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Title:
A 5-THIAZOLECARBOXAMIDE KINASE INHIBITOR AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/202160
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The invention relates to a kinase inhibitor, in particular an inhibitor of protein kinases including the protein-tyrosine kinases LCK, ABL, SRC, KIT, SIK-family and/or their mutants. Although structurally similar to dasatinib, the kinase inhibitor of the invention displays, eg functional and ADMET properties distinct to dasatinib. Also, the invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions that comprise the kinase inhibitor, including those formulated for oral administration, such as in unit dose form that comprise particular ranges or amounts of the kinase inhibitor. The kinase inhibitor or pharmaceutical composition may be used in the treatment of a proliferative disorder, such as a leukaemia or solid tumour. The kinase inhibitor or pharmaceutical composition may be used in a treatment regimen that corresponds to, is similar to or is distinct from that used with dasatinib for a corresponding disorder, and in particular may be used in a combination treatment regimen together with one or more additional therapeutic agents, such as immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

Inventors:
SENNHENN, Peter (Fraunhoferstr. 13, Martinsried, 82152, DE)
MEIER-EWERT, Sebastian (Fraunhoferstrasse 13, Martinsried, 82152, DE)
KHANDELWAL, Nisit (Fraunhoferstrasse 13, Martinsried, 82152, DE)
Application Number:
EP2019/060303
Publication Date:
October 24, 2019
Filing Date:
April 23, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
IOMX THERAPEUTICS AG (Fraunhoferstrasse 13, Martinsried, 82152, DE)
International Classes:
A61K45/06; A61K31/00; A61K31/7064; A61K31/7088; A61K31/713; A61K38/00; A61K38/19; A61P35/00; A61P35/02; G01N33/00
Foreign References:
EP2018060172W2018-04-20
US5399163A1995-03-21
US5383851A1995-01-24
US5312335A1994-05-17
US5064413A1991-11-12
US4941880A1990-07-17
US4790824A1988-12-13
US4596556A1986-06-24
US4487603A1984-12-11
US4486194A1984-12-04
US4447233A1984-05-08
US4447224A1984-05-08
US4439196A1984-03-27
US4475916A1984-10-09
US4522811A1985-06-11
US5374548A1994-12-20
US5399331A1995-03-21
US5416016A1995-05-16
EP18202121A
US20110318373A12011-12-29
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BOEHMERT & BOEHMERT (David KUTTENKEULER, Pettenkoferstrasse 22, Munich, 80336, DE)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the treatment comprising administering the compound or the pharmaceutical composition to the subject,

wherein, the compound is

or the mono-hydrate thereof, and the pharmaceutical composition comprises said compound or the mono hydrate thereof and further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient,

wherein, the treatment involves inhibiting one or more of the key-kinases listed in Figure 3.

2. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 1, wherein a key-kinase listed in Figure 3 is one having a residual activity of less than about 25%.

3. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 1 or 2, wherein a key-kinase is selected from the list consisting of: ABL1, ABL2, ACK1, ACV-R1, ACV-R1B, ACV-R2A, ACV-R2B, ACV-RL1, BLK, BMX, B-RAF, BRK, BTK, CSF1-R, CSK, EGF-R, EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA8, EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, ERBB4, FGR, FRK, FYN, HCK, KIT, LCK, LYN, MAP4K5, NLK, p38-alpha, p38-beta, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, RAF1, RIPK2, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, SRMS, TEC, TGFB-R1, TXK, YES, ZAK and DDR2; suitably, wherein the key-kinase is DDR2 and/or SIK2.

4. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein a key-kinase is DDR2.

5. The compound for use of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting DDR2.

6 A compound consisting of a kinase inhibitor of the formula

wherein:

each of R2 and R3 is H; and

R1 is:

and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof.

7. The compound of claim 6 in greater than about 98% or 99% pure form.

8. The compound of claim 6 or 7 as a hydrate.

9. One or more containers containing, each independently of all collectively, more than about lOg of the compound of any one of claims 6 to 8.

10. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound or any one of claims 6 to 8, and optionally further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

11. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 10 formulated for oral administration.

12. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 11 in unit dose form.

13. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 12, comprising between 1 and 950 mg of the compound per unit dose form.

14. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 13, comprising about an amount of the compound per unit dose form selected from the list of amounts consisting of: 2mg, 5mg, 15mg, 20mg, 50mg, 70mg, 80mg, lOOmg and 140mg.

15. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein the unit dose form is a tablet, caplet or capsule.

16. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein the unit dose form is a film-coated tablet or a film-coated caplet.

17. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 16, wherein the film-coating comprises one or more, preferably all, of the excipients selected from the list consisting of: hypromellose, titanium dioxide and macrogol 400.

18. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the treatment comprising administering the compound or the pharmaceutical composition to the subject,

wherein, the compound is a compound of any one of claims 6 to 8, or the pharmaceutical composition is a pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 10 to 17.

19. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 18, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting one or more of the key-kinases listed in Figure 3.

20. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 18 or 19, wherein a key-kinase listed in Figure 3 is one having a residual activity of less than about 25%.

21. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 18 to 20, wherein a key-kinase is selected from the list consisting of: ABL1, ABL2, ACK1, BLK, BMX, BRK, BTK, CSF1-R, CSK, EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA8, EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, ERBB4, FGR, FRK, FYN, HCK, KIT, LCK, LYN, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, RIPK2, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, TEC, TXK, YES , ZAK and DDR2; suitably, wherein the key-kinase is DDR2 and/or SIK2.

22. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 18 to 21, wherein a key-kinase is DDR2.

23. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 18 to 22, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting DDR2.

24. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 23, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting SIK3.

25. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 24, wherein the subject is an adult human.

26. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 25, wherein the subject is an adult human over about 30 years of age.

27. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 26, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting ABL1 and/or SRC kinase, or a mutant thereof; suitably, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting BCR-ABL.

28. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 27, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting FLT3 kinase.

29. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 28, wherein the treatment further comprises administration of an immune checkpoint inhibitor.

30. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 29, wherein the immune checkpoint inhibitor is an inhibitor of PD1.

31. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 29, wherein the immune checkpoint inhibitor is nivolumab, relatlimab, ipilimumab or BMS-986205.

32. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 31, wherein a plurality of subjects are treated, in particular 5 or more subjects; and

wherein, the treatment comprises either:

(A) (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of a different dosage of the compound and/or a different formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and/or

(B) (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of either: (a) a placebo; or (b) the dosage of the compound and/or the formulation of the pharmaceutical composition of the subject(s) of (i) as well as an additional pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure.

33. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 32, wherein the proliferative disorder is a cancer or tumour.

34. The compound or pharmaceutical composition or use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 33, wherein the proliferative disorder is lung cancer, in particular non-small cell lung cancer.

35. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment of lung cancer in a subject, the treatment comprising administering the compound the pharmaceutical composition to the subject, wherein, the compound is as recited in claim 1 or is as recited in any one of claims 6 to 8, and the pharmaceutical composition comprises said compound and further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient; and

wherein, the treatment further comprises administration of a PD1 inhibitor to the subject.

36. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 35, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting DDR2 and/or involves inhibiting SIK3.

37. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 29 to 31, 35 and 36, wherein the administrations are sequential.

38. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 37, wherein the treatment involves sensitising cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

39. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 38, wherein the treatment comprises that the cell-mediated immune response induces killing of cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

40. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 39, wherein the compound or pharmaceutical composition is administered to the subject to sensitise cells involved with the proliferative disorder to killing induced by TNF.

41. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 1 to 5 and 18 to 40, wherein the use comprises: (i) sensitising cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response; and/or (ii) inhibiting a kinase involved in resistance to a cell-mediates immune response.

42. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for of claim 41, wherein the kinase is a key kinase as recited in any one of claims 1 to 4 and 19 to 22; suitably, wherein the kinase is DDR2 and/or SIK3.

43. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for of claim 42, wherein the use comprises inhibiting the key kinase and enhancing tumour response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.

44. A use of an intermediate to prepare a compound of any one of claims 6 to 8, wherein the intermediate comprises a substructure selected from the list consisting of the following substructures:

and

45. The use of an intermediate of claim 44, wherein the intermediate is 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine.

46. An intermediate being the compound having the formula:

47. A method of preparing a compound of claim 7, comprising the steps:

• providing a compound of claim 6 or 8 in admixture with one or more impurities; and

• removing at least a fraction of the impurities from the admixture.

48. A method of manufacturing a pharmaceutical composition comprising the step or formulating a compound of any one of claims 6 to 8 together with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

49. The method of claim 48, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is formed as a film-coated tablet or as a film- coated caplet.

50. A method of delivering a pharmaceutical composition of any one or claims 10 to 17 from a first location to a second location, comprising the steps:

• receiving at a first location a request from a second location for the delivery of an amount of the pharmaceutical composition; and

· delivering at least a portion of (preferably, all of) the requested amount from the first location to the second location in one or more deliveries,

wherein first location and the second location are separated by a distance of greater than about 10m, and one or more of the deliveries is/are transported for at least part of the distance between the first location to the second location by wheeled transporters.

Description:
A 5-THIAZOLECARBOXAMIDE KINASE INHIBITOR AND USES THEREOF

DESCRIPTION

[1] The invention relates to a kinase inhibitor, in particular an inhibitor of protein kinases including the protein- tyrosine kinases LCK, ABL, SRC, KIT, SIK-family and/or their mutants. Although structurally similar to dasatinib, the kinase inhibitor of the invention displays, eg functional and ADMET properties distinct to dasatinib. Also, the invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions that comprise the kinase inhibitor, including those formulated for oral administration, such as in unit dose form that comprise particular ranges or amounts of the kinase inhibitor. The kinase inhibitor or pharmaceutical composition may be used in the treatment of a proliferative disorder, such as a leukaemia or solid tumour. The kinase inhibitor or pharmaceutical composition may be used in a treatment regimen that corresponds to, is similar to or is distinct from that used with dasatinib for a corresponding disorder, and in particular may be used in a combination treatment regimen together with one or more additional therapeutic agents, such as immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

[2] A kinase inhibitor is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the action of a kinase. A partial, non limiting, list of such kinases includes ABL, AKT, BCR-ABL, BLK, BRK, c-KIT, c-MET, CDK1, CDK2, CDK3, CDK4, CDK5, CDK6, CDK7, CDK8, CDK9, CDK10, cRAFl, CSK, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4, ERK, PAK, FES, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, FGFR5, FGR, FIT-1, FPS, FRK, FYN, HCK, IGF-1R, INS-R, JAK, KDR, LCK, LYN, MEK, p38, PDGFR, PIK, PKC, PYK2, ROS, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, TIE, TIE2, TRK and ZAP70. Kinases are enzymes that add a phosphate group to a protein or another organic molecule, and have been shown to be key regulators in most cellular functions including cell-signalling, -proliferation, -differentiation, -metabolism, -survival, -apoptosis, -motility, DNA damage repair etc. Phosphorylation, in particular deregulated signalling due to defective control of protein phosphorylation, is implicated in a wide range of diseases; such as diseases associated with aberrant activity (eg, increased activity) of a kinase. Such diseases include, but are not limited to, proliferative diseases (eg, cancers, benign neoplasms, pathological angiogenesis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases), as wells as allergies and CNS disorders.

[3] Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are enzymes that, in conjunction with ATP as a substrate, phosphorylate tyrosine residues in peptides and proteins. PTKs comprise, inter alia, receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (RPTKs), including members of the epidermal growth factor kinase family (eg, HER1 and HER2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), and kinases that play a role in angiogenesis (eg, TIE2 and KDR); and, in addition, non-receptor protein- tyrosine kinases, including members of the SYK, JAK and SRC kinase families (eg SRC, FYN, LYN, LCK and BLK kinases). Protein-serine/threonine kinases (STKs) are enzymes that phosphorylate the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine side-chain in in peptides and proteins. STKs comprise, inter alia, AKT1, Aurora kinases, BRAF, MAP kinases, PLK1, SIK1, SIK2 and SIK3.

[4] Inhibiting protein kinases, and therefore the phosphorylation of a substrate peptide or protein, has been shown to be useful in treating many diseases. For example, afatinib, an ERBB inhibitor, is useful in treating non-small cell lung cancer; axitinib, a VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-KIT inhibitor, is useful in treating renal cell carcinoma; bosutinib, an ABL/BCR-ABL inhibitor, is useful in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia; cabozantinib, a c-MET and VEGFR2 inhibitor, is useful in treating thyroid cancer; crizotinib, an ALK, HGFR, and c-MET inhibitor, is useful in treating non small cell lung cancer; dasatinib, an ABL/BCR-ABL, SRC, and c-KIT inhibitor, is useful in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia; erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor, is useful in treating non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer; gefitinib, an EGFR inhibitor, is useful in treating non- small cell lung cancer; imatinib, an ABL/BCR-ABL inhibitor, is useful in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia; lapatinib, a HER2 inhibitor, is useful in treating breast cancer; nilotinib, an ABL/BCR-ABL inhibitor, is useful in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia; pazopanib, a VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-KIT inhibitor, is useful in treating renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma; palbociclib, an inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, is useful in treating ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer; ponatinib, an ABL/BCR-ABL, BEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, EPH, SRC, c-KIT, RET, TIE2, and FLT3 inhibitor, is useful in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; regorafenib, a RET, VEGFR, and PDGFR inhibitor, is useful in treating colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumour; ribociclib, an inhibitor of cyclin D1/CDK4 and CDK6, is useful in treating HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancers; ruxolitinib, a JAK inhibitor, is useful in treating myelofibrosis; sorafenib, a VEGFR, PDGFR, BRAF, and c-KIT inhibitor, is useful in treating renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma; sunitinib, a VEGFR and PDGFR inhibitor, is useful in treating renal cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour; tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, is useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis; vandetanib, a VEGFR, EGFR, RET and BRK inhibitor, is useful in treating thyroid cancer; and vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor, is useful in treating malignant melanoma.

[5] In view of the large number of kinases and associated diseases, there is an ever-existing need for new inhibitors selective for various kinases which might be useful in the treatment of related diseases; in particular there remains a need for new kinase inhibitors, pharmaceutical compositions/formulations and uses thereof for the treatment of diseases associated with aberrant activity of one or more kinases; in particular, there remains a need for new inhibitors that are alternatives to an existing kinase inhibitor, such as dasatinib.

[6] One particular kinase inhibitor is dasatinib (N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-[[6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l- piperazinyl]-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxa mide, monohydrate; see Figure 1A), marketed as "SPRYCEL" by Bristol-Myers Squibb, and is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with: (i) newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase; (ii) chronic, accelerated, or (myeloid or lymphoid) blast phase (Ph+) CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib; and (iii) Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. In the EU, dasatinib is also indicated for the treatment of paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP) or Ph+ CML-CP resistant or intolerant to prior therapy including imatinib, and in the US it is indicated for paediatric patients with Ph+ CML in chronic phase.

[7] Notably, despite numerous trials being conducted with dasatinib, it is not indicated in the US or Europe for any cancer other than CML or Ph+ ALL; in particular, as of September 2018, dasatinib is not indicated for any solid tumour. Indeed, numerous clinical trials using dasatinib to investigate its possible use to treat solid tumours were terminated early (for example, due to toxicity issues) or failed to report strong or even encouraging results. For example, according to information on clincialtrials.gov on 09-Sept-2018, dasatinib has only once reached phase 3 testing for solid tumours: in a single investigation against castrate resistant prostate cancer in combination with docetaxel, the "READY" trial (NCT00744497); but dasatinib failed to improve overall survival over docetaxel alone in such trial (Araujo et al 2013, Lancet Oncol 14: 13017), despite some suggestion of its activity against chemotherapy- naive castrate resistant prostate in earlier-stage trials (eg, Araujo et al 2012, Cancer 118:63). Despite several trials against other cancers such as breast, skin, pancreatic, brain or lung cancer, dasatinib has not shown satisfactory efficacy or tolerability, and has not been progressed to phase 3 testing against any of these cancers. In particular, more recently dasatinib failed to show increased overall survival in combination with gemcitabine compared to gemcitabine alone in a double-blinded phase 2 trial against locally-advanced unresectable pancreatic patients (Evens et al 2017, Annal One 28:354). However, recently, some specialised trails that aim to selected "targeted" therapies to patients having particular cancers (including solid tumours) that express particular drug targets, may potentially test dasatninb depending on the target profile of the patients. For example (i) the "TAPUR" trial ("The Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry", https://www.tapur.org, NCT02693535) includes dasatinib in one possible treatment arm based on one or more of the following targets: BCR-ABL, SRC, KIT, PDGFRB, EPHA2, FYN, LCK, YES1; and (ii) a Melanoma Institute Australia trial (NCT02645149) involving patients with BRAF and NRAS wild-type unresectable Stage III or Stage IV metastatic melanoma who have progressed on, or are unable to receive standard therapy (in general, immunotherapy), includes dasatinib as one possible therapy depending on KIT mutation(s) being found in the patient's cancer. Dasatinib is also one possible arm of the BMS "FRACTION-Lung" phase 2 trial (NCT02750514) where it may be tested in combination with the immune-oncology drug nivolumab in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer. Other arms of this trial use nivolumab in combination with other immune-oncology drugs.

[8] Accordingly, there is a particular need for new kinase inhibitors useful in the treatment of cancers - especially solid tumours - the treatment of which by dasatinib are not indicated, and/or of cancers for which dasatinib has not shown promising results. In particular, there is a need for new kinase inhibitors useful in the treatment of one or more cancers such as breast, lung (eg non-small cell), pancreatic or prostate (eg castrate or hormone resistant) cancer, as well as melanoma. There also remains the need for new kinase inhibitors useful in the treatment of myeloid or lymphoblastic cancers such as leukaemia, preferably, useful for the treatment of one or more Ph+ leukaemia such as CML and/or ALL.

[9] Dasatinib is described as an inhibitor of the following kinases at nanomolar concentrations: BCR-ABL, SRC family (SRC, LCK, YES, FYN), c-KIT, EPHA2, and PDGFR-beta; where of particular relevance to dasatinib's indication for Ph+ leukaemia, is its inhibition of the hybrid protein kinase BCR-ABL.

[10] The BCL-ABL kinase is directly connected to the presence of a specific genetic abnormality in chromosome 22 of leukaemia cancer cells (particularly CML cells); known as the "Philadelphia chromosome" (or Philadelphia translocation). This reciprocal translocation of genetic material between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22, juxtaposes the ABL1 gene of chromosome 9 onto the BCR gene of chromosome 22, resulting in a coding sequence for a hybrid protein known as "BCR-ABL": a protein-tyrosine kinase that is "always on", causing the cell to divide uncontrollably. The vast majority of CML cases and 20-30% of ALL cases are Ph+. The first selective BRC-ABL inhibitor, imatinib (STI571), marketed as "GLEEVEC/GLIVEC" by Novartis, was considered a breakthrough for the treatment of Ph+ leukaemia. However, despite the increase in overall survival, drug resistance that developed during imatinib treatment led scientists to discover that most of such resistances arise due to the emergence of BCR-ABL mutations, particularly amino acid substitutions within the ABL-derived kinase domain (for review, see Rossari & Orciuolo 2018, J Hemat Oncol 11:84, incorporated herein in its entirety by reference).

[11] An analysis of BCR-ABL mutation status and the probability of survival for patients treatment with imatinib indicated that mutations within the phosphatase loop (P-loop) of the ABL-position of the BCR-ABL kinase were the most frequent, but that the (rarer) mutations outside of the P-loop (in particularly those within the kinase domain) were associated with a reduction in overall survival of imati nib-treated CML patients (Jabbour et al 2006, Leukemia 20: 1767). A number of emergent BCR-ABL mutations have since been identified and described (see, Table 1 of Manley et al 2005, Biochem et Biophys Acta 1754:3; and Table 1 of Rossari & Orciuolo 2018, which also describes mutations of other kinase-targets of dasatinib; both such tables specifically incorporated herein by reference). In particular the following mutations are found in the ATP-binding region of BCR-ABL (with positions indicated for the wild-type ABL protein): V299L, F311L, T315I, T315A, F317L and F317V. Indeed, dasatinib was initially developed as a "second generation" BCR-ABL inhibitor for second-line therapy for CML that had become resistant to imatinib, presumed to arrise due to the emergence of one or other of these mutations. Based on modelling studies, dasatinib is predicted to bind to multiple conformations of the ABL kinase, and this is thought to explain why several conformation-altering mutations of ABL are inhibited by dasatinib, but not by imatinib. Indeed, a retrospective analysis comparing mutation development during first-line treatment with dasatinib or with imatinib revealed that fewer different mutation sites emerged with dasatinib treatment (4 different sites) compared with imatinib treatment (12 different sites) (Hughes et al 2015, Leukemia 29: 1832, in particular Figure 1 thereof). Importantly however: (i) the total proportion of patients developing any type of mutation was approximately the same (17/259 dasatinib patients and 18/260 imatinib patients); (ii) the majority of the mutation sites emerging upon dasatinib treatment were in the ATP-binding region (3/4 mutation sites); and (iii) the by far commonest mutation emerging during dasatinib treatment (11/17) was the T315I mutation at the so-called "gate-keeper" residue, which still confers resistance to dasatinib inhibition on the BCR-ABL kinase. A particular set of BCR-ABL mutants that can be tested against kinase inhibitors are provided by the ProQinase ABL1 kinase "Wildtype and Mutant Panel", and includes the ABL1 wild-type protein (amino acids P118-S525) and mutants forms that represent the most prevalent imatinib- resistant mutant forms of BCR-ABL: G250E, Q252H, Y253F, E255K, T315I, F317I, M351T and H396P (www.proqinase.com).

[12] The T315I mutation is one of the most frequently emerging BCR-ABL mutations: arising in 2 to 20% CML cases (Nicolini et al 2009, Blood 114:5271). That such a mutation is resistant to dasatinib inhibition is one potential draw-back of dasatinib as a kinase inhibitor, which has stimulated the development of the "third generation" BCR-ABL inhibitor known as ponatinib (marketed as ICLUSIG by Incyte & Takeda). However, although ponatinib does indeed strongly inhibit the T315I mutation of the BCR-ABL kinase (in-vitro IC50 of 2.0nM), it is known to be a more promiscuous kinase inhibitor than dasatinib, and also inhibits a number of other kinases including with in-vitro IC50 concentrations between 0.1 and 20nM, for at least members of the VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, EPH receptors and SRC families of kinases, and KIT, RET, TIE2, and FLT3. Furthermore, US sales of ponatinib were temporarily suspended in October 2013 because of "the risk of life-threatening blood clots and severe narrowing of blood vessels". This suspension was partially lifted in December 2013 with ponatinib being issued revised prescribing information, a new "Black Box Warning" and a "Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy" in place to better evaluate the risks and benefits of using the drug. In addition, the price of ponatinib in the US (it can cost $138,000 a year) has been criticised. Accordingly, substantial drawbacks are shown by ponatinib, such that there still remains a need for new kinase inhibitors, in particular those with the potential to more effectively, safely, easily and/or cheaply treat Ph+ leukaemia (or other cancers); and/or that are more selective to SRC, ABL/BCR-ABL and/or LCK than other kinase inhibitors such as dasatinib or ponatinib.

[13] Compared to imatinib however, dasatinib is not particularly specific to BCR-ABL, and binds to and/or inhibits a significant number of other kinases (see: Figure 3 of Bantscheff et al 2007, Nat Biotech 25: 1035; supplementary Figure 2 of Anastassiadis et al 2012, Nat Biotech 29: 1039). In particular, compared to imatinib, dasatinib is described to more significantly bind to and/or inhibit numerous other kinases, including : BTK, CSK, EPHB2, EPHB4, FYN, GAK, KIT, LYN, QIK, QSK, RIPK2, SRC, TEC, TESK2, YES and ZAK. More specifically, dasatinib is shown to be a significant inhibitor of salt-inducible kinases with IC50 values of <3nM, <3nM and 18nM for the three family members SIK1, SIK2 and SIK3, respectively (Ozanne et al 2015, Biochem J 465:271; also as described in co-pending PCT/EP2018/060172). Indeed, given that dasatinib is a less selective kinase inhibitor is yet another potential drawback, and this reduced selectively may be causally associated with the not-insignificant toxicity challenges faced when treating patients with dasatinib, in particular with the an increased occurrence of thrombocytopaenia (Wei et al 2010, J Hemat Oncol 3:47).

[14] As described above, dasatinib is a potent inhibit of KIT, and this receptor protein-tyrosine kinase is becoming an increasingly interesting target for the treatment of certain cancers (Babei et al 2016, Drug Des Dev Thera, 10:2443), not least because mutations in the KIT gene have been detected in cancers such as leukaemia, ovarian cancer and melanoma. It is also known that dasatinib can also inhibit at least the most common KIT mutation in melanoma (Woodman et al 2009, J Clin One 27:9019). However, inhibition of KIT, and in particular the relative activity against FLT3 and KIT of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors, has been associated with myelosuppression and other side effects such as hair depigmentation (Galanis and Levis 2015: Haematologica 100:e89). Indeed, treatment with dasatinib is associated with severe myelosuppression (see below).

[15] Salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) constitute a serine tyrosine kinase subfamily, belonging to the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) family. Three members (SIK1, -2, and -3) have been identified so far. Amino acid homology of SIK1 with SIK2 and SIK3 is 78% and 68%, respectively, in the kinase domain. The cloning of SIK1 (also known as SIK and SNF1LK), abundantly expressed in the adrenal glands of high-salt, diet-fed rats, led to subsequent cloning of SIK2 (also known as QIK, KIAA0781 and SNF1LK2), mainly expressed in adipose tissues and the rather ubiquitous SIK3 (also known as QSK, KIAA0999 or L19) (Katoh et al 2004, Mol Cell Endocrinol 217: 109). The three SIKs have a similar structure, with an N-terminal kinase domain (catalytic domain), a middle ubiquitin-associated domain (believed important for phosphorylation by LKB1) and a long C-terminal sequence (believed to be a site for further phosphorylation by PKA). Flowever, there are very diverse roles implicated for the various SIKs. For example, various SIKs have been implicated in biological processes as diverse as osteocyte response to parathyroid hormone (Wein et al 2016, Nature Commun 7: 13176) to induction of SIK1 by gastrin and inhibition of migration of gastric adenocarcinoma cells (Selvik et al 2014, PLoS ONE 9:ell2485). Other potential roles of salt-inducible kinases (in particular SIK3) are described in co-pending PCT/EP2018/060172; for example that SIK3 is a gene involved in tumour cell resistance to cell-mediated immune responses, in particular tumour cell resistance to TNF.

[16] Flence there still remains a need for new kinase inhibitors, in particular those that exhibit a different profile of kinases to the kinases inhibited by dasatinib. For example, new kinase inhibitors which: (i) are more specific to key disease-related kinases (eg, BCR-ABL), relative to other kinases, than the specificity shown by dasatinib to one or more such other kinases; (ii) inhibit key disease- or side-effect-related kinases in a different profile than dasatinib (eg to KIT and/or FLT3); and/or (iii) inhibit one or more mutant of a disease-related kinase, in particular a mutant that is resistant to one or other kinase inhibitor, such as mutants of ABL/BCR-ABL or KIT.

[17] Furthermore, although dasatinib is metabolised in humans primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4), it is also a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Indeed, the dosage of dasatinib must be significantly reduced (eg from lOOmg daily to 20mg daily) if the patient is concomitantly medicated with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (eg ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, and voriconazole), as these may increase dasatinib plasma concentrations to potentially unsafe levels. Grapefruit juice may also increase plasma concentrations of dasatinib and should also be avoided. Accordingly, there remains a need for new kinase inhibitors that show a pattern of cytochrome P450 inhibition (eg, to CYP3A4) that is different to dasatinib.

[18] Importantly, the dosage and administration of dasatinib should be stopped (or reduced) upon occurrence of myelosuppression. Indeed, myelosuppression is described as just one "Warning and Precaution" in the US Prescribing Information for dasatinib, because treatment with dasatinib is associated with severe (NCI CTC Grade 3 or 4) thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anaemia. In addition to causing thrombocytopenia in human subjects, in all clinical studies with dasatinib: (i) severe central nervous system (CNS) haemorrhages (including fatalities) occurred in 1% of patients; (ii) severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage, including fatalities, occurred in 4% of patients and generally required treatment interruptions and transfusions; and (iii) other cases of severe haemorrhage occurred in 2% of patients.

[19] Yet further "Warning and Precautions" of dasatinib include that: (x) it is associated with fluid retention, with severe fluid retention reported in up to 10% of patients in clinical trials; (y) it has the potential to prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization (QT interval), and up to 1% of CML patients in clinical trials experienced a QT prolongation; and (z) cardiac adverse reactions were reported in 5.8% of 258 patients taking dasatinib, including 1.6% of patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure congestive, diastolic dysfunction, fatal myocardial infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction.

[20] Indeed, dasatinib is known to be an inhibitor of hERG (Pharmacological/Toxicity Review and Evaluation of NDA 21-986, page 31). hERG (the human "Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene") is an ion channel that contributes to the electrical activity of the heart and coordinates the heart's beating. When this channel's ability to conduct electrical current across the cell membrane is inhibited or compromised (eg by administration of a drug) it can result in "long QT syndrome" which can be potentially fatal. Accordingly, there remains a need for new kinase inhibitors that show inhibition of hERG that is different to dasatinib. For example, it would be advantageous to provide a new kinase inhibitor that exhibits an IC50 to hERG that is greater than that of dasatinib.

[21] Compared to other BCR-ABL inhibitors, dasatinib has an extremely short half-life: with an overall mean terminal half-life of only 3-5 hours (section 12.3 "Pharmacokinetics" of the Full Prescribing Information). In stark contrast: the elimination half-life of imatinib is approximately 18 hours; the mean terminal phase elimination half-life of bosutinib is 22.5 hours; the apparent elimination half-life for nilotinib is approximately 17 hours; and the geometric mean terminal elimination half-life of ponatinib is approximately 24 hours. Without being bound by theory, the short half-life of dasatinib - indicated for dosage once daily - may account for limited activity associated with lower in-vivo drug-concentrations later in the day and/or side effects associated with peak/higher in-vivo drug-concentrations soon after dosage. Accordingly, there remains a need for new kinase inhibitors that exhibit properties of longer half-lives (eg, than those shown by dasatinib). For example, an advantageous kinase inhibitor may be one that is more stable than dasatinib, for example by exhibiting a longer half-life in a plasma and/or liver-microsome stability assay.

[22] Further precautions, adverse events and other prescribing information of dasatinib can be found from the respective Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) of Full Prescribing Information as may be found from the respective web site of the EMA and FDA (respectively shown below, accessed 20-Aug-2018, and the contents of each are incorporated by reference in their entirety herein): (i) http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-

_Product_Information/human/000709/WC500056998.pdf, and (ii) https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/02 1986s7s8lbl.pdf.

[23] Accordingly, it is one object of the present invention to provide a kinase inhibitor that has one or more properties (such as those shown by in-vitro and/or in-vivo assays) that address one or more of these or other problems. In other objects, the present invention provides an alternative and/or improved kinase inhibitor to dasatinib (or one or other kinase inhibitor, such as those described herein). For example, a kinase inhibitor that exhibits one or more functional (eg, kinase selectivity) and/or ADMET properties that are different to, and/or are improved compared to, dasatinib (or one or other kinase inhibitor, such as those described herein), would be particularly advantageous. An object underlying the present invention is solved by the subject matter as disclosed or defined anywhere herein, for example by the subject matter of the attached itemised embodiments or claims.

[24] Generally, and by way of brief description, the main aspects of the present invention can be summarised as follows:

[25] In a first aspect, the invention relates to a compound, consisting of a kinase inhibitor of formula (I), for example being N-(4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((6-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)p iperazin-l-yl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4- yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxamide, and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof. In a related aspect, the invention relates to at least one container containing more than about lOg of such compound.

[26] In a second aspect, the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition that comprises a compound of the invention.

[27] In further aspects, the invention relates to a compound or pharmaceutical for use as a medicament, in particular for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the treatment comprising administering the compound or the pharmaceutical composition of the invention to the subject.

[28] The invention also relates to various other aspects, as described herein, including various therapeutic uses of the compounds or the pharmaceutical compositions, as well as to methods to prepare such compounds or pharmaceutical compositions, and to intermidates and uses thereof, as further to methods of delivereing and/or packaging the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

[29] The figures show:

[30] Figure 1: depicts the chemical structures of: (A) dasatinib (compound A8), N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2- ((6-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-l-yl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-y l)amino)thiazole-5-carboxamide; and (B) the kinase inhibitor B3, N-(4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((6-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)p iperazin-l-yl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4- yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxamide.

[31] Figure 2: depicts inhibitory activity of the kinase inhibitor B3 (left column) compared to dasatinib (A8, right column), against the kinases (A) ABL1; (B) SRC; (C) SIK1; (D) SIK2; and (E) SIK3. X-axes compound concentration (M), and Y-axes kinase activity (%).

[32] Figure 3: depicts selectivity of kinase inhibition for 320 different kinases by % residual activity (at luM compound) of the kinase inhibitor B3 and dasatinib (A8) : **** <25% residual activity; *** 25% to <50% residual activity; ** 50% to <75% residual activity; * >75% residual activity. Classification of protein kinase families (Manning et al. Science 6 December 2002: Vol. 298 no. 5600 pp. 1912-1934) : AGC: containing PKA, PKG and PKC families; CAMK: Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases; CK1 : Casein kinase 1-like; CMGC: containing CDK, MAPK, GSK3 and CLK families; TK: Tyrosine Kinase; TKL: Tyrosine Kinase-like; STE: Homologs of Yeast Sterile 7, Sterile 11, Sterile 20 Kinases. ## Constitutively active kinase.

[33] Figure 4: depicts selectivity of kinase inhibition for 320 different kinases (by % residual activity at luM compound) by a kinase inhibitor B3 (X-axis) compared to dasatinib (A8; Y-axis): (A) axes showing the full range of residual activity; and (B) axes showing the range of 0 to 50% residual activity.

[34] Figure 5: depicts inhibitory activity of kinase inhibitor B3 (left column) compared to dasatinib (A8, right column), against the kinases (A) FLT3; (B) SYK; (C) KIT; and (D) LCK. X-axes compound concentration (M), and Y- axes kinase activity (%).

[35] Figure 6: depicts sensitisation of tumour-cells to in-vitro TNF-attack by (A) the kinase inhibitor B3; and (B) A8 (dasatinib). Circles: compound (concentration as shown) plus rHuTNF (lOng/mL); squares: compound alone (concentration as shown) without rHuTNF.

[36] Figure 7: depicts relative tumour cell survival (Normalised RLU by cytotoxicity/viability) of certain kinase inhibitors described in PCT/EP2018/060172 in the assay using M579-A2-luc described in Example 9 at various concentrations either alone (squares) or in combination with lOng/mL of TNF (circles). Also shown are indicative inhibitory activities of the compound for SIK-family members and for the related kinases ABL1 and SRC, shown with the indicators used for Table 4. (A) The pan-SIK and ABL1 & SRC inhibitor, compound Bl; (B) The ABL1 & SRC inhibitor, compound B8. (C) The SIK1, SIK2 and ABL1 & SRC inhibitor, compound B4.

[37] The present invention, and particular non-limiting aspects and/or embodiments thereof, can be described in more detail as follows.

[38] Although the present invention may be further described in more detail, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodologies, protocols and reagents described herein as these may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention which will be limited only by what is described, defined or otherwise disclosed herein, in particular in any itemised embodiments or the appended claims.

[39] Herein, certain elements of the present invention are described in more detail. These elements are listed with specific embodiments, however, it should be understood that they may be combined in any manner and in any number to create additional embodiments. The variously described examples and preferred embodiments should not be construed to limit the present invention to only the explicitly described embodiments. The description of this application should be understood to support and encompass embodiments which combine the explicitly described embodiments with any number of the disclosed and/or preferred elements. Furthermore, any permutations and combinations of all described elements in this application should be considered disclosed by the description of the present application unless the context indicates otherwise. For example, if in one embodiment of the use of a compound of the invention the subject is an adult human and in another embodiment of the use of a compound of the invention the proliferative disorder is prostate cancer, then in a preferred embodiment of the use of a compound of the invention, the subject is an adult human and the proliferative disorder is prostate cancer.

General definitions

[40] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[41] Preferably, the terms used herein are defined as described in "A multilingual glossary of biotechnological terms: (IUPAC Recommendations)", H.G.W. Leuenberger, B. Nagel, and FI. Kolbl, Eds., Flelvetica Chimica Acta, CFH- 4010 Basel, Switzerland, (1995).

[42] The practice of the present invention will employ, unless otherwise indicated, conventional methods of chemistry, biochemistry, and recombinant DNA techniques which are explained in the literature in the field (cf., e.g., Molecular Cloning : A Laboratory Manual, 2 nd Edition, J. Sambrook et al. eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor 1989).

[43] Throughout this specification and the claims which follow, unless the context requires otherwise, the word

"comprise", and variations such as "comprises" and "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated member, integer or step or group of members, integers or steps but not the exclusion of any other member, integer or step or group of members, integers or steps. The term "consisting essentially of" means excluding other members, integers or steps of any essential significance or group of members, integers or steps of any essential significance. For example, a pharmaceutical composition consisting essentially of the members/components as defined herein (such as a compound as defined in any of the aspects of the invention and optionally one additional therapeutic agent) would exclude further therapeutic agents (besides the compound as defined in any of the aspects of the invention and the optional one additional therapeutic agent) but would not exclude contaminants (e.g., those from the isolation and purification method) in trace amounts (e.g., the amount of the contaminant (preferably the amount of all contaminants present in the composition) is less than 5% by weight, such as less than 4% by weight, 3% by weight, 2% by weight, 1% by weight, 0.5% by weight, 0.4% by weight, 0.3% by weight, 0.2% by weight, 0.1% by weight, 0.05% by weight, with respect to the total composition) and/or pharmaceutically acceptable excipients (such as carriers, e.g., phosphate buffered saline, preservatives, and the like). The term "consisting of" means excluding all other members, integers or steps of significance or group of members, integers or steps of significance. For example, a pharmaceutical composition consisting of the members/components as defined herein (such as a compound as defined in any of the aspects of the invention, one excipient, and optionally one additional therapeutic agent) would exclude any other compound (including a second or further excipient) in an amount of more than 2% by weight (such as any other compound in an amount of more 1% by weight, more than 0.5% by weight, more than 0.4% by weight, more than 0.3% by weight, more than 0.2% by weight, more than 0.1% by weight, more than 0.09% by weight, more than 0.08% by weight, more than 0.07% by weight, more than 0.06% by weight, more than 0.05% by weight, more than 0.04% by weight, more than 0.03% by weight, more than 0.02% by weight, more than 0.01% by weight) with respect to the total composition. The term "comprising" encompasses the term "consisting essentially of" which, in turn, encompasses the term "consisting of". Thus, at each occurrence in the present application, the term "comprising" may be replaced with the term "consisting essentially of" or "consisting of". Likewise, at each occurrence in the present application, the term "consisting essentially of" may be replaced with the term "consisting of".

[44] Where used herein, "and/or" is to be taken as specific disclosure of each of the two specified features or components with or without the other. For example, "X and/or Y" is to be taken as specific disclosure of each of (i) X, (ii) Y, and (iii) X and Y, just as if each is set out individually herein.

[45] In the context of the present invention, the terms "about" and "approximately" are used interchangeably and denote an interval of accuracy that the person of ordinary skill will understand to still ensure the technical effect of the feature in question. The term typically indicates deviation from the indicated numerical value by ±5%, ±4%, ±3%, ±2%, ±1%, ±0.9%, ±0.8%, ±0.7%, ±0.6%, ±0.5%, ±0.4%, ±0.3%, ±0.2%, ±0.1%, ±0.05%, and for example ±0.01%. As will be appreciated by the person of ordinary skill, the specific such deviation for a numerical value for a given technical effect will depend on the nature of the technical effect. For example, a natural or biological technical effect may generally have a larger such deviation than one for a man-made or engineering technical effect. As will be appreciated by the person of ordinary skill, the specific such deviation for a numerical value for a given technical effect will depend on the nature of the technical effect. For example, a natural or biological technical effect may generally have a larger such deviation than one for a man-made or engineering technical effect.

[46] The terms "a", "an" and "the" and similar references used in the context of describing the invention (especially in the context of the claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by the context.

[47] Recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein.

[48] All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by the context.

[49] The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., "such as"), provided herein is intended merely to better illustrate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.

[50] Several documents are cited throughout the text of this specification. Each of the documents cited herein (including all patents, patent applications, scientific publications, manufacturer's specifications, instructions, etc.), whether supra or infra, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the invention is not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention.

[51] The terms "of the [present] invention", "in accordance with the [present] invention", "according to the

[present] invention" and the like, as used herein are intended to refer to all aspects and embodiments of the invention described and/or claimed herein.

[52] It is to be understood that the application of the teachings of the present invention to a specific problem or environment, and the inclusion of variations of the present invention or additional features thereto (such as further aspects and embodiments), will be within the capabilities of one having ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings contained herein.

[53] Unless context dictates otherwise, the descriptions and definitions of the features set out above or below are not limited to any particular aspect or embodiment of the invention and apply equally to all aspects and embodiments that are described.

[54] The term "optional" or "optionally" as used herein means that the subsequently described event, circumstance or condition may or may not occur, and that the description includes instances where said event, circumstance, or condition occurs and instances in which it does not occur. [55] The term "half-life" relates to the period of time which is needed to eliminate half of the activity, amount, or number of molecules. In the context of the present invention, the half-life of a compound of formula (I) is indicative for the stability of said compound.

[56] The terms "subject", "patient", "individual", or "animal" relate to multicellular animals, such as vertebrates. For example, vertebrates in the context of the present invention are mammals, birds (e.g., poultry), reptiles, amphibians, bony fishes, and cartilaginous fishes, in particular domesticated animals of any of the foregoing as well as animals (in particular vertebrates) in captivity such as animals (in particular vertebrates) of zoos. Mammals in the context of the present invention include, but are not limited to, humans, non-human primates, domesticated mammals, such as dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, horses etc., laboratory mammals such as mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc. as well as mammals in captivity such as mammals of zoos. The term "animal" as used herein also includes humans. Particular non-limiting examples of birds include domesticated poultry, and include birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, pigeons, pheasants etc.; while particular non-limiting examples of bony or cartilaginous fish include those suitable for cultivation by aquiculture, and include bony fish such as salmon, trout, perch, carp, cat-fish, etc.

Compounds

[57] In a first aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the present invention relates to a compound consisting of a kinase inhibitor of the formula :

wherein:

each of R2 and R3 is (in one embodiment) H (for example, both of R2 and R3 is H); and

R1 is 4-chloro-2-methlypyridin-3-yl :

and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof.

[58] Isomers" are compounds having the same molecular formula but differ in structure ("structural isomers") or in the geometrical (spatial) positioning of the functional groups and/or atoms ("stereoisomers"). "Enantiomers" are a pair of stereoisomers which are non-superimposable mirror-images of each other. A "racemic mixture" or "racemate" contains a pair of enantiomers in equal amounts and is denoted by the prefix (±). "Diastereomers" are stereoisomers which are non-superimposable and which are not mirror-images of each other. "Tautomers" are structural isomers of the same chemical substance that spontaneously and reversibly interconvert into each other, even when pure, due to the migration of individual atoms or groups of atoms; i.e., the tautomers are in a dynamic chemical equilibrium with each other. An example of tautomers are the isomers of the keto-enol-tautomerism. "Conformers" are stereoisomers that can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds, and include - in particular - those leading to different 3-dimentional forms of (hetero)cyclic rings, such as chair, half-chair, boat, and twist-boat forms of cyclohexane.

[59] In case a structural formula shown in the present application can be interpreted to encompass more than one isomer, said structural formula, unless explicitly stated otherwise, encompasses all possible isomers and, hence, each individual isomer.

[60] "Polymorphism" as referred to herein means that a solid material (such as a compound) is able to exist in more than one form or crystalline structure, e.g., "polymorphic modifications" or "polymorphic forms". The terms "polymorphic modifications", "polymorphic forms", and "polymorphs" are used interchangeable in the present invention. According to the present invention, these "polymorphic modifications" include crystalline forms, amorphous forms, solvates, and hydrates. Mainly, the reason for the existence of different polymorphic forms lies in the use of different conditions during the crystallization process, such as the following :

• solvent effects (the packing of crystal may be different in polar and nonpolar solvents);

• certain impurities inhibiting growth pattern and favor the growth of a metastable polymorphs;

• the level of supersaturation from which material is crystallized (in which generally the higher the concentration above the solubility, the more likelihood of metastable formation);

• temperature at which crystallization is carried out;

• geometry of covalent bonds (differences leading to conformational polymorphism);

• change in stirring conditions.

[61] Polymorphic forms may have different chemical, physical, and/or pharmacological properties, including but not limited to, melting point, X-ray crystal and diffraction pattern, chemical reactivity, solubility, dissolution rate, vapor pressure, density, hygroscopicity, flowability, stability, compactability, and bioavailability. Polymorphic forms may spontaneously convert from a metastable form (unstable form) to the stable form at a particular temperature. According to Ostwald's rule, in general it is not the most stable but the least stable polymorph that crystallizes first. Thus, quality, efficacy, safety, processability and/or manufacture of a chemical compound, such as a compound of the present invention, can be affected by polymorphism. Often, the most stable polymorph of a compound (such as a compound of the present invention) is chosen due to the minimal potential for conversion to another polymorph. However, a polymorphic form which is not the most stable polymorphic form may be chosen due to reasons other than stability, e.g. solubility, dissolution rate, and/or bioavailability.

[62] The term "crystalline form" of a material as used herein means that the smallest components (i.e., atoms, molecule or ions) of said material form crystal structures. A "crystal structure" as referred to herein means a unique three-dimensional arrangement of atoms or molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid and is characterized by a pattern, a set of atoms arranged in a particular manner, and a lattice exhibiting long-range order and symmetry. A lattice is an array of points repeating periodically in three dimensions and patterns are located upon the points of a lattice. The subunit of the lattice is the unit cell. The lattice parameters are the lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them. The symmetry properties of the crystal are embodied in its space group. In order to describe a crystal structure the following parameters are required : chemical formula, lattice parameters, space group, the coordinates of the atoms and occupation number of the point positions.

[63] The term "amorphous form" of a material as used herein means that the smallest components (i.e., atoms, molecule or ions) of said material are not arranged in a lattice but are arranged randomly. Thus, unlike crystals in which a short-range order (constant distances to the next neighbor atoms) and a long-range order (periodical repetition of a basic lattice) exist, only a short-range order exists in an amorphous form.

[64] The term "complex of a compound" as used herein refers to a compound of higher order which is generated by association of the compound with other one or more other molecules. Exemplary complexes of a compound include, but are not limited to, solvates, clusters, and chelates of said compound.

[65] The term "solvate" as used herein refers to an addition complex of a dissolved material in a solvent (such as an organic solvent (e.g., an aliphatic alcohol (such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol), acetone, acetonitrile, ether, and the like), water or a mixture of two or more of these liquids), wherein the addition complex exists in the form of a crystal or mixed crystal. The amount of solvent contained in the addition complex may be stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric. A "hydrate" is a solvate wherein the solvent is water.

[66] In isotopically labeled compounds one or more atoms are replaced by a corresponding atom having the same number of protons but differing in the number of neutrons. For example, a hydrogen atom may be replaced by a deuterium atom. Exemplary isotopes which can be used in the compounds of the present invention include deuterium, U C, 13 C, 14 C, 15 N, 18 F, 32 P, 32 S, 35 S, 36 CI, and 125 I.

[67] In a suitable embodiment, a kinase inhibitor of formula (I) is the compound :

and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof.

[69] In certain embodiments, the invention may relate to a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, prodrugs or combination thereof, of any of the compounds above; such as a solvate, salt, complex, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof, of such compound.

[70] The compounds of the invention which contain a basic functionality may form salts with a variety of inorganic or organic acids. The compounds of the invention which contain an acidic functionality may form salts with a variety of inorganic or organic bases. Exemplary inorganic and organic acids/bases as well as exemplary acid/base addition salts of the compounds of the present invention are given in the definition of "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" in the section "Pharmaceutical composition", below. The compounds of the invention which contain both basic and acidic functionalities may be converted into either base or acid addition salt. The neutral forms of the compounds of the invention may be regenerated by contacting the salt with a base or acid and isolating the parent compound in the conventional manner.

[71] The compounds of the invention may be in a prodrug form. Prodrugs of the compounds of the invention are those compounds that upon administration to an individual undergo chemical conversion under physiological conditions to provide the compounds of the invention. Additionally, prodrugs can be converted to the compounds of the invention by chemical or biochemical methods in an ex vivo environment. For example, prodrugs can be slowly converted to the compounds of the invention when, for example, placed in a transdermal patch reservoir with a suitable enzyme or chemical reagent. Exemplary prodrugs are esters (using an alcohol or a carboxy group contained in the kinase inhibitor of the invention) or amides (using an amino or a carboxy group contained in the kinase inhibitor of the invention) which are hydrolyzable in vivo. Specifically, any amino group which is contained in the kinase inhibitor of the invention and which bears at least one hydrogen atom can be converted into a prodrug form. Typical N-prodrug forms include carbamates (1), Mannich bases (2), enamines (3), and enaminones (4). The prodrug properties (such as solubility, permeability, stability, how fast cleaved, where in the body cleaved under what conditions, target specificity, etc.) can be fine-tuned via modification of R 18 .

wherein R 18 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl, wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) independently selected R 30 , wherein R 30 is as defined herein (preferably, each R 30 is independently a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein), and wherein ww represents the bond by which the group (eg, (1) to (4)) is bound to the remainder of the compound.

[72] The term "alkyl" refers to a monoradical of a saturated straight or branched hydrocarbon. Preferably, the alkyl group comprises from 1 to 12 (such as 1 to 10) carbon atoms, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 carbon atoms (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), more preferably 1 to 8 carbon atoms, such as 1 to 6 or 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Exemplary alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, iso-propyl (also called 2-propyl or 1- methylethyl), butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, iso-pentyl, sec-pentyl, neo-pentyl, 1,2-dimethyl-propyl, iso-amyl, n- hexyl, iso-hexyl, sec-hexyl, n-heptyl, iso-heptyl, n-octyl, 2-ethyl-hexyl, n-nonyl, n-decyl, n-undecyl, n-dodecyl, and the like. A "substituted alkyl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an alkyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the alkyl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen, -OH, -NH 2 , -NHCH 3 , -N(CH 3 ) 2 , -CN, -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , or optionally substituted aryl. Examples of a substituted alkyl include trifluoromethyl, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-aminoethyl, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl, arylalkyl (also called "aralkyl", e.g., benzyl, chloro(phenyl)methyl, 4-methylphenylmethyl, (2,4-dimethylphenyl)methyl, o- fluorophenylmethyl, 2-phenylpropyl, 2-, 3-, or 4-carboxyphenylalkyl), or heteroarylalkyl (also called "heteroaralkyl").

[73] The term "alkylene" refers to a diradical of a saturated straight or branched hydrocarbon. Preferably, the alkylene comprises from 1 to 12 (such as 1 to 10) carbon atoms, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 carbon atoms (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), more preferably 1 to 8 carbon atoms, such as 1 to 6 or 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Exemplary alkylene groups include methylene, ethylene (i.e., 1,1-ethylene, 1,2-ethylene), propylene (i.e., 1,1-propylene, 1,2-propylene (-CH(CH 3 )CH 2 -), 2,2-propylene (-C(CH 3 ) 2 -), and 1,3-propylene), the butylene isomers (e.g., 1,1-butylene, 1,2-butylene, 2,2-butylene, 1,3-butylene, 2,3-butylene (cis or trans or a mixture thereof), 1,4-butylene, 1,1-iso-butylene, 1,2-iso-butylene, and 1,3-iso-butylene), the pentylene isomers (e.g., 1,1- pentylene, 1,2-pentylene, 1,3-pentylene, 1,4-pentylene, 1,5-pentylene, 1,1-iso-pentylene, 1,1-sec-pentyl, 1,1-neo pentyl), the hexylene isomers (e.g., 1,1-hexylene, 1,2-hexylene, 1,3-hexylene, 1,4-hexylene, 1,5-hexylene, 1,6- hexylene, and 1,1-isohexylene), the heptylene isomers (e.g., 1,1-heptylene, 1,2-heptylene, 1,3-heptylene, 1,4- heptylene, 1,5-heptylene, 1,6-heptylene, 1,7-heptylene, and 1,1-isoheptylene), the octylene isomers (e.g., 1,1- octylene, 1,2-octylene, 1,3-octylene, 1,4-octylene, 1,5-octylene, 1,6-octylene, 1,7-octylene, 1,8-octylene, and 1,1- isooctylene), and the like. The straight alkylene moieties having at least 3 carbon atoms and a free valence at each end can also be designated as a multiple of methylene (e.g., 1,4-butylene can also be called tetra methylene). Generally, instead of using the ending "ylene" for alkylene moieties as specified above, one can also use the ending "diyl" (e.g., 1,2-butylene can also be called butan-l,2-diyl). A "substituted alkylene" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an alkylene group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the alkylene group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen or optionally substituted aryl. Examples of a substituted alkylene include chloromethylene, dichloromethylene, fluoromethylene, and difluoromethylene.

[74] The term "alkenyl" refers to a monoradical of an unsaturated straight or branched hydrocarbon having at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Generally, the maximal number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the alkenyl group can be equal to the integer which is calculated by dividing the number of carbon atoms in the alkenyl group by

2 and, if the number of carbon atoms in the alkenyl group is uneven, rounding the result of the division down to the next integer. For example, for an alkenyl group having 9 carbon atoms, the maximum number of carbon-carbon double bonds is 4. Preferably, the alkenyl group has 1 to 6 (such as 1 to 4), i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, carbon-carbon double bonds. Preferably, the alkenyl group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10) carbon atoms, i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 carbon atoms (such as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), more preferably 2 to 8 carbon atoms, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms or 2 to 4 carbon atoms. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, the alkenyl group comprises from 2 to 12 (e.g., 2 to 10) carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5) carbon-carbon double bonds, more preferably it comprises 2 to 8 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon-carbon double bonds, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms and 1, 2, or 3 carbon-carbon double bonds or 2 to 4 carbon atoms and 1 or 2 carbon-carbon double bonds. The carbon-carbon double bond(s) may be in cis (Z) or trans (E) configuration. Exemplary alkenyl groups include vinyl, 1-propenyl, 2-propenyl (i.e., allyl), 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-butenyl, 1-pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3- pentenyl, 4-pentenyl, 1-hexenyl, 2-hexenyl, 3-hexenyl, 4-hexenyl, 5-hexenyl, 1-heptenyl, 2-heptenyl, 3-heptenyl, 4- heptenyl, 5-heptenyl, 6-heptenyl, 1-octenyl, 2-octenyl, 3-octenyl, 4-octenyl, 5-octenyl, 6-octenyl, 7-octenyl, 1- nonenyl, 2-nonenyl, 3-nonenyl, 4-nonenyl, 5-nonenyl, 6-nonenyl, 7-nonenyl, 8-nonenyl, 1-decenyl, 2-decenyl, 3- decenyl, 4-decenyl, 5-decenyl, 6-decenyl, 7-decenyl, 8-decenyl, 9-decenyl, 1-undecenyl, 2-undecenyl, 3-undecenyl, 4-undecenyl, 5-undecenyl, 6-undecenyl, 7-undecenyl, 8-undecenyl, 9-undecenyl, 10-undecenyl, 1-dodecenyl, 2- dodecenyl, 3-dodecenyl, 4-dodecenyl, 5-dodecenyl, 6-dodecenyl, 7-dodecenyl, 8-dodecenyl, 9-dodecenyl, 10- dodecenyl, 11-dodecenyl, and the like. If an alkenyl group is attached to a nitrogen atom, the double bond cannot be alpha to the nitrogen atom. A "substituted alkenyl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an alkenyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the alkenyl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen or optionally substituted aryl. An example of a substituted alkenyl is styryl (i.e., 2-phenylvinyl).

[75] The term "alkenylene" refers to a diradical of an unsaturated straight or branched hydrocarbon having at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Generally, the maximal number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the alkenylene group can be equal to the integer which is calculated by dividing the number of carbon atoms in the alkenylene group by 2 and, if the number of carbon atoms in the alkenylene group is uneven, rounding the result of the division down to the next integer. For example, for an alkenylene group having 9 carbon atoms, the maximum number of carbon-carbon double bonds is 4. Preferably, the alkenylene group has 1 to 6 (such as 1 to 4), i.e., 1, 2, 3,

4, 5, or 6, carbon-carbon double bonds. Preferably, the alkenylene group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10) carbon atoms, i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 carbon atoms (such as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), more preferably 2 to 8 carbon atoms, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms or 2 to 4 carbon atoms. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, the alkenylene group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10 carbon) atoms and 1, 2, 3, 4,

5, or 6 (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5) carbon-carbon double bonds, more preferably it comprises 2 to 8 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon-carbon double bonds, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms and 1, 2, or 3 carbon-carbon double bonds or 2 to 4 carbon atoms and 1 or 2 carbon-carbon double bonds. The carbon-carbon double bond(s) may be in cis (Z) or trans (E) configuration. Exemplary alkenylene groups include ethen-l,2-diyl, vinylidene (also called ethenylidene), 1- propen-l,2-diyl, l-propen-l,3-diyl, l-propen-2,3-diyl, allylidene, l-buten-l,2-diyl, l-buten-l,3-diyl, l-buten-l,4-diyl, l-buten-2,3-diyl, l-buten-2,4-diyl, l-buten-3,4-diyl, 2-buten-l,2-diyl, 2-buten-l,3-diyl, 2-buten-l,4-diyl, 2-buten-2,3- diyl, 2-buten-2,4-diyl, 2-buten-3,4-diyl, and the like. If an alkenylene group is attached to a nitrogen atom, the double bond cannot be alpha to the nitrogen atom. A "substituted alkenylene" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an alkenylene group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the alkenylene group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen or optionally substituted aryl. Examples of a substituted alkenylene are l-phenyl-ethen-l,2-diyl and 2-phenyl-ethen-l,2-diyl.

[76] The term "alkynyl" refers to a monoradical of an unsaturated straight or branched hydrocarbon having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Generally, the maximal number of carbon-carbon triple bonds in the alkynyl group can be equal to the integer which is calculated by dividing the number of carbon atoms in the alkynyl group by 2 and, if the number of carbon atoms in the alkynyl group is uneven, rounding the result of the division down to the next integer. For example, for an alkynyl group having 9 carbon atoms, the maximum number of carbon-carbon triple bonds is 4. Preferably, the alkynyl group has 1 to 6 (such as 1 to 4), i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, more preferably 1 or 2 carbon-carbon triple bonds. Preferably, the alkynyl group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10) carbon atoms (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 carbon atoms, more preferably 2 to 8 carbon atoms, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms or 2 to 4 carbon atoms. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, the alkynyl group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10) carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 (preferably 1, 2, or 3)) carbon-carbon triple bonds, more preferably it comprises 2 to 8 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 (preferably 1 or 2) carbon-carbon triple bonds, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms and 1, 2 or 3 carbon-carbon triple bonds or 2 to 4 carbon atoms and 1 or 2 carbon-carbon triple bonds. Exemplary alkynyl groups include ethynyl, 1-propynyl, 2-propynyl, 1-butynyl, 2-butynyl, 3-butynyl, 1-pentynyl, 2-pentynyl, 3-pentynyl, 4- pentynyl, 1-hexynyl, 2-hexynyl, 3-hexynyl, 4-hexynyl, 5-hexynyl, 1-heptynyl, 2-heptynyl, 3-heptynyl, 4-heptynyl, 5- heptynyl, 6-heptynyl, 1-octynyl, 2-octynyl, 3-octynyl, 4-octynyl, 5-octynyl, 6-octynyl, 7-octynyl, 1-nonylyl, 2-nonynyl, 3-nonynyl, 4-nonynyl, 5-nonynyl, 6-nonynyl, 7-nonynyl, 8-nonynyl, 1-decynyl, 2-decynyl, 3-decynyl, 4-decynyl, 5- decynyl, 6-decynyl, 7-decynyl, 8-decynyl, 9-decynyl, and the like. If an alkynyl group is attached to a nitrogen atom, the triple bond cannot be alpha to the nitrogen atom. A "substituted alkynyl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an alkynyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the alkynyl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen or optionally substituted aryl.

[77] The term "alkynylene" refers to a diradical of an unsaturated straight or branched hydrocarbon having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Generally, the maximal number of carbon-carbon triple bonds in the alkynylene group can be equal to the integer which is calculated by dividing the number of carbon atoms in the alkynylene group by 2 and, if the number of carbon atoms in the alkynylene group is uneven, rounding the result of the division down to the next integer. For example, for an alkynylene group having 9 carbon atoms, the maximum number of carbon-carbon triple bonds is 4. Preferably, the alkynylene group has 1 to 6 (such as 1 to 4), i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (such as 1, 2, 3, or 4), more preferably 1 or 2 carbon-carbon triple bonds. Preferably, the alkynylene group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10) carbon atoms, i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 carbon atoms (such as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), more preferably 2 to 8 carbon atoms, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms or 2 to 4 carbon atoms. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, the alkynylene group comprises from 2 to 12 (such as 2 to 10) carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 (preferably 1, 2, or 3)) carbon-carbon triple bonds, more preferably it comprises 2 to 8 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 (preferably 1 or 2) carbon-carbon triple bonds, such as 2 to 6 carbon atoms and 1, 2 or 3 carbon-carbon triple bonds or 2 to 4 carbon atoms and 1 or 2 carbon-carbon triple bonds. Exemplary alkynylene groups include ethyn-l,2-diyl, l-propyn-l,3-diyl, l-propyn-3,3-diyl, l-butyn-l,3-diyl, 1- butyn-l,4-diyl, l-butyn-3,4-diyl, 2-butyn-l,4-diyl and the like. If an alkynylene group is attached to a nitrogen atom, the triple bond cannot be alpha to the nitrogen atom. A "substituted alkynylene" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an alkynylene group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the alkynylene group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen or optionally substituted aryl.

[78] The term "aryl" or "aromatic ring" refers to a monoradical of an aromatic cyclic hydrocarbon. Preferably, the aryl group contains 3 to 14 (e.g., 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10, such as 5, 6, or 10) carbon atoms which can be arranged in one ring (e.g., phenyl) or two or more condensed rings (e.g., naphthyl). Exemplary aryl groups include cyclopropenylium, cyclopentadienyl, phenyl, indenyl, naphthyl, azulenyl, fluorenyl, anthryl, and phenanthryl. Preferably, "aryl" refers to a monocyclic ring containing 6 carbon atoms or an aromatic bicyclic ring system containing 10 carbon atoms. Preferred examples are phenyl and naphthyl. Aryl does not encompass fullerenes. A "substituted aryl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to an aryl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the aryl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen, -CN, nitro, -OR 11 (e.g., -OH), -SR 11 (e.g., -SH), -N(R 12 )(R 13 ) (e.g., -NH 2 ), alkyl (e.g., Ci- 6 alkyl), alkenyl (e.g., C 2-6 alkenyl), and alkynyl (e.g., C 2.6 alkynyl). Examples of a substituted aryl include biphenyl, 2-fluorophenyl, 2-chloro-6-methylphenyl, anilinyl, 3-nitrophenyl, 4-hydroxyphenyl, methoxyphenyl (i.e., 2-, 3-, or 4-methoxyphenyl), and 4-ethoxyphenyl.

[79] The term "heteroaryl" or "heteroaromatic ring" means an aryl group as defined above in which one or more carbon atoms in the aryl group are replaced by heteroatoms (such as O, S, or N). Preferably, heteroaryl refers to a five or six-membered aromatic monocyclic ring, wherein 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms are replaced by the same or different heteroatoms of O, N, or S. Alternatively, it means an aromatic bicyclic or tricyclic ring system wherein 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 carbon atoms are replaced with the same or different heteroatoms of O, N, or S. Preferably, in each ring of the heteroaryl group the maximum number of O atoms is 1, the maximum number of S atoms is 1, and the maximum total number of O and S atoms is 2. For example, 3- to 14-membered heteroaryl encompasses monocyclic heteroaryl (e.g., 5- or 6-membered), bicyclic heteroaryl (e.g., 9- or 10-membered), and tricyclic heteroaryl (e.g., 13- or 14-membered). Exemplary heteroaryl groups include furanyl, thienyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl (1,2,5- and 1,2,3-), pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,4-), tetrazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, thiadiazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,5-), pyridyl (also called pyridinyl), pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazinyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-), benzofuranyl (1- and 2 ), indolyl, isoindolyl, benzothienyl (1- and 2-), lH-indazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzoxazolyl, indoxazinyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzotriazolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, benzodiazinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, benzotriazinyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,4-benzotriazinyl), pyridazinyl, phenoxazinyl, thiazolopyridinyl, pyrrolothiazolyl, phenothiazinyl, isobenzofuranyl, chromenyl, xanthenyl, phenoxathiinyl, pyrrolizinyl, indolizinyl, indazolyl, purinyl, quinolizinyl, phthalazinyl, naphthyridinyl (1,5-, 1,6-, 1,7-, 1,8-, and 2,6-), cinnolinyl, pteridinyl, carbazolyl, phenanthridinyl, acridinyl, perimidinyl, phenanthrolinyl (1,7-, 1,8-, 1,10-, 3,8-, and 4,7-), phenazinyl, oxazolopyridinyl, isoxazolopyridinyl, pyrrolooxazolyl, and pyrrolopyrrolyl. Exemplary 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl groups include furanyl, thienyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl (1,2,5- and 1,2,3-), pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,4-), thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, thiadiazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,5 ), pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazinyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-), and pyridazinyl. A "substituted heteroaryl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to a heteroaryl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the heteroaryl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen, CN, nitro, -OR 11 (e.g., -OH), -SR 11 (e.g., -SH), -N(R 12 )(R 13 ) (e.g., -NH 2 ), alkyl (e.g., Ci- 6 alkyl), alkenyl (e.g., C 2-6 alkenyl), and alkynyl (e.g., C 2.6 alkynyl). Examples of a substituted heteroaryl include 2,4-dimethylpyridin-3-yl, 2-methyl-4-bromopyridin-3-yl, 3-methyl-2-pyridin-2-yl, 3- chloro-5-methylpyridin-4-yl, 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl, 3,5-dimethylpyridin-4-yl, 2-methylpyridin-3-yl, 2-chloro-4- methyl-thien-3-yl, l,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl, 3,5-dimethyl-l,2-dioxazol-4-yl, l,2,4-trimethylpyrrol-3-yl, 3- phenyl pyrrolyl, 2,3'-bifuryl, 4-methylpyridyl, 2-, or 3-ethyli ndolyl .

[80] The term "cycloalkyl" or "cycloaliphatic" represents cyclic non-aromatic versions of "alkyl" and "alkenyl" with preferably 3 to 14 carbon atoms, such as 3 to 12 or 3 to 10 carbon atoms, i.e., 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14 carbon atoms (such as 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 carbon atoms), more preferably 3 to 7 carbon atoms. Exemplary cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclopropenyl, cyclobutyl, cyclobutenyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl, cycloheptenyl, cyclooctyl, cyclooctenyl, cyclononyl, cyclononenyl, cylcodecyl, cylcodecenyl, and adamantyl. The term "cycloalkyl" is also meant to include bicyclic and tricyclic versions thereof. If bicyclic rings are formed it is preferred that the respective rings are connected to each other at two adjacent carbon atoms, however, alternatively the two rings are connected via the same carbon atom, i.e., they form a spiro ring system or they form "bridged" ring systems. Preferred examples of cycloalkyl include C 3-8 -cycloalkyl, in particular cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, spiro[3,3]heptyl, spiro[3,4]octyl, spiro[4,3]octyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptyl, bicyclo[3.2.0]heptyl, bicyclo[2.2.1]heptyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl, bicyclo[5.1.0]octyl, and bicyclo[4.2.0]octyl. Cycloalkyl does not encompass fullerenes. A "substituted cycloalkyl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to a cycloalkyl group, e.g ., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the cycloalkyl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen, -CN, nitro, -OR 11 (e.g., -OH), -SR 11 (e.g., -SH), -N(R 12 )(R 13 ) (e.g., -NH 2 ), =X (e.g., =0, =S, or =NH), alkyl (e.g., Ci -6 alkyl), alkenyl (e.g., C 2.6 alkenyl), and alkynyl (e.g., C 2-6 alkynyl). Examples of a substituted cycloalkyl include oxocyclohexyl, oxocyclopentyl, fluorocyclohexyl, and oxocyclohexenyl.

[81] The term "heterocyclyl" or "heterocyclic ring" means a cycloalkyl group as defined above in which from 1, 2, 3, or 4 ring carbon atoms in the cycloalkyl group are replaced by heteroatoms (such as those selected from the group consisting of O, S, S(O), S(0) 2 , N, B, Si, and P, preferably selected from the group consisting of O, S, S(0) 2 , and N, more preferably selected from the group consisting of O, S, and N). If a ring of the heterocyclyl group only contains one type of heteroatom, the maximum number of said heteroatom in the ring of said heterocyclyl group may be as follows: 2 O atoms (preferably 1 O atom); 2 S atoms (preferably 1 S atom); 4 N atoms (such as 1, 2, or 3 N atoms); 2 B atoms (preferably 1 B atom); 1 Si atom; and/or 1 P atom. If a ring of the heterocyclyl group contains two or more types of heteroatoms, the maximum number of said heteroatoms in the ring of said heterocyclyl group may be as follows: 1 O atom; 1 S atom; 2 N atoms (preferably 1 N atom); 1 B atom; 1 Si atom; and/or 1 P atom, wherein the maximum total number of heteroatoms in the ring of said heterocyclyl group is 4 and the maximum total number of each heteroatom in the ring of said heterocyclyl group is as follows: 1 O atom; 1 S atom; 1 or 2 N atoms; 1 B atom (preferably 0 B atom); 1 Si atom (preferably 0 Si atom); and/or 1 P atom (preferably 0 P atom). In one embodiment, the heteroatoms of the heterocyclyl group are selected from the group consisting of O, S, and N. In this embodiment, preferably, in each ring of the heterocyclyl group the maximum number of O atoms is 1, the maximum number of S atoms is 1, and the maximum total number of O and S atoms is 2. For example, 3- to 14- membered heterocyclyl encompasses monocyclic heterocyclyl (e.g., 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-membered, preferably 4- to 7- membered), bicyclic heterocyclyl (e.g., 8-, 9-, or 10-membered), and tricyclic heterocyclyl (e.g., 12-, 13-, or 14- membered). If a heterocyclyl group comprises two or more rings, these rings either are fused (such as in quinolinyl or purinyl), are a spiro moiety, are a bridged structure, are linked via a double bond, or are a combination thereof. In other words, an unsubstituted heterocyclyl group does not encompass two heterocyclyl groups linked via a single bond. The term "heterocyclyl" is also meant to encompass partially or completely hydrogenated forms (such as dihydro, tetrahydro, hexahydro, octahydro, decahydro, dodecahydro, etc., or perhydro forms) of the above- mentioned heteroaryl groups. Exemplary heterocyclyl groups include azetidinyl, morpholino, isochromanyl, chromanyl, pyrrolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, triazininanyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-), di- and tetrahydrofuranyl, di- and tetra hydrothienyl, di- and tetrahydrooxazolyl, di- and tetrahydroisoxazolyl, di- and tetrahydrooxadiazolyl (1,2,5- and 1,2,3-), dihydropyrrolyl, dihydroimidazolyl, dihydro- pyrazolyl, di- and tetra hydrotriazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,4-), di- and tetra hydrothiazolyl, di- and tetra hydrothiazolyl, di- and tetrahydrothiadiazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,5-), di- and tetrahydropyridyl, di-, tetra- and hexahydropyrimidinyl, di- and tetra hydropyrazinyl, di- and tetra hydrotriazinyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-), di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydro- benzofuranyl (1- and 2-), di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydroindolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydroisoindolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzothienyl (1- and 2), di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydro-lH-indazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzimidazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzoxazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydroindoxazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzisoxazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzothiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzisothiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrobenzotriazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydro- quinolinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydroisoquinolinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydrobenzodiazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydroquinoxalinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydroquinazolinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydrobenzotriazinyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,4-), di-, tetra-, and hexahydropyridazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca- and dodecahydrophenoxazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydrothiazolopyridinyl (such as 4,5,6-7-tetra- hydro[l,3]thiazolo[5,4-c]pyridinyl or 4,5,6-7-tetrahydro[l,3]thiazolo[4,5-c]pyridinyl, e.g., 4,5,6-7-tetrahydro[l,3]- thiazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-2-yl or 4,5,6-7-tetrahydro[l,3]thiazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-2-yl), di-, tetra-, and hexahydro- pyrrolothiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydrophenothiazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydro- isobenzofuranyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydrochromenyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, and dodecahydro- xanthenyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, and dodecahydrophenoxathiinyl, di-, tetra-, and hexahydropyrrolizinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydroindolizinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydroindazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydropurinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octahydroquinolizinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydrophthalazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and decahydronaphthyridinyl (1,5-, 1,6-, 1,7-, 1,8-, and 2,6-), di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa- and deca hyd rod nnolinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, and decahydropteridinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca- and dodeca- hydrocarbazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, dodeca-, and tetradecahydrophenanthridinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, dodeca-, and tetradecahydroacridinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca- and dodecahydroperimidinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, dodeca-, and tetradecahydrophenanthrolinyl (1,7-, 1,8-, 1,10-, 3,8-, and 4,7-), di-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, dodeca-, and tetradecahydrophenazinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octa hyd rooxazolopyridinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octa hyd roisoxazolopyridinyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octa hyd rocyclopentapyrrolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octa hyd rocyclopentpyrazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octa hyd rocyclopentaimidazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydro- cyclopentathiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrocyclopentaoxazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrrolo- pyrrolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrrolopyrazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrroloimidazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrrolothiazolyl (such as 5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[3,4-d][l,3]thiazolyl), di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrrolooxazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrazolopyrazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydro- pyrazoloimidazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrazolothiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydropyrazolooxazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydroimidazoimidazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydroimidazothiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydroimidazooxazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrothiazolothiazolyl, di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrothiazolooxazolyl, and di-, tetra-, hexa- and octahydrooxazolooxazolyl. Exemplary 5- or 6-membered heterocyclyl groups include morpholino, pyrrolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, di- and tetrahydrofuranyl, di- and tetra hydrothienyl, di- and tetrahydrooxazolyl, di- and tetrahydroisoxazolyl, di- and tetrahydrooxadiazolyl (1,2,5- and 1,2,3-), dihydropyrrolyl, dihydroimidazolyl, dihydropyrazolyl, di- and tetrahydrotriazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,4-), di- and tetra hydrothiazolyl, di- and tetra hydroisothiazolyl, di- and tetra hydrothiadiazolyl (1,2,3- and 1,2,5-), di- and tetra hydropyridyl, di-, tetra-, and hexahydropyrimidinyl, di- and tetrahydropyrazinyl, di- and tetra hydrotriazinyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-), and triazinanyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-).

[82] A "substituted heterocyclyl" means that one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to a heterocyclyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) hydrogen atoms of the heterocyclyl group are replaced with a substituent other than hydrogen (when more than one hydrogen atom is replaced the substituents may be the same or different). Preferably, the substituent other than hydrogen is a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein, such as halogen, -CN, nitro, -OR 11 (e.g., -OH), -SR 11 (e.g., -SH), -N(R 12 )(R 13 ) (e.g., -NH 2 ), =X (e.g., =0, =S, or =NH), alkyl (e.g., Ci- 6 alkyl), alkenyl (e.g., C 2-6 alkenyl), and alkynyl (e.g., C 2.6 alkynyl).

[83] The expression "partially hydrogenated form" of an unsaturated compound or group as used herein means that part of the unsaturation has been removed by formally adding hydrogen to the initially unsaturated compound or group without removing all unsaturated moieties. The phrase "completely hydrogenated form" of an unsaturated compound or group is used herein interchangeably with the term "perhydro" and means that all unsaturation has been removed by formally adding hydrogen to the initially unsaturated compound or group. For example, partially hydrogenated forms of a 5-membered heteroaryl group (containing 2 double bonds in the ring, such as furan) include dihydro forms of said 5-membered heteroaryl group (such as 2,3-dihydrofuran or 2,5-dihydrofuran), whereas the tetrahydro form of said 5-membered heteroaryl group (e.g., tetra hydrofu ran, i.e., THF) is a completely hydrogenated (or perhydro) form of said 5-membered heteroaryl group. Likewise, for a 6-membered heteroaryl group having 3 double bonds in the ring (such as pyridyl), partially hydrogenated forms include di- and tetrahydro forms (such as di- and tetrahydropyridyl), whereas the hexahydro form (such as piperidinyl in case of the heteroaryl pyridyl) is the completely hydrogenated (or perhydro) derivative of said 6-membered heteroaryl group. Consequently, a hexahydro form of an aryl or heteroaryl can only be considered a partially hydrogenated form according to the present invention if the aryl or heteroaryl contains at least 4 unsaturated moieties consisting of double and triple bonds between ring atoms.

[84] The term "aromatic" as used in the context of hydrocarbons means that the whole molecule has to be aromatic. For example, if a monocyclic aryl is hydrogenated (either partially or completely) the resulting hydrogenated cyclic structure is classified as cycloalkyl for the purposes of the present invention. Likewise, if a bi- or polycyclic aryl (such as naphthyl) is hydrogenated the resulting hydrogenated bi- or polycyclic structure (such as 1,2- dihydronaphthyl) is classified as cycloalkyl for the purposes of the present invention (even if one ring, such as in 1,2- dihydronaphthyl, is still aromatic). A similar distinction is made within the present application between heteroaryl and heterocyclyl. For example, indolinyl, i.e., a dihydro variant of indolyl, is classified as heterocyclyl for the purposes of the present invention, since only one ring of the bicyclic structure is aromatic and one of the ring atoms is a heteroatom.

[85] The term "polycyclic" as used herein means that the structure has two or more (such as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10), preferably, 2, 3, 4, or 5, more preferably, 2, 3, or 4, rings. Therefore, according to the invention, the term "polycyclic" does not encompass monocyclic structures, wherein the structures only contain one ring. Examples of polycyclic groups are fused structures (such as naphthyl or anthryl), spiro compounds, rings that are linked via single or double bonds (such as biphenyl), and bridged structures (such as bornyl). Exemplary polycyclic structures are those aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl groups specified above which have at least two rings.

[86] The term "halogen" or "halo" means fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo.

[87] The term "azido" means -N 3 .

[88] R 30 is a 1 st level substituent and is, in each case, independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, halogen, -CN, azido, -N0 2 , -OR 71 , -N(R 72 )(R 73 ), -S(O) 0 -2R 71 , -S(0) 1-2 0R 71 , -0S(0) 1-2 R 71 , OS(0) 1-2 0R 71 , -S(0) 1-2 N(R 72 )(R 73 ), -0S(0) 1-2 N(R 72 )(R 73 ), -N(R 71 )S(0) 1-2 R 71 ,

-NR 71 S(0) !-2 0R 71 , -NR 71 S(0) !-2 N(R 72 )(R 73 ), -0P(0)(0R 71 ) 2 , -C(=X 1 )R 71 , -C(=X 1 )X 1 R 71 , -X 1 C(=X 1 )R 71 , and

-X 1 C(=X 1 )X 1 R 71 , and/or any two R 30 which are bound to the same carbon atom of a cycloalkyl or heterocyclyl group may join together to form =X x , wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl groups being a 1 st level substituent is optionally substituted by one or more 2 nd level substituents, wherein said 2 nd level substituent is, in each case, independently selected from the group consisting of Ci -6 alkyl, C 2.6 alkenyl, C 2.6 alkynyl, 6- to 14-membered aryl, 3- to 14-membered heteroaryl, 3- to 14-membered cycloalkyl, 3- to 14- membered heterocyclyl, halogen, -CF 3 , -CN, azido, -N0 2 , -OR 81 , -N(R 82 )(R 83 ), -S(O) 0-2 R 81 , -S(0)i- 2 0R 81 , -0S(0)i- 2 R 81 , -0S(0) !-2 0R 81 , -S(0) !-2 N(R 82 )(R 83 ), -0S(0) !-2 N(R 82 )(R 83 ), -N(R 81 )S(0) !-2 R 81 , -NR 81 S(0) !-2 0R 81 ,

-NR 81 S(0) !-2 N(R 82 )(R 83 ), -0P(0)(0R 81 ) 2 , -C(=X 2 )R 81 , -C(=X 2 )X 2 R 81 , -X 2 C(=X 2 )R 81 , and -X 2 C(=X 2 )X 2 R 81 , and/or any two 2 nd level substituents which are bound to the same carbon atom of a cycloalkyl or heterocyclyl group being a 1 st level substituent may join together to form =X 2 , wherein each of the Ci -6 alkyl, C 2.6 alkenyl, C 2.6 alkynyl, 6- to 14- membered aryl, 3- to 14-membered heteroaryl, 3- to 14-membered cycloalkyl, 3- to 14-membered heterocyclyl groups being a 2 nd level substituent is optionally substituted with one or more 3 rd level substituents, wherein said 3 rd level substituent is, in each case, independently selected from the group consisting of Ci -3 alkyl, halogen, -CF 3 , -CN, azido, -N0 2 , -OH, -0(C 1-3 alkyl), -OCF 3 , -S(C 1-3 alkyl), -NH 2 , -NH(C 1-3 alkyl), -N(C 1-3 alkyl) 2 , -NHS(0) 2 (C 1-3 alkyl), -S(0) 2 NH 2-Z (C 1-3 alkyl)„ -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)0(C 1-3 alkyl), -C(=0)NH 2-z (C 1-3 alkyl),, -NHC(=0)(C 1-3 alkyl), -NHC(=NH)NH Z.2 (CI- 3 alkyl),, and -N(CI -3 alkyl)C(=NH)NH 2.z (Ci- 3 alkyl)„ wherein each z is independently 0, 1, or 2 and each Ci -3 alkyl is independently methyl, ethyl, propyl or isopropyl, and/or any two 3 rd level substituents which are bound to the same carbon atom of a 3- to 14-membered cycloalkyl or heterocyclyl group being a 2 nd level substituent may join together to form =0, =S, =NH, or =N(CI_ 3 alkyl); wherein each of R 71 , R 72 , and R 73 is independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 2.6 alkenyl, C 2.6 alkynyl, 3- to 7-membered cycloalkyl, 5- or 6- membered aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, and 3- to 7-membered heterocyclyl, wherein each of the Ci -6 alkyl, C 2. 6 alkenyl, C 2.6 alkynyl, 3- to 7-membered cycloalkyl, 5- or 6-membered aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, and 3- to 7-membered heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one, two or three substituents independently selected from the group consisting of Ci -3 alkyl, halogen, -CF 3 , -CN, azido, -N0 2 , -OH, -0(Ci- 3 alkyl), -OCF 3 , =0, -S(Ci_ 3 alkyl), -NH 2 , -NH(C 1-3 alkyl), -N(C 1-3 alkyl) 2 , -NHS(0) 2 (C 1-3 alkyl),

-S(0) 2 NH 2 -,(C 1-3 alkyl)„ -C(=0)(C 1-3 alkyl), -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)0(C 1-3 alkyl), -C(=0)NH 2- ,(C 1-3 alkyl),, -NHC(=0)(C 1-3 alkyl), -NHC(=NH)NH,. 2 (CI- 3 alkyl),, and -N(CI -3 alkyl)C(=NH)NH 2- ,(Ci -3 alkyl),, wherein each z is independently 0, 1, or 2 and each Ci -3 alkyl is independently methyl, ethyl, propyl or isopropyl; wherein each of R 81 , R 82 , and R 83 is independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci_ 4 alkyl, C 2.4 alkenyl, C 2.4 alkynyl, 3- to 6-membered cycloalkyl, 5- or 6-membered aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, and 3- to 6-membered heterocyclyl, wherein each of the Ci-4 alkyl, C 2.4 alkenyl, 0 2-4 alkynyl, 3- to 6-membered cycloalkyl, 5- or 6-membered aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, and 3- to 6-membered heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one, two or three substituents independently selected from the group consisting of Ci -3 alkyl, halogen, -CF 3 , -CN, azido, -N0 2 , -OH, -0(Ci_ 3 alkyl), - OCF 3 , =0, -S(C 1-3 alkyl), -NH 2 , -NH(C 1-3 alkyl), -N(C 1-3 alkyl) 2 , -NHS(0) 2 (C 1-3 alkyl),

-S(0) 2 NH 2-Z (C 1-3 alkyl),, -C(=0)(C 1-3 alkyl), -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)0(C 1-3 alkyl), -C(=0)NH 2-z (C 1-3 alkyl),, -NHC(=0)(C 1-3 alkyl), -NHC(=NH)NH,. 2 (CI- 3 alkyl),, and -N(CI -3 alkyl)C(=NH)NH 2- ,(Ci -3 alkyl),, wherein each z is independently 0, 1, or 2 and each Ci -3 alkyl is independently methyl, ethyl, propyl or isopropyl; and each of X 1 and X 2 is independently selected from O, S, and N(R 84 ), wherein R 84 is H or Ci -3 alkyl.

[89] Particular prodrug forms of the compounds described above (eg having the general formual (I), such as co

(IXa) (IXb), and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, racemic mixtures, diastereomers, enantiomers, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, and combinations thereof;

wherein R 1 is as defined above (in particular with respect to formula (I)) or below, and each of R 2 and R 3 is independently selected from the group consisting of H,

-P(0)(0R lla ) 2 , -(CH 2 )I- 3 -R 19 , -C(=X a )R lla , and -C(=X a )X a R lla , with the proviso that not both of R 2 and R 3 are H, wherein R lla is independently selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl, wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) independently selected R 30 ; R 19 is independently selected from the group consisting of -0P(0)(0R lla ) 2 , -X a C(=X a )R lla , -X a C(=X a )X a R lla , and 5-alkyl-2-oxo-l,3-dioxolo-4-yl; X a is independently selected from O, S, and NH; and the -(CH 2 )I_ 3 - group is optionally substituted with one or two independently selected R 30 , wherein R 30 is as defined herein (preferably, each R 30 is independently selected from the group consisting of a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, and a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein). In one embodiment of the prodrug form having formula (IXa) or (IXb), R 1 is as defined above (in particular with respect to formula (I)) or below, and each of R 2 and R 3 is independently selected from the group consisting of H, - P(0)(OR lla ) 2 , -(CH2) 1-3 -R 19 , -C(=0)R lla , and

-C(=0)OR lla , with the proviso that not both of R 2 and R 3 are H, wherein R lla is independently selected from the group consisting of H and Ci -6 alkyl (preferably Ci -3 alkyl), wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from halogen, -OH, -OCH 3 , -SCH 3 , 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy, and -NH 2 -,(CH 3 )„ wherein z is 0, 1, or 2; R 19 is independently selected from the group consisting of -0P(0)(0R lla ) 2 , -OC(=0)R lla , -0C(=0)0R lla , and 5-(CI -3 alkyl)-2-oxo-l,3-dioxolo-4-yl; and the -(CH 2 )I_ 3 - group is optionally substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -OH, -OCH 3 , -SCH 3 , 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy, and -NH 2. ,(CH 3 )„ wherein z is 0, 1, or 2.

[90] For those compounds and prodrugs having any one of formulas (I), (IXa), and (IXb) and bearing one or more hydroxyl (i.e., -OH) groups, a further particular prodrug form is that wherein at least one of these two or more hydroxyl groups is derivatized to be a moiety selected from the group consisting of -0P(0)(0R lla ) 2 , -0(CH 2 )i_ 3 -R 19 , - OC(=X a )R lla , and -OC(=X a )X a R lla , wherein R lla is independently selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl, wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) independently selected R 30 ; R 19 is independently selected from the group consisting of

-OP(0)(OR lla ) 2 , -X a C(=X a )R lla , -X a C(=X a )X a R lla , and 5-alkyl-2-oxo-l,3-dioxolo-4-yl; X a is independently selected from O, S, and NH; and the -(CH 2 )I-3- group is optionally substituted with one or two independently selected R 30 , wherein R 30 is as defined herein (preferably, each R 30 is independently selected from the group consisting of a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, and a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein). In one embodiment of this prodrug form of the compounds of the invention having, the at least one derivatized hydroxyl group is selected from the group consisting of -OP(0)(OR lla ) 2 , -0(CH 2 )i_ 3 -R 19 , -OC(=0)R lla , and -0C(0)0R lla , wherein R lla is independently selected from the group consisting of H and Ci- 6 alkyl (preferably Ci_ 3 alkyl), wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from halogen, -OH, -OCH 3 , -SCH 3 , 2-(N,N- dimethylamino)ethoxy, and -NH 2.Z (CH 3 ) Z , wherein z is 0, 1, or 2; R 19 is independently selected from the group consisting of -0P(0)(0R lla ) 2 , -0C(=0)R lla , -0C(=0)0R lla , and 5-(CI_ 3 alkyl)-2-oxo-l,3-dioxolo-4-yl; and the -(CH 2 )I- 3 - group is optionally substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -OH, -OCH 3 , -SCH 3 , 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy, and -NH^CH^z, wherein z is 0, 1, or 2.

[91] In certain embodiments, the invention relates to solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, racemic mixtures, diastereomers, enantiomers, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, or combinations thereof, of a prodrug having the the formula (IXa) or (IXb); such as solvates, salts, complexes, racemic mixtures, diastereomers, enantiomers, conformers, tautomers, or isotopically labelled forms (or combinations thereof) of such a prodrug.

[92] The term "N-oxide" means an amine oxide or amine-N-oxide which is a chemical compound containing the functional group (R n ) 3 N + -0 , i.e., an N-0 coordinate covalent bond, wherein R n is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl, wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, or heterocyclyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) independently selected R 30 , the R 30 preferably being a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein.

[93] The compounds of the invention may be in the form of an N-oxide, i.e., they can contain the functional group ºN + -0 (e.g., (R n ) 3 N + -0 , i.e., an N-0 coordinate covalent bond, wherein R n is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl, wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl groups is optionally substituted with one or more (such as 1 to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, or heterocyclyl group, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or up to 10, such as between 1 to 5, 1 to 4, or 1 to 3, or 1 or 2) independently selected R 30 , the R 30 preferably being a 1 st level substituent, a 2 nd level substituent, or a 3 rd level substituent as specified herein). Particular examples of N-oxides of compounds of the invention are those containing the functional group ºN + -0 . Non-limiting examples of substituents of the compounds of the invention which can occur as N-oxides include the following : wherein ww represents the bond by which the substituent is bound to the remainder of the compound. [94] In a one particular embodiment, the compound is a hydrate, suitably a mono-hydrate or a di-hydrate of the kinase inhibitor of formula I (such as compound B3). In another suitable embodiment, the compound is a semi hydrate of the kinase inhibitor of formula I (such as compound B3).

[95] The compound can, in a certain embodiment, be in (eg, provided in) a purified or (eg substantially) pure form. For example, the compound may be greater than about 50% pure, such as greater than about 60%, 70% or 80% pure, suitably greater than about 90% pure (in particular, greater than about 95%, 97% 98% and even 99%). That is, in certain of such embodiments the compound is present together with only a limited amount of impurities (eg, such as those introduced during manufacturing), such as only small amounts of impurities are present, including embodiments where the compound is present in a from where impurities are substantially absent. The purity (eg, the absence, or degree of presence of impurities) of the compound can be determined by routine procedures eg by HLPC.

[96] In one embodiment, the present invention provides the compound containing less than about 50%, 40%, 30% and suitably 10% or 5% area by HPLC, preferably less than about 3% and 2% area by HPLC, more preferably less than 1% area by HPLC, of total impurities. The term "% area by HPLC" as used herein refers to the area in an HPLC chromatogram of one or more peaks compared to the total area of all peaks in the HPLC chromatogram expressed in percent of the total area. Further, the purity of the compound may be expressed herein as "HPLC" purity. As such, "HPLC purity", is a calculation of the area under the compound peak divided by the total area under the curve in an HPLC chromatogram. Suitably, the compound contains less than about 10% area by HPLC of total impurities. More preferably, less than about 5% area by HPLC of total impurities.

[97] In a related aspect, as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to one or more containers, wherein the containers (each independently, or all collectively) contain, a kinase inhibitor of the first aspect (eg, a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof) in an amount that is more than about lOmg; in particular, in an amount more than about 50mg or lOOmg; suitably an amount that is more than about lg, lOg, 50g or lOOg; or more than about 500g or lKg.

[98] In another aspect, may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a kinase inhibitor of the first aspect (eg, a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof) for use as medicament, for example for use in therapy. Pharmaceutical compositions

[99] In a second aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising compound of the first (or the alternative) aspect (eg, a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof), and optionally further comprising one more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

[100] Thus, in one embodiment the pharmaceutical composition comprises a kinase inhibitor as specified above and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. Furthermore, the pharmaceutical composition may further comprise one or more additional therapeutic agents. Thus, in particular embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition comprises (i) a kinase inhibitor as specified above and one or more additional therapeutic agents; or (ii) a kinase inhibitor as specified above, one or more additional therapeutic agents, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients

[101] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable" refers to the non-toxicity of a material which does not interact with the (eg, therapeutic) action of the active component (eg, a kinase inhibitor of the invention, either alone or in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents) of the pharmaceutical composition.

[102] The pharmaceutical composition may be administered to an individual by any route, such as enterally or parenterally.

[103] The expressions "enteral administration" and "administered enterally" as used herein mean that the drug administered is taken up by the stomach and/or the intestine. Examples of enteral administration include oral and rectal administration. The expressions "parenteral administration" and "administered parenterally" as used herein mean modes of administration other than enteral administration, usually by injection or topical application, and include, without limitation, intravenous, intramuscular, intraarterial, intrathecal, intracapsular, intraosseous, intraorbital, intracardiac, intradermal, intraperitoneal, transtracheal, subcutaneous, subcuticular, intraarticular, subcapsular, intracerebral, intracerebroventricular, subarachnoid, intraspinal, epidural and intrasternal administration (such as by injection and/or infusion) as well as topical administration (e.g., epicutaneous, inhalational, or through mucous membranes (such as buccal, sublingual or vaginal)).

[104] The compounds of the present invention are generally applied in "pharmaceutically acceptable amounts" and in "pharmaceutically acceptable preparations". Such compositions may contain salts, buffers, preserving agents, carriers and optionally other therapeutic agents. "Pharmaceutically acceptable salts" comprise, for example, acid addition salts which may, for example, be formed by mixing a solution of compounds with a solution of a pharmaceutically acceptable acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, carbonic acid or phosphoric acid. Furthermore, where the compound carries an acidic moiety, suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof may include alkali metal salts (e.g., sodium or potassium salts); alkaline earth metal salts (e.g., calcium or magnesium salts); and salts formed with suitable organic ligands (e.g., ammonium, quaternary ammonium and amine cations formed using counteranions such as halide, hydroxide, carboxylate, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, alkyl sulfonate and aryl sulfonate). Illustrative examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, acetate, adipate, alginate, arginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bicarbonate, bisulfate, bitartrate, borate, bromide, butyrate, calcium edetate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, camsylate, carbonate, chloride, citrate, clavulanate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dihydrochloride, dodecylsulfate, edetate, edisylate, estolate, esylate, ethanesulfonate, formate, fumarate, galactate, galacturonate, gluceptate, glucoheptonate, gluconate, glutamate, glycerophosphate, glycolylarsanilate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hexylresorcinate, hydrabamine, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, hydroxynaphthoate, iodide, isobutyrate, isothionate, lactate, lactobionate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonate, mandelate, mesylate, methanesulfonate, methylsulfate, mucate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, napsylate, nicotinate, nitrate, N-methylglucamine ammonium salt, oleate, oxalate, pamoate (embonate), palmitate, pantothenate, pectinate, persulfate, 3- phenyl propionate, phosphate/diphosphate, phthalate, picrate, pivalate, polygalacturonate, propionate, salicylate, stearate, sulfate, suberate, succinate, tannate, tartrate, teoclate, tosylate, triethiodide, undecanoate, valerate, and the like (see, for example, Berge et al., "Pharmaceutical Salts", J. Pharm. Sci., 66, pp. 1-19 (1977)).

[105] The term "excipient" when used herein is intended to indicate all substances in a pharmaceutical composition which are not active ingredients (e.g., which are therapeutically inactive ingredients that do not exhibit any therapeutic effect in the amount/concentration used), such as, e.g., carriers, binders, lubricants, thickeners, surface active agents, preservatives, stabilisers, emulsifiers, buffers, flavoring agents, colorants, or antioxidants.

[106] The compositions described in the present invention may comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, isotonic and absorption delaying agents, and the like that are physiologically compatible. The "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" may be in the form of a solid, semisolid, liquid, or combinations thereof. Preferably, the carrier is suitable for enteral (such as oral) or parenteral administration (such as intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, spinal or epidermal administration (e.g., by injection or infusion)). Depending on the route of administration, the active compound, eg, the compound of the present invention, either alone or in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents, may be coated in a material to protect the active compound(s) from the action of acids and other natural conditions that may inactivate the active compound.

[107] Examples of suitable aqueous and non-aqueous carriers which may be employed in the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention include water (e.g., water for injection), ethanol, polyols (such as glycerol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and the like), aqueous solutions of a salt, carbohydrate, sugar alcohol, or an amino acid (such as saline or an aqueous amino acid solution), and suitable mixtures and/or buffered forms thereof, vegetable oils (such as olive oil), and injectable organic esters (such as ethyl oleate). Proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of coating materials, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersions, and by the use of surfactants.

[108] Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active compounds is known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the active compound, use thereof in the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention is contemplated.

[109] Additional therapeutic agents can be administered together with, before or after the compound of the present invention (in particular that specified above such as those of formula (I), eg compound B3) or incorporated into the compositions). In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition described herein comprises a kinase inhibitor of the invention as described above (e.g. having the general formula (I) - such as compound B3 - or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination of any of the foregoing), at least one additional therapeutic agent, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

[110] The "additional therapeutic agent" (which is not a kinase inhibitor having formula (I) as specified herein, eg, is other than compound B3 - may be selected from any compound which can be used in the treatment of a disorder, disease or condition being a proliferative disorder (eg, a cancer, such as one described, defined or disclosed elsewhere herein), and/or caused by or associated with: (x) the (eg erroneous) expression and/or activity of kinase, such as SRC, ABL/BCR-ABL, LCK, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, FLT3 and/or KIT; and/or (y) cellular resistance to an (eg a cell- mediated) immune response. Examples of suitable additional therapeutic agents are defined or disclosed elsewhere herein, and include an EGFR inhibitor, gemcitabine, docetaxel, and immune checkpoint inhibitor (such as an inhibitor of PD1, PDL1, CTLA-4, LAG3 or IDOl, and in particular an immune checkpoint inhibitor selected from the list consisting of: nivolumab, relatlimab, ipilimumab and BMS-986205), TNF or an agonist of TNFR1- or TNFR2-signalling, adoptive cellular therapy including CAR T cells directed against a tumor antigen, vaccines including dendritic cell- (DC) based vaccination, or an agent that is capable of inducing or induces the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling, is administered to the subject. The additional therapeutic agent may induce an additive or synergistic therapeutic effect.

[111] The pharmaceutical composition described herein may comprise, in addition to the kinase inhibitor of the invention, at least one, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8, additional therapeutic agents. According to the present teaching, the at least one additional therapeutic agent may be formulated together with the kinase inhibitor of the invention in a single pharmaceutical composition. Alternatively, the pharmaceutical composition may be structured as kit of parts, wherein the kinase inhibitor of the invention is provided in a first formulation and the at least one additional therapeutic agent is provided in a second formulation, eg, a second pharmaceutical composition. The first and the second pharmaceutical compositions may be combined prior to use. In other words, before administering the pharmaceutical composition, a formulation comprising the additional therapeutic agent may be added to the first pharmaceutical composition comprising the kinase inhibitor of the invention. Alternatively, the present teaching envisages administering the kinase inhibitor of the invention formulated in a first pharmaceutical composition and administering the at least one additional therapeutic agent formulated in a second pharmaceutical composition. The pharmaceutical compositions may be administered concomitantly or in succession. For example, the first pharmaceutical composition may be administered at a first point in time and the second pharmaceutical composition may be administered at a second point in time, wherein the points in time may be separated by, for example, 0, or up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 min, up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 hours, up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 days, up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 weeks, up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 months or up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 years.

[112] The compositions may also contain adjuvants such as preservatives, stabilisers, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, pH buffering agents, and dispersing agents. Prevention of the presence of microorganisms may be ensured by sterilization procedures and/or by the inclusion of various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, paraben, chlorobutanol, phenol sorbic acid, and the like. It may also be desirable to include isotonic agents, such as sugars, sodium chloride, and the like into the compositions. In addition, prolonged absorption of the injectable pharmaceutical form may be brought about by the inclusion of agents which delay absorption such as aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

[113] Regardless of the route of administration selected, the active compounds, which may be used in a suitable hydrated form, and/or the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention, are formulated into pharmaceutically acceptable dosage forms by conventional methods known to those of skill in the art (cf., e.g., Remington, "The Science and Practice of Pharmacy" edited by Allen, Loyd V., Jr., 22nd edition, Pharmaceutical Sciences, September 2012; Ansel et al., "Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems", 7th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1999.).

[114] A pharmaceutical composition can be administered by a variety of methods known in the art. As will be appreciated by the skilled artisan, the route and/or mode of administration will vary depending upon the desired results. The pharmaceutical compositions containing one or more active compounds can be prepared with carriers that will protect the one or more active compounds against rapid release, such as a controlled release formulation, including implants, transdermal patches, and microencapsulated delivery systems. Biodegradable, biocompatible polymers can be used, such as ethylene vinyl acetate, polyanhydrides, polyglycolic acid, collagen, polyorthoesters, and polylactic acid. Methods for the preparation of such compositions are generally known to those skilled in the art. See, e.g., Sustained and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems, J. R. Robinson, ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1978.

[115] To administer a compound of the present invention by certain routes of administration, it may be necessary to coat the compound with, or co-administer the compound with, a material to prevent its inactivation. For example, the compound may be administered to an individual in an appropriate carrier, for example, liposomes, or a diluent. Pharmaceutically acceptable diluents include saline and aqueous buffer solutions. Liposomes include water-in-oil-in- water CGF emulsions as well as conventional liposomes (Strejan et al., J. Neuroimmunol. 7: 27(1984)).

[116] Pharmaceutical compositions typically are sterile and stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage. The composition can be formulated as a solution, microemulsion, liposome, or other ordered structure suitable to high drug concentration. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion and by the use of surfactants. In many cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars, polyalcohols such as mannitol, sorbitol, or sodium chloride in the composition. Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by including in the composition an agent that delays absorption, for example, monostearate salts and gelatin.

[117] An injectable composition should be sterile and fluid to the extent that the composition is deliverable by syringe. In addition to water, the carrier can be an isotonic buffered saline solution, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof. Sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the active compound in the required amount in an appropriate solvent with one or a combination of ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by sterilization microfiltration.

[118] Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the active compound into a sterile vehicle that contains a basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum drying and freeze-drying (lyophilization) that yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof.

[119] Dosage regimens are adjusted to provide the optimum desired response (e.g., a therapeutic response). For example, a single bolus may be administered, several divided doses may be administered over time or the dose may be proportionally reduced or increased as indicated by the exigencies of the therapeutic situation. It is especially advantageous to formulate parenteral compositions in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. Dosage unit form as used herein refers to physically discrete units suited as unitary dosages for the individuals to be treated; each unit contains a predetermined quantity of active compound calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect in association with the required pharmaceutical carrier. The specification for the dosage unit forms used according to the present invention are dictated by and directly dependent on (a) the unique characteristics of the active compound and the particular therapeutic effect to be achieved, and (b) the limitations inherent in the art of compounding such an active compound for the treatment of sensitivity in individuals.

[120] Examples of pharmaceutically-acceptable antioxidants include: (1) water soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, cysteine hydrochloride, sodium bisulfate, sodium meta bisulfite, sodium sulfite and the like; (2) oil- soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lecithin, propyl gallate, alpha-tocopherol, and the like; and (3) metal chelating agents, such as citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sorbitol, tartaric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like.

[121] For the therapeutic/pharmaceutical formulations, compositions according to the present invention include those suitable for enteral administration (such as oral or rectal) or parenteral administration (such as nasal, topical (including vaginal, buccal and sublingual)). The compositions may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods known in the art of pharmacy. The amount of active ingredient (in particular, the amount of a compound according to the present invention) which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a pharmaceutical composition (such as a single dosage form) will vary depending upon the individual being treated, and the particular mode of administration. The amount of active ingredient which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will generally be that amount of the composition which produces a therapeutic effect.

[122] Generally, out of 100% (for the pharmaceutical formulations/compositions), the amount of active ingredient (in particular, the amount of the compound according to the present invention, optionally together with other therapeutically active agents, if present in the pharmaceutical formulations/compositions) will range from about 0.01% to about 99%, preferably from about 0.1% to about 70%, most preferably from about 1% to about 30%, wherein the reminder is preferably composed of the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

[123] The amount of active ingredient, e.g., a compound according to the present invention, in a unit dosage form and/or when administered to an individual or used in therapy, may range from about 0.1 mg to about 1000 mg (for example, from about 1 mg to about 500 mg, such as from about 10 mg to about 200 mg) per unit, administration or therapy. In certain embodiments, a suitable amount of such active ingredient may be calculated using the mass or body surface area of the individual, including amounts of between about 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg (such as between about 2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg), or between about 1 mg/m 2 and about 400 mg/m 2 (such as between about 3 mg/m 2 and about 350 mg/m 2 or between about 10 mg/m 2 and about 200 mg/m 2 ).

[124] Actual dosage levels of the active ingredients in the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention may be varied so as to obtain an amount of the active ingredient which is effective to achieve the desired therapeutic response for a particular patient, composition, and mode of administration, without being toxic to the patient. The selected dosage level will depend upon a variety of pharmacokinetic factors including the activity of the particular compositions employed, the route of administration, the time of administration, the rate of excretion of the particular compound being employed, the duration of the treatment, other drugs, compounds and/or materials used in combination with the particular compositions employed, the age, sex, weight, condition, general health and prior medical history of the patient being treated, and like factors well known in the medical arts.

[125] A physician or veterinarian having ordinary skill in the art can readily determine and prescribe the (eg, therapeutically) effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition required. For example, the physician or veterinarian could start with doses of the compounds according to the present invention at levels lower than that required in order to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and gradually increase the dosage until the desired effect is achieved. In general, a suitable daily dose of a composition according to the present invention will be that amount of the compound which is the lowest dose effective to produce a therapeutic effect. Such an effective dose will generally depend upon the factors described above. It is preferred that administration be oral, intravenous, intramuscular, intra peritonea I, or subcutaneous, preferably administered proximal to the site of the target. If desired, the (eg, therapeutically) effective daily dose of a pharmaceutical composition may be administered as two, three, four, five, six or more sub-doses administered separately at appropriate intervals throughout the day, optionally, in unit dosage forms. While it is possible for a compound according to the present invention to be administered alone, it is preferable to administer the compound as a pharmaceutical formulation/composition.

[126] For oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention can take the form of, for example, tablets or capsules prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutical acceptable excipients such as binding agents (e.g., pregelatinised maize starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose), fillers (e.g., lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium hydrogen phosphate), lubricants (e.g., magnesium stearate, talc, silica), disintegrants (e.g., potato starch, sodium starch glycolate), or wetting agents (e.g., sodium lauryl sulphate). Liquid preparations for oral administration can be in the form of, for example, solutions, syrups, or suspensions, or can be presented as a dry product for constitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use. Such liquid preparation can be prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable additives such as suspending agents (e.g., sorbitol, syrup, cellulose derivatives, hydrogenated edible fats), emulsifying agents (e.g., lecithin, acacia), non-aqueous vehicles (e.g., almond oil, oily esters, ethyl alcohol, fractionated vegetable oils), preservatives (e.g., methyl or propyl-p-hydroxycarbonates, sorbic acids). The preparations can also contain buffer salts, flavouring, coloring and sweetening agents as deemed appropriate. Preparations for oral administration can be suitably formulated to give controlled release of the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

[127] In one embodiment, the compound is orally administered in a concentration of, for example, at most 100 mg/kg body weight (such as at most 50 mg/kg body weight, at most 40 mg/kg body weight, at most 30 mg/kg body weight, at most 20 mg/kg body weight, at most 10 mg/kg body weight, at most 5 mg/kg body weight, at most 4 mg/kg body weight, at most 3 mg/kg body weight, at most 2 mg/kg body weight, at most 1 mg/kg body weight).

[128] In one embodiment, the compound is parenterally administered (e.g., intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously), in a concentration of, for example, at most 10 mg/kg body weight (such as at most 5 mg/kg body weight, at most 4 mg/kg body weight, at most 3 mg/kg body weight, at most 2 mg/kg body weight, at most 1 mg/kg body weight, at most 0.5 mg/kg body weight, at most 0.4 mg/kg body weight, at most 0.3 mg/kg body weight, at most 0.2 mg/kg body weight, at most 0.1 mg/kg body weight).

[129] The pharmaceutical composition can be formulated as a suppository, with traditional binders and carriers such as triglycerides. Oral formulation can include standard carriers such as pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharine, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, etc.

[130] For administration by inhalation, the pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention is conveniently delivered in the form of an aerosol spray presentation from a pressurized pack or a nebulizer, with the use of a suitable propellant (e.g., dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or other suitable gas). In the case of a pressurized aerosol, the dosage unit can be determined by providing a valve to deliver a metered amount. Capsules and cartridges of, for example, gelatine, for use in an inhaler or insufflator can be formulated containing a powder mix of the pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention and a suitable powder base such as lactose or starch.

[131] The pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention can be formulated for parenteral administration by injection, for example, by bolus injection or continuous infusion. In one embodiment, the compounds or compositions according to the present invention may be administered by slow continuous infusion over a long period, such as more than 24 hours, in order to reduce toxic side effects. The administration may also be performed by continuous infusion over a period of from 2 to 24 hours, such as of from 2 to 12 hours. Such regimen may be repeated one or more times as necessary, for example, after 6 months or 12 months.

[132] In yet another embodiment, the compounds or compositions according to the present invention are administered by maintenance therapy, such as, e.g., once a week for a period of 6 months or more.

[133] Formulations for injection can be presented in units dosage form (e.g., in phial, in multi-dose container), and with an added preservative. The pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention can take such forms as suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and can contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing, or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the agent can be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle (e.g., sterile pyrogen-free water) before use. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where necessary, the composition can also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocaine to ease pain at the site of the injection. Generally, the ingredients are supplied either separately or mixed together in unit dosage form, for example, as a dry lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of active agent. Where the composition is to be administered by infusion, it can be dispensed with an infusion bottle containing sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the composition is administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water for injection or saline can be provided so that the ingredients can be mixed prior to administration.

[134] Compositions according to the present invention which are suitable for vaginal administration also include pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate. Dosage forms for the topical or transdermal administration of compositions according to the present invention include powders, sprays, ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, solutions, patches and inhalants. The active compound may be mixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and with any preservatives, buffers, or propellants which may be required.

[135] Therapeutic/pharmaceutical compositions can be administered with medical devices known in the art. For example, in a preferred embodiment, a therapeutic/pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention can be administered with a needleless hypodermic injection device, such as the devices disclosed in US 5,399,163; US 5,383,851; US 5,312,335; US 5,064,413; US 4,941,880; US 4,790,824; or US 4,596,556. Examples of well-known implants and modules useful in the present invention include those described in: US 4,487,603, which discloses an implantable micro-infusion pump for dispensing medication at a controlled rate; US 4,486,194, which discloses a therapeutic device for administering medicaments through the skin; US 4,447,233, which discloses a medication infusion pump for delivering medication at a precise infusion rate; US 4,447,224, which discloses a variable flow implantable infusion apparatus for continuous drug delivery; US 4,439,196, which discloses an osmotic drug delivery system having multi-chamber compartments; and US 4,475,916, which discloses an osmotic drug delivery system.

[136] Many other such implants, delivery systems, and modules are known to those skilled in the art. In certain embodiments, the compounds according to the present invention can be formulated to ensure proper distribution in vivo. For example, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) excludes many highly hydrophilic compounds. To ensure that the compounds according to the present invention cross the BBB (if desired), they can be formulated, for example, in liposomes. For methods of manufacturing liposomes, see, e.g., US 4,522,811; US 5,374,548; and US 5,399,331. The liposomes may comprise one or more moieties which are selectively transported into specific cells or organs, and thus enhance targeted drug delivery (see, e.g., V.V. Ranade (1989) J. Clin. Pharmacol. 29: 685). Exemplary targeting moieties include folate or biotin (see, e.g., US 5,416,016 to Low et al.); mannosides (Umezawa et al., (1988) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 153: 1038); antibodies (P.G. Bloeman et al. (1995) FEBS Lett. 357: 140; M. Owais et al. (1995) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 180); and surfactant protein A receptor (Briscoe et al. (1995) Am. J. Physiol. 1233: 134).

[137] In one embodiment, the compounds according to the present invention are formulated in liposomes. In a more preferred embodiment, the liposomes include a targeting moiety. In a most preferred embodiment, the compounds in the liposomes are delivered by bolus injection to a site proximal to the desired area. Such liposome- based composition should be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists, should be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and should be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.

[138] A "therapeutically effective dosage" for therapy/treatment can be measured by objective responses which can either be complete or partial. A complete response (CR) is defined as no clinical, radiological or other evidence of a condition, disorder or disease. A partial response (PR) results from a reduction in disease of greater than 50%. Median time to progression is a measure that characterizes the durability of the objective tumor response.

[139] A "therapeutically effective dosage" for therapy/treatment can also be measured by its ability to stabilise the progression of a condition, disorder or disease. The ability of a compound to inhibit one or more protein kinases or to reduce the viability of cells associated with a proliferative disorder, such as cancer cells can be evaluated by using appropriate in-vitro assays known to the skilled practitioner, such as those described herein (in particular in the Examples below). Alternatively, the properties of a compound described in the present invention can be evaluated by examining the ability of the compound in appropriate animal model systems known to the skilled practitioner, such as those described herein (in particular in the Examples below). A therapeutically effective amount of a compound according to the present invention can cure, heal, alleviate, relieve, alter, remedy, ameliorate, improve or affect the condition, disorder or disease or the symptoms of the condition, disorder or disease or the predisposition toward the condition, disorder or disease in an individual. One of ordinary skill in the art would be able to determine such amounts based on such factors as the individual's size, the severity of the individual's symptoms, and the particular composition or route of administration selected.

[140] The pharmaceutical composition according to the invention can also, if desired, be presented in a pack, or dispenser device which can contain one or more (eg, unit) dosage forms containing the active compound. The pack can for example comprise metal or plastic foil, such as blister pack. The pack or dispenser device can be accompanied with a leaflet or other information; in particular, that describing (either to the patient and/or the administering physician) salient information or details on the pharmaceutical composition contained in the package, such as how to administer, recommended dosages, safety and/or side-effect information.

Certain pharmaceutical compositions

[141] In a particular embodiment, a pharmaceutical composition of the invention is formulated for oral administration, and in an alternative particular embodiment, a pharmaceutical composition of the invention is formulated for intravenous administration.

[142] In one embodiment, a pharmaceutical composition of the invention is in unit dose form, and in particular may be in a unit dose form that is formulated for oral administration.

[143] Each of such a unit dose form may comprise (eg, it may contain) between 1 and 950mg of the compound, such as the kinase inhibitor (eg, having the general formula (I) - such as compound B3 - or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination of any of the foregoing). In particular, (eg each of) such a unit dose form may comprise (eg, it may contain) between 2 and 150mg of such compound; and suitably, between 10 and 150mg of such compound.

[144] In particular of such embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition of the invention that is in unit dose form (and in particular one be in a unit dose form that is formulated for oral administration) may comprise (eg, it may contain) - for each unit dose form - about an amount of such compound selected from the list of amounts consisting of: 2mg, 5mg, 15mg, 20mg, 50mg, 70mg, 80mg, lOOmg and 140mg; in particular, comprising (eg, containing) an amount of about 20mg, 50mg, 70mg or lOOmg of a compound of the invention.

[145] In one particular embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition of the invention is (eg is formed as) a tablet, caplet or capsule; suitably the pharmaceutical composition of the invention (eg a unit dose form thereof) is a caplet. Methods to form (eg manufacture) tablets and caplets are, for example, described elsewhere herein.

[146] Suitable excipients for the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention, in particular when formed as a tablet or caplet, include, and particular embodiments of such a pharmaceutical composition of the invention include those that further comprise one or more (eg all of) the excipients selected from the list consisting of: lactose (eg, lactose monohydrate), microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropylcellulose and magnesium stearate.

[147] Embodiments of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention that are in unit dose form are, suitably, film coated, eg a pharmaceutical composition being a film-coated tablet or a film-coated caplet. Particular film- coatings include those that comprise one or more (preferably all of) the excipients selected from the list consisting of: hypromellose, titanium dioxide and macrogol 400. Therapeutic and other applications

[148] In further aspects, the present application provides a compound as specified above, or a pharmaceutical composition as specified above, for use as a medicament, for example for use in therapy. In one embodiment of these aspects, the compound is (or the pharmaceutical composition comprises) a kinase inhibitor having the general formula (I), such as compound B3, or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination of any of the foregoing. In another embodiment of these aspects, the compound does not encompass compound A8.

[149] It is contemplated that a compound as specified above under the heading "Compounds" may be used for (x) the inhibition of a kinase, such as one described herein, in particular SRC, ABL/BCR-ABL, LCK, LYN, YES, FYN; SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, FLT3 and/or KIT; and/or (y) reducing cellular resistance to an (eg a cell-mediated) immune response. For example, the compound can be used in a method for the treatment of a disease, disorder or condition in an individual (in particular a human patient), wherein the disease or condition is associated with such kinase.

[150] Treatment including or utilising such compounds may be provided at home, the doctor's office, a clinic, a hospital's outpatient department, or a hospital. Treatment generally begins under medical supervision so that medical personnel can observe the treatment's effects closely and make any adjustments that are needed. The duration of the treatment depends on the age and condition of the patient, as well as how the patient responds to the treatment.

[151] The compounds of the invention may be used for treatment alone or in conjunction with one or more additional therapeutic agents, for example in combination with those that are defined or disclosed elsewhere herein, and that include an EGFR inhibitor, gemcitabine, docetaxel, and immune checkpoint inhibitor (such as an inhibitor of PD1, PDLL, CTLA-4, LAG3 or IDOl, and in particular an immune checkpoint inhibitor selected from the list consisting of: nivolumab, relatlimab, ipilimumab and BMS-986205), TNF or an agonist of TNFR1- or TNFR2-sig nailing, adoptive cellular therapy including CAR T cells directed against a tumor antigen, vaccines including dendritic cell- (DC) based vaccination, or an agent that is capable of inducing or induces the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling, is administered to the subject.

[152] A person having a greater risk of developing a condition, disorder or disease may receive prophylactic treatment to inhibit or delay symptoms of the condition, disorder or disease.

[153] The term "treatment" is known to the person of ordinary skill, and includes the application or administration of a therapeutic agent (e.g., a pharmaceutical composition containing said agent) or procedure to a patient or application or administration of a therapeutic agent (e.g., a pharmaceutical composition containing said agent) or procedure to a cell, cell culture, cell line, sample, tissue or organ isolated from a patient, who has a condition, disorder or disease, a symptom of the condition, disorder or disease or a predisposition toward a condition, disorder or disease, with the purpose to cure, heal, alleviate, relieve, alter, remedy, ameliorate, improve, affect or prevent the condition, disorder or disease, the symptoms of the condition, disorder or disease or the predisposition toward the condition, disorder or disease. Hence, the term "treatment" can include prophylactic treatment of a condition, disorder or disease, or the symptom of a condition, disorder or disease. A therapeutic agent, when used in treatment, includes the kinase inhibitors of the invention and includes, but is not limited to, additional therapeutic agents that may be small molecules, peptides, peptidomimetics, polypeptides/proteins, antibodies, nucleotides such as DNA or RNA, cells, viruses, ribozymes, siRNA, and antisense oligonucleotides.

Certain therapeutic and other applications [154] Accordingly, in one third aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the present invention relates to a compound of the first (or alternative) aspect as described above (eg, a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof) for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject

[155] In another third aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition as described above (eg, one comprising a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof) for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject.

[156] In a related third aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the present invention relates to a method for the treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, comprsing administering to the subject (eg, a therapeutically effective amount of) : (X) a compound of the first (or alternative) aspect as described above (eg, a compound of formula (I) such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof); or (Y) a pharmaceutical composition as described above (eg, one comprising a compound of formula (I) such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof).

[157] In another related third aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the present invention relates to a use of a compound of the first (or alternative) aspect as described above (eg, a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), or a solvate, salt (in particular a pharmaceutically acceptable salt), N-oxide, complex, polymorph, crystalline form, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labeled form, prodrug (in particular a prodrug having formula (IXa) or (IXb) and/or having at least one derivatised hydroxyl group, as specified above, or a solvate, salt, N-oxide, complex, stereoisomer, polymorph, crystalline form, racemic mixture, diastereomer, enantiomer, conformer, tautomer, isotopically labelled form, or combination thereof), or combination thereof) for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject.

[158] Accordingly, in another aspect, the invention relates to the use of a compound of the first (or alternative) aspect, or the use of a pharmaceutical composition as described above, as a medicament, such as for use in therapy.

[159] In such medicinal aspects, the treatment of such use or method comprises administering to the subject (eg, a therapeutically effective amount of) such compound or pharmaceutical composition. [160] In one particular embodiment of such aspects, the subject is a human, suitably an adult human. For example, a human that is 18 (or 16) years or older, such as a human between the ages of about 18 (or 16) and 90, or between 18 (or 16) and 80. In certain of such embodiments, the adult human is about 20 or older, 30 or older, 35 or older, 40 or older, 45 or older, 50 or older or 55 or older. In more particular of such embodiments, the adult human is a young adult (such as between about 18 (or 16) and 45 (or 40), or between about 30 and 45 (or 40)), is middle aged (such as between about 45 (or 40) and 65 (or 60), or between about 45 (or 40)) and 55 (or 50), or between about 55 (or 50) and 65 (or 60), or is elderly (such as being between about 60 and 90 (or older, such as 92, 95 or 98), between about 65 and 85 or between about 70 and 88).

[161] As an alternative to such embodiments, the subject treated is a paediatric human such as being younger than about 18 (or 16). For example, such a human may be between about 3 and 18 (or 16), such as between about 5 and 16 or between about 10 and 16 or 12 and 17. The paediatric human may be an infant (such as between about two months of age to about 2 years or age), a toddler (such as between about 2 years to about 4 years), an early child (such as between about 4 years and about 9 years), a preadolescent (such as between about 9 years and about 12 or 13 (or 11 or 14) years) or an adolescent (such as between about 12 or 13 (or 11 or 14) years) years and about 15 (or 16 or 17)).

[162] In one embodiment of such aspects, the treatment comprises administering to an adult human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound (for example, as comprised in a pharmaceutical composition) of less than about 140mg daily. For example, optionally, where the proliferative disorder is not (eg, the subject suffers from a proliferative disorder that is not) chronic phase Ph+ CML. In an alternative embodiment of such aspects, the treatment comprises administering to an adult human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound (for example, as comprised in a pharmaceutical composition) of more than about 140mg daily, such as more than 150mg daily.

[163] In another embodiment of such aspects, the treatment comprises administering to an adult human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound (for example, as comprised in a pharmaceutical composition) of less than about lOOmg daily. For example, optionally, where the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from) chronic phase Ph+ CML. In an alternative embodiment of such aspects, the treatment comprises administering to an adult human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound (for example, as comprised in a pharmaceutical composition) of more than about lOOmg daily, such as more than 120mg daily.

[164] In one alternative embodiment, the treatment comprises administering to a paediatric human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound of:

• less than about 40mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 10kg to less than 20kg;

• less than about 60mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 20kg to less than 30kg;

• less than about 70mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 30kg to less than 45kg; or

• less than about lOOmg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of at least 45kg.

[165] In one further alternative embodiment, the treatment comprises administering to a paediatric human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound of:

• greater than about 40mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 10kg to less than 20kg;

• greater than about 60mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 20kg to less than 30kg;

• greater than about 70mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 30kg to less than 45kg; or

• greater than about lOOmg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of at least 45kg.

[166] In respect of those embodiments where an amount of the compound is (eg to be) administered to the human subject, such amount may be administered less frequently than daily. For example, a given amount of "less than 40mg daily", may be achieved by administering, for example, 35, 30 or 20mg each day, or 75, 65, or 40mg once every two days (or less frequently). [167] In a particular embodiment, upon (or after) such administration of the (eg therapeutically effective) amount of the compound to the subject is less likely to (eg, does not) have (or suffer from) an adverse reaction, such myelosuppression.

[168] In one of such particular embodiments, upon (or after) such administration of the (eg therapeutically effective) amount of the compound to the subject is less likely to (eg, does not) have (or suffer from) a non- haematological adverse reaction, such as a cardiacological adverse reaction.

[169] In more particular of such embodiments, upon (or after) such administration of the (eg therapeutically effective) amount of the compound, the subject is less likely to (eg, does not) have (or suffer) QT-prologation.

[170] In one embodiment, the subject is characterised by not concomitantly using a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. For example, is not concomitantly using ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ritonavir, telithromycin, or ingests grapefruit juice.

[171] The disease, disorder or a condition, in the context of the herein described invention, is, in certain embodiments, a proliferative disorder (including a condition or symptom associated with such disorder).

[172] A "proliferative disorder" refers to a disorder characterised by abnormal proliferation of cells. A proliferative disorder does not imply any limitation with respect to the rate of cell growth, but merely indicates loss of normal controls that affect growth and cell division. Thus, in some embodiments, cells of a proliferative disorder can have the same cell division rates as normal cells but do not respond to signals that limit such growth. Within the ambit of "proliferative disorder" is neoplasm or tumour, which is an abnormal growth of tissue or cells. Cancer is art understood, and includes any of various malignant neoplasms characterised by the proliferation of cells that have the capability to invade surrounding tissue and/or metastasise to new colonisation sites. Proliferative disorders include cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. Non-cancerous proliferative disorders also include hyperproliferation of cells in the skin such as psoriasis and its varied clinical forms, Reiter's syndrome, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and hyperproliferative variants of disorders of keratinisation (e.g., actinic keratosis, senile keratosis), scleroderma, and the like.

[173] In more particular embodiments, the proliferative disorder is a cancer or tumour, in particular a solid tumour (including a condition or symptom associated with such cancer or tumour). Such proliferative disorders including but not limited to head and neck cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma, renal cell cancer, retinoblastoma, germ cell tumours, hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, rhabdoid tumour of the kidney, Ewing Sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, any haemotological malignancy (e.g., chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblasts leukemia, chronic myeloblastic leukemia, Hodgekin's disease, non- Hodgekin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, hairy cell leukemia, mast cell leukemia, mast cell neoplasm, follicular lymphoma, diffuse large cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, seary syndrome, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T cell lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelofibrosis, myeloid metaplasia, systemic mastocytosis), and central nervous system tumours (eg, brain cancer, glioblastoma, non- glioblastoma brain cancer, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, vestibular schwannoma, a primitive neuroectodermal tumour, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma and choroid plexus papilloma), myeloproliferative disorders (eg, polycythemia vera, thrombocythemia, idiopathic myelfibrosis), soft tissue sarcoma, thyroid cancer, endometrial cancer, carcinoid cancer, or liver cancer.

[174] In a particular embodiment, the various aspects of the invention relate to (for example the compounds or the pharmaceutical compositions are used in) treatments for proliferative disorders that include those described herein. Accordingly, in in such embodiments the proliferative disorder may be a cancer or tumour. [175] In one particular embodiment, the cancer is a hematopoietic or lymphoid cancer, and in one such embodiment, the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) a Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemia; for example, Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (Ph+ CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL).

[176] In a certain embodiment, the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject (eg an adult human subject) suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) :

• newly diagnosed (Ph+ CML) in the chronic phase;

• chronic, accelerated or blast phase CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib (eg, imatinib mesilate); or

• Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and lymphoid blast CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy.

[177] In another certain embodiment, the subject is a paediatric human and proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) :

• newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP) or Ph+ CML-CP resistant or intolerant to prior therapy including imatinib.

[178] In another particular embodiment, the cancer is a solid tumour, and in one such embodiment, the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) a solid tumour being one of those described elsewhere herein, such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, lung, prostate, melanoma, ovarian cancer, oesophageal cancer, sarcomoa and colorectal cancer. In a certain of such embodiments, the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) pancreatic cancer; in another of such embodiments, the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) prostate cancer; and in yet another of such embodiments, the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) lung cancer (eg, non-small cell lung cancer).

[179] As described elsewhere, a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg, as a combination therapy or regimen) with another medical procedure (eg, an additional therapeutic agent, such as described elsewhere herein, surgery or radiotherapy). Then such combination treatment regimen may comprise embodiments where such exposures/administrations are concomitant. In alternative embodiments such administrations may be sequential; in particular those embodiments where the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered before such other procedure. For example the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be sequentially administered within about 14 days of (eg before) the other procedure, such as within about 10 days, 7 days, 5 days, 2 days or 1 day of (eg before) the other procedure; and further including where the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be sequentially administered within about 48 hours, 24 hours, 12 hours, 8 hours, 6 hours, 4 hours, 2 hours, 1 hours, 30 mins, 15 mins or 5 mins of (eg before) the other procedure.

[180] Such combination regimens can include the (eg further) administration to the subject of:

• an EGFR inhibitor and/or gemcitabine - in particular when the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) pancreatic cancer;

• docetaxel - in particular when the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) prostate cancer; and/or

• an immune checkpoint inhibitor - in particular when the proliferative disorder is (eg, the subject suffers from, or is suspected of suffering from) lung cancer, such as non-small cell lung cancer.

[181] Exemplary immune checkpoint inhibitor that may be comprise such combination therapy or regimen are described elsewhere, and include an antibody or small-molecule inhibitor of PD1, PDL1, CTLA-4, LAG3 or IDOl, and in particular such an immune checkpoint inhibitor may be one selected from the list consisting of: nivolumab, relatlimab, ipilimumab and BMS-986205, in particular nivolumab.

[182] In other embodiments, the the combination regimens can include the (eg further) administration to the subject of:

• an immune-activator (eg, agonist) antibody, such as an antibody against 0X40 (eg, Yang et al 2012, Blood 120:4533), 41BB, CD40 or ICOS (eg, Deng et al 2004, Hybrid Hybridomics 23: 176), in particular those that increase TNF levels by stimulated/stimulating T cells; and/or

• dendritic cell- (DC) based vaccination (eg, Lowe et al 2014, Oncoimmunology 3:e27589).

[183] In one particular embodiment, the proliferative disorder (eg, in the subject) has progressed on (eg despite) standard therapy, or in anther embodiment, the subject may be unable to receive standard therapy, for example as the subject is intolerant thereto. In either of such embodiments, the subject may be so characterised (eg, stratified) as having progressed on standard therapy or being unable to receive (eg, is intolerant to) standard therapy.

[184] As examples of standard therapy, may be imatinib (eg, for CML or ALL), docetaxel (eg for prostate cancer) or immunotherapy such as an immune checkpoint inhibitor described ehrein (eg, for melanoma or lung cancer). Sensitisation to immune responses and inhibition of kinases

[185] The compound can sensitise cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

[186] Accordingly, in one embodiment, a treatment comprising administering a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject involves (eg, is mediated, is or supported) sensitising cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

[187] In an alternative embodiment, a treatment comprising administering a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject involves (eg, is mediated, is or supported by) inhibiting a kinase involved in resistance to a cell-mediated immune response, such as inhibiting SIK3.

[188] In a related embodiment, a treatment comprising administering a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject involves (eg, is mediated, is or supported by) inhibiting a kinase involved in resistance to a cell-mediated immune response, such as inhibiting SIK3, and (for example, thereby) sensitising cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

[189] In a further aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the sensitisation of cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell- mediated immune response in the treatment of the proliferative disorder in a subject, the method comprising administering a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject; and in another further aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the inhibition of a kinase involved in resistance to a cell-mediated immune response, such as inhibiting, in the treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the method comprising administering a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject.

[190] In a related further aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above for use as a medicament for: (i) sensitising cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response; and/or (ii) inhibiting a kinase involved in resistance to a cell-mediated immune response, such as inhibiting SIK.

[191] In yet a related further aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a compound (or a pharmaceutical composition) as described above for use as a medicament (eg an immuno-oncology medicament) sensitising cells involved with a proliferative disorder (such as a tumour or cancer) to a cell-mediated immune response, for example sensitising cells involved with a proliferative disorder to killing (cell-death) that may be induced by the cell-mediated immune response. An "immune- oncology" medicament is one that would be recognised by the person of ordinary skill, and includes a medicament that is intended to (eg, specifically designed to) enhance one or more components of the immune system of an organism (such as a human) towards cancerous or tumourous cells present in such organism. An immune-oncology medicament may be one (eg an antibody) that binds to an extrinsic immune (inhibitory) checkpoint molecule (such as one described elsewhere herein) and that (eg directly) suppresses T cell function against the cancerous or tumourous cells, or an immune-oncology medicament may be one that inhibits an immune regulator (such as SIK3, as in the present invention) that is intrinsic to the cancerous or tumourous cells where such intrinsic immune regulator does not actively (eg directly) suppress T cells but rather protects the tumour or cancer cells from an immune response via a resistance mechanism.

[192] In particular embodiments of such aspects, the cells involved with a proliferative disorder may be sensitised to killing (cell-death) by (such as induced by) the cell-mediated immune response.

[193] "Salt-inducible kinase 3" or "SIK3" (synonyms QSK and KIM0999) is a member of a subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases including SIK1, SIK2, and SIK3 that belong to an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family. A SIK3 protein in context of the invention is, typically, a protein kinase. Pertinent information on the human SIK3 protein is accessible on UniProt: Q9Y2K2 (Entry version 138 of 15-Mar-2017) and a SIK3 protein in context of the invention has, preferably, an amino acid sequence shown in SIK3, Entry version 138 of 15-Mar- 2017 or Entry version 144 of 28-Mar-2018, which sequences are incorporated herein by reference. SIK3 is a cytoplasmatic protein with serine/threonine kinase activity which is regulated through phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue (position 163) in the T-loop of the kinase domain by the LKB1 complex; a phosphorylation which is reported as essential for catalytic activity of SIK3 (Lizcano, J. M. et al.; EMBO J. 23, 833-843 (2004)). For the purposes of the herein disclosed invention the term "phosphorylated SIK3" shall denote a SIK3 protein that is phosphorylated substantially as SIK3 protein can be (eg is) phosphorylated by LKB1, wherein preferably such phosphorylated SIK3 comprising a phosphor-threonine at amino acid position 163. A phosphorylated SIK3 in context of the invention is an SIK3 protein that is activated in its cell-biological context. At least four protein isoforms (SIK3-001 to SIK3-004) generated by alternative splicing of the SIK3 gene product are known. The human SIK3 gene is located at chromosomal position llq23.3 (HGNC gene Symbol Acc: HGNC:29165), and is conserved in many species such as in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish, and frog. The term SIK3 in some embodiments of the invention may also pertain to variants of the human SIK3 protein having an amino acid sequence that is substantially identical to, or of at least 80%, preferably 85%, more preferably 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100% sequence identity to, the amino acid sequence of SIK3 as described above, as determined using, e.g., the "Blast 2 sequences" algorithm described by Tatusova & Madden 1999 (FEMS Microbiol Lett 174: 247-250), and which (preferably) retain biological activity identical or substantially identical to the respective reference SIK3 (eg to phosphorylate one or more class II (eg Ila) HDACs, such as HDAC4). Preferred variants of SIK3 protein comprise sequence variants thereof due to sequence polymorphism between and within populations of the respective species, as well as mutations compared to the wild-type sequence of SIK3 which are located in or in close proximity to the activity loop or activation loop (T-loop) of SIK3. A preferred variant of SIK3 protein is a SIK3 T163 mutation, such as a mutation affecting the activation of SIK3. In preferred embodiments a SIK3 protein of the invention is not a SIK1 (synonyms: SIK and SNF1LK) protein and/or is not a SIK2 (synonyms: QIK, KIAA0781 and SNF1LK2) protein. The amino acid sequence of human SIK1 (UniProt: P57059; entry version 168 of 15-Mar-2017) and human SIK2 (UniProt: Q9H0K1; entry version 153 of 15-Mar-2017) are incorporated herein by reference. The term SIK3 can mean, as applicable to the context (if not more specifically indicated), a SIK3 protein (such as one described above) or an mRNA molecule encoding such a SIK3 protein. The analogous meaning with respect of "SIK1" and "SIK2" is to be understood.

[194] A compound being an "inhibitor of SIK3" (or "SIK3 inhibitor") is any moiety that inhibits SIK3, which can mean inhibition of the activity of SIK3, especially of protein of SIK3, and in particular of phosphorylated SIK3. A SIK3 inhibitor may impair (eg, induces a decrease or reduction in) the efficiency, effectiveness, amount or rate of one or more activities of SIK3, such as one or more of those activities described herein, for example, the activity of SIK3 to phosphorylate class II (eg Ila) HDACs (eg HDAC4) and/or to sensitise a cell involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

[195] Such a SIK3 inhibiting moiety can act directly, for example, by binding to SIK3 and decreasing the amount or rate of one or more of the properties of SIK3 such as its function, in particular its ability to act as a kinase (eg to phosphorylate HDAC4), for example by reducing the activity of phosphorylated SIK3 in the cell.

[196] Compounds being SIK3 inhibitors are described elsewhere herein, including those as may be characterised by the applicable functional and/or structural features set out herein.

[197] In preferred embodiments, a "subject", in particular, is also meant to include all mammals, including without limitation humans, but also non-human primates such as cynomolgus monkeys. It also includes dogs, cats, horses, sheep, goats, cows, rabbits, pigs and rodents (such as mice and rats). It will be appreciated that a particularly preferred subject according to the invention is a human subject, such as a human suffering from (or at risk of suffering from) a disorder, disease or condition, for example a human patient.

[198] As used herein, "therapy" is synonymous with treating a disease, disorder or condition, which includes reducing symptoms of the disease, disorder or condition, inhibiting progression of the disease, disorder or condition, causing regression of the disease, disorder or condition and/or curing the disease, disorder or condition.

[199] In preferred embodiments, a "treatment" in the present invention, and in particular, is also meant to include therapy, e.g. therapeutic treatment, as well as prophylactic or suppressive measures for a disease (or disorder or condition). Thus, for example, successful administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) prior to onset of the disease results in treatment of the disease. "Treatment" also encompasses administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) after the appearance of the disease in order to ameliorate or eradicate the disease (or symptoms thereof). Administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) after onset and after clinical symptoms, with possible abatement of clinical symptoms and perhaps amelioration of the disease, also comprises treatment of the disease. Those "in need of treatment" include subjects (such as a human subject) already having the disease, disorder or condition, as well as those prone to or suspected of having the disease, disorder or condition, including those in which the disease, disorder or condition is to be prevented.

[200] The cell that is sensitised to the cell-mediated immune response is, suitably, one involved with the proliferative disorder (eg, a cell associated with the proliferative disorder), which in certain embodiments such cell is one involved in the proliferative disorder (eg, a cell that is abnormally proliferating, such as one that is over proliferating). For example, such cell may be a cell characterised by loss of normal controls that affect its growth and cell division, such as a cell of a neoplasm or tumour. In particular embodiments, such cell may be a cancerous cell or one that is derived form or is a cell of a cancer or tumour. In other embodiments, such cell may be skin cell, such as one showing hyperproliferation such as one involved in psoriasis, Reiter's syndrome, pityriasis rubra pilaris or scleroderma.

[201] A cell may be "involved with a proliferative disorder" if, for example, it is associated therewith, such as it being a causative factor in such proliferative disorder or if it is affected by such proliferative disorder. In particular a cell is "involved with a proliferative disorder" if the cell is characterised by an abnormal proliferation such as abnormal cell growth or cell division, and if the abnormal cell growth or cell division is part of the pathology of, or causative for, the proliferative disease. A cell "involved with a proliferative disorder", in those embodiments wherein the proliferative disorder is a tumour or cancer, can as a non-limiting example, be a tumour (or cancer) cell, or a cell of derived from (tissue) of such tumour or cancer; in particular of a solid tumour.

[202] In certain embodiments, the compound may inhibit SIK3 in the cell involved with the proliferative disorder (eg the tumour cell). In particular of such embodiments, the compound may inhibit SIK3 in such cell preferentially to inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 in such cell; and/or may inhibit SIK3 in such cell preferentially to inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 and/or SIK3 in one or more types of immune cells. For example, the compound of the invention may inhibit SIK3 in the cell involved with the proliferative disorder (eg the tumour cell) preferentially to inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 and/or SIK3 in macrophages and/or dendritic cells (in particular, those capable of or producing IL-10).

[203] The compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject, in particular in an amount (such as a dose) that is effective to, inhibit SIK3 and/or that is effective to sensitise the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to the cell-mediated immune response. Suitable amounts, formulations and means for such administration are described elsewhere herein.

[204] In particular embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered in an amount (such as a therapeutically effective amount) that is effective to reduce activity of SIK3, preferably of SIK3 in (of) the cells involved with the proliferative disorder. In such embodiments, a "therapeutically effective amount" of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) can be an amount that is capable to reduce the activity of the SIK3 to an applicable level, but that does not lead to significant (eg intolerable) side effects or over-dosage in respect of other activities of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition).

[205] Preferably, the activity of SIK3 is effectively inhibited (reduced), preferably referring to the SIK3 kinase in (of) the cells involved with a proliferative disorder. For example, an "effective" inhibition (or reduction) may include one where the activity is lowered by a degree (or to a level) that has a physiological effect (eg to a therapeutically effective level), such as a reduction by about 10%, 20%, 50%, or more than 50% such as 70% or 90% of activity of the respective kinase. In respect of SIK3, one of such reductions may be desirable to elicit a therapeutic response.

[206] The term "immune cell" is art recognised to describe any cell of an organism involved in the immune system of such organism, in particular of a mammal such as a human. Leukocytes (white blood cells) are immune cells that are involved in the innate immune system, and the cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, known as lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. B cells are involved in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the immune cell can be a myeloid cell eg a T cell, and in particular (such as when an increase in cell-mediated immune response is required, such as to treat a cancer) the T cell can be a cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell). A CTL is a T-cell that is involved in the killing of cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways. Other preferred immune cells for such embodiments can include Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs). TILs are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumour. Typically, TILs are a mix of different types of cells (eg, T cells, B cells, NK cells, macrophages) in variable proportions, T cells being the most abundant cells. TILs can often be found in the stroma and within the tumour itself, and are implicated in killing tumour cells. The presence of lymphocytes in tumours is often associated with better clinical outcomes.

[207] The term "cell-mediated immune response", as used herein, may include, but is not limited to, a response in a host organism involving, utilising, and/or promoting any one or combinations of T cell maturation, proliferation, activation, migration, infiltration and/or differentiation, and/or the activation/modulation/migration/infiltration of a macrophage, a natural killer cell, a T lymphocyte (or T cell), a helper T lymphocyte, a memory T lymphocyte, a suppressor T lymphocyte, a regulator T lymphocyte, and/or a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and/or the production, release, and/or effect of one or more cell-secretable or cell-secreted factor such as a cytokine or autocoid (in particular a pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF), and/or one or more components of any of such processes (such as a cytokine or autocoid, particular a pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF). The term "cell-mediated immune response," as used herein, may include a cellular response involving a genetically engineered, in-vitro cultured, autologous, heterologous, modified, and/or transferred T lymphocyte, or it may include a cell-secretable or cell- secreted factor (such as a cytokine or autocoid, in particular a pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF) produced by genetic engineering. A cell-mediated immune response is preferably not a humoral immune response, such as an immune response involving the release of antibodies. In certain embodiments, in particular when the proliferative disorder is a cancer or tumour, the cell-mediated immune response is an anti-tumour cell-mediated immune response. For example, one that leads to a reduction in tumour (cell) growth, such as a cytotoxic cell-mediated immune response (such as a cytotoxic T cell and/or TNF exposure) that kills cells of the cancer or tumour.

[208] In certain embodiments, the cell-mediated immune response may be mediated by a cell, such as an immune cell, capable of secreting (eg secreting) pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as one selected from the group consisting of: interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-8 and IL-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. In particular of such embodiments, the pro-inflammatory cytokine is tumour necrosis factor (TNF) [alpha].

[209] In other embodiments, the cell-mediated immune response may a cell-secretable or cell-secreted factor (such as a cytokine or autocoid), in particular one secretable or secreted by an immune cell. In particular of such embodiments, the cell-mediated immune response is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in particular tumour necrosis factor (TNF).

[210] The terms "sensitising", "sensitisation" and "to sensitise" (and the like), as used herein in the context of cell(s) being sensitised to a cell-mediated immune response, will be understood by the person of ordinary skill, and include the meaning that such cells can exhibit an increased susceptibility to one or more effect (eg a treatment effect) that the cell-mediated immune response may have on such cells. In particular, cells that are so sensitised may, when in the presence of (eg exposed to) a cell-mediated immune response, be killed more easily (such as more rapidly, a greater proportion of cells dying or being killed and/or upon a lower amount or exposure of the cell- mediated immune response) than analogous cells that have not been so "sensitised". For example, cell(s) so sensitised may be induced into cell-death (eg apoptosis) upon exposure to a lower number of T cells or to a lower concentration of TNF (such as about 10%, 20%, 30% 40%, 50% or more than 50% fewer T cells or lower concentration of TNF). Methods to determine whether such cells have been sensitised (and by which degree) to cell- mediated immune responses are described herein, such as in the examples. Accordingly, in certain embodiments of the present invention, cells involved with the proliferative disorder may be sensitised to cell-death/killing (eg by entry into apoptosis) by a cell-mediated immune response (such as CTL or a proinflammatory cytokine eg TNF).

[211] The terms "tumour necrosis factor" and "TNF" (previously and hence alternatively known as tumour necrosis factor alpha and TNF-alpha) shall, in the context of the herein disclosed invention, be understood to refer to any proteins know under these denotations in the art. In particular, the term TNF encompasses endogenous TNF of any organism where such is present, and preferably of animals or mammals, such as humans. By means of example and not limitation, human TNF may encompass endogenous proteins as disclosed in inter alia Pennica et al. 1984 (Nature 312: 724-9) and in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database with the entry No P01375 (for example, entry version 224 of 15-Mar-2017), as well as any sequence variants thereof due to normal sequence polymorphism between and within human populations. By means of further non-limiting examples, the term may encompass endogenous TNF proteins as annotated in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database for bovine (Q06599), dog (P51742), goat (P13296), guinea pig (P51435), cat (P19101), horse (P29553), mouse (P06804), chimp (Q8FIZD9), pig (P23563), rabbit (P04924), rat (P16599) and others, as well as any sequence variants thereof due to sequence polymorphism between and within populations of each respective species. Further, the term TNF particularly encompasses the soluble, secreted cytokine form of TNF, including monomeric as well as, preferably, the typically more active trimeric forms thereof (see, e.g., Smith & Baglioni 1987. J Biol Chem 262: 6951-4). The primary amino acid sequences of soluble forms of endogenous TNF are indicated in the above mentioned UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database entries for the respective exemplified organisms. In addition, the term TNF may also encompass membrane-bound forms of TNF expressed on the surface of some cell types (see, e.g., Kriegler et al. 1988. Cell 53: 45-53). Further, the term TNF may also encompass synthetic or recombinant proteins whose primary amino acid sequence is identical or substantially identical ("substantially identical", as used throughout this specification, generally refers to ³80%, e.g., ³85%, preferably ³90%, more preferably ³95%, even more preferably ³98% or ³99% sequence identity) to the sequence of an endogenous TNF, as determined using, e.g., the "Blast 2 sequences" algorithm described by Tatusova & Madden 1999 (FEMS Microbiol Lett 174: 247-250), and which (preferably) retain biological activity identical or substantially identical to the respective endogenous TNF, as determined using, e.g., the cytotoxicity tests described by Flick & Gifford 1984 (J Immunol Methods 68: 167-75). As will appear from the context of aspects and embodiments of the present invention, the term TNF may, in particular, refer herein to endogenous TNF, soluble and/or membrane bound, preferably soluble, produced by cells, tissues, organs or organisms, preferably human. Nevertheless, also envisioned by the term "TNF" are exogenous forms of tumour necrosis factor, in particular those produced by recombinant technologies and, in certain embodiments, may be administered to subjects, or exposed to or contacted with cells in various aspects and embodiments of the invention. In certain of such embodiments, the TNF may be a recombinant TNF used as a therapeutic, such as tasonermin (BEROMUN).

[212] In certain embodiments, the cell-mediated immune response can be mediated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine-secreting cell, such as a lymphocyte (eg a T cell), in particular a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL).

[213] In particular embodiments, the cell-mediated immune response may induce killing (eg cell-death, such via apoptosis) of cells involved with the proliferative disorder. For example, the treatment (method) may comprise (eg may involve) that (or be mediated by) the cell-mediated immune response induces such killing of cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

[214] The cells involved with the proliferative disorder may be killed (eg induced into cell death) by one or more cytotoxic processes, in particular those that are endogenous to such cell such as programmed cell death (PCD). Cell death processes may include, but are not limited to, necrosis (in particular necroptosis), apoptosis, anoikis, autophagy, ferroptosis, mitotic catastrophe and activation-induced cell death. In certain preferred embodiments, the cells involved with the proliferative disorder (eg the tumour cells) are induced into apoptosis by the cell-mediated immune response (eg by TNF). In a further embodiment, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered to not kill such cells in the absence of the cell-mediated immune response (eg in the absence of TNF). In particular of such further embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered in an amount (eg in a dose) that is not effective to kill such cells in the absence of the cell-mediated immune response. The examples herein, describe various assays by which an amount of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be determined that is effective to kill such cells only, or preferentially, in the presence of the cell-mediated immune response.

[215] In other particular embodiments, the cell-mediated immune response may involve at least one immune cell effector molecule, in particular an effector molecule that is secretable or secreted by an immune cell. In particular of such embodiments, the effector molecule can be a pro-inflammatory cytokine, preferably tumour necrosis factor (TNF).

[216] In certain embodiments, the effector molecule is not a cell effector molecule selected from Fas ligand (FasL or CD95L) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, CD253 or TNFSFlO).

[217] In particular embodiments of the invention, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose effective) with the intent to (or so as to) (effectively) sensitise cells involved with the proliferative disorder to killing induced by TNF. For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered in a therapeutically effective amount, such as an amount effective to sensitise the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to killing (cell-death) induced by TNF. [218] For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (for example, in an amount or dose effective) to induce apoptosis of such cells mediated by TNF, such as when such cells are in the presence of or contacted with TNF. In further embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose effective) to induce a reduced amount of cytotoxicity (eg apoptosis) - such as to not induce killing (eg apoptosis) of such cells - in the absence of TNF; for example the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered in an amount or dose that is - not as effective in cytotoxicity (eg apoptosis) - such as being not effective to induce such killing - in the absence of TNF.

[219] TNF can induce pro-apoptotic processes via binding to and/or signalling via tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and or tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2). Accordingly, in certain embodiments the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose effective) to (effectively) sensitise cells involved with the proliferative disorder to apoptosis mediated by tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) signalling and/or tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) signalling. Preferably, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) can be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose effective) to (effectively) sensitise cells involved with the proliferative disorder to apoptosis mediated thereby in particular mediated by TNFR1. For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered in a therapeutically effective amount that is effective to mediate TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-signalling, and/or apoptosis mediated thereby.

[220] For example in certain embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered (eg in an amount or dose effective) to induce apoptosis of such cells by TNFR1 and/or TNFR2 signalling, such as upon active TNFR1 signalling. In particular of such embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose, such as a therapeutically effective amount) to (effectively) induce a reduced amount of cytotoxicity (eg apoptosis) - such as to not induce apoptosis of such cells - in the absence of TNFR1 and/or TNFR2 signalling, such as in the absence of active TNFR1 signalling. For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered in an amount or does that is not as effective in cytotoxicity (eg apoptosis) - such as being not effective to induce such apoptosis - in the absence of such signalling.

[221] Therefore, in certain embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose) to induce a reduced amount of cytotoxicity (eg apoptosis) - such as to not be cytotoxic - to cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the absence of the cell-mediated immune response.

[222] In particular embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be continued to be administered to the subject even if the tumour of the subject is increased in size during treatment. Without being bound to theory, even if an increase in tumour size is observed during such treatment, this may indicate an (enhanced) immune reaction against cells of the tumour (eg, the cells have become sensitised to the cell-mediated immune response; and the tumour is increasing in size because of such immune response), and hence the administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) can, in such embodiments, continued to be administered so as to maintain such sensitivity and associated (enhanced) immune reaction.

[223] As described in PCT/EP2018/060172, the inhibition of SIK3 is associated with a number of key biological processes or phenotypes, including those surprisingly involved in the control and/or triggering of cytotoxic process innate to cells, such as apoptosis. For example, tumour cells can be sensitised to the apoptotic/cytotoxic effects of TNF by the inhibition of SIK3, acting through pathways and components thereof including liver kinase B1 (LKB1, STK11 or NY-REN-19), histone deacetylase 4 (FIDAC4), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB), and pro-apoptotic genes regulated by NF-kappaB such as Caspase 8 and Caspase 9. Also c-Jun N- terminal kinase (JNK) is a signalling component associated with sensitisation to the apoptotic/cytotoxic effects of TNF by the inhibition of SIK3.

[224] The term "associated with", in the context of this embodiment (and other embodiments, where applicable) can mean that two components, variables, effects or phenotypes are interrelated with each other, and/or that they are related to (eg correlated to) each other, and/or that there is a causative link between a first and a second component, variable, effect or phenotype (such as the second is in response to the first, the second is a consequence of the first, or the second is caused by the first).

[225] Accordingly, in one such embodiment, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) can associate with impairment of NF-kappaB activity (eg, by an enhancement or increase in translocation of NF-kappaB out of the nucleus) in cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

[226] In particular of such embodiments, such impairment of NF-kappaB activity (eg, by an enhancement or translocation of NF-kappaB out of the nucleus) may be associated with (activated) TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) in such cells.

[227] In certain embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject (eg in an amount or dose effective) to impair or inhibit NF-kappaB activity in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder, for example to enhance or increase translocation of NF-kappaB out of the nucleus of such cells. For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to the subject in a (eg, therapeutically effective) amount being effective to (effectively) impair NF-kappaB activity in cells involved with the proliferative disorder, in particular in an amount effective to (effectively) enhance or increase translocation of NF- kappaB out of the nucleus of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

[228] In alternative or further embodiments, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be associated with an increase in (eg, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered, such as in an amount or dose effective, to increase) activity of class II (eg Ila) FIDACs, eg FIDAC4, in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder, for example its translocation or localisation to or its activity in the nucleus of such cells; and in particular upon TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) in such cells.

[229] In other alternative or further embodiments, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be associated with de-acylation of nuclear NF-kappaB (eg de-acylation at its p65 subunit) and/or decreased transactivation of one or more anti-apoptotic factors, in particular upon TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder. For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered (such as in an amount or dose effective) to cause de-acylation of nuclear NF-kappaB (eg at its p65 subunit) and/or decreased transactivation of one or more anti- apoptotic factors.

[230] In another alternative or further embodiment, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be associated with an increase in (eg the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered, such as in an amount or dose effective, to increase) cleavage of Casapse 8 and/or Caspase 9 in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder, in particular upon TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) signalling in such cells.

[231] In yet other alternative or further embodiments, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be associated with a reduction in the transcription of one or more anti-apoptotic factors, in particular upon TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder, for example the reduction of the transcription of one or more NF-kappaB target genes in such cells. In particular, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered (eg in an amount dose effective) to reduce the transcription of one or more such anti-apoptotic factors, in particular upon TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

[232] In one embodiment the administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be associated with an increase in (eg the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered, such as in an amount or dose effective, to increase) JNK activation (such as by phosphorylation) in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder, in particular upon TNF- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling (or TNFR2-mediated signalling) in such cells. [233] In another embodiment, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may not be associated with a significant change in CREB-pathways signalling and/or a significant change gene expression mediated by CREB and/or CREB-regulation.

[234] In a particular embodiment, the TNF- (TNFR2-) and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder may be associated with increased levels of pLKBl in such cells.

[235] As will now be apparent to the person of ordinary skill given knowledge of the present invention, the treatment aspects of the invention may further comprise a step of administering one or more other moieties that appropriately modify the expression, activity, function or stability of one or more these other pathway components described above, so as to additively or synergistically contribute to the treatment effect. For example, in one such embodiment, a treatment aspect of the invention may further comprise a step of administering an inhibitor of LKB1. In another of such embodiments, a treatment aspect of the invention may further comprise a step of administering a compound that promotes, enhances or increases one or more class II (eg Ila) HDACs (histone deacetylases), such as HDAC4, in the nucleus of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder. In yet another of such embodiments, a treatment aspect of the invention may further comprise a step of administering an inhibitor of NF-kappaB (activation). The invention also envisions that combinations of two or more such other moieties may be used in a treatment together with the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) and/or using other (eg anti-cancer) therapeutically active agents (such as an additional therapeutic agent as described elsewhere herein) together with the compound (or pharmaceutical composition).

[236] In a further aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the sensitisation of cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell- mediated immune response, the method comprising exposing (eg contacting) the cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above. Such a method may, typically, be practiced as an in-vitro and/or ex-vivo method.

[237] In a particular embodiment, the cell-mediated immune response comprises killing the cells involved with a proliferative disorder, such as where said killing involves (eg, is mediated, is or supported by) TNF, TNFR2- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling. For example, the killing of such cells may involve apoptosis of such cells induced by TNF, TNFR2- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling. Within this and the other applicable embodiments of the various aspects of the invention, TNFR2- and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling may be triggered (eg activated) by any appropriate triggering molecule, such as TNF, a variant of TNF and or a TNFR2 or TNFR1 agonist; in particular by exposing (eg by contacting) the cells associated with the proliferative disorder to the triggering molecule (eg TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 agonist). Such exposure can lead to the triggering molecule (eg TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 agonist) binding to TNFR2 and/or TNFR1 and, in particular the triggering (eg activation) of TNFR1 signalling

[238] In a yet further aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the killing of cells involved with a proliferative disorder, the method comprising exposing (eg contacting) the cell involved with the proliferative disorder to: (i) TNF, a TNF variant and/or an agonist of TNFR1- or TNFR2-signalling (preferably, TNFRl-signalling); and exposing (eg contacting) the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to (ii) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above. As will be appreciated by the person or ordinary skill, such a method may, typically, be practiced as an in-vitro and/or ex-vivo method.

[239] In a related aspect, the invention relates to a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above for use in the treatment of a proliferative disease involving the killing of a cell involved with the proliferative disorder, the treatment comprising exposing such cell to: (i) TNF, a TNF variant and/or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist; and (ii) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above. [240] In particular embodiments of such aspects, the killing of the cell involved with the proliferative disorder is mediated by sensitising such cell to a cell-mediated immune response, in particular by inducing sensitivity to apoptosis of such cell that involves (eg, is mediated, is or supported by) TNF, TNFR2 and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling.

[241] The cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder may be exposed to the TNF, a TNF variant and/or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist by contacting the cell to such triggering molecule; and/or such cell(s) may be exposed to the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) by contacting (or introducing into) such cell(s) with the compound (or pharmaceutical composition). The amounts (or dose) of (i) TNF, a TNF variant and/or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist; and/or (ii) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) are, typically, effective amounts; that is amounts (or doses) that are effective in, for example, sensitising the cell(s) to (such as killing such cell(s) by) apoptosis induced by TNF, TNFR2 and/or TNFRl-mediated signalling. Elsewhere are disclosed suitable amounts of these active agents (or ways to determine them) that may be incorporated in these aspects of the invention; as are further particular characteristics of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition). Accordingly, in certain embodiments: (i) TNF, a TNF variant and/or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist; and (ii) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition), can be administered to a subject suffering from the proliferative disorder (eg, the treatment can comprise the administration of: (i) TNF, a TNF variant and/or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist; and (ii) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above, can be administered to the subject).

[242] The cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder may be one as described elsewhere herein, and in particular such cell(s) may be cancerous or tumour cell. For example, such cell(s) may be one that is of, or derived from, a solid tumour.

[243] In certain embodiments of these aspects, the method is an in vitro (and/or ex-vivo) method. In alternative embodiments of such methods, the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (such as tumour cells) is present in such subject, in particular in a subject in need of treatment thereof.

[244] In further embodiments of the methods of these aspects, the (treatment) effect of such method (eg, on the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder) can be mediated by (eg, the treatment may comprise, involve or be mediated by) inhibiting SIK3; in particular, by inhibiting the function and/or activity of SIK3 mRNA or protein (eg, of phosphorylated SIK3 protein, and/or as described elsewhere herein). In particular, in such embodiments, the SIK3 activity is (eg, effectively) reduced, such as reduced to a therapeutically effective level.

[245] In certain embodiments of such methods, in the absence of (eg such effective amount or dose of) the compound (or pharmaceutical composition), the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (such as the tumour cell(s)) are not killed or induced to enter apoptosis (for example, they proliferate) upon TNF, TNFR2- and/or TNFRl- mediated signalling and/or exposure to (eg, the effective amount or dose of) TNF, TNF variant, TNFR2 or TNFR1 agonist.

[246] As described above, in certain embodiments of these methods, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may inhibit SIK3 in (of) the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (eg tumour cells). In particular of such embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may inhibit SIK3 in (of) such cell(s) preferentially to inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 in (of) such cell; and/or may inhibit SIK3 in such cell preferentially to inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 and/or SIK3 in (of) one or more types of immune cells. For example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may inhibit SIK3 in (of) the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (eg tumour cells) preferentially to inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 and/or SIK3 in (of) macrophages and/or dendritic cells (in particular, those capable of or producing IL-10). In particular embodiments, the (treatment) effect is mediated by (eg, the treatment comprises, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of SIK3 in (of) the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (eg a tumour cell); and in further of such embodiments, the (treatment) effect is not mediated by (or the effect is mediated by not) (eg, the treatment does not comprise, involve or is not mediated by) inhibiting SIK2, in particular SIK2 in/of other cells (such as those involved with the proliferative disorder or immune cells), and/or the (treatment) effect is not mediated by (or the effect is mediated by not) inhibiting SIK1 (eg, the treatment does not comprise, involve or is not mediated by inhibiting SIK1), in particular SIK1 in/of other cells (such as those involved with the proliferative disorder or immune cells).

[247] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the SIK3 of (eg, in) the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder is inhibited (eg, by the compound or pharmaceutical composition). In another (or further) embodiment, another kinase (eg SIK2, in particular SIK2) of (eg in) immune cells - such as CTLs - is inhibited to a lesser extent than SIK3 (eg in the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder). In yet another (or further) embodiment SIK1, in particular SIK1 of (eg in) immune cells - such as CTLs - is inhibited to a lesser extent than such SIK3.

[248] In certain of such embodiments, one or more of the kinases selected from the list consisting of: SIK3, SIK1, SIK2, JAK1, RET, ERBB4 PDGFR-alpha, and EPHB2, is inhibited (eg, by a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention) to a lesser extent than one or more of the kinases selected from the list consisting of: ABL1, SRC, BCR-ABL, LCK, LYN, YES, FYN, KIT and FLT3.

[249] In certain of such embodiments, one or more of the kinases selected from the list consisting of: PDGFR- alpha, TGFB-R1, B-RA, p38-beta, ACV-R1, BMPR1A and RET, is inhibited (eg, by a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention) to a lesser extent than one or more of the kinases selected from the list consisting of: EPHA2, EPHA4, CSF1-R, HCK and ACK1.

[250] In certain of such embodiments, one or more of the kinases selected from the list consisting of: NEK11, WEE1, WNK2, Aurora-A, Aurora-B and TBK1, is inhibited (eg, by a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention) to a lesser extent than one or more of the kinases selected from the list consisting of: ABL1, SRC, BCR- ABL, LCK, LYN, YES, FYN and KIT.

[251] A given kinase (such as SIK1 or SIK2) may be inhibited to a "lesser extent" than another kinase (such as SIK3) if, for example, the other kinase (such as SIK3) is inhibited by an amount greater than about 2 fold more than the given kinase, such as by an amount greater than about 5, 10, 20, 50, 75 or 100-fold more than the given kinase. In particular, the other kinase (such as SIK3) may be inhibited by an amount between about 5 and 20 fold, 20 and 50 or 50 and 100 fold more than the given kinase. For example, the SIK3 (ie, the other kinase) may be inhibited between about 20 and 50 fold more than SIK1 and/or SIK2 (ie, a given kinase). By way of example, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) of the invention may inhibit the other kinase (eg SIK3) by 80% (ie, to have only 20% of its uninhibited activity) but inhibit the given kinase (eg SIK1) by only 4% and SIK2 by only 8%. Accordingly, the other kinase (eg SIK3) is inhibited about 20-fold more than the given kinase (eg SIK1) and 10-fold more than another given kinase (eg SIK2). In particular embodiments, the other kinase (eg SIK3) may be inhibited to about the same extent as eg SIK1 (eg between about 2 to 53 fold of each other), and eg SIK2 is inhibited to a lesser extent that either (or both) of eg SIK3 and SIK1 : For example, in such embodiments, eg SIK3 and SIK1 are inhibited by between about a 20 and 50 fold more than eg SIK2 (eg in immune cells) is inhibited.

[252] The compounds of the first aspect are shown to be potent inhibitors of one or more kinases (as shown in the Examples, and in particular by Figure 3). In particular, any of (or any combination of) those kinases in Figure 3 having a residual activity of between about 50% and about 25%, or less than about 25% residual activity (and particular, those having a residual activity of less than about 10%), are considered, in certain embodiments to be "key-kinases" that are inhibited by the respective compound of the invention.

[253] Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the key-kinase is one selected from those listed in Figure 3 as having a residual activity of between about 50% and about 25% (ie, identified therein by "***"). For example: a (or the) key- kinase may be one (or more) selected from the list consisting of the following kinases listed in Figure 3, in particular wherein the compound is A8: BMPR1A, EPHA6, ERBB2, FGF-R2, JAK1, MAP3K11 and RET; and/or a (or the) key- kinase may be one (or more) selected from the list consisting of the following kinases listed in Figure 3, in particular when the compound is B3: ACV-R1, ACV-R1B, ACV-R2A, ACV-RL1, B-RAF, EGF-R, FLT3, MAP4K5, NLK, p38-alpha, RAF1, SRMS and TGFB-R1.

[254] Also accordingly, in further (or additional) embodiments, the key-kinase is one selected from those listed in Figure 3 as having less than about 25% residual activity (ie, identified therein by "****"). For example: a (or the) key-kinase may be one (or more) selected from the list consisting of the following kinases listed in Figure 3, in particular wherein the compound is A8 or B3 (in particular, B3) : ABL1, ABL2, ACK1, BLK, BMX, BRK, BTK, CSF1-R, CSK, EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA8, EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, ERBB4, FGR, FRK, FYN, HCK, KIT, LCK, LYN, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, RIPK2, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, TEC, TXK, YES , ZAK and DDR2; and/or a (or the) key-kinase may be one (or more) selected from the list consisting of the following kinases listed in Figure 3, in particular wherein the compound is A8: ABL1, ABL2, ACK1, ACV-R1, ACV-R1B, ACV-R2A, ACV-R2B, ACV-RL1, BLK, BMX, B-RAF, BRK, BTK, CSF1-R, CSK, EGF-R, EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA8, EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, ERBB4, FGR, FRK, FYN, HCK, KIT, LCK, LYN, MAP4K5, NLK, p38-alpha, p38-beta, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, RAF1, RIPK2, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, SRMS, TEC, TGFB-R1, TXK, YES, ZAK and DDR2; and/or a (or the) key-kinase may be one (or more) selected from the list consisting of the following kinases listed in Figure 3, in particular wherein the compound is A8: ACV-R1, ACV-R1B, ACV-R2A, ACV-R2B, ACV-RL1, B-RAF, EGF-R, MAP4K5, NLK, p38- alpha, p38-beta, RAF1, SRMS and TGFB-R1. In particular, a (or the) key-kinase may be one (or both) of the following kinases listed in Figure 3 as having less than about 25% residual activity (ie, identified therein by "****"), in particular wherein the compound is A8 or B3: DDR2 and/or SIK3.

[255] Mutants of such kinases are also considered therein.

[256] As particular examples, the key-kinases include one or more kinases selected from the list consisting of: SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, ABL1/BCR-ABL, SRC, FLT3, KIT, YES, LYN, FYN and LCK; and/or EPHA2, EPHA4, CSF1-R, HCK, ACK1; and/or PDGFR-alpha, TGFB-R1, B-RAF and/or p38-beta; and/or ACV-R1 and/or BMPR1A; and/or RET; and/or NEK11, WEE1 and/or WNK2; and/or Aurora-A and/or Aurora-B; and/or TBK1; in particular, ABL1/BCR-ABL, ABL1/BCR- ABL and FLT3.

[257] Subsequenty to the filing date of EP 18 202 121 (a priorty application to the present application), it was recently published that using dasatanib to target the collagen receptor DDR2 (discoidin domain-containing receptor 2; for example, UniProt: Q16832, Entry version 191 of 10 Apr 2019) elicits a significantly enhanced response to immune checkpoint blockade with PD1 inhibitors; which combination was shown to be robust across multiple tumour models representing diverse cancer types such as bladder, breast, colon, sarcoma and melanoma (Tu et al 2019, Sci Adv 5:eaav2437). Indeed, the present invention, when relating to the DDR2 and PD-l-targeted combination (in particular, such a combination using dasatinib as a DDR2 inhibitor), and for example supported by Tu et al's report showing preclinical efficacy, provides compelling evidence for the initiation of, and support for, the FRACTION-Lung trial (NCT02750514) which evaluates nivolumab in combination with dasatinib.

[258] The inventors find that the compounds of the invention inhibit a different set of kinases and/or each to a different degree compared to other kinase inhibitors. For example, compounds B3 and A8 are equivalent inhibitors of ABL1 and SRC (and of mutants of ABL1). However, as shown in the Examples, they inhibit SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, and in particular FLT3, KIT and SYK to different degrees.

[259] Compounds that inhibit different kinases and/or kinases to different degrees will have different properties in vivo, and can be used for different medical indications, or for the same medical indications but showing different properties in terms of efficacy and side-effects. As will be appreciated, compounds with different specificity to kinases can have surprisingly different properties and applications.

[260] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of one or more of the key-kinases (eg of ABL1 and/or SRC kinase, and/or LCK). In particular of such embodiments, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of such key-kinase(s) more than comprising (eg, involving, is or is mediated by) inhibition of one or more of the other key-kinases (eg SIK3 and/or SIK1 and/or SIK2). For example, the treatment can involve inhibiting ABL1 and/or SRC kinase, and/or one or more kinases selected from the list consisting of: BCR-ABL, LCK, LYN, YES. FYN and KIT.

[261] In a particular (alternative or additional) embodiment, the treatment does not comprise (eg, does not involve, is not or is not mediated by) inhibition of one or more of the key-kinases. In particular of such embodiments, the treatment does not comprise (eg, does not involve, is not or is not mediated by) inhibition of SIK3, and /or the treatment does not comprise (eg, does not involve, is not or is not mediated by) inhibition of SIK1 and/or SIK2.

[262] In further emodiments, the treatment may not comprise (eg, may not involve, is not or is not mediated by) inhibition of one or more of following kinases: JAK1, RET, ERBB4, PDGFR-alpha or EPHB2.

[263] In another particular (alternative or additional) embodiment, the treatment does not comprise (eg, does not involve, is not or is not mediated by) inhibition of SYK. For example, compound B3 inhibits SYK with an IC50 of over 25uM, while compound A8 has an IC50 for SYK of less than 5uM.

[264] In yet another particular (alternative or additional) embodiment, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of KIT. For example, compound B3 inhibits KIT with an IC50 of less than 50nM, and compound A8 has an IC50 for KIT also of less than 50nM.

[265] In one further particular (alternative or additional) embodiment, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of FLT3. For example, compound B3 inhibits FLT3 with an IC50 of less than lOuM, while compound A8 has an IC50 for FLT3 of greater than 25uM.

[266] Indeed, in a certain particular (alternative or additional) embodiment, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of both KIT and FLT3; for example, by administration of compound B3 to the subject, and for example, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of ABL1, SRC and/or SIK3.

[267] In one further embodiment, the treatment comprises (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) inhibition of a mutant of either ABL1 or KIT kinase; such as the inhibition of BCR-ABL, or another mutant of ABL1, such as one selected from the list consisting of: G250E, Q252H, Y253F, E255K, F317I, M351T and H396P.

[268] As described elsewhere herein, in one (alternative or additional) embodiment, the compound sensitises (eg, the treatment comprises, involves, is by or is mediated by sensitisation of) cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response (such as TNF). However, in an alterative (alternative or additional) embodiment, the compound does not sensitise (eg, the treatment does not comprise, involve, is not by or is not mediated by sensitisation of) cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response (such as TNF).

[269] In contrast to other studies using kinase (eg SIK) inhibitors, treatment with the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) in accordance with the present invention, in certain embodiments, may not be associated with an (effective) increase in the production of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines (for example the anti-inflammatory cytokine may be one selected from the list consisting of: IL-lra, IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, IL-13 and TGF- beta), and in particular may not be associated with an (effective) increase in the production of IL-10. Correspondingly, in other or further embodiments, treatment with the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) in accordance with the present invention may not be associated with an (effective) decrease in the production of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines; for example, one selected from the list consisting of: IL-l-beta, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF, IFN-gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and in particular embodiments may not be associated with an (effective) decrease in the production of TNF. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be administered to a subject in: (i) a (therapeutically effective) amount NOT effective to (effectively) increase the production of one or more (eg such) anti-inflammatory cytokines; and/or (ii) in a (therapeutically effective) amount NOT effective to (effectively) decrease the production of one or more (eg such) pro-inflammatory cytokines. [270] Certain cells involved with the proliferative disorder (eg tumour cells) may, in certain embodiments, be expected to be more susceptible to the sensitising effects of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) in the various aspects of the invention. For example, such cells may be those that exhibit (eg are subject to) activation of TNFR2 and/or TNFR1 signalling, in particular an activated TNFR1. In certain embodiments, such cells are those that express TNFR2 and/or TNFR1, in particular tumour cells that express TNFR1. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, such cells are distinguished or characterised by activated TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-signalling (or the subject is distinguished or characterised by having cells involved with the proliferative disorder - eg tumour cells - that are so distinguished or characterised). The person of ordinary skill will know techniques for determining the status of TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-activation in such cells (such as of the subject). For example, by detecting or monitoring one or more down-stream protein in the TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-signalling pathways. Such proteins are described elsewhere herein, and include NF-kappaB and/or FIDAC4.

[271] In one related aspect, the invention relates to a method for the treatment of a proliferative disorder

(such as a tumour) in a subject, the (treatment) method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject, by inhibiting a kinase/key-kinase (eg SIK3), wherein cells involved with the proliferative disorder are characterised by (eg exhibit or are subject to) activated TNFR2 and/or TNFR1 signalling (eg activated TNFR1 signalling). In another related aspect, the invention relates to a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above for use in the treatment of a proliferative disorder, wherein cells involved with the proliferative disorder are distinguished or characterised by (eg exhibit or are subject to) activated TNFR2 and/or TNFR1 signalling (eg activated TNFR1 signalling).

[272] In certain embodiments of the various aspects of the invention, cells involved with the proliferative disorder are those exposed to an appropriate triggering or activating molecule, such as TNF, a variant of TNF and or an agonist of TNFR2- or TNFRl-signalling (preferably, an agonist of TNFRl-signalling), in particular are exposed to an effective amount of such triggering or activating molecule.

[273] In particular embodiments, when the triggering or activating molecule is TNF, it is human TNF. In certain of such embodiments, the TNF is recombinant human TNF (rFluTNF). Flowever, in other embodiments the TNF is endogenous TNF, such as that is produced by or otherwise present in the subject (eg the human patient).

[274] Studies have shown that plasma TNF levels are elevated in numerous types of cancers, including in ovarian cancer (Dobrzycka et al 2009, Eur Cytokine Netw 20: 131), and that for example, the upper normal limit of total TNF in healthy subjects is 1.8 pg/mL, as measured using a Quantikine human TNF-alpha Immunoassay PDTA00C. In other cancers and assays (eg, TNF-alpha-EASIA Kit, DIAsource), the TNF plasma levels of oesophageal cancer patients and the control group were 12.35 ± 9.69 and 4.62 ± 3.06 pg / mL, respectively (Aydin et al 2012, Turk J Med Sci 42:762). Accordingly, in other embodiments the cells involved with the proliferative disorder are (for example a tumour is) one present in a subject having a plasma concentration of TNF greater than about 1.5, 2.5 or 4 pg/mL, such as greater than about 5 pg/mL, and in particular greater than about 10 pg/mL (for example, as measured by a Quantikine human TNF-alpha Immunoassay PDTA00C or a TNF-alpha-ELISA Kit, DIAsource).

[275] Accordingly, in one particular embodiment, the subject involved in the treatment methods of the invention may have (that is, such a subject can be distinguished by, such as distinguished as one suitable for the therapeutic methods of the present invention, by showing, possessing or displaying) a plasma concentration of TNF greater than about 2 pg/mL or greater than about 5 pg/mL (eg, the cells involved with the proliferative disorder are one present in a subject having a plasma concentration of TNF greater than about 2 pg/mL or 5 pg/mL).

[276] Indeed, in those embodiments where the proliferative disorder is a tumour, then the intratumoural concentration of TNF may be a characterisation of the tumour, such as when the tumour is a solid tumour and accessible for biopsy (Reissfelder et al 2015, J Clin Inv 125:739). For example, a tumour (such as a solid tumour eg colorectal cancer) can, in some embodiments of the invention, have an intratumoural concentration (eg, within the tumour tissue) of TNF that is greater than about 0.2, 0.5 or 1 pg/mL, such as greater than about 2 pg/mL, and in particular greater than about 5 pg/mL (for example, as measured by a Quantikine human TNF-alpha Immunoassay).

[277] Accordingly, in such embodiments when the proliferative disorder is a tumour (eg a solid tumour), then the solid tumour (eg, within the subject) may have (that is, such a subject can be distinguished by, such as distinguished as one suitable for the therapeutic methods of the present invention, by showing, possessing or displaying) an intratumoural concentration of TNF greater than (about) 0.5 pg/mL or greater than about 1 pg/mL.

[278] Accordingly, in a related aspect, the invention can relate to a method for the treatment of a proliferative disorder (or a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above for use in such a treatment) in a subject distinguished by having : (i) a plasma concentration of TNF greater than about 2 pg/mL (preferably greater than about 5 pg/mL); and/or (ii) an intratumoural concentration of TNF greater than about 0.5 pg/mL preferably greater than about 1 pg/mL), the treatment method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject, wherein the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) : (a) inhibits a kinase/key-kinase (eg SIK3) in cells involved with the proliferative disorder; and/or (b) sensitises cells in the subject involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

[279] In particular of such embodiments, the amount (or dose) of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) that is exposed to cells involved with the proliferative disorder, or that is administered to the subject, is related to (eg correlated to) the plasma or intratumoural concentration of TNF, wherein a greater amount (or dose) of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is exposed to such cells (or administered to such subject) in those cases of a greater plasma or intratumoural concentration of TNF.

[280] In other or further embodiments, the tumour may be present in a subject having tumour-reactive T-cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow, for example as may be determined by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. In yet other or further embodiments, the tumour shows infiltration by Tregs, CD4+ Tconv and/or CD8+ T cells.

[281] In other embodiments, the cells involved with the proliferative disorder comprises a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of TNF associated with increased expression of TNF and cancer sensitivity, for example with an AA or GA genotype at the -308G/A SNP in the promoter region of TNF; and in alternative embodiments the tumour does not comprise a SNP associated with decreased expression of TNF and reduced cancer risk, such as does not comprise an AA or GA genotype at the -238G/A SNP or a -857T allele, in each case in the promoter region of TNF (Wang and Lin 2008, Acta Pharmacol Sin 28: 1275).

[282] The invention hereby provides alternative combination treatment regimens based on the surprising finding of the inventors that inhibition of one or more kinase, such a one or more key-kinases, (eg SIK3) by a compound as described above can influence the sensitivity of a cell towards the apoptotic/cytotoxic effects of TNF. Accordingly, in a fourth aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the method comprising exposing (eg contacting) cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject to: (i) TNF, a TNF variant and/or an agonist of TNFR2- or TNFRl-signalling; and exposing (eg contacting) the cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject to (ii) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above. In certain embodiments, step (i) of such method does not comprise exposing (eg contacting) cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject to a TNF variant.

[283] In certain embodiments, the proliferative disorder and/or such cells are those of the tumour, and in other embodiments, component (i) is TNF, in particular human TNF (such as rHuTNF); and/or component (i) is an agonist of TNFRl-signalling.

[284] In particular embodiments, the method comprises (eg the treatment comprises, involves, is by or is mediated by) increasing the amount of TNF exposed to the cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject. [285] In certain embodiments of such aspects, the treatment may comprise (eg, involves, is by or is mediated by) increasing TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-signalling in (of) the cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject. Accordingly, in a related aspect the invention relates to a method for the treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the method comprising : (i) increasing TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-signalling in (of) the cells involved with the proliferative disorder; and (ii) exposing (eg contacting) the cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject to a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above.

[286] In particular the method can, for example, be effected though the consequence(s) of inhibition of a kinase (eg a key-kinase such as SIK3) (such as inhibition of the function and/or activity of phosphorylated SIK3), in particular in combination with the consequence(s) of activation of TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-sig nailing, such as upon binding of the TNF, TNF variant and/or TNFR1 agonist to TNFR1 or TNFR2.

[287] Accordingly, the treatment effect can, in certain embodiments, involve, or be mediated (eg, caused) by, inhibiting a kinase (eg a key-kinase, such as SIK3), and/or by sensitising the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to the cytotoxic (eg apoptotic) effects of TNFR1- or TNFR2-sig nailing. In particular of such embodiments, the kinase/key-kinase activity may be (effectively) reduced, such as to a therapeutically effective level.

[288] As described above, herein are also envisioned embodiments wherein a kinase, such as a key-kinase (eg SIK3) in the tumour cells is inhibited and, optionally, where one or more other kinase/key-kinase (eg SIK2 and/or SIK1) are inhibited to a lesser extent, such as such other kinase (eg SIK2 or SIK1) of immune cells.

[289] Also as described above, herein are also envisioned embodiments wherein the treatment comprises, involves, is by or is mediated by (eg, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered in an amount, such as a therapeutically effective amount that is effective to) inhibition of a kinase/key-kinase activity such that it is (eg, effectively) reduced, such as reduced to a therapeutically effective level.

[290] In certain embodiments of such aspect, the subject can be administered the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) and/or can be administered (the) TNF, an (the) TNF variant or an (the) agonist of TNFR1- or TNFR2- sig nailing.

[291] In such embodiments, the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) and the TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist can be exposed to (for example administered in) an effective amount (or dose), including in formulations or administrative routes as described elsewhere herein. In particular are envisioned embodiments where the TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist is encapsulated as a liposomal or other nanoparticle formulation.

[292] When the TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist is exposed/administered and the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is exposed/administered, then such combination treatment regimen may comprise embodiments where such exposures/administrations are concomitant. In alternative embodiments such exposures/administrations may be sequential; in particular those embodiments where the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is exposed/administered before the TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist is exposed/administered. For example the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be sequentially exposed/administered within about 14 days of (eg before) the other component, such as within about 10 days, 7 days, 5 days, 2 days or 1 day of (eg before) the other component; and further including where the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be sequentially exposed/administered within about 48 hours, 24 hours, 12 hours, 8 hours, 6 hours, 4 hours, 2 hours, 1 hours, 30 mins, 15 mins or 5 mins of (eg before) the other component.

[293] The TNF or the TNF variant or TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist may be administered via conventional routes, such as s.c., i.v. or i.m., and on certain embodiments may be administered intratumourally or by isolated limb perfusion (ILP), such as isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP); and/or may be so administered (in particular, rFluTNF may be so administered) at a dose of between about 5 and 500 ug/m2/day. For example, TNF may be administered between about 25 and 250 ug/m2/day, such as between about 50 and 150 ug/m2/day or between about 75 and 100 ug/m2/day; or wherein TNF is administered up to a MTD of about 50 and 75 ug/m2/day when administered s.c. or up to a MTD of about 150 and 200 ug/m2/day when administered i.v. or i.m. Accordingly, in particular of such embodiments, TNF can be administered to the subject at a dose of between about 5 and 500 ug/m2/day, in particular between about 20 and 200 ug/m2/day.

[294] In particular embodiments a variant of TNF, such as a TNF variant having higher anti-tumour activity and lower systemic toxicity that rFluTNF may be exposed/administered. For example, the TNF variant may be one selected from the group consisting of: (i) a -K90R variant of TNF; (ii) a tumour-homing peptide conjugated to TNF; and (iii) a TNF-antibody conjugate.

[295] In those embodiments of the invention involving a TNF variant, it may be a variant form of TNF having higher cytotoxic activity and lower systemic toxicity.

[296] In other embodiments a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist, such as the anti-TNFRl monoclonal antibody htr-9 (Ferrero et al 2001, Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 281 :C1173) may be exposed/administered, and in other embodiments lymphotoxin-alpha (Etemadi et al 2013, FEBS J 280:5283) or a variant thereof may be exposed/administered.

[297] In alternative embodiments, cells involved with the proliferative disorder (eg tumour cells) may be exposed to TNF (or increased TNFR1- and/or TNFR2-sig nailing) through the administration of an agent (eg to a subject harbouring such cell) that can lead to the exposure of such cells to (eg endogenous) TNF, or to another triggering molecule such as a variant of TNF or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist. Such an agent may, for example, be one that is capable of inducing (eg induces) the exposure of such cells to (eg an elevated level of) TNF, in particular an agent that induces the exposure of such cells to TNF levels, such as to an effective amount of (eg endogenous) TNF, for example levels of plasma or intratumoural TNF that are greater than one or those levels described elsewhere herein.

[298] Accordingly, the invention includes those embodiments wherein the subject is administered an agent that is capable of inducing (eg induces) the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to (the) TNF, an (the) TNF variant or an (the) agonist of TNFR1- or TNFR2-signalling. The invention also includes those embodiments wherein the subject gets administered an agent that is capable of increasing TNFRl-signalling (and/or TNFR2- signalling) of, and/or increasing the amount of TNF exposed to, cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject.

[299] In certain of such embodiments, the agent is a virus, in particular one that has been engineered to produce a triggering molecule being TNF, a TNF variant or the TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist (especially, a virus engineered to produce human TNF). Further of such embodiments include those where such virus preferentially infects the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (eg tumour cells) and/or preferentially produces the triggering molecule in the context of (eg when it infects) such cells. As will now be apparent, the administration of such a virus can lead to the exposure of the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder to such triggering molecule, and in particular to an effective amount of such a triggering molecule such as TNF.

[300] Accordingly, in certain of such methods, the agent may be a virus that is capable of inducing (eg induces) the exposure of the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder the TNF, TNF variant or agonist of TNFR1- or TNFR2-sig nailing.

[301] Such a virus may be any that is suitable for inducing the exposure of the triggering molecule, and in particular may be a recombinant virus; for example one engineered to infect tumour cells and/or to express TNF (eg after infecting a tumour cell). Examples of virus that may be so engineered include oncolytic viruses (eg, those based on an adenovirus, FISV, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus or Newcastle disease virus), such as intratumoural injection of adenovirus vectors to increase plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including TNF (Bernt et al 2005, Cancer Res 65:4343). In particular of such embodiments, the oncolytic virus may be one based on a DNA virus described in Table 1 of Kaufman et al 2015 (Nature Rev Drug Disc 14:642), one based on an RNA virus described in Table 2 of Kaufman et al 2015, preferably, is an oncolytic virus described in Table 3 of Kaufman et al 2015 as being in clinical trials. [302] In other of such embodiments, the agent that is administered (and that consequentially leads to exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a triggering molecule being TNF, a TNF variant or a TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist) is an immune cell. In certain of such embodiments, the immune cell may not be an ILlO-producing macrophage, for example the immune cells can be a pro-inflammatory immune cell. In particular of such embodiments, the immune cell that is administered may be a lymphoid cell, eg a T cell or a natural killer (NK) cell, for example such a cell that produces TNF.

[303] When administered as an agent in such embodiments of the invention, the immune cell may be administered via adoptive cell transfer (ACT); meaning the transfer of the immune cell into the subject (eg, by infusion or other delivery techniques). Such process is, typically, conducted with the goal of improving immune functionality and characteristics in the subject, and while conventionally the transferred immune cells will have originated from the same subject, they may alternatively have been derived from another (suitable) individual.

[304] When used in this embodiment of the invention, the immune cells may be T cells extracted from the subject, genetically modified and cultured in vitro and returned to the same subject, such as in a therapeutic method of the invention. Such genetic modification can include those that enhance the specificity or targeting of the immune cell, such as the targeting of the immune cell (eg increasing its specificity) to the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (eg a tumour cell). For example, a T cell that is used in such embodiments may be modified to alter the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or to introduce antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CAR immune cells, in particular, are envisioned for use in such embodiments. CAR immune cells are immune cells displaying engineered receptors, which graft an arbitrary specificity (eg to a tumour cell) onto an immune effector cell (eg a T cell). Typically, these receptors are used to graft the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell; with transfer of their coding sequence facilitated by retroviral vectors. CAR T cells are a promising therapy for cancer (Song et al 2015, Oncotarget. 6:21533) : using ACT, T cells are removed from an individual (typically the subject) and modified so that they express receptors specific to the patient's particular cancer. These T cells, which can then recognise the subject's cancer cells, are (re)introduced into the subject, leading to exposure of TNF (eg produced by the CAR T cells) to the tumour cells and hence killing of such cells, in particular such cells that are sensitised to such TNF-mediate cytotoxicity by exposure to (eg following administration to the subject of) a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) described above. Accordingly, in particular of such embodiments, the immune cells can be a CAR T cell, such as one engineered to have increased specificity to the subject's cells that are involved with the proliferative disorder (such as tumour cells).

[305] In alternative embodiments, the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF (eg endogenous TNF) may be induced by other means or procedures. Accordingly, in such embodiments, the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to (eg an effective amount of) TNF can be induced by (and/or the increase in TNFRl-signalling (and/or TNFR2-sig nailing) in/of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder is induced by) a pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure that increases the amount of TNF in the plasma of the subject and/or in the environment of such cells.

[306] In certain embodiments, such induced exposure to TNF may be brought about by the administration of a cancer immunotherapy.

[307] In one example, such induced exposure to TNF is brought about by an anti-tumour vaccine (eg, a cancer vaccine). Such cancer vaccines include those whereby antigens (eg, those specific to or preferentially expressed by cancer cells) are directly or indirectly introduced into the subject so as to raise or increase an immune response (typically, an adaptive immune response) in the subject that is envisioned to be (more) specific to the cancer cell. Cancer vaccine may comprise, for example, attenuated viruses, in particular for use against cancers such as cervical or liver cancers that are caused by such virus (eg FIPV or FIBV). Cancer vaccines can alternatively represent individual (or combinations) of particular tumour antigens (eg, those specific to or preferentially expressed by cancer cells), such as tumour-associated antigens (TMs) that are used to immunise the subject so as to also raise or increase the immune response in the subject. The cancer vaccine may comprise recombinant protein representing (eg a peptide from) the TM(s), or may be a tumour specific carbohydrate antigen, and hence are directly introduced into the subject upon administration. The cancer vaccine may, alternatively, comprise a nucleic acid (such as DNA or mRNA) than encodes the protein (or peptide) TAA, and upon administration of the nucleic acid vaccine into the subject, the encoded TAA is expressed by cellular targets in the subject, and hence are indirectly introduced into the subject. TAAs may be divided into two categories: shared tumour antigens; and unique tumour antigens. Shared antigens are expressed by many tumours. Unique tumour antigens result from mutations induced through physical or chemical carcinogens (also known as neoantigens); they are therefore expressed only by individual tumours. The person of ordinary skill will be aware of examples of cancer vaccines in clinical trials, or approved for use, and include PROSTVAC (Bavarian Nordic), PROVENGE (Dendreon) and CV9104 (CureVac), as well as being aware of various TAAs (including neoantigens) and approaches by such tumour antigens may be utilised in cancer vaccines. As further examples: (1) immunisation with recipient-derived clonal myeloma immunoglobulin, idiotype (Id), as a tumour antigen, conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has been shown to produce substantial amount or pro- inflammatory cytokines including TNF (Foglietta et al 2013, Bone Marrow Transplant 48: 269); and (2) a synthetic micro-consensus SynCon DNA vaccine of WT1 antigens induced new, neo-antigen-like responses that were superior to those induced by native WT1 DNA immunogens, such as strong CD4 and CD8 T cell responses (including IFN- gamma, CD107a, and TNF responses).

[308] In another example, such induced exposure to TNF may be brought about by the administration of a ligand (such as an antibody, eg, a monoclonal antibody), for example one that binds to the surface of the cell(s) involved with the proliferative disorder (such as a tumour cell), for example by binding to a TAA or a receptor on the surface of such cell. Cell surface receptors are common targets for such ligand (antibody) therapies and include CD52 and CD20. Once bound to such a cancer antigen, the eg antibodies can induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, activate the complement system, or prevent a receptor from interacting with its ligand, all of which can lead to cell death. Approved such ligands that are antibodies include alemtuzumab, ofatumumab and rituximab. In certain embodiments, such ligands used in combination with a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above can include those that activate T cells or other cell-mediated immune response. For example: (1) anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies can dramatically promote proliferation of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells and expression of TNF (Zhu et al 2009, Biomed Pharmacother 63:509); (2) an agonist anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody can enhance antitumour immune response by augmenting T-cell differentiation (Redmond et al 2014, Cancer Immunol Res. 2014, 2: 142); and (3) an anti-ICOS antibody that activates T cells (eg Deng et al 2004, Hybrid Hybridomics 23: 176).

[309] In yet another example, the ligand that is administered to the subject is one that binds to an immune (inhibitory) checkpoint molecule. For example, such checkpoint molecule may be one selected from the group consisting of: A2AR, B7-H3, B7-H4, CTLA-4, IDO, KIR, LAG3, PD-1 (or one of its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2), TIM-3 (or its ligand galectin-9), TIGIT and VISTA. In particular of such embodiments, the ligand binds to a checkpoint molecule selected from : CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1. In other more particular embodiments, the ligand is an antibody selected from the group consisting of: ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, BGB-A317, atezolizumab, avelumab and durvaluma; in particular an antibody selected from the group consisting of: ipilimumab (YERVOY), nivolumab (OPDIVO), pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA) and atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ). In other embodiments, the ligand that binds to a immune (inhibitory) checkpoint molecule may be a non-antibody peptide, such as a high-affinity PD-1 variant (eg, Maute et al, 2015; PNAS 112: E6506), a peptide targeting the immune checkpoint molecule (such as AUNP-12 of Aurigene Discovery Technologies, US 2011/0318373) or a D peptide blocking an interaction between immune checkpoint molecule (such as the PDL1-PD1 interaction and (D) PPA-1, Chang et al, 2015; Anyeg Chem Int 54: 11760). In yet other embodiments, the ligand that binds to a immune (inhibitory) checkpoint molecule may be a small molecule, such as the PDLl-targeting BMS-202 or BMS-8 (Zak et al 2016; Oncotarget 7:30323), the inhibitors of PDL1/D1 known as BMS-1001 or BMS-1166 (Skalniak et a I, 2017; Oncotarget 8:72167), the PDL1 and VISTA antagonist CA-170 of Curis/Aurigen undergoing phase 1 trials (Powderly et a I, Ann One 28: Issue suppl 5, mdx376.007) or CA-327 of Curis/Aurigen which targets PDL1 and TIM3.

[310] In yet another particular embodiments, such induced exposure to TNF may be brought about by radiotherapy.

[311] Radiotherapy is a method of locoregional treatment of cancers or tumours, using radiation to destroy the cancer cells by blocking their ability to multiply and/or to stimulate an immune reaction against the them (such one raised as a response to the presence of dead or dying cancer cells). Radiotherapy, in the context of the present invention, consists - in particular - of the therapeutic use of ionising radiation. Said radiotherapy and the associated ionising radiation are those commonly used and known to those skilled in the art. Radiotherapy includes in particular the use of ionizing radiation, for example gamma-rays, X-rays and/or radiation emanating from radioisotopes. In the context of the present invention, it is more particularly X-ray radiation. The radiotherapy may be administered in fractionated form during one or more cycles, such as a cycle that can range from 1 to 4 weeks, more particularly 3 weeks. The cycle defines the interval between the beginning and the end of an administration scheme. When the cycle takes three weeks, radiotherapy can be administered over three weeks, with one week between. The radiotherapy may in particular be administered at a rate of one daily irradiation, 5 days out of 7, for the desired number of weeks. The amount of radiation used in (photon) radiation therapy is measured in gray (Gy), and varies depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated. For curative cases, the typical dose for a solid epithelial tumour ranges from 60 to 80 Gy, while lymphomas are treated with 20 to 40 Gy.

[312] When the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is used in combinations treatments together with any of such other procedures (eg, the other agent, the cancer immunotherapy, the cancer vaccine, the antibody or the radiotherapy, in each case as described herein), then such combination treatment regimen may comprise embodiments where such exposures/administrations are concomitant. In alternative embodiments such administrations may be sequential; in particular those embodiments where the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) is administered before such other procedure. For example the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be sequentially administered within about 14 days of (eg before) the other procedure, such as within about 10 days, 7 days, 5 days, 2 days or 1 day of (eg before) the other procedure; and further including where the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) may be sequentially administered within about 48 hours, 24 hours, 12 hours, 8 hours, 6 hours, 4 hours, 2 hours, 1 hours, 30 mins, 15 mins or 5 mins of (eg before) the other procedure.

[313] Without being bound to theory, administration of the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) (and hence inhibition of the expression, amount, function, activity or stability of a kinase /key-kinase such as SIK3, eg in a tumour cell) prior to administration of the TNF, TNF variant or TNFR1 or TNFR2 agonist, or prior to administration of such other procedures (eg, the other agent, the cancer immunotherapy, the cancer vaccine, the antibody or the radiotherapy, is foreseen to be particularly effective in sensitising the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to the cytotoxic effects of the cell-mediated immune response.

[314] As described above, existing therapies (or those under clinical trials) involving administration of TNF and/or use of anti-TNF molecules suffer certain known disadvantages; and particular side effects. The present invention provides methods that may be used to mitigate (or reduce) such disadvantages and/or particular side effects.

[315] In a fifth aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the increase of the therapeutic index of treatment with TNF in a subject being treated therewith for a proliferative disorder (eg a cancer disease or a tumour), the method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject.

[316] In a related aspect, the invention relates to a method for supporting TNF therapy in a subject suffering from a proliferative disorder (eg a cancer disease or a tumour), the method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject.

[317] In a sixth aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the sensitisation of a subject suffering from a proliferative disorder (eg a cancer disease or tumour) to a therapy involving the administration of TNF to the subject, the method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject.

[318] The term "sensitisation" (and the like), as used herein in the context of a subject being sensitised to a therapy (eg one involving the administration of TNF), will be understood by the person of ordinary skill, and includes the meaning that the subject increases susceptibility to one or more (treatment) effect - in particular an efficacy effect - that such therapy may have on the subject. In particular, a subject that is so sensitised may, when undergoing such therapy, show an increased response (such as more rapidly, a greater degree of response and/or upon a lower amount or exposure of such therapy) than an analogous subject that have not been so "sensitised".

[319] In a seventh aspect, and as may be further described, defined, claimed or otherwise disclosed herein, the invention relates to a method for the reduction in risk of (developing) a haematological proliferative disorder (eg, as a secondary disorder) in a subject being treated with an anti-TNF agent, the method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject. For example, such aspect may alternatively, be considered as a method for the prevention of a haematological proliferative disorder (as a secondary disorder) in a subject being treated with an anti-TNF agent, the method comprising administering a compound (or pharmaceutical composition) as described above to the subject.

[320] This aspect of the invention is based on the observation as described above, that there are reports of patients receiving anti-TNF biologies developing lymphomas and other haematological malignancies. Indeed, such disorders are typically described in package leaflets/prescribing information as possible (but rare) side-effects of treatment with anti-TNF agents. As a direct consequence of the perceived increase in haematological malignancy and widespread use of these and other immunosuppressive agents, the WFIO classification of tumours now includes the category "iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disease".

[321] Therfore, typically in such aspects, the subject is being treated with the anti-TNF agent for an indication other than a proliferative disorder, and in particular of such embodiments the subject does not - upon commencement of the anti-TNF treatment - suffer from a haematological proliferative disorder. Indeed, typically the subject would suffer from, and/or is being treated with the anti-TNF agent for an autoimmune disorder; preferably an autoimmune disorder selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, plaque psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa and refractory asthma; such as one selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, plaque psoriasis and Crohn's Disease; and in particular rheumatoid arthritis.

[322] In certain embodiments, the anti-TNF agent is one selected from a list consisting of: infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, humicade, etanercept, onercept and certolizumab pegol, in particular infliximab or humicade.

[323] In certain embodiments, the haematological malignancies proliferative disorder may be a lymphoproliferative disease, in particular an iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

[324] In certain embodiments of such fifth to seventh aspects, the (treatment) effect (eg the increase in therapeutic index, sensitisation of a subject or reduction in risk) is mediated by (eg, the treatment comprises, is by, is mediated by or involves): (i) inhibiting a kinase (eg a key-kinase such as SIK3) (such as by the inhibition of the function and/or activity of phosphorylated SIK3), in particular by inhibiting such a kinase (eg a key-kinase) in cells involved with the proliferative disorder; and/or (ii) sensitising such cells to the killing (apoptotic/cytotoxic) effects of TNF. In further embodiments, the (treatment) effect may not be mediated by (eg, the treatment may not comprise or involve) inhibiting one or more other key-kinases (eg, ABL1 and/or SRC, or SIK2 and/or SIK1), in particular not mediated by (eg, the treatment does not comprise or involve) inhibiting or more other key-kinases (eg SIK2 and/or SIKl(and/or SIK3) in immune cells.

Pre-clinical and clinical testing

[325] In certain embodiments, the subject is a human volunteer; for example one that has chosen (eg consented) to be administered the compound (or pharmaceutical composition) for a clinical trial or other experimental use of the compound. In another embodiment, the subject is a laboratory animal, in particular an animal selected from the group consisting of: mouse, rat, rabbit, pig and monkey.

[326] In such (eg experimental treatment) embodiments, a plurality of such subjects can be treated; in particular 5 or more subjects, such as between about 5 and 20, 10 and 50, 25 and 200, or 75 and 250 subjects, or more than about 250 subjects.

[327] Such experimental (or clinical trial) treatments may comprise: (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of a different dosage of the compound and/or a different formulation of the pharmaceutical composition.

[328] In further of such embodiments, such experimental (or clinical trial) treatments may comprise: (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of either: (a) a placebo; or (b) the dosage of the compound and/or the formulation of the pharmaceutical composition of the subject(s) of (i) as well as an additional pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure.

[329] The term "placebo" will be art recognised, and includes a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value. In such embodiments, the placebo can be made to resemble the other administration so that it functions as a control, such as in a blinded trial.

[330] In certain of such embodiments, such experimental (or clinical trial) treatment is specifically designed for the investigation and/or determination of a therapeutically effective dosage of the compound and/or the identification of a therapeutically effective formulation of the pharmaceutical composition.

Diagnosis

[331] In an eighth aspect, the invention relates to a method of diagnosing and treating a disease, disorder or condition characterised by the presence of or an amount of, and/or characterised by (eg aberrant) expression or activity of, one or more applicable biomarkers (such as a kinase) in a subject, such as a human patient, comprising:

• detecting one or more such applicable biomarkers in a biological sample from said subject, thereby diagnosing if the subject is suffering (or is likely to suffer) from such a disease, disorder or condition; and

• administering an effective amount of a compound as described above (and/or a pharmaceutical composition comprising such compound) to the so diagnosed subject, in particular practicing a treatment method of the invention on the subject.

[332] In one of such embodiments, the disease, disorder or condition is a proliferative disorder, such as one disclosed elsewhere herein (eg a tumour or cancer).

[333] The term "applicable biomarker" means any one (or more) of the genes expressed by the cell involved with the proliferative disorder that are involved in the (eg kinase/key-kinase mediated) cellular resistance against an immune response (eg a cell-mediated immune response such as TNF). Such genes include: (X) one or more kinase, in particular one or more key-kinase as described herein, such as SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, ABL1 (BCR-ABL), SRC, FLT3, KIT, YES, LYN, FYN and LCK; in particular, ABL1 (BCR-ABL), ABL1 (BCR-ABL) and FLT3 and, in particular, phosphorylated SIK3; (Y) a mutant of a kinase, such as a mutant ABL1 kinase (eg BCR-ABL) or a mutant of KIT kinase; and/or (Z) one or more of (a) to (f) below) :

(a) TNFR1 (or TNFR2), such as the presence of (or an amount of) or expression and/or activity of TNFR1 (or TNFR2), in particular TNFR1;

(b) LKB1, such as the presence of (or an amount of) or expression and/or activity of LKB1, in particular increased amount or activity of LKB1 or pLKBl;

(c) one or more class II (eg Ila) HDACs, eg HDAC4, such as the presence of (or an amount of) or expression and/or activity of such HDAC, in particular increased amount or activity of such HDAC or pHDAC, especially in the cytoplasm of cells of the tumour;

(d) Expression of NF-kappa-B, in particular, constitutive expression of NF-kappa-B;

(e) NF-kappa-B, such as the presence of (or an amount of) or expression and/or activity of NF-kappa-B, in particular increased amount or activity of NF-kappa-B or acetylated NF-kappa-B, especially in the nucleus of cells of the tumour; and/or

(f) one or more anti-apoptotic genes, such as the presence of (or an amount of) or expression and/or activity of one or more anti-apoptotic genes, in particular one or more of such genes under transcriptional control by NF-kappa-B.

[334] In certain embodiments, the applicable biomarker is one or more key-kinases selected from the list consisting of: EPHA2, EPHA4, CSF1-R, HCK, ACK1; and/or PDGFR-alpha, TGFB-R1, B-RAF and/or p38-beta; and/or ACV-R1 and/or BMPR1A; and/or RET; and/or NEK11, WEE1 and/or WNK2; and/or Aurora-A and/or Aurora-B; and/or TBK1.

[335] Further embodiments of the administering (or treatment) step of this method of diagnosis and treatment are described in more details elsewhere; as are particular embodiments of the methods of the detection, determination or diagnostic method step of this method. Particular of such embodiments include those where the amount of the compound (and/or pharmaceutical composition) administered to the subject is correlated to the plasma or intratumoural concentration of TNF (in the subject), wherein a greater amount (or dose) of the compound (and/or pharmaceutical composition) administered to such subject in those cases of a greater plasma or intratumoural concentration of TNF.

[336] In certain embodiments, a biological sample will (preferably) comprise cells or tissue of the subject, or an extract of such cells or tissue, in particular where such cells are those (usually, typically; or in the case or a specific subject as suspected to be) involved with the proliferative disorder (eg tumour cells such as cells of a solid tumour). The tumour or cell thereof, may be one of, or derived from, one of the tumours described elsewhere herein.

[337] In particular embodiments of such aspect, the method will also comprise a step of:

• providing (such as by obtaining) the biological sample from the subject, in particular where such step is conducted prior to the detection step.

[338] In particular embodiments, such detection and/or determination methods can be practiced as a method of diagnosis, such as a method of diagnosis whether a mammalian subject (such as a human subject or patient) has a disease, disorder or condition, in particular (the presence of) a proliferative disorder such as a cancer or tumour (or has a risk of developing such a disease, disorder or condition) that is associated with cellular resistance against a cell-mediated immune response and/or that is associated with (eg aberrant) expression or activity of the applicable biomarker (eg SIK3); in particular a (solid) tumour, such as one having cellular resistance against a cell-mediated immune response.

[339] In certain embodiments of these detection, determination and/or diagnostic methods, the cellular resistance against a cell-mediated immune response is cellular resistance against a T cell-mediated immune response, in particular cellular resistance to the killing (apoptotic/cytotoxic) effect of TNF and/or of TNFR1 or TNFR2 signalling.

[340] Accordingly, particular embodiments of these detection and/or diagnostic methods may also comprise a step of determining the presence or amount of TNF in the sample, wherein the presence of (or an amount of) TNF in the sample indicates a/the proliferative disorder (or a/the risk of developing a proliferative disorder) that is associated with cellular resistance against the cell-mediated immune response, and/or associated with (aberrant) expression or activity of the kinase (eg SIK3), in the subject. In particular of such embodiments, amount of TNF in the sample is determined qualitatively. Preferably, the subject is distinguished as having : (i) a plasma concentration of TNF greater than about 2 pg/mL or 5 pg/mL in a plasma sample from the subject; and/or (ii) an intratumoural concentration of TNF greater than about 0.5 pg/mL or 1 pg/mL from a tissue sample from the subject, indicates the (presence of the proliferative disorder or a risk of developing the proliferative disorder that is associated with cellular resistance against the cell-mediated immune response, and/or associated with expression or activity of the kinase (eg SIK3), in the subject.

[341] Methodologies to determine the presence or amount of TNF in a sample are described elsewhere herein (in particular, quantitative detection of TNF using ELISA assays such as a Quantitkine TNF-alpha Immunoassay; as are amounts of TNF that, if are exceeded by the TNF present in the sample, indicate that a proliferative disorder associated with cellular resistance against the cell-mediated immune response, and/or associated with (aberrant) expression or activity of the kinase (eg SIK3), in the subject.

[342] In certain embodiments, the biological sample is one obtained from a mammalian subject like a human patient. The term "biological sample" is used in its broadest sense and can refer to a bodily sample obtained from the subject (eg, a human patient). For example, the biological sample can include a clinical sample, ie, a sample derived from a subject. Such samples can include, but are not limited to: peripheral bodily fluids, which may or may not contain cells, eg, blood, urine, plasma, mucous, bile pancreatic juice, supernatant fluid, and serum; tissue or fine needle biopsy samples; tumour biopsy samples or sections (or cells thereof), and archival samples with known diagnosis, treatment and/or outcome history. Biological samples may also include sections of tissues, such as frozen sections taken for histological purposes. The term "biological sample" can also encompass any material derived by processing the sample. Derived materials can include, but are not limited to, cells (or their progeny) isolated from the biological sample, nucleic acids and/or proteins extracted from the sample. Processing of the biological sample may involve one or more of: filtration, distillation, extraction, amplification, concentration, fixation, inactivation of interfering components, addition of reagents, and the like.

[343] In some embodiments, these detection, determination and/or diagnostic methods may be a computer- implemented method, or one that is assisted or supported by a computer. In some embodiments, information reflecting the presence or an amount of the applicable biomarker (eg, a key-kinase such as ABL1/BCR-ABL, SRC and/or SIK3) to be determined (or activity thereof) in a sample is obtained by at least one processor, and/or information reflecting the presence or an amount of such marker (or activity thereof) in a sample is provided in user readable format by another processor. The one or more processors may be coupled to random access memory operating under control of or in conjunction with a computer operating system. The processors may be included in one or more servers, clusters, or other computers or hardware resources, or may be implemented using cloud-based resources. The operating system may be, for example, a distribution of the Linux™ operating system, the Unix™ operating system, or other open-source or proprietary operating system or platform. Processors may communicate with data storage devices, such as a database stored on a hard drive or drive array, to access or store program instructions other data. Processors may further communicate via a network interface, which in turn may communicate via the one or more networks, such as the Internet or other public or private networks, such that a query or other request may be received from a client, or other device or service. In some embodiments, the computer-implemented method of detecting the presence or an amount of the applicable biomarker (or activity thereof) in a sample is provided as a kit.

[344] Such detection, determination and/or diagnosis methods can be conducted as an in-vitro (eg ex-vivo) method, and can be, for example, practiced using the kit of the present invention (or components thereof). An in- vitro method may use, involve or be practised on immortalised cell lines (such as those replicated, cultured or indefinitely maintained outside of the body of an animal or human), or it may be use, involve or be practised in-vitro using cells (such as primary cells) directly or freshly obtained from the body of an animal of human (eg, practised as a so-called "ex-vivo" method).

[345] In some embodiments of these detection, determination and/or diagnosis methods, the biological sample is a tissue sample from the subject, such as a sample of a tumour or a cancer from the subject. As described above, such tissue sample may be a biopsy sample of the tumour or a cancer such as a needle biopsy sample, or a tumour biopsy section or an archival sample thereof. Such a tissue sample may comprise living, dead or fixed cells, such as from the tumour or a cancer, and such cells may be suspected of expressing (e.g. aberrantly or localised) the applicable biomarker to be determined.

[346] In some embodiments, determination and/or diagnosis method of the invention can comprise, such as in a further step, comparing the detected amount (or activity of) of (eg protein or mRNA of) the applicable biomarker (eg the kinase/key-kinase such as SIK3, and in particular phosphorylated SIK3) with a standard or cut-off value; wherein a detected amount greater than the standard or cut-off value indicates a phenotype (or a risk of developing a phenotype) that is associated with cellular resistance against the cell-mediated immune response in the subject and/or is associated with is associated with (aberrant) expression or activity of the kinase/key-kinase (eg SIK3) in the subject. Such a standard or cut-off value may be determined from the use of a control assay, or may be pre determined from one or more values obtained from a study or a plurality of samples having known phenotypes. For example, a cut-off value for a diagnostic test may be determined by the analysis of samples taken from patients in the context of a controlled clinical study, and determination of a cut-off depending on the desired (or obtained) sensitivity and/or specificity of the test.

[347] The applicable biomarker can, in certain embodiments, be detected by detecting protein of the applicable biomarker, or by detecting mRNA that encodes protein of the applicable biomarker. Methods to detect proteins (eg antibody detection, in particular by immunohistochemistry) and mRNA (eg by hybridisation, qPCR or sequencing) are well known.

[348] Examples of methods useful in the detection of (such as the presence or absence of, or an amount of) the applicable biomarker (such as the kinase/key-kinase eg SIK3, and in particular phosphorylated SIK3) include immunoassays, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the radioimmunoassay (RIA), which employ an antigen binding protein ("ABP") such as an antibody or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, that specifically binds to such applicable biomarker.

Intermediates, synthesis, manufacturing and other aspects

[349] The compounds disclosed herein can be prepared as described below or prepared by methods analogous thereto, which are readily known and available to one of ordinary skill in the art of organic synthesis.

[350] In a ninth aspect, the invention relates to the use of a compound (eg, an intermediate) to prepare a compound as described above (eg, to prepare a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3), wherein the compound (eg the intermediate) comprises a substructure selected from the list consisting of the following substructures:

[351] In particular of such embodiments, the compound (eg the intermediate) comprises the substructure (III), and in another particular of such embodiments, the compound (eg the intermediate) is not compound B3.

[352] In a certain of such embodiment, the compound (eg the intermediate) is 2-bromo-4-chloropyridin-3-amine (Compound IaB3) or is 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine (Compound IbB3). In another certain of such embodiment, the compound (eg the intermediate) has the formula (Compound IcB3):

[353] In a related aspect, the invention also relates to (the composition of matter of) a compound (eg an intermediate) being 2-bromo-4-chloropyridin-3-amine or 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine, in particular wherein such compound (eg the intermediate) is in an amount of greater than about lg or lOg, such as greater than about lOOg, and/or is in purified form (eg, as defined elsewhere herein).

[354] In a tenth aspect, the invention relates to a method for preparing a compound as described above

(eg, a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3) that is in a (eg substantially) purified form, the method comprising the steps:

• providing the compound (eg B3) in admixture with one or more impurities; and

• removing at least a fraction of the impurities from the admixture.

[355] In certain embodiments of such aspect, suitable methods to remove a fraction of the impurities are well known and include eg column chromatography, selective precipitation, trituration and elution of impurities with a suitable solvent in which the desired compound is not soluble, etc.

[356] The fraction of impurities removed may be such that the compound is prepared in substantially pure form; that is, for example, in a percentage purity as described above.

[357] In other embodiments, the admixture of provided by synthesising an impure form of the compound.

[358] In an eleventh aspect, the invention also relates to a method for manufacturing a pharmaceutical composition comprising the step or formulating a compound as described above (eg a compound of formula (I), such as compound B3) together with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient (such as one described elsewhere herein, such as a pharmaceutically acceptable stabiliser of carrier).

[359] In a particular of such embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is manufactured in an amount that is greater than about lOg; such as greater than about lOOg, and suitably greater than about lKg (or greater than 10Kg).

[360] In one embodiment of such aspect, the pharmaceutical composition is manufactured in unit dose form.

[361] In certain of such embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is formed as a tablet, caplet or capsule; in particular as a tablet or capsule.

[362] In a further of such embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is formed as a film-coated tablet, or as a film-coated caplet. For example, the method may comprise a further step of coating a tablet or caplet with a film, in particular with a pharmaceutical effective film-coating. [363] In a twelth aspect, the invention also relates to a method of preparing a pharmaceutical package, comprising the steps:

• inserting into packaging a pharmaceutical composition as described above, thereby forming a package containing the pharmaceutical composition; and optionally,

• inserting into the package a leaflet describing prescribing information for the pharmaceutical composition.

[364] In one of such embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is in finished pharmaceutical form; for example, that is in the form that would be administered (or finally prepared to be administered) to a subject.

[365] The packaging can be primary and/or secondary packaging. For example, the primary packaging may be a glass vial or a blister strip. Typical (but non-limiting) secondary packaging can be a box or carton, which in certain embodiments may be marked with the name, strength and/or brand of the pharmaceutical composition it contains.

[366] The packaging may further comprise a leaflet or other information. In particular, that describing (either to the patient and/or the administering physician) salient information or details on the pharmaceutical composition contained in the package, such as how to administer, recommended dosages, safety and/or side-effect information.

[367] In a thirteenth aspect, the invention also relates to a pharmaceutical package containing a pharmaceutical composition as described above; preferably, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is in finished pharmaceutical form. In certain embodiments of such aspect, the pharmaceutical package may further containing a leaflet describing prescribing information for the pharmaceutical composition.

[368] In a fourteenth aspect, the invention also relates to a method of delivering a pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package as described above from a first location to a second location, the method comprising the steps:

• receiving at a first location a request from a second location for the delivery of an amount of the pharmaceutical composition or the pharmaceutical package; and

• delivering at least a portion of (preferably, all of) the requested amount from the first location to the second location in one or more deliveries,

wherein first location and the second location are separated by a distance of greater than about 10m, and one or more of the deliveries is/are transported for at least part of the distance between the first location to the second location by wheeled transporters.

[369] In embodiments of such aspect, the requests may be sent, transmitted and/or received by electronic methods, such as telephone, email or other computer message or signal.

[370] The distance between the two locations is greater than about 10m, such as more than about 100m or more than about lKm, In particular embodiments, the distance between the first location and the second location is more than about lOKm, such as more than aboutlOOKm or l,000Km.

[371] A technical unit, being a wheeled transporter, is used to transport the pharmaceutical composition or the pharmaceutical package for at least a portion of the distance between the two locations. For example, for a short distance, the pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package may be first carried by foot from a storage shelf and then placed on a wheeled trolley to transport to another room or part of a hospital.

[372] In other embodiments, the wheeled transporter may be a vehicle (such a van or lorry) that transports the pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package for, eg longer, distances. For example, a van may be used to transport the pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package between locations that are more than about lOKm apart. Alternatively, a bicycle (or motorbike) may be used to transport the pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package between locations that are less than about lOKm apart. Flowever, even if the pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package is transported longer distances (eg from one country or continent to another), such as greater than about lOOKm, and are taken for much of that distance by eg plane or ship, then it would be envisioned that the pharmaceutical composition or pharmaceutical package would still be transported to the departure airport or port (and/or from the airport or port) by a wheeled transporter such as van or lorry, or at the port or airport in a shipping container on a trailer.

[373] In view of the above, it will be appreciated that the present invention also relates to the following itemised embodiments:

Item 1. A compound:

(A) consisting of a kinase inhibitor of the formula:

wherein:

each of R2 and R3 is H; and

R 1 is:

(4-chloro-2-methlypyridin-3-yl),

and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof;

(B) that is:

the mono-hydrate thereof, and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof.

Item 2. The compound of item 1 in substantially pure form, in particular in greater than about 90%, 95%, 98% or 99% pure form.

Item 3. The compound of item 1 or 2 as a hydrate.

Item 4. One or more containers containing, each independently or all collectively, more than about lOg or 50g of the compound of any one of items 1 to 3, suitably containing more than about lOOg of such compound, more suitably containing more than about 500g of such compound.

Item 5. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of any one of items 1 to 3, and optionally further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

Item 6. The pharmaceutical composition of item 5 formulated for oral administration.

Item 7. The pharmaceutical composition of item 5 or 6 in unit dose form.

Item 8. The pharmaceutical composition of item 7, comprising between 1 and 950mg of the compound per unit dose form. Item 9. The pharmaceutical composition of item 8, comprising between 2 and 150mg of the compound per unit dose form.

Item 10. The pharmaceutical composition of item 8, comprising between 10 and 150mg of the compound per unit dose form.

Item 11. The pharmaceutical composition of item 8 or 9, comprising about an amount of the compound per unit dose form selected from the list of amounts consisting of: 2mg, 5mg, 15mg, 20mg, 50mg, 70mg, 80mg, lOOmg and 140mg.

Item 12. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 11 in unit dose form, wherein the unit dose form is a tablet, caplet or capsule.

Item 13. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 12, further comprising one or more, preferably all, of the excipients selected from the list consisting of: lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropylcellulose and magnesium stearate.

Item 14. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 7 to 13, wherein the unit dose form is a film-coated a table or a film-coated caplet.

Item 15. The pharmaceutical composition of item 14, wherein the film-coating comprises one or more, preferably all, of the excipients selected from the list consisting of: hypromellose, titanium dioxide and macrogol 400.

Item 15a. The compound of any one of items 1 to 3, or the pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15, for use in therapy

Item 16. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the treatment comprising administering the compound of any one of items 1 to 3, or the pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15, to the subject,

wherein, the compound is a compound of any one of items 1 to 3, or the pharmaceutical composition is a pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15.

Item 16a. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 15a or 16, wherein the therapy or treatment involves inhibiting one or more of the key-kinases listed in Figure 3.

Item 16b. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 16a, wherein a key-kinase listed in Figure 3 is one having a residual activity of less than about 25%.

Item 16c. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 16a or 16b, wherein a key-kinase is selected from the list consisting of: ABL1, ABL2, ACK1, ACV-R1, ACV-R1B, ACV-R2A, ACV-R2B, ACV-RL1, BLK, BMX, B-RAF, BRK, BTK, CSF1-R, CSK, EGF-R, EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA8, EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, ERBB4, FGR, FRK, FYN, HCK, KIT, LCK, LYN, MAP4K5, NLK, p38-alpha, p38-beta, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, RAF1, RIPK2, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, SRMS, TEC, TGFB-R1, TXK, YES, ZAK and DDR2; or is selected from the list consisting of: ABL1, ABL2, ACK1, BLK, BMX, BRK, BTK, CSF1-R, CSK, EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA8, EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, ERBB4, FGR, FRK, FYN, HCK, KIT, LCK, LYN, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, RIPK2, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, SRC, TEC, TXK, YES , ZAK and DDR2; suitably, wherein the key-kinase is DDR2 and/or SIK2.

Item 16d. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 16a to 16c, wherein a key- kinase is DDR2.

16e. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 16a to 16c, wherein a key-kinase is SIK3. Item 17. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a to 16e, wherein the subject is an adult human; suitably, wherein the adult human is about 30 or older; in particular wherein the adult human is a young adult, is middle aged or is elderly.

Item 18. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a to 16e, wherein the subject is a paediatric human, suitably, wherein the paediatric human is younger than about 16; in particular wherein the paediatric human is an adolescent a preadolescent, an early child, a toddler or an infant.

Item 19. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 18, wherein the treatment does not involve inhibiting SIK3 kinase.

Item 20. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 19, wherein the treatment:

• does not involve inhibiting SIK3 kinase;

• does not involve inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2 kinases;

• does not involve inhibiting JAK1 kinase;

• does not involve inhibiting RET kinase;

• does not involve inhibiting ERBB4 kinase;

• does not involve inhibiting PDGFR-alpha kinase and/or

• does not involve inhibiting EPHB2 kinase.

Item 21. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 20, wherein the treatment does not involve sensitising cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

Item 22. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 21, wherein the treatment:

• involves inhibiting ABL1 and/or SRC kinase;

• involves inhibiting BCR-ABL kinase;

• involves inhibiting LCK kinase;

• involves inhibiting LYN kinase

• involves inhibiting YES kinase;

• involves inhibiting FYN kinase; and/or

• involves inhibiting KIT kinase.

Item 23. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 22, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting ABL1 and/or SRC kinase more than inhibiting SIK3 and/or more than inhibiting SIK1 and/or SIK2.

Item 24. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 23, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting FLT3 kinase.

Item 25. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 24, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting a kinase mutation; in particular involves inhibiting BCR-ABL kinase and/or another mutant of ABL1 kinase, and/or involves inhibiting a mutant of KIT kinase.

Item 26. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 25, wherein the treatment comprises administering to an adult human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound of less than about 140mg daily, optionally where the proliferative disorder is a proliferative disorder that is not chronic phase Ph+ CML. Item 27. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 26, wherein the treatment comprises administering to an adult human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound of less than about lOOmg daily, optionally where the proliferative disorder is chronic phase Ph+ CML.

Item 28. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 25, wherein the treatment comprises administering to a paediatric human subject in need thereof an amount of the compound of:

• less than about 40mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 10kg to less than 20kg;

• less than about 60mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 20kg to less than 30kg;

• less than about 70mg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of 30kg to less than 45kg; or

• less than about lOOmg daily for paediatric patients with a body weight of at least 45kg.

Item 29. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 26 to 28, wherein the human subject is administered the amount of the compound less frequently than once daily.

Item 30. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 26 to 29, wherein the human subject is administered an amount of the compound and at a frequency to sensitise cells involved with a proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune-response, in particular to sensitise cells involved with a proliferative disorder to the killing (apoptotic/cytotoxic) effect of TNF.

Item 31. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 30, wherein the subject does not have an adverse reaction.

Item 32. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 31, wherein the adverse reaction is myelosuppression.

Item 33. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 31, wherein the adverse reaction is a non- haematological adverse reaction.

Item 34. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 31, wherein the adverse reaction is a cardiacological adverse reaction.

Item 35. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 34, wherein the subject does not concomitantly use a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.

Item 36. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 35, wherein the proliferative disorder is a cancer or tumour.

Item 37. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 36, wherein the cancer is a hematopoietic or lymphoid cancer.

Item 38. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 37, wherein the proliferative disorder is a Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemia.

Item 39. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 38, wherein the proliferative disorder is Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (Ph+ CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL).

Item 40. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 39, wherein the proliferative disorder is:

• newly diagnosed (Ph+ CML) in the chronic phase;

• chronic, accelerated or blast phase CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib; or

• Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and lymphoid blast CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. Item 41. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 39, wherein the subject is a paediatric human and the proliferative disorder is:

• newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP) or Ph+ CML-CP resistant or intolerant to prior therapy including imatinib.

Item 42. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 36, wherein the cancer is a solid tumour.

Item 43. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 42, wherein the solid tumour is a cancer of a tissue selected from the list of tissues consisting of: pancreas, breast, lung, prostate, skin, ovary, oesophagus and colon/ rectum.

Item 44. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 36, 42 or 43, wherein the proliferative disorder is pancreatic cancer.

Item 45. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 44, wherein treatment further comprises administration of an EGFR inhibitor and/or gemcitabine.

Item 46. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 36, 42 or 43, wherein the proliferative disorder is prostate cancer.

Item 47. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 46, wherein treatment further comprises administration of docetaxel.

Item 48. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 36, 42 or 43, wherein the proliferative disorder is lung cancer, in particular non-small cell lung cancer.

Item 49. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 48, wherein treatment further comprises administration of an immune checkpoint inhibitor.

Item 49a. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 49, wherein the immune checkpoint inhibitor is an inhibitor of PD1.

Item 50. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 49, wherein the immune checkpoint inhibitor is nivolumab, relatlimab, ipilimumab or BMS-986205.

Item 51. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 50, wherein the proliferative disorder has progressed on standard therapy in the subject.

Item 52. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 50, wherein the subject is unable to receive standard therapy.

Item 53. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 51 or 52, wherein the standard therapy is immunotherapy.

Item 54. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 50, wherein the proliferative disorder is CML or ALL with resistance, and/or the subject is intolerant to prior therapy, in particular resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy.

Item 55. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 54, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting SIK3.

Item 56. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 55, wherein the compound or pharmaceutical composition is administered in a therapeutically effective amount that is effective to reduce activity of SIK3; preferably of SIK3 in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder. Item 57. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 55 or 56, wherein the compound or pharmaceutical composition is administered in a therapeutically effective amount that is not effective to reduce the activity of ABL1 and/or SRC kinase; preferably ABL1 and/or SRC kinase in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

Item 58. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 55 to 57, wherein the treatment is mediated by inhibiting SIK3; and wherein the treatment is not mediated by inhibiting ABL1 and/or SRC kinase.

Item 59. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 55 to 58, wherein the treatment comprises that SIK3 in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder is inhibited; preferably wherein activity of the SIK3 is reduced; and wherein the treatment comprises that ABL1 and/or SRC in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder is not inhibited; preferably wherein activity of the ABL1 and/or SRC is not reduced.

Item 59a. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment of lung cancer in a subject, the treatment comprising administering a compound of any one of items 1 to 3 or the pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15a, wherein the treatment further comprises administration of a PD1 inhibitor to the subject.

Item 59b. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 59a, wherein the compound is A8, or a mono-hydrate thereof (and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof), and the pharmaceutical composition comprises said compound or a mono-hydrate thereof (and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof).

Item 59c. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 59a, wherein the compound is B3 (and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof), and the pharmaceutical composition comprises said compound (and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof).

Item 59d. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 59a to 59c, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting DDR2.

Item 59e. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 59a to 59c, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting SIK3.

Item 59f. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 59e, wherein the administrations are sequential.

Item 60. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 59f, wherein the treatment involves sensitising cells involved with the proliferative disorder to a cell-mediated immune response.

Item 61. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 60, wherein the treatment comprises that the cell-mediated immune response induces killing of cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

Item 62. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 61, wherein the compound or pharmaceutical composition is administered to the subject to sensitise cells involved with the proliferative disorder to killing induced by TNF.

Item 63. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 60 to 62, wherein cells involved with the proliferative disorder are exposed to TNF and/or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling. Item 64. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 60 to 63, wherein: (x) the subject is distinguished by having a plasma concentration of TNF greater than about 5 pg/mL; and/or (y) the proliferative disorder is a solid tumour that, in the subject, by having an intratumoural concentration of TNF greater than about 1 pg/mL.

Item 65. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 64, the treatment comprising exposing cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject to: (i) TNF and/or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling; and (ii) the compound or pharmaceutical composition.

Item 66. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 65, wherein the amount of TNF exposed to cells involved with the proliferative disorder in the subject is increased.

Item 67. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 65 or 66, wherein: (i) TNF or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling is administered to the subject; (ii) an agent that is capable of inducing or induces the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling, is administered to the subject; or (iii) the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF is induced by a pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure that increases the amount of TNF in the plasma of the subject and/or in the environment of such cells.

Item 68. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 67, wherein the treatment comprises that the compound or pharmaceutical composition is administered to the subject in a therapeutically effective amount effective to inhibit SIK3, in particular SIK3 in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

Item 69. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 68, wherein the treatment comprises that the compound or pharmaceutical composition is administered to the subject in a therapeutically effective amount not effective to inhibit ABL1 and/or SRC, in particular ABL1 and/or SRC in the cells involved with the proliferative disorder.

Item 70. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 69, wherein the treatment comprises that TNF or the agonist of TNFRl-signalling is administered to the subject.

Item 71. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 69, wherein the treatment comprises that an agent that is capable of inducing or induces the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF or an agonist of TNFRl-signalling, is administered to the subject.

Item 72. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 69, wherein the exposure of the cells involved with the proliferative disorder to TNF is induced by a pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure that increases the amount of TNF in the plasma of the subject and/or in the environment of such cells.

Item 73. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 72, wherein the pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure comprises cancer immunotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

Item 74. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 73, wherein the subject is distinguished by having cells involved in the proliferative disorder characterised by expression and/or activity of SIK3, in particular such cells express mRNA and/or protein of SIK3, and/or are positive for such SIK3 expression and/or activity.

Item 75. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 65 to 74, wherein the proliferative disorder is a tumour, in particular a solid tumour.

Item 76. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 75, wherein the subject is distinguished as having been previously treated with an immunotherapy and whose tumour has progressed, in particular whose tumour relapsed, recurred or did not respond.

Item 77. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 75 or 76, wherein the subject is distinguished as having a tumour that progressed, in particular relapsed, recurred or did not respond to, prior radiotherapy.

Item 78. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment for the reduction in risk of developing a haematological proliferative disorder as a secondary disorder in a subject being treated with an anti-TNF agent, the treatment comprising administering a compound of any one of items 1 to 3, or a pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15.

Item 79. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 78, wherein the subject suffers from, and/or the subject is being treated with the anti-TNF agent for, an autoimmune disorder; preferably an autoimmune disorder selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, plaque psoriasis and Crohn's Disease, most preferably rheumatoid arthritis.

Item 80. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 79, wherein the compound is or the pharmaceutical composition comprises a SIK3 (or a SIK3-specific) inhibitor.

Item 81. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 80, wherein the compound is or the pharmaceutical composition comprises a SIK3 inhibitor that inhibits SIK3 less (or more) potently than it inhibits ABL1 and/or SRC kinase; and wherein the SIK3 inhibitor inhibits SIK3 less (or more) potently than it inhibits SIK2 and/or SIK2.

Item 82. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 81, wherein the subject is a human volunteer.

Item 83. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 15a or 16 to 81, wherein the subject is a laboratory animal, in particular an animal selected from the group consisting of: mouse, rat, rabbit, pig and monkey.

Item 84. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 82 or 83, wherein a plurality of subjects are treated, in particular 5 or more subjects, such as between about 5 and 20, 10 and 50, 25 and 200, or 75 and 250 subjects, or more than about 250 subjects.

Item 85. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 84, wherein the treatment comprises: (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of a different dosage of the compound and/or a different formulation of the pharmaceutical composition.

Item 86. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item 84 or 85, wherein the treatment comprises: (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of either: (a) a placebo; or (b) the dosage of the compound and/or the formulation of the pharmaceutical composition of the subject(s) of (i) as well as an additional pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure.

Item 87. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items 84 to 86, wherein the treatment is specifically designed for the investigation and/or determination of a therapeutically effective dosage of the compound and/or the identification of a therapeutically effective formulation of the pharmaceutical composition.

Item 88. A method of diagnosing and treating a proliferative disorder characterised by the presence of or an amount of, and/or characterised by expression or activity of, an applicable biomarker in a subject, comprising the steps: • detecting the applicable biomarker in a biological sample from said subject, thereby diagnosing if the subject is suffering (or is likely to suffer) from such a disease, disorder or condition; and

• administering an effective amount of a compound of item 1 or 3, or a pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15, to the so diagnosed subject (in particular, practicing a treatment method of the invention on the subject).

Item 89. A use of an intermediate to prepare a compound of any one of items 1 to 3, wherein the intermediate comprises a substructure selected from the list consisting of the following substructures:

and

Item 90. The use of an intermediate of item 89, wherein the intermediate is 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine.

Item 91. An intermediate being 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine, 2-bromo-4-chloropyridin-3-amine or the compound having the formula :

Item 92. A method of preparing a compound of item 2, comprising the steps:

• providing a compound of item 1 or 3 in admixture with one or more impurities; and

• removing at least a fraction of the impurities from the admixture.

Item 93. The method of item 92, wherein the admixture is provided by synthesising an impure form of a compound of item 1 or 3.

Item 94. A method of manufacturing a pharmaceutical composition comprising the step or formulating a compound of any one of items 1 to 3 together with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

Item 95. The method of item 94, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is manufactured in unit dose form.

Item 96. The method of item 94 or 95, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is formed as a tablet, caplet or capsule, in particular as a film-coated tablet or as a film-coated caplet.

Item 97. A method of preparing a pharmaceutical package, comprising the steps:

• inserting into packaging a pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15 (preferably in finished pharmaceutical form), thereby forming a package containing the pharmaceutical composition; and optionally,

• inserting into the package a leaflet describing prescribing information for the pharmaceutical composition.

Item 98. A pharmaceutical package containing a pharmaceutical composition of any one of items 5 to 15; preferably, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is in finished pharmaceutical form.

Item 99. The pharmaceutical package of item 98, further containing a leaflet describing prescribing information for the pharmaceutical composition. Item 100. A method of delivering a pharmaceutical composition of any one or items 5 to 15, or a pharmaceutical package of item 98 or 99, from a first location to a second location, comprising the steps:

• receiving at a first location a request from a second location for the delivery of an amount of the pharmaceutical composition or the pharmaceutical package; and

• delivering at least a portion of (preferably, all of) the requested amount from the first location to the second location in one or more deliveries,

wherein first location and the second location are separated by a distance of greater than about 10m, and one or more of the deliveries is/are transported for at least part of the distance between the first location to the second location by wheeled transporters.

[374] In view of the above, it will be appreciated that the present invention also relates to the following additional itemised embodiments:

Item Al. A compound consisting of a kinase inhibitor of the formula :

wherein:

each of R 2 and R 3 is H; and

R 1 is:

and solvates, salts, N-oxides, complexes, polymorphs, crystalline forms, conformers, tautomers, isotopically labelled forms, prodrugs, and combinations thereof.

Item A2. The compound of item Al in greater than about 98% or 99% pure form.

Item A3. The compound of item Al or A2 as a hydrate.

Item A4. One or more containers containing, each independently of all collectively, more than about lOg of the compound of any one of items Al to A3.

Item A5. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound or any one of items Al to A3, and optionally further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

Item A6. The pharmaceutical composition of item A5 formulated for oral administration.

Item A7. The pharmaceutical composition of item A6 in unit dose form.

Item A8. The pharmaceutical composition of item A7, comprising between 1 and 950 mg of the compound per unit dose form.

Item A9. The pharmaceutical composition of item A8, comprising about an amount of the compound per unit dose form selected from the list of amounts consisting of: 2mg, 5mg, 15mg, 20mg, 50mg, 70mg, 80mg, lOOmg and 140mg.

Item A10. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of items A7 to A9, wherein the unit dose form is a tablet, caplet or capsule. Item All. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of items A7 to A10, wherein the unit dose form is a film- coated tablet or a film-coated caplet.

Item A12. The pharmaceutical composition of item All, wherein the film-coating comprises one or more, preferably all, of the excipients selected from the list consisting of: hypromellose, titanium dioxide and macrogol 400.

Item A13. A compound or a pharmaceutical composition for use in a treatment of a proliferative disorder in a subject, the treatment comprising administering the compound or the pharmaceutical composition to the subject, wherein, the compound is a compound of any one of items A1 to A3, or the pharmaceutical composition is a pharmaceutical composition of any one of items A5 to A12.

Item A14. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item A13, wherein the subject is an adult human.

Item A15. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of item A14, wherein the subject is an adult human over about 30 years of age.

Item A16. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items A13 to A15, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting ABL1 and/or SRC kinase, or a mutant thereof; suitably, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting BCR-ABL.

Item A17. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items A13 to A16, wherein the treatment involves inhibiting FLT3 kinase.

Item A18. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items A13 to A17, wherein the treatment further comprises administration of an immune checkpoint inhibitor.

Item A19. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of items A18, wherein immune checkpoint inhibitor is nivolumab, relatlimab, ipilimumab or BMS-986205.

Item A20. The compound or pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of items A13 to A19, wherein a plurality of subjects are treated, in particular 5 or more subjects; and

wherein, the treatment comprises either:

(A) (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of a different dosage of the compound and/or a different formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and/or

(B) (i) the administration to at least one of such subjects of one dosage of the compound and/or one formulation of the pharmaceutical composition; and (ii) the administration to at least one other of such subjects of either: (a) a placebo; or (b) the dosage of the compound and/or the formulation of the pharmaceutical composition of the subject(s) of (i) as well as an additional pharmaceutical, therapeutic or other procedure.

Item A21. An intermediate being the compound having the formula: (VI)-

Item A22. A method of preparing a compound of item A2, comprising the steps:

providing a compound of item A1 or A3 in admixture with one or more impurities; and

removing at least a fraction of the impurities from the admixture.

Item A23. A method of manufacturing a pharmaceutical composition comprising the step or formulating a compound of any one of item A1 to A3 together with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Item A24. The method of item A23, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is formed as a film-coated tablet or as a film-coated caplet.

Item A25. A method of delivering a pharmaceutical composition of any one or items A5 to A12 from a first location to a second location, comprising the steps:

• receiving at a first location a request from a second location for the delivery of an amount of the pharmaceutical composition; and

• delivering at least a portion of (preferably, all of) the requested amount from the first location to the second location in one or more deliveries,

wherein first location and the second location are separated by a distance of greater than about 10m, and one or more of the deliveries is/are transported for at least part of the distance between the first location to the second location by wheeled transporters.

[375] The examples show:

[376] Example 1: Synthesis of the kinase inhibitors, including a kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3).

General methods and materials:

[377] MPLC purification was performed using a Biotage Isolera Four system, using KP-Sil cartridges with technical grade organic solvents, i.e. dichloromethane and methanol, 3-4 N NH 3 in MeOH. A gradient of DCM to 3 N NH 3 (in MeOH) from 0 % to 25 % over 10 CV was used for the purification of the final compounds.

[378] H NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker DPX 400 MHz spectrometers and are reported in ppm with the solvent resonance employed as the internal standard [CDCI 3 at 7.26 ppm, DMSO-d 6 at 2.50 ppm]. Peaks are reported as (s = singlet, d = doublet, t = triplet, q = quartet, m = multiplet or unresolved, bs = broad signal, coupling constant(s) in Hz, integration).

[379] Reverse phase HPLC was performed on a Shimadzu HPLC system using following system [solvent A: acetonitrile, solvent B: 0.1% formic acid in water] . Formic acid was used as HPLC grade. All the separations were performed at ambient temperatures. For analytical RP-HPLC analysis [Interchim : Uptisphere Strategy IOqA, 5 pm, 100x4.6 mm], the flow rate was 1.0 ml. min 1 ; injection volume: 20 pL, detection wavelengths: 220 nm and 254 nm. The following gradient was used : 2.0 min 100 % B, over 8 min to 10 % B, 5 min 10 % B.

[380] LC-MS spectra were recorded on a Dionex Ultimate 3000 system using the following system [solvent A: acetonitrile, solvent B: 0.1% formic acid in water] . Formic acid was used as HPLC grade. All the separations were performed at ambient temperatures. For analytical RP-HPLC analysis [Interchim : Uptisphere Strategy C18, 2.6 pm, 50x4.6 mm], the flow rate was 1.0 ml. min 1 ; detection wavelengths: 220 nm and 254 nm. The following gradient was used : 90 % B, over 5 min to 5 % B. The MS was recorded with the following settings: Dionex Surveyor MSQ plus, ESI+, Probe T(°C) 350, Cone 30 (v), Needle (KV) 3.0.

Procedures:

[381] To a solution of 4,6-dichloro-2-methylpyrimidine (10 g, 61.4 mmol, 1.0 eq.) and ethyl 2-aminothiazole-5- carboxylate (10.6 g, 61.4 mmol, 1.0 eq.) in DMF (210 ml) at 0°C under inert atmosphere was added sodium hydride (5.40 g, 135 mmol, 2.0 eq.) in portions and the reaction mixture was slowly warmed to room temperature and stirred for 3d. Excess of the NaH was quenched by addition of saturated solution of ammonium chloride and the reaction mixture was poured on water (3000 ml) and stirred for lh at room temperature. Obtained precipitate was filtered off and air dried to get ethyl 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxy late (18 g, 60.0 mmol, 98 % yield) as a beige solid.

[382] X H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d 1.34 - 1.51 (t, 3H), 2.75 (s, 3H), 4.41 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 6.73 (s, 1H), 8.14 (s, 1H). LCMS: m/z = 297.1 [M-H] .

[383] To a suspension of ethyl 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxy late (36.0 g, 121 mmol, 1.0 eq.) in methanol (350 ml) and water (150 ml) was added sodium hydroxide (38.6 g, 964 mmol, 8.0 eq.) at room temperature and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16hrs. LCMS analysis showed complete conversion of starting material to product. The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove most of the solvent and then the aqueous layer was acidified using 6 M aqueous HCI. The obtained precipitate was filtered off and washed with water, dried under high vacuum for 3 d to afford 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxy lic acid (27.0 g, 99.7 mmol, 83 % yield) as a beige colored powder.

[384] l H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) d 2.57 (s, 3H), 6.93 (s, 1H), 8.04 (s, 1H), 12.46 (bs. 1H). LCMS: m/z = 269.0 [M-H] .

General procedure A1 - GP A1 - amide formation:

[385] To a suspension of 2-((6-chloro-2-nnethylpyrinnidin-4-yl)annino)thiazole-5-carb oxylic acid (1.0 equiv.) and aniline (1.1 equiv.) in acetonitrile (0.2 M) was added /V,/V-diisopropylethylamine (3.5 equiv.) and tetramethylchloroformamidinium hexafluorophosphate (1.2eq.) at room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Acetonitrile was removed under vacuum and then reaction was poured into water (100 mL/mmol). The resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with water [5x], air-dried and dried under high vacuum to afford the respective amide as a yellow powder, which was directly used in the next step without further purification. All substances were confirmed by C H NMR analysis.

[387] To a suspension of chloropyrimidine derivative (1.0 equiv.) in n-butanol (2 ml) was added 2-(piperazin-l- yl)ethan-l-ol (5.0 equiv.) and /V,/V-diisopropylethylamine (0.4 equiv.) at room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere. The tube was sealed and irradiated under microwave conditions (Biotage Initiator + ) at 120°C for 30 min. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured in water (200 ml/mmol) and stirred for minimum 30 min. The resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with water [5x], air-dried to afford to afford the respective target. If no or < 10 % precipitate resulted, the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM/IPA (2: 1, 3*). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product or a crude produt with a purity of < 95 % was purified by flash chromatography (Biotage cartridge, DCM 100 % 1 CV to 80 % DCM/ 3 N NH 3 in MeOH over 10 CV, 80 % DCM/3 N NH 3 ). For some substances with purities < 95 %, a trituration in Et 2 0 was done and all substances were dried under high vacuum (up to 65 °C, if necessary) until purities > 95 % was obtained, unless otherwise stated. All substances were confirmed by C H NMR and LC-MS analysis.

Compound A8:

N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-((6-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperaz in-l-yl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5- carboxamide

[388] Step 1 was run according to GP A1 using 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)annino)thiazole-5-carbox oxylic acid (750 mg, 2.77 mmol), 2-chloro-6-methylaniline (959 mg, 6.77 mmol), tetramethylchloroformamidinium hexafluorophosphate (959 mg, 3.42 mmol), /V,/V-diisopropylethylamine (1.25 g, 9.70 mmol) and acetonitrile (6.0 mL, 0.42 M). 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-/V-(2-chloro-6-me thylphenyl)thiazole-5-carboxamide (480 mg, 1.22 mmol) was obtained after precipitation from H 2 0 as a yellow solid and used without further purification in the next step.

[389] Step 2 was run according to GP B using 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-/V-(2-chloro-6- methylphenyl)thiazole-5-carboxamide (250 mg, 0.634 mmol), 2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethan-l-ol (413 mg, 3.17 mmol), /V,/V-diisopropylethylamine (33 mg, 0.25 mmol) and 1-butanol (2.0 mL, 0.3 M). A8 (Figure 1A)

Compound B3 :

/V-(4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((6-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazin-l-yl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5- carboxamide

Scheme 1: Synthesis of B3

[390] Step 1 : 2-bromo-4-chloropyridin-3-amine (Compound IaB3):

[391] To a solution of 4-chloropyridin-3-amine (7.00 g, 54.0 mmol, 1.0 eq.) in anhydrous TFA (200 mL, 0.27 M) was added NBS (10.7 g, 60.1 mmol, 1.1 eq.) under a nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature, and the solution was stirred for 18 h at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in 2 N NaOH (200 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3* 200 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (340 g biotage cartridge, cHex 100 % 1 CV to 40 % EtOAc over 10 CV, 2 CV 40 % EtOAc) affording 2-bromo-4-chloropyridin-3-amine (3.07 g, 14.8 mmol, 27 %) as a beige solid. IaB3. [392] R f = 0.82 (cHex/EtOAc 1 : 1, UV 254 nm). X H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) d 5.70 (s, 2H), 7.35 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H).

[393] Step 2: 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine (Compound IbB3):

[394] In a 10-mL microwave vial was a mixture of 2-bromo-4-chloropyridin-3-amine (200 mg, 0.96 mmol, 1.0 eq.), trimethylboroxine (141 pL, 1.01 mmol, 1.05 eq.), K 2 C0 3 (466 mg, 3.37 mmol, 3.5 eq.) and PdCI2(dppf)- CH 2 CI 2 adduct (79 mg, 0.096 mmol, 0.1 eq.) in l,4-dioxane: H20 (10: 1, 3.3 mL, 0.28M) evacuated and back-filled with nitrogen three times and sealed with an aluminum/Teflon crimp top. The reaction mixture was then irradiated for 45 min at 120 °C. After completion of the reaction, the vial was cooled to room temperature and opened. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, silica was added (2 g) and the reaction mixture concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (25 g biotage cartridge 100 % cHex 1 CV to 100 % EtOAc over 10 CV, 5 CV 100 % EtOAc) affording 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine (58 mg, 0.041 mmol, 42 %) as violet oil. IbB3.

[395] R f = 0.24 (UV 254 nm, cHex/EtOAc 1 : 1). ^ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) d 2.34 (s, 3H), 5.28 (s, 2H), 7.11 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H).

[396] Steps 3 and 4: /V-(4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((6-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazin-l-yl)-2-methylpyrimidin- 4-yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxamide (Compound B3; Figure IB) :

[397] Step 3 was run according to GP A1 using 2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxo xylic acid (530 mg, 1.96 mmol), 4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-amine (363 mg, 2.55 mmol), tetramethylchloroformamidinium hexafluorophosphate (659 mg, 2.35 mmol), /V,/V-diisopropylethylamine (886 mg, 6.85 mmol) and acetonitrile (5.8 mL, 0.3 M). /V-(4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyri midin-4-yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxamide (Compound IcB3) (326 mg, 0.825 mmol) was obtained after precipitation from H 2 0 as a yellow solid and used without further purification in the next step. IcB3.

[398] Step 4 was run according to GP B using /V-(4-chloro-2-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((6-chloro-2-methylpyri midin-4- yl)amino)thiazole-5-carboxamide (320 mg, 0.810 mmol), 2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethan-l-ol (527 mg, 4.05 mmol), N,N- diisopropylethylamine (42 mg, 0.32 mmol) and 1-butanol (2.5 mL, 0.3 M). B3 (90 mg, 0.18 mmol, 10 % yield over 2 steps) was obtained as a white solid after extraction with EtOAc, flash purification (100 % DCM to 85 % DCM/3 N NH 3 in MeOH over 10 CV) and trituration in Et 2 0.

[399] The compounds A8 (dasatinib) and B3 were characterised as set forth below in Table 1A.

Table 1A: Synthesis of kinase inhibitors

[400] Example 2: Inhibition of Abl and Src kinases by the kinase inhibitor of the invention B3 and by dasatinib.

[401] The inventors demonstrate that, surprisingly, that a kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3) inhibits ABL1 and SRC kinases as potently as dasatinib (A8). The IC50 for the inhibition of ABL1 by dasatinib and by B3 is approximately 1.5nM and 1.6nM, and of SRC is 1.5nM and 1.5nM; each, respectively for dasatinib and by B3 (Table 3A). [402] Briefly, a radiometric protein kinase assay (33PanQinase® Activity Assay) was used for measuring the kinase activity of the five protein kinases. All kinase assays were performed in 96-well FlashPlatesTM from PerkinElmer (Boston, MA, USA) in a 50uL reaction volume. The reaction cocktail was pipetted in four steps in the following order:

• 25uL of assay buffer (standard buffer/[gamma-33P]-ATP)

• lOuL of ATP solution (in water)

• 5uL of test compound (in 10% DMSO)

• 20uL enzyme/substrate mix

[403] The assay for all protein kinases contained 70 mM HEPESNaOH pH7.5, 3mM MgCI2, 3 mM MnCI2, 3uM Na- orthovanadate, 1.2mM DTT, ATP (variable concentrations, corresponding to the apparent ATP-Km of the respective kinase, see Table 2A), [gamma-33P]-ATP (approx. 8 x 10 L 5 cpm per well), protein kinase (variable amount, see Table 2A), and substrate (variable amounts, see Table 2A).

[404] The following amounts of enzyme and applicable substrate were used per well :

Table 2A: Assay parameters for the tested protein kinases.

* Maximal molar enzyme assay concentrations, implying enzyme preparations exclusively containing 100% active enzyme

[405] The reaction cocktails were incubated at 30oC for 60 minutes. The reaction was stopped with 50uL of 2% (v/v) H3P04, plates were aspirated and washed two times with 200uL 0.9% (w/v) NaCI. Incorporation of 33Pi was determined with a microplate scintillation counter (Microbeta, Wallac). All assays were performed with a BeckmanCoulter/SAGIAN(TM) Core System.

[406] Example 3: Improved kinase selectively of a kinase inhibitor of the invention.

[407] However, and yet further surprisingly, the inventors found that the kinase inhibitor B3 appeared to be a more selective protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (favouring the inhibition of, eg ABL1 and SRC kinase) than the kinase inhibitor dasatinib.

[408] In particular, although this kinase inhibitor of the invention inhibited each of the SIK family of kinases (SIK1, SIK2 and SIK3), even at sub-micromolar concentrations, it was a less potent inhibitor of these protein- serine/threonine kinases than dasatinib (Table 3A).

Table 3A: Biological activity of compound B3 compared to dasatinib (A8).

[409] The IC50s of the compounds against the SIK family of protein-serine/threonine kinases (SIK1, SIK2 and SIK3) was determined as described in Example 2 (in particular, see Table 2A), and the inhibition curves shown in Figure 2.

[410] Furthermore, conducting a single-point (luM) inhibition assay (in duplicate) over a diverse set of 320 wild- type protein (ProQinase "Kinase Profiler"; ProQinase, Freiburg, Germany) shows that, with a few exceptions (eg,

FLT3, showing only 32% residual activity after treatment with luM of compound B3, yet over 80% of its activity remains on treatment with luM dasatinib), unlike the kinases such as ABL1 and SRC that are equivalently inhibited by both compounds, kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention was a less potent inhibitor of most of these kinases tested (Figures 3 and 4). For example, WNK2 is not inhibited by B3 (100% residual activity at luM B3), yet only 62% of WNK2 activity remains after treatment with luM dasatinib; likewise, JAK1 is not inhibited by luM B3, yet only 41% of activity remains after treatment with luM dasatinib; almost 100% of RET activity remains after treatment with luM B3, yet under 40% of its activity remains on treatment with luM dasatinib. Also, treatment of the serine/threonine kinase MAP4K5 with luM dasatinib shows a residual activity of only 3%, while treatment with luM B3 shows 28% residual activitiy. Indeed, many kinases have less than 20% residual activity after inhibition with luM dasatinib, yet retain almost 50% of their activity when inhibited with luM B3. For example, B-RAF retains almost 50% activity when inhibited with luM B3, yet retains only 15% when inhibited with luM dasatinib.

[411] The kinase inhibitor of the invention B3 shows differential inhibition of a number of other kinases and kinase-family members that are inhibited by dasatinib, in particular KIT and certain members of the EphA/B subfamilies (Table 3B).

Table 3B: Certain kinases/kinase subfamilies showing differential inhibition between compound B3 and dasatinib.

* TK: Tyrosine Kinase; STE: Homologs of Yeast Sterile 7, Sterile 11, Sterile 20 Kinases

[412] Overall, luM dasatinib inhibits 23 of these kinases to less than 1% or residual activity, while luM B3 inhibits only 13 kinases to less than 1% residual activity. Similarly, given a threshold of <5% residual activity, dasatinib inhibits 38 kinases and luM B3 inhibits only 30 kinases; and a threshold of <10% residual activity, dasatinib inhibits 43 kinases and luM B3 inhibits only 34 kinases.

[413] Indeed, overall kinase inhibitor B3 is numerically more selective than dasatinib (A8), with B3 having a selectivity score of 0.163 compared to 0.188 for dasatinib. The selectivity score, according to Karaman et al (2008; Nat Biotech 26: 127), is a compound concentration-dependent parameter describing the portion of kinases, which are inhibited to more than a predefined degree (eg, more than 50 %), in relation to all tested kinases of the particular project. The selectivity score of the compounds at the tested concentration was calculated for a residual activity <50%; ie, an inhibition of >50%. The selectivity score for a particular compound at a particular concentration was calculated by using the following formula :

Selectivity Score = (count of data points < 50 % )/(total number of data points)

[414] Table 3C shows those kinases retaining an activity of greater than 50% when treated with one compound and which show a residual activity of 50% or less when treated with the other compound. Compound A8 (dasatinib) inhibits 9 kinases by greater than 50%, where such kinases retain more than 50% of their activity when treated with compound B3 of the invention. In contrast, of all the kinases tested, the kinase inhibitor B3 inhibited by greater than 50% only one kinase (FLT3) that was not also inhibited by dasatinib by greater than 50%.

Table 3C: Kinases showing differential inhibition (residual activity of 50%) between the compound B3 and dasatinib.

* TK: Tyrosine Kinase; STE: Homologs of Yeast Sterile 7, Sterile 11, Sterile 20 Kinases; TKL: Tyrosine Kinase-like; CMGC: containing CDK, MAPK, GSK3 and CLK families.

[415] Indeed, in comparison to dasatinib (A8) the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention is confirmed to show differential biological inhibitory activity against one or more of the above kinases, when tested in a biochemical assay to determine IC50s (Table 3D), and the corresponding IC50 curves are shown in Figure 5. Indeed, although both compounds are (also) strong inhibitors of the kinases LCK and KIT, in contrast to dasatinib (A8) compound B3 inhibits FLT3 far more strongly than it does SYK (IC50s 6.9uM and 26.0uM, respectively, for B3; and 25.7uM and 4.8uM, respectively, for A8).

[416] Accordingly, although B3 (a kinase inhibitor of formula (I)) is generally more selective than the kinase inhibitor A8 (dasatinib), B3 is shown to inhibit FLT3 more potently than compound A8 (and as reflected by the single outlying point in Figure 4A which represents FLT3).

Table 3D: Biological activity of the compound B3 compared to dasatinib (A8) tested against further kinases

Kinase Kinase Compound : IC50 (nM)

[417] The IC50 of each compound against these kinases was tested analogously to the IC50 assay described in Example 2 above, except that the following amounts of enzyme and applicable substrate were used per well (Table 3E) :

Table 3E: Assay parameters for the additional tested protein kinases.

* Maximal molar enzyme assay concentrations, implying enzyme preparations exclusively containing 100 % active enzyme

[418] Example 4: Inhibition of Abll kinase mutants by the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention and by dasatinib.

[419] The inventors demonstrated that the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention is also able to inhibit clinically relevant ABL1 mutants, eg, that are associated with CLL resistance to imatinib, a standard of care for CLL (Table 4A). For example, not only is B3 a more potent inhibitor of ABL1 wild-type (wt) than imatinib (2.60uM vs 1,060 nM), it is also a potent inhibitor of all these relevant mutants of ABL (other than T315I), and showing IC50s comparable to A8.

Table 4A: Inhibition of Abl lkinase mutants.

[420] Briefly, the ABL1 radiometric protein kinase assay as described in Example 1 was conducted, except that the [gamma-33P]-ATP activity was approx. 7 x 10 L 5 cpm per well, and the amount and substrate for each form of the ABL1 kinase was as shown in Table 4B.

Table 4B: Assay parameters for the ABL1 mutant protein kinases.

* Maximal molar enzyme assay concentrations, implying enzyme preparations exclusively containing 100% active enzyme

[421] Example 5: Improved ADMET properties of the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention.

[422] The inventors demonstrated that the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention surprisingly showed improved drug-like properties in a number of in-vitro ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) assays, including solubility, stability, plasma-protein binding, CYP450 inhibition and hERG inhibition assays (Tables 5A, 5B, 5C, and 5D).

[423] For an orally administered drug, dasatinib is a poorly soluble compound, with a measured kinetic solubility of even less than 5uM. However, the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention shows a significantly improved solubility of 82uM.

[424] Furthermore, and as described above, dasatinib has an extremely short half-life in humans (an overall mean terminal half-life of only 3-5 hours; section 12.3 "Pharmacokinetics" of the Full Prescribing Information for SPRYCEL). This is reflected in it showing a very short half-life when tested in human (h) and mouse (m) live microsomal (LM) stability assays. In contrast, the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention shows a significantly improved stability in both the hLM and mLM assays, with significantly improved half-life, intrinsic clearance and % of compound remaining after 40min incubation, with almost a 6-times longer half-life and 10 times more drug remaining at 40min than dasatinib in the hLM assay.

[425] Both dasatinib and the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention were shown to bind moderately to both human and murine plasma-proteins. However, the kinase inhibitor B3 showed a marked increase (3 to 4 times) in the amount of free-drug (ie, unbound to plasma-proteins, and potentially available for pharmacological activity), than that of unbound dasatinib.

[426] Accordingly, the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention shows highly improved drug-like properties over dasatinib for these in-vitro ADMET parameters (Table 5A).

Table 5A: Improved solubility and stability of the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention.

[427] Solubility and stability testing was conducted by Charles River Inc, at their UK Discovery site (Cambridge, UK), according to their applicable standard operating procedures (ADME-SOP-01 for solubility; AMDE-SOP-IOO for microsome stability; AMDE-SOP-90 for plasma-protein binding).

[428] Dasatinib is known to inhibit certain cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes; including those that are involved in its metabolism. Indeed, although dasatinib is metabolised in humans primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4), it is also a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Indeed, the dosage of dasatinib must be significantly reduced (eg from lOOmg daily to 20mg daily) if the patient is concomitantly medicated with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (see above). However, the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention was shown not to significantly inhibit any of the CYP450 enzymes tested, importantly B3 was not an inhibitor of CYP3A4 or of CYP2C8 that is also known to be inhibited by dasatinib (Table 5B).

Table 5B: Kinase inhibitor B3 does not inhibit the CYP450 enzymes 2C8 and 3A4.

* Values obtained from page 33, NDA 21-986 Pre-clinical Review for SPRYCEL (dasatinib)

[429] CYP450 inhibition assays (for B3 only) were conducted by Charles River Inc, at their UK Discovery site (Cambridge, UK), according to their applicable standard operating procedures (ADME-SOP-97). CYP450 inhibition values for dasatinib are taken from page 33 of the Pre-clinical Review of NDA 21-986 for SPRYCEL (dasatinib).

[430] One "Warning and Precaution" of dasatinib (Full Prescribing Information for SPRYCEL) is that it has the potential to prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization (QT interval). Indeed, it is reported therein: that up to 1% of CML patients in clinical trials experienced a QT prolongation, and cardiac adverse reactions were reported in 5.8% of 258 patients taking dasatinib, including 1.6% of patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure congestive, diastolic dysfunction, fatal myocardial infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction.

[431] The potential cardiac risks of dasatinib was already recognised during the NDA process, with the Pharmacological/Toxicity Review and Evaluation of NDA 21-986 summarised on page 3 thereof: "Based on the in vitro hERG and rabbit Purkinje fibre assays, dasatinib has the potential to cause QT prolongation", and dasatinib was reported on page 31 therein as inhibiting hERG currents by about 6%, 36% and 77% at 3, 10 and 3uM respectively, and a calculated IC50 of 14.3uM.

[432] In stark contrast, as shown in Table 5C, the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention essentially shows no hERG liability, generating an IC50 value of greater than or equal to the top concentration tested (30uM), and at 30uM inhibited hERG by only 7.7% (+/-1.0%) compared to the reported 76.8% (+/-4.5%) inhibition of hERG at 30uM dasatinib. Table 5C: Kinase inhibitor B3 does not inhibit hERFG.

* Values obtained from page 31, NDA 21-986 Pharmacological/Toxicity Review and Evaluation for SPRYCEL

[433] hERG inhibition assays (for B3 only) were conducted by Charles River Inc, at their UK Discovery site (Cambridge, UK). Briefly, the potential for test compound to inhibit the hERG potassium channel was determined using the Charles River ChanTest® hERG-HEK stably transfected cell line on the Sophion Qube automated electrophysiology platform. The assay was performed at room temperature and recordings of the hERG tail current from individual cells were made using single-hole QChips. The cells were held at a voltage of -80 mV and then stepped to +40 mV for 2 seconds before stepping to -40 mV for a further 2 seconds, this represents 1 experimental sweep. This voltage protocol was applied every 15 seconds for the duration of the experiment. Both the vehicle and 2nd compound addition periods were applied for 20 sweeps. The 1st compound addition period was applied for 10 sweeps. The potency (IC50) of the test compound to inhibit the hERG channel was determined from a concentration- response curve generated from up to 8 test compound concentrations with up to 4 replicates per concentration. The compound concentration was added to the test well twice to assure complete exchange of the external buffer with the test compound. In total, compound was applied to the well for 450 seconds. Quality control filters used were: whole-cell membrane resistance >200MOhm, and vehicle current amplitude >400pA. The analysis methodology comprised : The peak tail currents evoked by the step to -40mV were measured for the analysis of the percentage inhibition by test compounds. The peak tail currents were first normalised to the vehicle addition (0.3% DMSO) in the same well. The percent inhibition versus LoglO compound concentration data was plotted and the IC50 determined using a sigmoidal dose response equation. The hERG inhibition values for dasatinib are taken from page 31 of Pharmacological/Toxicity Review and Evaluation of NDA 21-986 for SPRYCEL (dasatinib).

[434] Assays to determine the MDR1-MDCK effective efflux ratio suggested that dasatinib is a substrate for the MDR1 pump and actively from cells that express this efflux pump (effective efflux ratio of 18.3). Although no definitive conclusion can be made on the relative efflux of the compound of the invention (effective efflux ratio of >9.6) because of the limit of detection of the compound in the A>B direction in the MDCK-MDR1 cells, there is an indication that the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention shows significantly different parameters in this assay compared to dasatinib (Table 5D).

Table 5D: Mean efflux ratios in MDCK wild type and MDCK-MDR1 cells.

[435] The MDR1-MDCK effective efflux assay was conducted by Charles River Inc, at their UK Discovery site (Cambridge, UK), according to their applicable standard operating procedures (ADM E-SOP-56).

[436] Example 6: [prophetic] : In-vitro cell-based anti-cancer and anti-leukaemia efficacy of the kinase inhibitor of the invention and of dasatinib.

[437] The kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3) is tested for anti-cancer activity in one or more cell-based assays, and its activity in such assay(s) and compared to dasatinib (A8) to determine its differentiation and/or superiority.

[438] In one method, the direct cytotoxicic effects of compounds B3 and A8 (dasatinib) is tested on solid tumour cell lines in vitro using with the CellTiter-Glo® (CTG) Luminescent Cell Viability Assay (Promega, Cat. G7570). Tumour cells such as MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), M579 primary melanoma cultures (as described in Khandelwal et al, 2015, EMBO Mol Med 7:540), PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer), SW480 (colorectal cancer), DMS273 (lung cancer) or murine tumour cell lines such as B16.ova, MC38, 4T1, 1956 etc. are incubated (37oC/5% C02) in wells of a microtitre plate with dasatinib (A8) or the kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3) in a concentration series (eg, at 0, 1, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nM) for 48 hours. The protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-susceptible K562 cell line is used as a control with 100 nM dasatinib. Viable cells are determined by adding lOOuL of CTG reagent to the wells and incubating at room temperature for lOmin before luminescence readout using a Tecan Spark 10M luminometer.

[439] In an additional or alternative method, the anti-leukaemia activity of compounds B3 and A8 (dasatinib) is tested, in particular in one or more cell-line(s) driven by BCR-ABL or mutants thereof (such as described by Gibbons et al 2014, PNAS 111 :3550). Gene constructs for wild-type (wt) and T315I mutant Bcr-Abl (C-terminally tagged with eGFP) are constructed as previously described (Donato et al 2004, Cancer Res 64:672). The wt or T351I single mutant pMX/eGFP-Bcr-Abl template is used to generate templates for further or double mutants of BCR-ABL that are also associated with resistance to drug therapy with various TKIs of leukaemia (for example, T315I/V299L, T315I/F317L, T315I/F359V, or other mutations listed in Table 6A) by site-directed mutagenesis (Stratagene). Following mutagenesis, the 4-kb XhoI/SgrAI sequence carrying the mutant (or double mutant) is sequenced and subcloned into the pMX/eGFP-BcrAbl template (at XhoI/SgrAI sites) to ensure that no other mutations are introduced during mutagenesis.

Table 6A:* BCR-ABL mutations associated with resistance to TKIs and therapeutic options. Complied from studies reporting IC50 values derived using cell-line models.

* Taken from Pophali & Patnik 2016, Cane J 22:40

[440] Parental Ba/F3 cells (murine IL-3 dependent murine pro B cell line) are maintained in RPMI medium with 10% FBS and 1 ng/mL mouse IL-3. Parental Ba/F3 cells at 2.5 x 106 are electroporated with 2.5 ug plasmid using the Amaxa Nucleofector system. After electroporation, Ba/F3 cells are rested overnight, and puromycin then added to the medium at a final concentration of 1 ug/mL. Transfected Ba/F3 cells are cultured in the RPMI medium/IL- 3/puromycin media for more than a week. To ensure equivalent expression of BCR-ABL1 between wild-type and mutant cells, Ba/F3 cells are sorted by flow cytometry for eGFP positivity. Sorted eGFP-positive Ba/F3 cells are further selected in medium without IL-3. Cell growth rates are confirmed to be equivalent in all BCR-ABLl-transformed cells. Cells maintained in the absence of IL-3 for more than 1 week are used to examine inhibitor activity. For this, cells are incubated for 72h with the applicable TKIs to determine their effect on growth and survival of BaF3 cells as previously described (Wu et al 2010, Leukemia 24:869); for example by using a concentration series of the kinase inhibitor of the invention or dasatinib as described above.

[441] Analogously, the effect of the kinase inhibitor of the invention or dasatinib in leukaemia cell models carrying KIT mutations can be tested. For example, vectors carrying KIT wt or mutations (eg, those associated with drug resistance) can be transfected into transfect FDC-P1 murine bone-marrow cells and the effect of the compounds investigated on proliferation and clonogenic activity of FDC-P1/KIT (wt or mutant) cells, such as based on that described by Liu et al (2010, Cancer Cell 17:333).

[442] Example 7 [prophetic] : In-vivo anti-leukemic efficacy of the kinase inhibitor of the invention and of dasatinib.

[443] The in-vivo pharmacological activity of dasatinib, and the experiments used to show it are described in the EMEA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CMHP) Scientific Discussion on dasatinib in 2006. In particular, as follows:

[444] The tumour inhibiting activity of dasatinib was evaluated in human CML xenograft models grown sub cutaneously (SC) in SCID mice. Cures were defined as the absence of detectable tumour at a time greater than ten times the tumour volume doubling time after the cessation of treatment.

[445] Dasatinib was curative in mice bearing K562 human CML tumours over a range of dose levels (8-50mg/kg) when administered PO once a day for 10 days using a "5-days-on and 2-days off" treatment regimen. Treatment was initiated when the tumours reached a size of 200 to 500mg. High doses of imatinib failed to produce a comparative response. The minimum effective dose for dasatinib was determined as 2.5 mg/kg. In addition, dasatinib was highly efficient in this model when administered IV. Dasatinib was curative in mice bearing large KU812 tumours (up to > lg tumour) when treated with 50mg/kg/day for 5 days.

[446] The SRC phosphorylation was investigated in peripheral mononuclear cell (PBMCs) collected from human prostate cancer cell (PC-3) bearing mice administered 1, 5, 15 or 50mg/kg dasatinib. Dasatinib treatment resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of SRC phosphorylation with an almost complete inhibition within 5 hours following administration of 15 and 50mg/kg. Administration of 5mg/kg resulted in 44% inhibition of SRC phosphorylation whereas lmg/kg was almost inactive. Based on AUC 0-24h values, the animahhuman plasma exposure ratios were 0.8 and 1.9 for the 5mg/kg and 15mg/kg dose groups, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic data it was estimated that the dasatinib plasma concentration required to inhibit 50% of phospho-SRC was 91nM in PBMCs.

[447] Dasatinib treatment (lOmg/kg/day) increased survival in mice inoculated intracranially with K562 CML cells and the survival efficacy was superior to what was observed with imatinib (300 mg/kg/day). In a similar study, increased survival was observed following treatment with 10 and 30mg/kg/day dasatinib whereas 200mg/kg/day imatinib failed to inhibit intracranial tumour growth. Thus dasatinib appears to have a therapeutic advantage over imatinib in the treatment of intracranial CML.

[448] Dasatinib was active against a human CML model in mice whether treatment was administered daily for ten consecutive days or if a short treatment break (5-days-on and 2-days off) was introduced into the dosing regimen. Moreover, a twice-daily dosing regimen produced efficacy that was superior to the once daily dosing regimen. Consequently, in mice bearing K562 human CML tumours, a superior anti-tumour activity (cure) was observed in the twice-daily 1.25mg/kg dose group when compared to the dose group administered 2.5mg/kg dasatinib on a once- daily schedule (growth inhibition).

[449] The kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention is tested in one or more of such investigations (for example, at doses of 1, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 30 or 50mg/Kg/day) to determine its differentiation and/or superiority in comparison to dasatinib (A8).

[450] In addition or alternatively, the two compounds are compared in the animal model described by Puttini et al (2006, Cancer Res 66: 11314), briefly as follows:

[451] Five- to 7-week-old female CD1 nu/nu mice are purchased from Charles River Breeding Laboratories and kept under standard laboratory conditions. Human KU812Bcr-Abl+ cells are suspended at 50 million cells in 0.5mL PBS and this cell suspension injected s.c. in the left flank of each animal. In another group of mice, murine Ba/F3 pro-B cells expressing Bcr-Abl WT or imatinib-resistant point mutants (Y253F, E255K, D276G, and T315I) are suspended at 10 million cells in 0.4mL PBS and injected s.c. to syngeneic nude mice. Tumour weight and body weight are monitored twice or thrice weekly. Tumour weight is calculated by the formula tumour weight (mg) = (d2 D / 2), where d and D are the shortest and longest diameters of the tumour, respectively, measured in millimetres. Tumour weight is calculated considering tumour-bearing animals only. Dasatinib (A8), or the kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3), is given by oral gavage from day after cell infusion (for example, at doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 30 or 50mg/Kg/day), at 8 days after cell injection when tumours entered growth phase or at 15 days to mice bearing measurable tumours. Placebo-treated animals received the same regimen with vehicle alone.

[452] As a further additional or alternative method, the two compounds are compared in the animal model described by Fauvel et al (2013, Am J Can Sci 2:28), briefly as follows:

[453] A xenograft mouse model of imatinib-resistant leukemia is prepared by subcutaneously injecting Ba/F3 BCR- ABLT315I (lxlO A 8cell/mL sterile PBS) into the right flank of athymic nude male mice (HSD, 6-7 weeks old). When the tumour volume reaches approximately 50mm3, mice are assigned randomly to vehicle alone or treatment (dasatinib or compound B3) groups (five mice per group). Mice are treated with either vehicle (eg, DMSO or propylene glycol : water 1: 1) or compounds (eg, 5, 10 or 40mg/kg q.d.; per os for 11 consecutive days) in vehicle. Tumour volumes in mm3 are determined three times a week with a digital calliper and calculated using the following formula : Tumour Volume (mm3) = length (mm) x width (mm) x width (mm) x Vi. Body weight is measured three times a week, and mice observed daily for monitoring signs of stress to detect possible toxicities. One-way ANOVA is used for statistical comparisons using Prism 5.0b (GraphPad Software) by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc.

[454] Example 8 [prophetic] : In-vivo anti-cancer (solid tumour) efficacy of the kinase inhibitor B3 and of dasatinib

[455] The anti-cancer activity of the kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention and of dasatinib (A8) against solid tumours are investigated in an in vivo syngeneic mouse model, whereby murine colorectal carcinoma cells MC38 are implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of C57BI6/N mice and treated with the test compound (eg, B3 or A8, at doses of between eg 2.5mg/mL/day up to 50, 60 or 100mg/Kg/day*). In detail, female C57BI6/N mice (4-6 weeks old), are implanted with of 1c10 L 6 MC38 colorectal carcinoma cells (lOOul in PBS). Mice are randomised into treatment groups after reaching 150mm3 tumour volume, and treatment groups may, for example, comprise those as set forth in Table 8A, with treatment starting within 24h of randomisation.

Table 8A: Example treatment groups.

* Based on last bodyweight measurement; ** po = per os, oral administration via gavage

# For at least 3 weeks, up to about 5-8 weeks

** Propylene glycol : water 1: 1

[456] Mice are measured for body weight and tumour volume (mm3) by calliper measurement twice weekly for up to 8 weeks until termination criteria (tumour volume> 2000 mm3) is reached.

[457] Additionally, 5 mice per group are sacrificed after day 9 of first treatment to analyse tumour and blood samples for various immune-response markers, for example those set forth in Table 8B below (as well as using Aqua Zombie (BioLegend) to determine live/dead cells).

[458] Briefly, peripheral blood samples are collected (however, the day before sacrifice) from these mice into heparin-precoated tubes by making an incision in the tail of the mice. After treating the blood samples with ammonium-chloride-potassium (ACK) lysing buffer (Life Technologies, Cat. A10492-01), the cells are stained with fluorochrome-conjugated mAbs to one or more of the example immune-phenotyping markers (eg, Table 8B).

[459] For immune-phenotyping of the tumours, tumours are surgically removed on the day of sacrifice with a scalpel and then divided in half. One part of the tumour is fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for immunohistochemistry for one or more of the example immune-phenotype markers. For IHC, PFA-fixed tumor tissues are embedded into paraffin blocks and cut at 4 mm thickness. After fixing on glass slides and antigen-retrieval step, the sections are stained with anti-CD8 antibody and counterstained with Mayer-Hematoxylin. The counting of the tumour infiltrating CD8 T cells is done at 50x magnification starting from capsule area and counting 3 fields toward to the core of the tissue. The same process was repeated 3 times. All counts were summed, and the median calculated (as described in Hekim et al 2017, Can Imm Res 5: 157).

[460] The other half of the tumour is transferred into 1.5-mL tubes containing RPMI 1640 medium and then homogenized manually using micro tube pellet pestle. After centrifugation at 300xg, the supernatant was discarded, and cells were resuspended in RPMI medium equal to the tumour weight. Tumour homogenate is diluted 1 : 1 in PBS and stained with fluorochrome-labelled antibodies for one or more of the example immune-phenotype markers. For all Foxp3-specific staining (peripheral or intra-tumoural), cells are first labelled with the anti-CD4 antibody before incubation with the anti-Foxp3 antibody using an Intracellular Fixation and Permeabilization Kit as recommended by the manufacturer (eBioscience)

Table 8B: Example immune-phenotype markers.

[461] Example 9: Sensitisation of tumour cells to in-vitro TNF attack by the kinase inhibitor of the invention and of dasatinib

[462] The inventors investigated the effect of kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention, and dasatinib (A8) in comparison, on the killing (apoptotic/cytoxic) effect of TNF to tumour cells in vitro, and determined the sensitisation - by the kinase inhibitor B3 - of a modified PANC1 or M579-A2 cell-line to TNF attack.

[463] Treatment with kinase inhibitor B3 of the invention (tested at one or more concentrations of, for example, between about InM to IO,OOOhM, such as about lOnM, 25nM, 50nM, lOOnM, 150nM, 500nM, I,OOOhM, 2,500nM and/or 5,000nM in DMSO) is used to investigate sensitisation of PANC-l-luc or M579-A2-luc tumour cells to the cytotoxic effects of recombinant human TNF (rFluTNF; R&D Systems), and also the speed of onset of this effect. PANCl-luc is an FILA-A2.1+ luciferase-expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumour cell line, and M579-A2- luc is an FILA-A2.1+ luciferase-expressing melanoma tumour cell line.

[464] The dose-response effect of rFluTNF treatment on the viability of the indicated PANC-l-luc cells is shown as a graph (Figure 6) of the relative (cytotoxicity/viability) of tumour cells after treatment with rFluTNF at the respective concentration with the respective test compound (B3 or A8) or control (eg, DMSO), and Y-axis is the normalised RLU (as a measure of cytoxicity) of +TNF (cytotoxicity)/relative to without TNF (viability) measured using a luciferase- based killing assay: cells, test compound and then rFluTNF (lOng/mL) are incubated for 24h at 37oC, 5% C02, supernatant removed after culture and the remaining PANC-l-Luc cells lysed with luciferase cell lysis reagent (0.3% Triton-X in water) for lOmin. After lysis, luciferase assay buffer is added and immediately the luciferase intensity was measured by using the TECAN-Spark microplate reader.

[465] To determine speed of onset of cell death, tumour cells are pre-labelled with nuclear incorporation of YOYO- 1 dye and treated with inhibitors and TNF as indicated above. Tumour death kinetics is evaluated using real-time live cell microscopy with IncuCyte Zoom (Essen BioScience) by a graph showing the area of YOYO-1+ cells/well (um2/well) (ie, apoptotic cell area) of images after 6h stimulation, with cumulative data of (eg 5 - 10) different pictures from the same experiment. [466] The PANCl-luc cell line is constructed as follows: PANC-1 cells acquired from the American Type Cell Culture (ATCC). Tumour cells are transfected with a pEGFP-Luc plasmid, using TransIT-LTl (Mirus) as transfection reagent. Transfected cells are selected with lmg/mL of G418/Geneticin, and 14 days after selection EGFP+ cells are sorted using, eg a BD FACSARIA II cell sorter.

[467] The tumour immuno-oncology effect is demonstrated to be mediated by SIK family members, and by SIK3 in particular. Using the luciferase-based tumor cell viability readout described above, tumour cells show increased cytotoxicity in the presence of TNF (lOng/mL) and a pan-SIK and ABL1 & SRC inhibitor (compound Bl) at a concentration of between about 10 and 100 nM (circles), compared to in the presence of inhibitor alone (squares) (Figure 7A). In contrast however, compound B8 which is a potent ABL1 & SRC inhibitor but with low inhibitory activity against SIK family members (in particular SIK3), in combination with TNF (circles) fails to exhibit cytotoxicity of M579 A2 cells at such concentration range, compared to inhibitor alone (squares) (Figure 7B). Indeed, in combination with TNF compound B4 (circles) also fails to exhibit cytotoxicity of M579 A2 cells at such concentration range, compared to inhibitor alone (squares) (Figure 7C), despite compound B4 being not only a potent inhibitor of ABL1 & SRC but also a strong inhibitor or SIK1 and SIK2, but only a weak inhibitor of SIK3.

[468] Taken together, these data implicate SIK family members, and in particular SIK3, as being the mediator of the anti-tumour immuno-oncology effect and not the other kinase ABL1 or SRC.

[469] Compounds Bl, B4 and B8, including their synthesis, are as described in PCT/EP2018/060172, and are shown in Table 9A.

Table 9A: Compounds Bl, B4 and B8

[470] Example 10 [prophetic] : In-vivo immune-oncology activity of the kinase inhibitor of the invention

[471] To investigate the synergistic effect of TNF-inducing therapy (eg, an anti-PDl antibody, such as murine anti- PD1 clone: RMP1-14, BioLegend) with kinase inhibitor B3, and dasatinib (A8) in comparison (at doses of between eg 2.5mg/Km/day up to 60 or 100mg/Kg/day*), a further in vivo syngeneic mouse model as described in Example 8 is conducted, but with treatment groups addressing applicable combinations (and controls), for example treatment groups which may, for example, comprise those as set forth in Table 10A, below.

Table 10A: Example treatment groups.

* Based on last bodyweight measurement;

** po = per os, oral administration via gavage, ip = intra-peritoneal

# Compound dosed for at least 3 weeks, up to between 5 and 8 weeks. Anti-PD-1 and vehicle treatment for duration

** Propylene glycol : water 1 : 1

[472] As described in Example 8, (i) mice are measured for body weight and tumour volume (mm3) by calliper measurement twice weekly for up to 8 weeks until termination criteria (tumour volume> 2000 mm3) is reached; and (ii) 5 mice per group are sacrificed after day 9 of first treatment to analyse tumour and blood samples for various immune response markers (eg, as described in Example 8).

[473] Example 11 [prophetic] : Formulation for and preparation of unit dose form of the kinase inhibitor of the invention for oral administration.

[474] A caplet unit dose form of a pharmaceutical composition of the invention is made, briefly as follows.

[475] First, a tableting blend comprising the kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3) is prepared by dry granulation of an amount of B3 together with one or more excipients. Example excipients in the tableting blend can include a binder, such as lactose (monohydrate), microcrystalline cellulose and/ hydroxypropyl cellulose, and optionally with a disintegrant such as starch. The blend may also include a lubricant such as magnesium stearate. Alternatively, the tableting blend is prepared by wet granulation followed by drying.

[476] Second, using a rotary tablet press, the blend is filled into a suitably shaped die from above, and compressed to a porosity of between about 5% and 20% by lowering an upper punch into the die. Compression can take pace in in one or two stages (main compression, and optionally pre-compression or tamping), with compression occurring rapidly for scaled manufacturing (eg within 500ms per caplet). The upper punch is pulled up and out of the die (decompression), and the caplet is ejected from the die.

[477] Third, the caplet is coated using an automatic coater. The coating can comprise hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and purified water.

[478] The tableting blend comprises an amount of the kinase inhibitor of the invention (B3) such that each caplet is made to include a therapeutically effective amount of B3, and caplets of different dosages may be made to aid the administration of the correct overall dose of B3. For example, each caplet may include about 20mg, 50mg or 70 mg of B3, or may include less than these amounts such as about 5mg, lOmg or 40mg of B3.