nθ2)NRlθRl4, NRιoC(NCN)SR9, NRlθC(CR4Nθ2)SR9, NRlθC(NRιo)NRιoRl4, NRlθC(O)C(O)NRiθRl4,or NRιoC(O)C(O)ORl4; Y' is independently O or S; R7 is (CR4R5)qRi2 or C .5 alkyl wherein the R12 or Cι_6 alkyl group is unsubstituted or substituted one or more times by methyl or ethyl unsubstituted or substituted by 13 fluorines, F, Br, Cl, NO2, NRioRl 1* C(0)Rβ, CO2R8, O(CH2)qR8, CN, C(O)NRιoRl l, O(CH2)qC(O)NRιoRl l, O(CH2)qC(O)R9, NRlθC(O)NRiθRl l, NRιoC(0)Rl l, NRιoC(O)OR9, NRlθC(O)Ri3, C(NRιo)NRιoRl l, C(NCN)NRιoRl l, C(NCN)SR9, NRioC(NCN)SR9 , NRιoC(NCN)NRιoRl 1, NRιoS(O)2R9, S(0)m'R9, NRιoC(O)C(O)NRiθRl 1, NRioC(O)C(O)Rlθ, or R13; q is O, l, or 2; Rl2 is independently R 3, (CH2)n, C3C7 cycloalkyl, (2, 3 or 4pyridyl), pyrimidyl, pyrazolyl, (1 or 2imidazolyl), pyrrolyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, furanyl, (2 or 3thienyl), quinolinyl, naphthyl, or phenyl; Rg is independently selected from hydrogen or R9; R9 is independently C 4 alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by one to three fluorines; Rjø is independently OR8 or Ri 1; R is independently hydrogen, or C .4 alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by one to three fluorines; or when Rio and Rl 1 are as NRioRl 1 they may together with the nitrogen form a 5 to 7 membered ring optionally containing at least one additional heteroatom selected from O, N, or S; Rl.
5. is independently oxazolidinyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, imidazolyl, imidazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, or thiadiazolyl, and each of these heterocyclic rings is connected through a carbon atom and each may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or two Cι_2 alkyl groups; R1.
6. s independently hydrogen or R7; or when Rio and R1.
7. re as NR10R1 they may together with the nitrogen form a 5 to 7 membered ring comprised only of carbon atoms or carbon atoms and at least one 1 heteroatom selected from O, N, or S Rl5 is independently C(O)Rl4. C(O)NRtRi4. S(O)2R7, or S(O)2NR4Rl4; or the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 2. A compound according to claim 1 where in Ri is CH2cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, 3hydroxycyclopentyl, methyl or CF2H; W is 1,3butadiynyl; X is YR2. is oxygen; X2 is oxygen; X3 is hydrogen; and R2 is CF2H or methyl.
8. 3 A compound according to claim 2 which is 1 ,4bis { [c3(3 cyclopentyloxy4methoxyphenyl)r 1 cyclohexanol]3yl }buta 1 ,3diyne.
9. A pharamceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula I according to claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient 24.
Description:
3-3-(D-subst-tuted)cyc-ohexan-l-ol Dimers and Related Compounds

Field of Invention

The present invention relates to novel 3,3-(disubstituted)cyclohex--n-l-ol dimers and related compounds, pharmaceutical compositions containing these compounds, and their use in treating allergic and inflammatory diseases and for inhibiting the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF).

Background of the Invention

Bronchial asthma is a complex, mult-factorial disease characterized by reversible narrowing of the airway and hyperreactivity of the respiratory tract to external stimuli. Identification of novel therapeutic agents for asthma is made difficult by the fact that multiple mediators are responsible for the development of the disease. Thus, it seems unlikely that eliminating the effects of a single mediator will have a substantial effect on all three components of chronic asthma. An alternative to the "mediator approach" is to regulate the activity of the cells responsible for the pathophysiology of the disease.

One such way is by elevating levels of c AMP (adenosine cyclic 3',5- monophosphate). Cyclic AMP has been shown to be a second messenger mediating the biologic responses to a wide range of hormones, neurotransmitters and drugs; [Krebs Endocrinology Proceedings of the 4th International Congress Excerpta Medica, 17-29, 1973]. When the appropriate agonist binds to specific cell surface receptors, adenylate cyclase is activated, which converts Mg + -**-ATP to cAMP at an accelerated rate.

Cyclic AMP modulates the activity of most, if not all, of the cells that contribute to the pathophysiology of extrinsic (allergic) asthma. As such, an elevation of cAMP would produce beneficial effects including: 1) airway smooth muscle relaxation, 2) inhibition of mast cell mediator release, 3) suppression of neutrophil degranulation, 4) inhibition of basophil degranulation, and 5) inhibition of monocyte and macrophage activation. Hence, compounds that activate adenylate cyclase or inhibit phosphodiesterase should be effective in suppressing the inappropriate activation of airway smooth muscle and a wide variety of inflammatory cells. The principal cellular mechanism for the inactivation of cAMP is hydrolysis of the 3'-phosphodiester bond by one or more of a family of isozymes referred to as cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).

It has now been shown that a distinct cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozyme, PDE IV, is responsible for cAMP breakdown in airway smooth muscle and inflammatory cells. [Torphy, "Phosphodiesterase Isozymes: Potential Targets for Novel Anti-asthmatic Agents" in New Drugs for Asthma, Barnes, ed. HBC Technical Services Ltd., 1989]. Research indicates that inhibition of this enzyme not only

produces airway smooth muscle relaxation, but also suppresses degranulation of mast cells, basophils and neutrophils along with inhibiting the activation of monocytes and neutrophils. Moreover, the beneficial effects of PDE IV inhibitors are markedly potentiated when adenylate cyclase activity of target cells is elevated by appropriate hormones or autocoids, as would be the case in vivo. Thus PDE IV inhibitors would be effective in the asthmatic lung, where levels of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin (activators of adenylate cyclase) are elevated. Such compounds would offer a unique approach toward the pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma and possess significant therapeutic advantages over agents currently on the market. The compounds of this invention also inhibit the production of Tumor Necrosis

Factor (TNF), a serum glycoprotein. Excessive or unregulated TNF production has been implicated in mediating or exacerbating a number of diseases including rheumatoi arthritis, rheumatoid spondylitis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis and other arthritic conditions; sepsis, septic shock, endotoxic shock, gram negative sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease, silicosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, bone resorption diseases, reperfusion injury, graft vs. host reaction, allograft rejections, fever and myalgias due t infection, such as influenza, cachexia secondary to infection or malignancy, cachexia secondary to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS, ARC (AIDS related complex), keloid formation, scar tissue formation, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or pyresis, in addition to a number of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosis.

AIDS results from the infection of T lymphocytes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). At least three types or strains of HTV have been identified, i.e., HTV- 1, HIV-2 and HIV-3. As a consequence of HTV infection, T-cell- mediated immunity is impaired and infected individuals manifest severe opportunistic infections and/or unusual neoplasms. HTV entry into the T lymphocyte requires T lymphocyte activation. Viruses such as HIV-1 or HIV-2 infect T lymphocytes after T cell activation and such virus protein expression and/or replication is mediated or maintained by such T cell activation. Once an activated T lymphocyte is infected with HTV, the T lymphocyte must continue to be maintained in an activated state to permit HTV gene expression and/or HIV replication.

Cytokines, specifically TNF, are implicated in activated T-cell-mediated HIV protein expression and/or virus replication by playing a role in maintaining T lymphocyte activation. Therefore, interference with cytokine activity such as by inhibition of cytokine production, notably TNF, in an HTV-infected individual aids in limiting the maintenance of T cell activation, thereby reducing the progression of HIV infectivity to previously uninfected cells which results in a slowing or elimination of the progression of immune dysfunction caused by HTV infection. Monocytes,

macrophages, and related cells, such as kupffer and glial cells, have also been implicated in maintenance of the HTV infection. These cells, like T cells, are targets for viral replication and the level of viral replication is dependent upon the activation state of the cells. [See Rosenberg et al, The Immunopathogenesis of HTV Infection, Advances in Immunology, Vol. 57, 1989]. Monokines, such as TNF, have been shown to activate HTV replication in monocytes and/or macrophages [See Poli et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 87:782-784, 1990], therefore, inhibition of monokine production or activity aids in limiting HTV progression as stated above for T cells.

TNF has also been implicated in various roles with other viral infections, such as the cytomegalovirus (CMV), influenza virus, adenovirus, and the herpes virus for similar reasons as those noted.

TNF is also associated with yeast and fungal infections. Specifically Candida albicans has been shown to induce TNF production in vitro in human monocytes and natural killer cells. [See Riipi et al, Infection and Immunity, 58(9):2750-54, 1990; and Jafari et al., Journal of Infectious Diseases, 164:389-95, 1991. See also Wasan et al, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 35,(10):2046-48, 1991; and Luke et al, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 162:211-214,1990].

The ability to control the adverse effects of TNF is furthered by the use of the compounds which inhibit TNF in mammals who are in need of such use. There remains a need for compounds which are useful in treating TNF-mediated disease states which are exacerbated or caused by the excessive and or unregulated production of TNF.

Summary of the Invention

The novel compounds of this invention are represented by the Formula (I):

wherein:

Rl is independently -(CR4R5)nC(O)O(CR4R5)mR6. -(CR4R5)nC(O)NR4(CR4R5)mR6, -(CR4R5)nO(CR4R5)mR6, or -(CR4R5)rR6

wherein the alkyl moieties may be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more fluorines; m is 0 to 2; n is 1 to 4; r is 0 to 6;

R4 and R5 are independently selected from hydrogen or a C 1-2 alkyl;

R is independently hydrogen, methyl, hydroxyl, aryl, halo substituted aryl, aryloxyCi-3 alkyl, halo substituted aryloxyCi-3 alkyl, indanyl, indenyl, C7-11 polycycloalkyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, furanyl, tetrahydropyranyl, pyranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, thienyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, thiopyranyl, C3-6 cycloalkyl, or a C4. 6 cycloalkyl containing one or two unsaturated bonds, wherein the cycloalkyl or heterocyclic moiety may be unsubstituted or substituted by 1 to 3 methyl groups, an ethyl group, or an hydroxyl group; provided that: a) when R6 is hydroxyl, then m is 2; or b) when R6 is hydroxyl, then r is 2 to 6; or c) when R6 is 2-tetrahydropyranyl, 2-tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 2-tetrahydrofuranyl, or 2-tetrahydrothienyl, then m is 1 or 2; or d) when R6 is 2-tetrahydropyranyl, 2-tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 2-tetrahydrofuranyl, or 2-tetrahydrothienyl, then r is 1 to 6; e) when n is 1 and m is 0, then R6 is other than H in

-(CR4R5)nO(CR4R5)mR6;

X is independently YR2. fluorine, NR4R5, or formyl amine; Y is independently O or S(O)nϊ; m' is a number having a value of 0, 1, or 2;

W is alkyl of 2 to 6 carbons, alkenyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms or alkynyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms;

X2 is independently O or NR8. X3 is independently hydrogen or X; R2 is independently selected from -CH3 or -CH2CH3 unsubstituted or substituted by 1 or more fluorines; s is 0 to 4;

Z is independently OR14, OR15, SR14. S(O) m 'R7, S(O)2NRioRl4. NR10R14, NRi4C(O)R9, NRiθC(Y')Rl4, NRioC(O)OR7, NRioC(Y , )NRioRl4, NRιoS(O)2NRlθRl4, NRiθC(NCN)NRlθRl4. NRioS(O)2R7,

NRioC(CR4NO2)NRioRl4, NRιoC(NCN)SR9, NRioC(CR4NO2)SR9, NRioC(NRiθ)NRιoRl4, NRiθC(O)C(O)NRιoRl4-or NRioC(O)C(O)ORi4; Y' is independently O or S;

R7 is -(CR4R5)qRi2 or Cj.g alkyl wherein the R12 or alkyl group is unsubstituted or substituted one or more times by methyl or ethyl unsubstituted or substituted by 1-3 fluorines, -F, -Br, -Cl, -NO2, -NRJORJ 1, -C(O)R8, -CO2R8, -O(CH 2 ) q R8, -CN, -C(O)NRiθRl l, -O(CH 2 )qC(O)NRioRl l, -O(CH 2 ) q C(O)R9, -NRιoC(O)NRioRl l, -NRιoC(O)Rn, -NRioC(O)OR9, -NRιoC(O)Rl3- -C(NRiθ)NRιoRn, -C(NCN)NRioRll, -C(NCN)SR9, -NRιoC(NCN)SR9 , -NRloC(NCN)NRιoRl l, -NRιoS(O)2R9, -S(O) m 'R9, -NRιoC(O)C(O)NRιoRl l, - NRlθC(O)C(O)RlO, or R 13 ; q is 0, 1, or 2; R12 is independently R13, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, (2-, 3- or 4-pyridyl), pyrimidyl, pyrazolyl, (1- or 2-imidazolyl), pyrrolyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, furanyl, (2- or 3-thienyl), quinolinyl, naphthyl, or phenyl;

Rg is independently selected from hydrogen or R9; R9 is independently C\.A alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by one to three fluorines;

RlO is independently ORδ or Rn;

R1 1 is independently hydrogen, or C 1.4 alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by one to three fluorines; or when RlO and Ri 1 are as NRioRl 1 they may together with the nitrogen form a 5 to 7 me bered ring optionally containing at least one additional heteroatom selected from O, N, or S;

Rl3 is independently oxazolidinyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, imidazolyl, imidazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, or thiadiazolyl, and each of these heterocyclic rings is connected through a carbon atom and each may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or two Cj.2 alkyl groups; Rj4 is independently hydrogen or R7; or when RlO and R14 are as NR10R14 they may together with the nitrogen form a 5 to 7 membered ring comprised only of carbon atoms or carbon atoms and at least one 1 heteroatom selected from O, N, or S; Rl5 is independently C(O)Ri4, C(O)NR4Ri4, S(O)2R7> or S(O)2NR4Rl4; or the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. This invention also relates to the pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of Formula (I) and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent The invention also relates to a method of mediation or inhibition of the enzymatic activity (or catalytic activity) of PDE IV in mammals, including humans, which comprises administering to a mammal in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) as shown below.

The invention further provides a method for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory disease which comprises administering to a mammal, including humans, in need thereof, an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I).

The invention also provides a method for the treatment of asthma which comprises administering to a mammal, including humans, in need thereof, an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I).

This invention also relates to a method of inhibiting TNF production in a mammal, including humans, which method comprises administering to a mammal in need of such treatment, an effective TNF inhibiting amount of a compound of Formula (I). This method may be used for the prophylactic treatment or prevention of certain TNF mediated disease states amenable thereto.

This invention also relates to a method of treating a human afflicted with a human immunodeficiency virus (HTV), which comprises administering to such human an effective TNF inhibiting amount of a compound of Formula (I).

Compounds of Formula (I) are also useful in the treatment of additional viral infections, where such viruses are sensitive to upregulation by TNF or will elicit TNF production in VJVØ . In addition, compounds of Formula (I) are also useful in treating yeast and fungal infections, where such yeast and fungi are sensitive to upregulation by TNF or will elicit TNF production in vivo. Detailed Description of the Invention

This invention also relates to a method of mediating or inhibiting the enzymatic activity (or catalytic activity) of PDE IV in a mammal in need thereof and to inhibiting the production of TNF in a mammal in need thereof, which comprises administering to said mammal an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I).

Phosphodiesterase IV inhibitors are useful in the treatment of a variety of allergic and inflammatory diseases including: asthma, chronic bronchitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, eosinophilic granuloma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, septic shock, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, reperfusion injury of the myocardium and brain, chronic glomerulonephritis, endotoxic shock and adult respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, PDE IV inhibitors are useful in the treatment of diabetes insipidus and central nervous system disorders such as depression and multi-infarct dementia.

The viruses contemplated for treatment herein are those that produce TNF as a result of infection, or those which are sensitive to inhibition, such as by decreased replication, directly or indirectly, by the TNF inhibitors of Formula (I). Such viruses include, but are not limited to HTV-1, HTV-2 and HIV-3, cytomegalovirus (CMV), influenza, adenovirus and the Herpes group of viruses, such as, but not limited to, Herpes zoster and Herpes simplex.

This invention more specifically relates to a method of treating a mammal, afflicted with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which comprises --dministering to such mammal an effective TNF inhibiting amount of a compound of Formula (I). The compounds of this invention may also be used in association with the veterinary treatment of animals, other than in humans, in need of inhibition of TNF production. TNF mediated diseases for treatment, therapeutically or prophylactically, in animals include disease states such as those noted above, but in particular viral infections. Examples of such viruses include, but are not limited to feline immunodeficiency virus (FTV) or other retro viral infection such as equine infectious anemia virus, caprine arthritis virus, visna virus, maedi virus and other lentiviruses. The compounds of this invention are also useful in treating yeast and fungal infections, where such yeast and fungi are sensitive to upregulation by TNF or will elicit TNF production in vivo. A preferred disease state for treatment is fungal meningitis. Additionally, the compounds of Formula (I) may be administered in conjunction with other drugs of choice for systemic yeast and fungal infections. Drugs of choice for fungal infections, include but are not limited to the class of compounds called the polymixins, such as Polymycin B, the class of compounds called the imidazoles, such as clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole; the class of compounds called the triazoles, such as fluconazole, and itranazole, and the class of compound called the Amphotericins, in particular Amphotericin B and liposomal Amphotericin B.

The compounds of Formula (I) may also be used for inhibiting and/or reducing the toxicity of an anti-fungal, anti-bacterial or anti-viral agent by administering an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) to a mammal in need of such treatment. Preferably, a compound of Formula (I) is administered for inhibiting or reducing the toxicity of the Amphotericin class of compounds, in particular Amphotericin B.

The term "C^ alkyl", "C1.4 alkyl", "Cι_6 alkyl" or "alkyl" groups as used herein is meant to include both straight or branched chain radicals of 1 to 10, unless the chain length is limited thereto, including, but not limited to methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl, rerr-butyl, and the like. "Alkenyl" means both straight or branched chain radicals of 1 to 6 carbon lengths, unless the chain length is limited thereto, including but not limited to vinyl, 1- propenyl, 2-propenyl, 2-propynyl, or 3-methyl-2-propenyl.

The term "cycloalkyl" or "cycloalkyl alkyl" means groups of 3-7 carbon atoms, such as cyclopropyl, cyclopropylmethyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl. "Aryl" or "aralkyl", unless specified otherwise, means an aromatic ring or ring system of 6-10 carbon atoms, such as phenyl, benzyl, phenethyl, or naphthyl. Preferably the aryl is monocyclic, i.e, phenyl. The alkyl chain is meant to include both straight or branched chain radicals of 1 to 4 carbon atoms.

Ηeteroaryr means an aromatic ring system containing one or more heteroatoms, such as imidazolyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolyl, furanyl, or thienyl.

"Halo" means all halogens, i.e., chloro, fluoro, bromo, or iodo. "Inhibiting the production of IL- 1 " or "inhibiting the production of TNF" means: a) a decrease of excessive in vivo IL-1 or TNF levels, respectively, in a human to normal levels or below normal levels by inhibition of the in vivo release of IL-1 by a cells, including but not limited to monocytes or macrophages; b) a down regulation, at the translational or transcriptional level, of excessive i vivo IL-1 or TNF levels, respectively, in a human to normal levels or below normal levels; or c) a down regulation, by inhibition of the direct synthesis of IL-1 or TNF levels as a postranslational event The phrase "TNF mediated disease or disease states" means any and all disease states in which TNF plays a role, either by production of TNF itself, or by TNF causin another cytokine to be released, such as but not limited to IL-1 or IL-6. A disease stat in which IL-1, for instance is a major component, and whose production or action, is exacerbated or secreted in response to TNF, would therefore be considered a disease state mediated by TNF. As TNF-β (also known as lymphotoxin) has close structural homology with TNF-α (also known as cachectin), and since each induces similar biologic responses and binds to the same cellular receptor, both TNF-α and TNF-β are inhibited by the compounds of the present invention and thus are herein referred to collectively as "TNF" unless specifically delineated otherwise. Preferably TNF-α is inhibited.

"Cytokine" means any secreted polypeptide that affects the functions of cells, and is a molecule which modulates interactions between cells in immune, inflammatory, or hematopoietic responses. A cytokine includes, but is not limited to, monokines and lymphokines regardless of which cells produce them. The cytokine inhibited by the present invention for use in the treatment of a HTV- infected human must be a cytokine which is implicated in (a) the initiation and/or maintenance of T cell activation and/or activated T cell-mediated HIV gene expression and/or replication, and or (b) any cytokine-mediated disease associated problem such as cachexia or muscle degeneration. Preferrably, his cytokine is TNF-α. All of the compounds of Formula (I) are useful in the method of inhibiting the production of TNF, preferably by macrophages, monocytes or macrophages and monocytes, in a mammal, including humans, in need thereof. All of the compounds of Formula (I) are useful in the method of inhibiting or mediating the enzymatic or catalytic activity of PDE IV and in treatment of disease states mediated thereby.

Preferred compounds are as follows:

When Ri is an alkyl substituted by 1 or more halogens, the halogens are preferably fluorine and chlorine, more preferably a Ci-4 alkyl substituted by 1 or more fluorines. The preferred halo-substituted alkyl chain length is one or two carbons, and most preferred are the moieties -CF3, -CH2F, -CHF2, -CF2CHF2, -CH2CF3, and - CH2CHF2. Preferred Ri substitutents for the compounds of Formula (I) are CH2- cyclopropyl, CH2-C5-6 cycloalkyl, C4-6 cycloalkyl unsubstituted or substituted by OH, C7-11 polycycloalkyl, (3- or 4-cyclopentenyl), phenyl, tetrahydrofuran-3-yl, benzyl or C 1-2 alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by 1 or more fluorines, -(CH2)1-3C(O)O(CH 2 )0-2CH3, -(CH2)l-3θ(CH 2 )0-2CH3, and -(CH 2 )2-4θH. When Ri term contains the moiety (CR4R5), the R4 and R5 terms are independently hydrogen or alkyl. This allows for branching of the individual methylene units as (CR4R5) n or (CR4R5)m; each repeating methylene unit is independent of the other, e.g., (CR4R5)--, wherein n is 2 can be -CH2CH(-CH3)-, for instance. The individual hydrogen atoms of the repeating methylene unit or the branching hydrocarbon can unsubstituted or be substituted by fluorine independent of each other to yield, for instance, the preferred Ri substitutions, as noted above.

When Ri is a C7-11 polycycloalkyl, examples are bicyclo[2.2.1]-heptyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl, bicyclo[3.2.1]octyl, tricyclo[5.2.1.θ2-°]decyl- etc. additional examples of which are described in Saccamano et al, WO 87/06576 published November 1987.

Z is preferably OR14, OR15, SR14, S(O)m'R7. S(O)2NRιoRl4, NR10R14, NRi4C(O)R9, NRιoC(O)Ri4, NRιoC(O)OR7, NRlθC(O)NRιoRl4, NRlθS(O)2NRιoRl4- NRlθC(NCN)NRiθRl4. NRιoS(O)2R7, NRioC(CR4NO2)NRioRl4, NRlθC(NCN)SR9, NRioC(CR4NO2)SR9,

NRιoC(NRιo)NRiθRl4, NRιoC(O)C(O)N ιoRl4, or NRιoC(O)C(O)ORi4- Preferred X groups for Formula (I) are those wherein X is YR2 and Y is oxygen. The preferred X2 group for Formula (I) is that wherein X2 is oxygen. The preferred X3 group for Formula (I) is that wherein X3 is hydrogen. Preferred R2 groups, where applicable, is a Ci-2 alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by 1 or more halogens. The halogen atoms are preferably fluorine and chlorine, more preferably fluorine. More preferred R2 groups are those wherein R2 is methyl, or the fluoro- substituted alkyls, specifically a Ci-2 alkyl, such as a -CF3, -CHF2, or -CH2CHF2 moiety. Most preferred are the -CHF2 and -CH3 moieties. W is preferably alkyl of 3 to 5 carbons, alkenyl of 3 to 5 carbon atoms or alkynyl of 3 to 5 carbon atoms wherein the alkenyl and alkynyl groups have one or two unsaturated bonds;

Preferred R7 moieties include unsubstituted or substituted -(CH2) 1 -2(cyclopropyl), -(CH2)0-2(cyclobutyl), -(CH2)0-2(cyclopentyl),

-(CH2)0-2(cyclohexyl), -(CH2)0-2(2-, 3- or 4-pyridyl), (CH2)l-2(2-i-nidazolyl), (CH2)2(4-morpholinyl), (CH2)2(4-piperazinyl), (CH2)l-2(2-thienyl), (CH2)l-2(4- thiazolyl), and (CH2)0-2phenyl;

Preferred rings when Rio and Ri ι in the moiety -NRioRl 1 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 membered ring comprised of carbo only or carbon and at least one heteroatom heteroatom selected from O, N, or S include, but are not limited to 1-imidazolyl, 2-(R8)-l-iπ-idazolyl, 1-pyrazolyl, 3-(R8)-l -pyrazolyl, 1-triazolyl, 2-triazolyl, 5-(R8)-l-triazolyl, 5-(R8)-2-triazolyl, 5-(R8)- 1-tetrazolyl, 5-(R8)-2-tetrazolyl, 1-tetrazolyl, 2-tetrazloyl, morpholinyl, pipera-tinyl, 4-(R8) - 1 -piperazinyl, or pyrrolyl ring.

Preferred rings when Rio and R14 in the moiety -NR10R14 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached may form a 5 to 7 membered ring comprised of carbon only or carbon and at least one heteroatom selected from O, N, or S include, but are not limited to 1-imidazolyl, 1 -pyrazolyl, 1-triazolyl, 2-triazolyl, 1-tetrazolyl, 2-tetrazolyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, and pyrrolyl. The respective rings may be additionally substituted, where applicable, on an available nitrogen or carbon by the moiety R7 as described herein for Formula (I). Illustrations of such carbon substitutions includes, but is not limited to, 2-(R7)- 1-imidazolyl, 4-037)- 1-imidazolyl, 5-(R7)- 1-imidazolyl, 3-0 7)-l-pyra--olyl, 4-(R7)-l-pyrazo-yl, 5- R-7)- 1-pyrazolyl, 4-(R7)-2-triazolyl, 5-(R7)-2-triazolyl, 4-(R7)- 1-triazolyl, 5-(R7)- 1-triazolyl,

5-(R7)- 1-tetrazolyl, and 5-(R7)-2-tetrazolyl. Applicable nitrogen substitution by R7 includes, but is not limited to, 1 -(R7)-2-tetrazolyl, 2-(R7)- 1-tetrazolyl, 4-(R7)- 1 - piperazinyl. Where applicable, the ring may be substituted one or more times by R7. Preferred groups for NR10 14 which contain a heterocyclic ring are 5-(Ri4)- 1-tetrazolyl, 2-(R 14)- 1-imidazolyl, 5-(Rl4)-2-tetrazolyl, 4-(Rι 4)- 1 -piperazinyl, or 4- (R 15)- 1 -piperazinyl.

Preferred rings for R 13 include (2-, 4- or 5-imida--olyl), (3-, 4- or 5-pyrazolyl) (4- or 5-triazolyl[ 1,2,3]), (3- or 5-triazolyl[ 1,2,4]), (5-tetrazolyl), (2-, 4- or 5-oxazolyl), (3-, 4- or 5-isoxazolyl), (3- or 5-oxadiazolyl[l,2,4]), (2-oxadiazolyl[l ,3,4]), (2-thiadiazolyl[ 1 ,3,4]), (2-, 4-, or 5-thiazolyl), (2-, 4-, or 5-oxazolidinyl), (2-, 4-, or 5-thiazolidinyl), or (2-, 4-, or 5-imidazolidinyl).

When the R7 group is unsubstituted or substituted by a heterocyclic ring such as imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, or thiazolyl, the heterocyclic ring itself may be unsubstituted or substituted by Rg either on an available nitrogen or carbon atom, such as l-(R8)-2-imidazolyl, l-(R8)-4-imidazolyl, l-0^8)-5-imida--olyl, l-038)-3-pyrazolyl, l-(R8)-4-pyrazolyl, l-(R8)-5-pyrazolyl, l-(R8)-4-triazolyl, or l-(R8)-5-triazolyl. Where applicable, the ring may be substituted one or more times b

R8-

Preferred are those compounds of Formula (I) wherein Ri is -CH2- cyclopropyl, -CH2-C5-6 cycloalkyl, -C4-6 cycloalkyl with or without an hydroxyl group on the ring, tetrahydrofuran-3-yl, (3- or 4-cyclopentenyl), benzyl or -Ci-2 alkyl unsubstituted or substituted by 1 or more fluorines, and -(CH2)2-4 OH; R2 is methyl or fluoro-substituted alkyl, W is 1 ,3-butadiynyl; and X is YR2-

Most preferred are those compounds wherein Ri is -CH2-cyclσpropyl, cyclopentyl, 3-hydroxycyclopentyl, methyl or CF2H; W is 1,3-butadiynyl; X is YR2. Y is oxygen; X2 is oxygen; X3 is hydrogen; and R2 is CF2H or methyl.

The most preferred compound is l,4-->i- , -{[c-3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-r- 1 -cyclohexanol]-3-yl } buta- 1 ,3-diyne.

It will be recognized that some of the compounds of Formula (I) may exist in both racemic and optically active forms; some may also exist in distinct diastereomeric forms possessing distinct physical and biological properties. All of these compounds are considered to be within the scope of the present invention. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the instant compounds, where they can be prepared, are also intended to be covered by this invention. These salts will be ones which are acceptable in their application to a pharmaceutical use.

By that it is meant that the salt will retain the biological activity of the parent compound and the salt will not have untoward or deleterious effects in its application and use in treating diseases.

Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are prepared in a standard manner.

The parent compound, dissolved in a suitable solvent, is treated with an excess of an organic or inorganic acid, in the case of acid addition salts of a base, or an excess of organic or inorganic base where the molecule contains a COOH for example.

Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise a pharmaceutical carrier or diluent and some amount of a compound of the formula (I).

The compound may be present in an amount to effect a physiological response, or it may be present in a lesser amount such that the user will need to take two or more units of the composition to effect the treatment intended. These compositions may be made up as a solid, liquid or in a gaseous form. Or one of these three forms may be transformed to another at the time of being administered such as when a solid is delivered by aerosol means, or when a liquid is delivered as a spray or aerosol.

The nature of the composition and the pharmaceutical carrier or diluent will, of course, depend upon the intended route of administration, for example parenterally, topically, orally or by inhalation.

For topical administration the pharmaceutical composition will be in the form of a cream, ointment, liniment, lotion, pastes, aerosols, and drops suitable for administration to the skin, eye, ear, or nose.

For parenteral administration the pharmaceutical composition will be in the form of a sterile injectable liquid such as an ampule or an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid suspension.

For oral administration the pharmaceutical composition will be in the form of a tablet, capsule, powder, pellet, atroche, lozenge, syrup, liquid, or emulsion.

When the pharmaceutical composition is employed in the form of a solution or suspension, examples of appropriate pharmaceutical carriers or diluents include: for aqueous systems, water, for non-aqueous systems, ethanol, glycerin, propylene glycol, corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, liquid parafins and mixtures thereof wit water, for solid systems, lactose, kaolin and mannitol; and for aerosol systems, dichlorodifluoromethane, chlorotrifluoroethane and compressed carbon dioxide. Also, in addition to the pharmaceutical carrier or diluent, the instant compositions may include other ingredients such as stabilizers, antioxidants, preservatives, lubricants, suspending agents, viscosity modifiers and the like, provided that the additional ingredients do not have a detrimental effect on the therapeutic action of the instant compositions.

The pharmaceutical preparations thus described are made following the conventional techniques of the pharmaceutical chemist as appropriate to the desired en product. In these compositions, the amount of carrier or diluent will vary but preferably will be the major proportion of a suspension or solution of the active ingredient. When the diluent is a solid it may be present in lesser, equal or greater amounts than the solid active ingredient

Usually a compound of formula I is administered to a subject in a composition comprising a nontoxic amount sufficient to produce an inhibition of the symptoms of a disease in which leukotrienes are a factor. Topical formulations will contain between about 0.01 to 5.0% by weight of the active ingredient and will be applied as required as a preventative or curative agent to the affected area. When employed as an oral, or other ingested or injected regimen, the dosage of the composition is selected from the range of from 50 mg to 1000 mg of active ingredient for each administration. For convenience, equal doses will be administered 1 to 5 times daily with the daily dosage regimen being selected from about 50 mg to about 5000 mg.

No unacceptable toxicological effects are expected when these compounds are administered in accordance with the present invention. Methods Of Preparation Synthetic Schemes

Preparing compounds of Formula (I) can be carried out by one of skill in the art according to the procedures outlined in the Examples, infra or by published

methods The preparation of any remaining compounds of Formula (I) not described therein may be prepared by the analogous processes disclosed herein. a) Intermediates wherein X and X3 are other than Br, I, NO2, amine, formyl amine, or S(O)m' when m' is 1 or 2, reacting a compound of Formula (2)

wherein Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Ri and X represents X as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X and X3 represents X3 as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X3 and X4 is a counter ion (e.g., lithium, magnesium, etc.) with a compound of the Formula (3)

wherein X5 is, e.g., OCH3, OC2H5, OCH(CH3)2, etc., followed by appropriate workup to provide a compound of the Formula (4)

wherein Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Ri and X represents X as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X and X3 represents X3 as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X3 (see the patent application WO 9115-451 -A published by WIPO). Michael-type reaction of such a compound of the Formula (4) with the appropriate precursor of R3 then provides a compound of the Formula (1); for example, use of diethylaluminum cyanide provides a compound of the Formula (1) wherein Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Rl and X represents X as defined in

relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X and X3 represents X3 as defined i relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X3 and R3 is CN.

Compounds of Formula (I) wherein R3 is CHO and Z is O may be prepared from the compound of Formula (I) in which R3 is CN and Z is O after appropriate protection of the ketone as, e.g., a ketal, followed by reduction of the CN moiety wit e.g., di-isobutylaluminum hydride, followed by appropriate workup and kedif Formul (I) wherein R3 is CH2OH and Z is O may be prepared by reduction of the compound Formula (I) in which R3 is CHO and =Z is a ketal protecting group with, e.g., sodium borohydride, followed by appropriate workup and ketone deprotection. Intermediates for compounds where X or X3 is other than Br, I, NO2, amino, or S(O)m'R2 when m' is 0, 1 or 2 and wherein Z is OH, are prepared by reacting a compound of Formula (2)

wherein Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Ri and X and X3 represent X and X3 as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X or X3 and R3 is an acetylenic group, with a suitable reducing agent, such as lithium borohydride, disiamylborane, lithium aluminum t -(t-butoxide) or sodium borohydride, in a suitable non-reacting solvent, such as 1,2- dimethoxyethane, tetrahydrofuran or an alcohol, to provide intermediates of Formula (I) wherein Z is OH. Preparation of such compounds of Formula (I) proceed in an analogous fashion from the compound of Formula (2) wherein =Z' is an aldehyde protecting group, such as a dimethylacetal or a dioxolane, followed by deprotection to the aldehyde and subsequent elaboration by standard procedures known to those of skill in the art to the remaining compounds of Formula (I) wherein Z' is other than O. Starting materials and intermediates for making compounds where Z is NH2,

NHCH3, or N(CH3)2, reacting a compound of Formula (2) wherein Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Ri and X and X3 represent X and X3 as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X or X3 with an ammonium salt, such as, for example, ammonium formate, methylamine hydrochloride, or dimethylamine hydrochloride, respectively, in the presence of a suitable reducing agent, such as sodium cyanoborohydride, in a suitable solvent, such as an alcohol, to provide the monomer of Formula (I) wherein Z is NH2, NHCH3, or N(CH3)2, respectively.

Alternatively, the monomer of Formula (I) wherein Z is NH2 may be prepared by reacting an appropriate alcohol of Formula (2) wherein Z is OH, Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Ri and X and X3 represent X and X3 as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X or X3 with a complex of a phosphine, such as triphenyl phosphine, and an azodicarboxylate ester in the presence of an imide, such as phthalimide, followed by, e.g., hydrazinolysis in an alcoholic solvent

Intermediates of Formula (I) wherein Z is SR14 may be prepared by reacting an appropriate compound of Formula (2) wherein Z is a leaving group, e.g., a mesylate, tosylate, chloride, or bromide, Ri represents Ri as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to Ri and X and X3 represent X and X3 as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertable to X or X3 with a metal salt of a mercaptan, such as NaSRi4 in an appropriate aprotic solvent. Compounds of Formula (I) wherein Z is SH may be prepared by reacting an appropriate alcohol of Formula (2) wherein Z is OH with a complex of a phosphine, such as triphenyl phosphine, and an azodicarboxylate ester in the presence of thiolacetic acid, followed by hydrolysis of the resulting thiolacetate.

For example, with proper manipulation of any chemically sensitive functional groups, compounds of Formula (1) wherein NR13R14 represent a ring, such as a 1- or 2-tetrazole, may be derived from reaction of an appropriate compound of Formula (I) wherein Z is a leaving group, e.g., a mesylate, tosylate, chloride or bromide, with the appropriate metal salt of HNR13R14, e.g., 5-(Ri4)-tetrazole; the appropriate compound of Formula (I) wherein Z is mesylate, tosylate, Br or Cl, derived in turn from the appropriate compound of Formula (1) wherein Z is OH. With proper manipulation (protection/deprotection) of any chemically sensitive functional groups: a) Compounds of the Formula (I) wherein X or X3 are formyl amine may be formed at the last step, by formylating a compound wherein X or X3 is NH2. obtained by removal of a protecting group from the amine functionality; such protective groups are well known to those skilled in the art, See Greene, T. and Wuts, P.G.M.,

Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York (1991). b) Compounds of the Formula (I) wherein X or X3 are Br, I or SR2 may be prepared from a similarly deprotected amine by diazotization of the amine and diazonium displacement c) Compounds of the Formula (I) wherein X or X3 are NO2 may be prepared from a similarly deprotected amine by oxidation of the amine to the nitro group.

Compounds of Formula 1- Scheme land 2-Scheme 1 may be prepared by procedures analogous to those described above, and as further recited in copending

- 15 -

SUBSTITUTE HE C

U.S. patent application number 08/131053 and its progeny PCT application number PCT/US94/10798 filed 23 September 1994.

Compounds of Formula (I) wherein W is a 1,3-butadiyne and wherein A and represent Z as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertible to Z, may be prepared by the processes disclosed herein which comprise, for example, coupling of molecule of the Formula 1-Scheme 1 with a molecule of the Formula 2-Scheme 1 using an appropriate metal salt, such as cupric acetate, in a suitable solvent, such as DMF or pyridine, or a combination, such as pyridine/methanol/water, as in the metho of Eglington and Galbraith (J. Chem. Soc, 1959, 889), to provide a compound of the Formula 3- Scheme 1.

Scheme 1

a) Cu(OAc ) 2 «H 2 0. D F or C 5 H 5 N

Reduction of a compound of the Formula (I), wherein W is a 1,3-butadiyne an wherein Z represents Z as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertible to to a compound of the Formula (I) wherein W is a fully saturated hydrocarbon chain (i.e., n-butyl) may be accomplished using, e.g., palladium metal according to the method of Tedeschi (J. Org. Chem., 1962, 27, 2398), or, e.g., platinum oxide according to the method of Jutz (Ber., 1958, 91, 1867) or that of Suzuki and Kurosawa (Chem. Lett., 1980, 1177). Reduction of a compound of the Formula (I), wherein W is a 1,3-butadiyne and wherein Z represents Z as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertible to Z, to provide a compound of the Formula (I) wherein W is a 1,3-butadiene may be accomplished using, e.g., the hydroboration- protonolysis procedure of Zweifel and Polston (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 4068),

or, e.g., the hydroalumination-protonolysis procedure of Zweifel et al (Synthesis,

1977, 52).

Alternatively, compounds of the Formula (1) wherein W and Z represent W and Z as defined in relation to Formula (I) or a group convertible to W or Z, may be prepared from the corresponding ketones as, e.g., compound 1-Scheme 2. The general methods for making this compounds are as follows:

Intermediates for making Formula (I) may be prepared from precursors where

Z is O by starting with compounds which have an CHO at the 1 position on the cyclohexane ring and at position 3 a carbonyl group which is protected in the form of a ketal protecting group by reacting the carbonyl compound with a mixture of dimethyl

(diazomethyl)phosphonate and potassium r-butoxide or other suitable base, in an inert solvent, such as tetrahydrofuran, at reduced temperature, followed by appropriate workup and ketone deprotection. This provides compounds of Formula (I) which have a C≡CH. Alternatively, prior to ketone deprotection, alkylation of the acetylene under the appropriate conditions with a strong base followed by an alkylating agent,

R3L, wherein L is a leaving group followed by ketone deprotection, provides compounds of Formula (I) which have the C≡CR3 group.

Intermediates wherein X or X3 is formyl amine and Z is O may be prepared by formylating, at the last step, a compound wherein =Z is a protected ketone and X is NH2, obtained by removal of a protecting group from the amine functionality; such protective groups are well known to those skilled in the art, See Greene, T. and Wuts,

P.G.M., Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New

York (1991). c) Intermediates wherein X or X3 is Br or I and Z is O may be prepared from a similarly deprotected amine by diazotization of the amine and diazonium displacement via Sandmeyer reaction. d) Intermediates wherein X or X3 is NO2 and Z is O may be prepared from a similarly deprotected amine by oxidation of the amine to the nitro group. e) Intermediates wherein Y is S(O)m' when m' is 1 or 2 and Z is O may be prepared from those intermediates where Y is S by oxidation of the SR2 moiety under conditions well known to those skilled in the art

A further detailed description of the preparation of the ketones is given in United States patent application serial number 08/130215 and its progeny PCT/US94/10815. Converting the ketones to the alcohols or other Z groups as defined herein above is carried out by the following Scheme 2.

Scheme 2

Depending upon the exact nature of the Z groups of the compounds of the Formula (I), the Z groups may require protection during the coupling and/or reducti steps described herein, followed by deprotection, to provide the Formula (I) compound, as in processes described in a co-pending application filed on even date herewith; such protective groups are well known to those skilled in the art. (See: Greene, T. and Wuts, P.G.M., Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2nd Ed., Jo Wiley and Sons, New York, 1991.) Preparation of the remaining compounds of the Formula (I) may be accomplished by procedures analogous to those described above and in the Example infra.

Compounds of Formula (I) wherein Z is OH may be interconverted using the standard alcohol inversion procedures known in the art It will be recognized that compounds of Formula (I) may exist in two distinct diastereomeric forms possessing distinct physical and biological properties; such isomers may be separated by standar chromatographic methods. Such isomers may be independently converted to the remaining compounds of Formula (I) wherein Z is other than OH, SH, and NH2 by a of the wide variety of O, S, and N alkylation, sulfamidation, imidation, oxidation, or acylation procedures known to those of skill in the art.

It will be recognized that compounds of the Formula (I) may exist in distinct diastereomeric forms possessing distinct physical and biological properties; such isomers may be separated by standard chromatographic methods.

The following examples are given to further illustrate the described invention. These examples are intented solely for illustrating the invention and should not be rea to limit the invention in any manner. Reference is made to the claims for what is reserved to the inventors hereunder.

Experimentals

Example 1 Preparation of 1 A-bis- f . c-3-.3-c-yc-open-vloxv-4-methoxyphenyl .-r-1-cvclohexanoll-

3-vnbuta-1.3-divne la) 3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trimethylsilylethynyl cyclohexan-1-one n-Butyllithium (2.45 M in hexanes, 5.7 mL, 13.96 mmol) was added drop wise over 5 min to a solution of trimethylsilylacetylene ( 1.97 mL, 13.96 mmol) dissolved in dry ether (30 mL) at -45°C under an argon atmosphere. After 1.5 h, this solution was cannulated into a solution of dimethylaluminum chloride (1.0 M in hexanes, 13.96 mL, 13.96 mmol). After 3.5 h at room temperature, the mixture was filtered through

Celite® under an argon atmosphere. In a separate flask, diisobutylaluminum hydride (1.0 M in toluene, 1.4 mL, 1.4 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred mixture of nickel acetylacetonate (360 mg, 1.4 mmol) in dry ether (25 mL) at 0°C under an argon atmosphere. After 10 min, the mixture was further cooled to -10°C and the solution of aluminum acetylide was added via cannulation over 15 min. 3-(3- cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohex-2-en-l-one (2.0 g, 6.98 mmol, prepared as described in U.S. patent 5362915) dissolved in dry ether (70 mL) was added dropwise over 20 min. After 18 h at room temperature, the mixture was poured into a 100 mL saturated aqueous solution of potassium phosphate (monobasic) at 0°C, lOOmL of aqueous 3N HCl solution was added and the aqueous layer was extracted twice with ether. The combined extract was washed with brine, was dried (magnesium sulfate) and was evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography, eluting with 2:1 hexanes ether followed by trituration from ether/hexanes, then furthur purification of the mother liquor by flash chromatography, eluting with 4:1 hexanes/ethyl acetate followed by trituration from ether/hexanes, provided a white solid, mp 102-103°C.

1 b) 3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethynylcyclohexan- 1 -one A mixture of potassium fluoride (900 mg, 15.6 mmol) and 3-(3- cyclopentyloxy-4----ethoxyphenyl)-3-trimethylsilylethynylcyc lohexan-l-one (0.3 g, 0.78 mmol) were stirred in dry N,N-dimethylformamide (3 mL) under an argon atmosphere. After 18 h, the solvent was removed in vacua, the residue was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate, the aqueous layer was extracted twice with ethyl acetate, the combined extract was dried (magnesium sulfate) and was evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography, eluting with 4:1 hexanes/ethyl acetate provided a clear colorless oil. Anal. (C2θH24θ3* 1/10 H2O) calcd: C 76.45, H 7.76; found: C 76.32, H 7.60.

ls_\_trans -[3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethynylcyclohexan- 1 -ol] and cis - [3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethynylcyclohexan- 1 -ol]

To a solution of 3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethynylcyclohexan- one (0.34 g, 1.1 mmol) in 1-2-dimethoxyethane (5 mL) under an argon atmosphere is added sodium borohydride (0.08 g, 2.2 mmol) and the mixture is stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h. Water is added, the mixture is extracted three times with dichloromethane, is dried (magnesium sulfate) and is evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography provides -rα/w-[3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3- ethynylcyclohexan-1-ol]. c«-[3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethynylcyclohexa n-l-ol] also is isolated from this procedure.

1 d) 1 ,4-bis- { [c-3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-r- 1 -cyclohexanol]-3-yl } buta- 1,3-diyne

A mixture of rr n5-[3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3- ethynylcyclohexan-1-ol] (0.25 g, 0.81 mmol) and copper acetate monohydrate (0.49 g 2.42 mmol) in dimethyl formamide (10 mL) under an argon atmosphere is heated at 65-70°C for 0.5 h, then is cooled. Water is added, the mixture is extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic extract is washed three times with water, once with brine, is dried (magnesium sulfate) and is evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography provides 1 ,4-bis- { [c-3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-r- 1 -cyclohexanol]-3-yl } buta- 1 ,3- diyne.

Example 2 Preparation of 1.4-bis- f rc-3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenylVr-l-cvclohexanol1-

3-ynbuta-1.3-diyne A mixture of cz-.-[3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethynylcyclohex an- l-ol] (0.02 g, 0.07 mmol) and copper acetate monohydrate (0.04 g, 0.20 mmol) in dimethyl formamide (2 mL) under an argon atmosphere is heated at 65-70°C for 2.5 h, then is cooled. Water is added, the mixture is extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic extract is washed three times with water, once with brine, is dried (magnesium sulfate) and is evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography provides 1 ,4-bis- [ [c-3-(3- cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-r- 1 -cyclohexanol]-3-yl } buta- 1 ,3-diyne.

Similarly the other compounds of Formula I can be prepared by proceeding in a similar manner as described above by simply substituting for the intermediates named i Examples 1 and 2, the other appropriate intermediates needed to make the other compounds of Formula I.

UTILΓΓY EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE A

Inhibitory effect of compounds of Formula (I) on in vitro TNF production by human monocytes

The inhibitory effect of compounds of Formula (I) on in vitro TNF production by human monocytes may be determined by the protocol as described in Badger et al., EPO published Application 0411 754 A2, February 6, 1991, and in Hanna, WO

90/15534, December 27, 1990.

EXAMPLE B

Two models of endotoxic shock have been utilized to determine in vivo TNF activity for the compounds of Formula (I). The protocol used in these models is described in Badger et al., EPO published Application 0411 754 A2, February 6,

1991, and in Hanna, WO 90/15534, December 27, 1990.

The compound of Example 1 herein demonstrated a positive in vivo response in reducing serum levels of TNF induced by the injection of endotoxin. EXAMPLE C

Isolation of PDE Isozymes

The phosphodiesterase inhibitory activity and selectivity of the compounds of

Formula (I) can be determined using a battery of five distinct PDE isozymes. The tissues used as sources of the different isozymes are as follows: 1) PDE lb, porcine aorta; 2) PDE Ic, guinea-pig heart; 3) PDE m, guinea-pig heart; 4) PDE IV, human monocyte; and 5) PDE V (also called "la"), canine trachealis. PDEs la, lb, Ic and HI are partially purified using standard chromatographic techniques [Torphy and Cieslinski, Mol. Pharmacol., 37:206-214, 1990]. PDE IV is purified to kinetic homogeneity by the sequential use of anion-exchange followed by heparin-Sepharose chromatography [Torphy et al, J. Biol. Chem., 267: 1798- 1804, 1992].

Phosphodiesterase activity is assayed as described in the protocol of Torphy and Cieslinski, Mol. Pharmacol., 37:206-214, 1990. Positive IC5θ's in the nanomolar to μM range for compounds of the workings examples described herein for Formula (I) have been demonstrated.