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Title:
ABRASIVE TOOLS AND METHODS FOR FORMING SAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/005767
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An abrasive tool having a bonded abrasive including a body having abrasive particles contained within a bond material and a barrier layer overlaying a portion of the body and configured for removal by hand prior to use, and a tab extending from the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body.

Inventors:
CASTAGNA, Alicia M. (29 Concord Avenue #605, Cambridge, MA, 02138, US)
SAHLIN, Katherine, M. (132 Union Ave, Old Orchard Beach, ME, 04064, US)
Application Number:
US2017/039949
Publication Date:
January 04, 2018
Filing Date:
June 29, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SAINT-GOBAIN ABRASIVES, INC. (One New Bond Street, Worcester, MA, 01615, US)
SAINT-GOBAIN ABRASIFS (Rue de l'Ambassadeur, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, FR)
International Classes:
B24D3/28; B24D7/04; B24D18/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2002032626A12002-04-25
Foreign References:
US20040020133A12004-02-05
US20040137831A12004-07-15
US20110155593A12011-06-30
US5355636A1994-10-18
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GUO, Lei (Abel Law Group, LLP8911 N. Capital of Texas Hwy,Bldg 4, Suite 420, Austin TX, 78759, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. An abrasive tool comprising:

a bonded abrasive including a body comprising abrasive particles contained within a bond material; and

a barrier layer overlying a portion of the body and adhered to the major surface in a peelable configuration having a peel strength of not greater than 3000 g/in.

2. An abrasive tool comprising:

a bonded abrasive including a body comprising abrasive particles contained within a bond material; and

a barrier layer overlying a portion of the body and configured for removal by hand prior to use,

3. An abrasive tool comprising:

a bonded abrasive including a body comprising abrasive particles contained within a bond material;

a barrier layer bonded to a portion of the body; and

a tab extending from the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body.

4. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 2 and 3, wherein the barrier layer is adhered to the major surface in a peelable configuration having a peel strength of at least 10 g/in and not greater than 3000 g/in.

5. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 1, 2, and 3, wherein the barrier layer comprises an adhesive layer that is directly attached to a major surface of the body.

6. The abrasive tool of claim 5, wherein the adhesive layer comprises a pressure- sensitive adhesi ve comprising at least one composition selected from the group consisting of an acrylic, an acrylate, butyl rubber, ethylene-vinyl acetate, natural rubber, nitriles, silicone rubber, styrene block copolymer, vinyl ether, or any combination thereof.

7. The abrasive tool of claim 5, wherein the adhesive layer comprises at least one of a water-based adhesive, temperature-sensitive adhesive, solvent-based adhesive or a combination thereof.

8. The abrasive tool of claim 5, wherein the adhesive layer comprises at least one material selected from the group consisting of viscoelastic polymers, acrylate polymer, rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, silicone rubber, polybutene, polybutadine, lacquer, polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene vinylacetate, ethylene methacrylic acid, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene terephthalate, epoxy, ethylene acrylic acid, sulfonated polystyrene, polyamide, or any combination, blends, and copolymers thereof.

9. The abrasive tool of claim 6, wherein the melt-based adhesive comprises at least one of an acrylic, an ionomer including acrylic acid, a methacrylic acid, a sulfonic acid, a carboxvlic acid, an unneutralized metal ion, a partially neutralized metal ion, a fully neutralized metal ion or any combination thereof,

10. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 1 and 3, wherein the barrier layer is configured to be removed by hand.

11. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 1 and 2, further comprising a tab extending over an edge of the body in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body.

12. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 3 and 11, wherein the tab comprises a siring or wire disposed between the barrier layer and portion of the body.

13. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 3 and 11, wherein the tab is underlying a portion of the barrier layer in the sealed position.

14. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 3 and 11, wherein the tab is made of the same material as the barrier layer.

15. The abrasive tool of any one of claims 3 and 11, wherein the tab is made of the same material as at least one component material of the barrier layer.

Description:
ABRASIVE TOOLS AND METHODS FOR FORMING SAME

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates in general to abrasive tools and, in particular, to a bonded abrasive including a barrier layer,

BACKGROUND ART

Bonded abrasive articles can be prepared by blending abrasive particles with a bond and optional additives and shaping the resulting mixture, using, for instance, a suitable mold. The mixture can be shaped to form a green body which can be thermally processed, for example, by curing, to produce an article in which the abrasi ve particles are held in a three dimensional bond matrix. Among bonded abrasive tools, various bond matrix materials exist, including for example organic materials, such as resin. Some resin-based bond matrix materials may be susceptible to water absorption, which may degrade the performance of the abrasive article. A need for improved abrasive articles continues to exist.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments are illustrated by way of example and are not limited in the accompanying figures.

FIG. 1 includes a cross-sectional view of an abrasive tool, such as a bonded abrasive wheel bonded abrasive, in accordance with an embodiment described herein.

FIG. 2A includes a cross-sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including an abrasive layer, a reinforcement layer, and a barrier layer in accordance with an embodiment FIG. 2B includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including an abrasive layer and a barrier layer in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 2C includes a cross-sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including an abrasive layer and a barrier layer in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 2D includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including an abrasive layer and a barrier layer in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 3 A includes a cross-sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including a barrier layer overlying an abrasive layer in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 3B includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including a barrier layer overlying an abrasive layer in accordance with an embodiment. FIG. 3C includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool including a barrier layer overlying an abrasive layer in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 4A includes a cross -sectional view of a portion of a barrier layer including a metal- containing film and a polymer containing film in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 4B includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of a barrier layer including more than one polymer-containing films and a polymer-containing film in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 4C includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of a barrier layer including more than one polymer-containing films and a polymer-containing film in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 5 includes a plot of moisture uptake of bonded abrasive wheel samples over a period of time.

FIG. 6 includes a plot of G-ratios of bonded abrasive wheel samples.

FIG. 7 includes a plot of moisture uptake of bonded abrasive wheel samples over a period of time.

FIG. 8 includes a plot of G-ratios of bonded abrasive wheel samples.

FIGs. 9A-9G includes a cross-sectional illustration of an abrasive article including a portion of a bonded abrasive body and a barrier layer according to an embodiment.

FIG. 10 includes a cross- sectional illustration of an abrasive article including a portion of a bonded abrasive body, a barrier layer, and a coating layer according to an embodiment.

Skilled artisans appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to other elements to help to improve understanding of embodiments of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)

The following description in combination with the figures is provided to assist in understanding the teachings disclosed herein. The following discussion will focus on specific implementations and embodiments of the teachings. This focus is provided to assist in describing the teachings and should not be interpreted as a limitation on the scope or

applicability of the teachings. However, other teachings can certainly be used in this application. As used herein, the terms "comprises," "comprising," "includes," "including," "has," "having" or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion. For example, a method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of features is not necessarily limited only to those features but may include other features not expressly listed or inherent to such method, article, or apparatus. Further, unless expressly stated to the contrary, "or" refers to an inclusive-or and not to an exclusive-or. For example, a condition A or B is satisfied by any one of the following: A is true (or present) and B is false (or not present), A is false (or not present) and B is true (or present), and both A and B are true (or present).

Also, the use of "a" or "an" is employed to describe elements and components described herein. This is done merely for convenience and to give a general sense of the scope of the invention. This description should be read to include one or at least one and the singular also includes the plural, or vice versa, unless it is clear that it is meant otherwise. For example, when a single item is described herein, more than one item may be used in place of a single item.

Similarly, where more than one item is described herein, a single item may be substituted for that more than one item.

Unless otherwise defined, ail technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the ait to which this invention belongs. The materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting. To the extent that certain details regarding specific materials and processing acts are not described, such details may include conventional approaches, which may be found in reference books and other sources within the manufacturing arts.

Embodiments disclosed herein are related to abrasive tools including a bonded abrasive and a barrier layer. The bonded abrasive can include a body including abrasive particles contained within a bond material. In an embodiment, the barrier layer can be bonded to a major surface of the body. The barrier layer may facilitate reduced absorption of certain materials, including water and/or water vapor during storage, shipment, and/or use to reduce aging of the bond matrix material. The barrier layer may facilitate improved life and performance of the abrasive article by reducing the absorption of certain species of materials, such as water vapor, which may reduce degradation of the bond matrix material.

Some other embodiments are directed to a method of forming the abrasive tool in which the barrier layer is formed in-situ with the formation of the bonded abrasive. As used herein, in- situ is intended to mean during the formation of the bonded abrasive. Particularly, when an organic material is used to form the bond material of the bonded abrasive, in -situ means during the curing of the organic material.

Reference herein to an adhesive is reference to a material providing temporary or permanent bonding properties between two or more components. The term adhesive is not restrictive to conventional set of adhesive materials, such as only pressure-sensitive adhesives, but is more generally used to refer to materials providing adhering interactions such as static interactions, polar interactions, Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, ionic associations, mechanical interlocking between two components of the embodiment.

The term "transition temperature" is used herein to refer to a temperature at which a component or multiple components undergo a change in properties including but not limited to mechanical, thermal, chemical, and associative. Some examples of transition temperatures include a softening temperature, glass transition temperature, melt temperature, volatilization temperature, degradation temperature, de-bonding temperature, dissociation temperature and the like.

The abrasive tool disclosed herein includes the bonded abrasive. In specific

implementations, the bonded abrasive can include any suitable type of abrasive wheel as known in the art, including thin disc shaped abrasive articles. For example, the bonded abrasive wheel can be a depressed center wheel, such as, for example, ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Type 27, Type 28 or Type 29 wheels, or European Standard (EN 14312) Type 42 wheel. In particular embodiments, the bonded abrasive tool can include Type 41 or Type 1 wheels, which may be referred to as straight wheels, haying no depression in the interior but having the same contour and extending along the same plane along the length of the diameter of the wheel. Still, essentially any bonded abrasive wheel construction may be utilized with the present embodiments. Moreover, the abrasive tools may be in the form of cut-off wheels. In a non-limiting embodiment, the bonded abrasive is not considered a convolute abrasive wheel or a nonwoven abrasive article.

Shown in FIG. 1, for instance, is a cross-sectional view of depressed center of a bonded abrasive 10, which can include a body including a rear (top) face 12 and a front (bottom) face 14. The rear face 12 can include a raised hub region 16 and outer flat rear wheel region 18. The front face 14 can include a depressed center region 20 and outer fiat front wheel region 22 (wliich provides the working surface of the wheel). In turn, raised hub region 16 can have raised hub surface 24 and back sloping (or slanted) surface 26; depressed center region 20 can include depressed center 28 and front sloping (or slanted) surface 30. The body of the bonded abrasive 10 can have central opening 32 for mounting the bonded abrasive 10 on the rotating spindle of a tool, e.g., a hand-held angle grinder. During operation, the bonded abrasive 10 can be secured by mounting hardware (not shown in FIG. 1) such as, for instance, a suitable flange system. The bonded abrasive 10 can also be part of an integrated arrangement that includes mounting hardware.

The body of the bonded abrasi ve 10 can have a thickness "t" that can be measured at various positions, including at the periphery of the bonded abrasive body. The thickness of the body of the bonded abrasive 10 can be the same or essentially the same along a radial direction from the central opening 36 to the outer edge (periphery) 38 of the bonded abrasive 10. In other designs, the thickness "t" of the body can vary (can increase or decrease) along a radial distance from the central opening 36 to the periphery 38. For example, the body of the bonded abrasive 10 can have a thickness "t" of at least 0.8 mm, such as, at least 0.9 mm, at least 1 mm, at least 1.2 mm, at least 1.3 mm, at least 1 .5 mm, at least 1.8 mm, at least 2 mm, at least 2.2mm, at least 2.5 mm, at least 2.8 mm, at least 3 mm, at least 3.2 mm, at least 3.5 mm, at least 3.8 mm, at least 4 mm, at least 4.2 mm, at least 4.5 mm, at least 4.8 mm, or even at least 5 mm. In another non- limiting embodiment, the thickness "t" of the body of the bonded abrasive 10 can be not greater than 20 mm, such as not greater than 18 mm, not greater than 16 mm, not greater than 15 mm, not greater than 12 mm, not greater than 10 mm, not greater than 9 mm, not greater than 8 mm, not greater than 7 mm, not greater than 6 mm, not greater than 5.8 mm, not greater than 5.5 mm, not greater than 5.2 mm, not greater than 5 mm, not greater than 4.5 mm, not greater than 4 mm, not greater than 3.5 mm, or even not greater than 3 mm. It will be appreciated that the body of the bonded abrasive 10 can have a thickness "t" within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted above, including for example, within a range including 0.8 mm to 20 mm, such as a range of 0.8 mm to 15 mm, or even a range of 0.8 mm to 10 mm.

In certain alternative embodiments, the body of the bonded abrasive may utilize a patterned working surface, wherein the working surface is a major surface (e.g., a front (bottom) face 14) of the abrasive tool intended to contact the workpiece and conduct the material removal operation. Furthermore, it will be appreciated that certain bonded abrasives, which are in the form of bonded abrasive wheels having a bonded abrasive body, can be used as cutting tools, wherein the peripheral surface of the body is used for abrasive material removal operations. In such instances, the major surfaces of the body are not necessarily used to conduct the material removal operations. Instead, the outer peripheral surface of the body can be configured to contact a surface of the workpiece and conduct the material removal operations. Such abrasive tools may be cut-off thin wheels and the like.

Further, the body of the bonded abrasive of the embodiments herein can include a diameter, which defines the length of extending between two points on the perimeter and through the center of the circular body as viewed top down. In a non-limiting embodiment, the diameter can be at least 50 mm, such as at least 55 mm, at least 60 mm, at least 65 mm, at least 70 mm, or even at least 75 mm. In another non-limiting embodiment, the diameter may be not greater than 400 mm, such as, not greater than 350 mm, not greater than 300 mm, not greater than 275 mm, not greater than 230 mm, not greater than 200 mm, or even not greater than 150 mm. It will be appreciated that the diameter of the bonded abrasive body can be within a range including any of the minimum to maximum values noted above, for example, within a range of 50 mm to 400 mm, such as within a range of 50 mm to 230 mm, 75 mm to 230 mm, or even within a range of 75 mm to 150 mm.

The body of the bonded abrasive may have a particular aspect ratio, which is a ratio of the diameter (D) of the body to the thickness (t) of the body (diametenthickness) that may facilitate certain abrasive operations. For example, the body can have an aspect ratio of at least 10: 1 , at least 15: 1, at least 20: 1, at least 35: 1 , at least 50: 1, at least 75: 1, at least 100: 1 , or even at least 125: 1. In other instances, the body of the bonded abrasive can have an aspect ratio

(diametenthickness) of not greater than 125: 1, not greater than 100: 1 , not greater than 75: 1 , not greater than 50: 1, not greater than 35: 1, not greater than 25: 1, not greater than 20: 1, or not greater than 15: 1. The ratio can be within a range including any of the above minimum and maximum values, such as within a range of 125: 1 to 15:1 , such as 100: 1 to 30: 1. However, the invention can be practiced with wheels having different dimensions and different ratios between dimensions. For example, the thin- wheel abrasive article also can have a desirable aspect ratio within a range of 5 to 160, such as within a range of 15 to 160, within a range of 15 to 150, or even within a range of 20 to 125.

The bonded abrasive of the embodiments herein can have certain constructions. It will be appreciated that the body of the embodiments herein may be monolithic articles formed of a single layer having a single construction, having a substantially uniform grade and structure throughout the volume of the body of the bonded abrasive. Alternatively, the body of the embodiments herein can be composite bodies having one or more layers, wherein at least two of the layers are different from each other based on a characteristic such as, abrasive particle type, content of abrasive particles, porosity type (e.g., closed or open), content of porosity, type of bond material, content of bond material, distribution of abrasive particles, hardness, flexibility, filler content, filler materials, shape of the layer, size (e.g., thickness, width, diameter, circumference, or length) of the layer, construction of the layer (e.g., solid, woven, non-woven, etc.) and a combination thereof.

Abrasive Particles

Bonded abrasives such as bonded abrasive wheels with or without a reinforcing layer, including depressed center wheels, can be prepared by including one or more types of abrasive particles, a bond material (e.g., an organic material (resin) or an inorganic material), and in many cases other ingredients, such as, for instance, active or inactive fillers, processing aids, lubricants, crosslinking agents, antistatic agents and so forth.

Abrasive particles can include inorganic materials, organic materials, naturally occurring materials (e.g., minerals), superabrasive materials, synthesized materials (e.g., polycrystailine diamond compacts) and a combination thereof. Some suitable exemplary abrasive particles can include oxides, carbides, carbon-based materials, nitrides, borides, oxycarbides, oxynitrides, oxyborides, and a combination thereof. A particular example can include alumina-based abrasive particles. As used herein, the term "alumina," "A1 2 0," and "aluminum oxide" are used interchangeably. Specific examples of suitable alumina-based abrasive particles which can be employed in the present invention include white alundum grain, from Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc. or pink alundum, from Treibaeher Schleifmittel, AG, mono-crystal alumina, coated or non-coated brown fused alumina, heat-treated alumina, silicon carbide, and a combination thereof. Other abrasive particles can include seeded or unseeded sintered sol gel alumina, with or without chemical modification, such as rare earth oxides, gO, and the like can be utilized. In yet another embodiment, the abrasive particles for use in the bonded abrasive can include silica, alumina (fused or sintered), zirconia, aiumina-zirconia, silicon carbide, garnet, boron-alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, aluminum- oxynitride, ceria, titanium dioxide, titanium diboride, boron carbide, tin oxide, tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, iron oxide, chromia, flint, emery, bauxite, and utilized combination thereof.

The abrasive particles also can include various shapes, structures, and/or configurations. For example, the abrasive particle can be a shaped abrasive particle. Shaped abrasive particles can have a well-defined and regular arrangement (i.e., non-random) of edges and sides, thus defining an identifiable and controlled shape. Moreover, shaped abrasive particles are distinct from traditional crushed or non-shaped abrasive particles as the shaped abrasive particles have substantially the same shape with respect to each other, wherein traditional crushed abrasive particles vary significantly in their shape with respect to each other. For example, a shaped abrasive particle may have a polygonal shape as viewed in a plane defined by any two dimensions of length, width, and height (e.g., viewed in a plane defined by a length and a width). Some exemplary polygonal shapes can be triangular, quadrilateral (e.g., rectangular, square, trapezoidal, parallelogram), a pentagon, a hexagon, a heptagon, an octagon, a nonagon, a decagon, and the like. Additionally, the shaped abrasive particle can have a three-dimensional shape defined by a polyhedral shape, such as a prismatic shape or the like. Further, the shaped abrasive particles may have curved edges and/or surfaces, such that the shaped abrasive particles can have convex, concave, ellipsoidal shapes. Exemplary shaped abrasive particles are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 8,758,461 , which is incorporated herein in its entirety.

The shaped abrasive particles can be in the form, of any alphanumeric character, e.g., 1, 2, 3, etc., A, B, C. etc. Further, the shaped abrasive particles can be in the form of a symbol, trademark, a character selecied from the Greek alphabet, the modern Latin alphabet, the ancient Latin alphabet, the Russian alphabet, any other alphabet (e.g., anji characters), and any combination thereof.

The size of abrasive particles can be expressed as a grit size, and charts showing a relation between a grit size and its corresponding average particle size, expressed in microns or inches, are known in the art as are correlations to the corresponding United States Standard Sieve (USSS) mesh size. Particle size selection depends upon the application or process for which the abrasive tool is intended and may range from 10 to 325 as per ANSI grit size designation.

Specifically, grit sizes may range from 16 to 120 or 16 to 80.

According to one particular embodiment, the abrasive particles can have an average particle size (D50) of at least 1 micron, such as at least 10 microns, at least 20 microns, at least 30 microns or at least 40 microns. Still, in another non-limiting embodiment, the abrasive particles can have an average particle size of not greater than 2 mm, such as not greater than 1 mm, not greater than 800 microns, not greater than 600 microns, not greater than 500 microns, not greater than 400 microns, not greater than 300 microns, not greater than 280 microns, not greater than 250 microns, not greater than 200 microns. It will be appreciated that the abrasive particles can have an average particle size within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted above, including for example, within a range between 1 micron and 2 mm, within a range between 10 microns and I mm, or even within a range between 20 microns and 200 microns.

Bond Material

The abrasive tool of the present invention, as well as the methods of making and using the abrasive tool, can include various bond materials and precursor bond materials. In specific implementations of the present invention, at least one of the bond material and the precursor bond material is an organic material, also referred to as a "polymeric" or "resin" material, which may be formed into the finally-formed bond material by curing. An example of an organic bond material that can be employed to fabricate bonded abrasive articles can include a phenolic resin. Such resins can be obtained by polymerizing phenols with aldehydes, in particular,

formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde or furfural. In addition to phenols, cresois, xylenols and substituted phenols can be employed. Comparable formaldehyde-free resins also can be utilized. Examples of other suitable organic bond materials include epoxy resins, polyester resins, polyurethanes, polyester, rubber, polyimide, polybenzimidazole, aromatic polyamide, modified phenolic resins (such as: epoxy modified and rubber modified resins, or phenolic resin blended with plasticizers, etc.), and so forth, as well as mixtures thereof.

Among phenolic resins, resoles can be obtained by a one-step reaction between aqueous formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Novolac resin, also known as a two-stage phenolic resin, can be produced under acidic conditions and during milling process blended with a cross-linking agent, such as hexamethylenetetramine (often also referred to as "hexa"). Exemplary phenolic resins can include resole and novolac. Resole phenolic resins can be alkaline catalyzed and have a ratio of formaldehyde to phenol of greater than or equal to one, such as from 1: 1 to 3: 1. Novolac phenolic resins can be acid catalyzed and have a ratio of formaldehyde to phenol of less than one, such as from 0.5: 1 to 0.8: 1.

The bond material can contain more than one phenolic resin, including for example, at least one resole and at least novolac-type phenolic resin. In many cases, at least one phenol- based resin is in liquid form. Suitable combinations of phenolic resins are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,918,1 16 to Gardziella, et al., the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

An epoxy resin can include an aromatic epoxy or an aliphatic epoxy. Aromatic epoxies components include one or more epoxy groups and one or more aromatic rings. An example aromatic epoxy includes epoxy derived from a polyphenol, e.g., from bisphenols, such as bisphenol A (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol), bisphenol F (bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]methane), bisphenol S (4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol), 4,4'-cyclohexylidenebisphenol, 4,4'-biphenol, 4,4'-(9- fluorenylidene)diphenol, or any combination thereof. The bisphenol can be alkoxyiated (e.g., ethoxylated or propoxylated) or halogenated (e.g., brominated). Examples of bisphenol epoxies include bisphenol diglycidyl ethers, such as diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A or Bisphenol F. A further example of an aromatic epoxy includes triphenylolmethane triglycidyl ether, l,l,l-tris(p- hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl ether, or an aromatic epoxy derived from a monophenol, e.g., from resorcinol (for example, resorcin diglycidyl ether) or hydroquinone (for example, hydroquinone diglycidyl ether). Another example is nonylphenyl glycidyl ether. In addition, an example of an aromatic epoxy includes epoxy novolac, for example, phenol epoxy novolac and ere sol epoxy novolac. Aliphatic epoxy components have one or more epoxy groups and are free of aromatic rings. The external phase can include one or more aliphatic epoxies. An example of an aliphatic epoxy includes glycidyl ether of C2-C30 alkyl; 1,2 epoxy of C3-C30 alkyl; mono or multiglycidyl ether of an aliphatic alcohol or polyol such as 1,4-butanediol, neopentyl glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol, dibromo neopentyl glycol, trimethylol propane, polytetramethylene oxide, polyethylene oxide, polypropylene oxide, glycerol, and alkoxyiated aliphatic alcohols; or polyols. In one embodiment, the aliphatic epoxy includes one or more cycloaliphatic ring structures. For example, the aliphatic epoxy can have one or more cvclohexene oxide structures, for example, two cyclohexene oxide structures.

An example of an aliphatic epoxy comprising a ring structure includes hydrogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, hydrogenated bisphenol F diglycidyl ether, hydrogenated bisphenol S diglycidyl ether, bis(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)methane diglycidyl ether, 2,2-bis(4- hydroxycyclohexyl)propane diglycidyl ether, 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4- epoxycyclohexanecarboxy 1 ate, 3 ,4-epoxy-6-methylcycIohexyImethy 1-3 ,4-epoxy-6- methylcyclohexanecarboxylate, di(3 ,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl)hexanedioate, di(3 ,4-epoxy- 6methylcyclohexyl.methyl) hexanedioate, ethyIenebis(3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate), ethanedioldi(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl) ether, or 2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl-5,5-spiro-3,4- epoxy)cyclohexane- 1 ,3-dioxane.

An exemplary multifunctional acrylic can include trimethyiolpropane triacrylate, glycerol triacrylate, pentaerythritol triacrylate, methacrylate, dipentaeryt ritol pentaacrylate, sorbitol triacrylate, sorbital hexacrylate, or any combination thereof. In another example, an acrylic polymer can be formed from a monomer having an alkyl group having from 1-4 carbon atoms, a glycidyl group or a hydroxyaikyi group having from 1 -4 carbon atoms. Representative acrylic polymers include polymethyl methacrylate, polyethyl methacrylate, polybutyl methacrylate, polyglycidyl methacrylate, polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate, polymethyl acrylate, polyethyl acrylate, polybutyl acrylate, polyglycidyl acrylate, polyhydroxyethyl acrylate and mixtures thereof.

Curing or cross-linking agents that can be utilized depend on the bonding material selected. For curing phenol novolac resins, for instance, a typical curing agent is hexa. Other amines, e.g., ethylene diamine; ethylene triamine; methyl amines and precursors of curing agents, e.g., ammonium hydroxide which reacts with formaldehyde to form hexa, also can be employed. Suitable amounts of curing agent can be within the range, for example, of from 5 to 20 parts, or 8 parts to 15 parts, by weight of curing agent per hundred parts of total novolac resin. It will be appreciated that the ratio can be adjusted based on various factors, including for example the particular- types of resins used, the degree of cure needed, and the desired final properties for the articles, such as strength, hardness, and grinding performance.

In a non-limiting embodiment, after curing, the bonded abrasive can be formed including a bonded monolithic body. The bonded monolithic body can include the bond material and abrasive particles. In a further, non-limiting embodiment, the bonded monolithic body can include a three-dimensional matrix of the bond material extending continuously throughout the entire volume of the abrasive portion of the bonded body.

Reinforcing Layer

According to one embodiment, the bonded abrasive can be reinforced with one or more, (e.g., two or three) reinforcing layers, which may be in the form of layers, partial layers, discrete bundles of material distributed throughout the bond material, and a combination thereof. As used herein, the term "reinforcing layer" can refer to a discrete component that can be made of a material that is different from the bond material and abrasive particles utilized to make the abrasive layers within the bonded abrasive body. In an embodiment, the reinforcing layer does not include abrasive particles. With respect to the thickness of the bonded abrasive, a reinforcing layer can be embedded within the body of the bonded abrasive and such bonded abrasives may be referred to as "internally" reinforced. A reinforcing layer also can be close to, or attached to the front and/or back face of the body of the bonded abrasive. Several reinforcing layers can be disposed at various depths through the thickness of the bonded abrasive.

Certain reinforcing layers may have a circular geometry. The outer periphery of the reinforcing layer also can have a square, hexagon or another polygonal geometry. An irregular outer edge also can be used. Suitable non-circular shapes that can be utilized are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,749,496 and 6,942,561 , incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. In certain instances wherein the bonded abrasive is in the form of a wheel or disc, the reinforcing layer can extend from the inner diameter (edge of the central opening) to the outermost edge (i.e., peripheral surface) of the bonded abrasive body. Partial reinforcing layers can be employed and in such cases, the reinforcing layer may extend, for example, from the mounting hole to at least 30% along the radius or, for non-circular shapes, along the equivalent of the largest "radius" of the bonded abrasive body. For example, a partial reinforcing layer can extend for at least 60 %, at least 70 %, at least 75 %, at least 80 %, at least 85 %, at least 90 %, at least 95%, or even at least 99% along the radius or, for non-circular shapes, along the equivalent of the largest "radius" of the body of the bonded abrasive. In another non-limiting embodiment, the partial reinforcing layer may extend for not greater than 100%, such as not greater than 99%, not greater than 97%, not greater than 95%, not greater than 90%, not greater than 85%, not greater than 80%, not greater than 70%, or even not greater than 60% along the radius or the equivalent of the largest "radius" of the bonded abrasive body. It will be appreciated thai the partial reinforcing layer can extend within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted above. For instance, the partial reinforcing layer can extend within a range of 60% to 100%, such as, within a range of 70% to 99%, or within a range of 80% to 90% along the radius or the equivalent of the largest "radius" of the bonded abrasive body

The reinforcing layer can include various materials, including a single material or more than one type of material, such as a composite material. Moreover, a bonded abrasive of the embodiments herein can use a single type of reinforcing layer or may use different types of reinforcing layers, which can employ different materials with respect to each other. Some suitable reinforcing layer materials can include woven materials or non-woven materials. In a non-limiting embodiment, the body of the bonded abrasive can be essentially free of a non- woven material. In at least one embodiment, the reinforcing layer can include a glass material, including but not limited to a fiberglass material. In yet other embodiments, the reinforcing layer can include, a fiber (e.g., Kevlar®), basalt, carbon, fabric organic materials (e.g., elastomers, rubbers), combinations of materials and so forth. An exemplary reinforcing layer can include a polymeric film (including primed films) including for example, a polyolefin film (e.g., polypropylene including biaxially oriented polypropylene), a polyester film (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate), a polyamide film, a cellulose ester film, a metal foil, a mesh, a foam (e.g., natural sponge material or polyurethane foam), a cloth (e.g., cloth made from fibers or yams comprising fiberglass, polyester, nylon, silk, cotton, poly-cotton, or rayon), a paper, a vulcanized paper, a vulcanized rubber, a vulcanized fiber, a nonwoven material, or any combination thereof, or treated versions thereof. A cloth backing can be woven or stitch bonded. In particular examples, the reinforcing layer is selected from a group consisting of paper, polymer film, cloth, cotton, poly-cotton, rayon, polyester, poly-nylon, vulcanized rubber, vulcanized fiber, fiberglass fabric, metal foil or any combination thereof. In other examples, the reinforcing layer includes a woven fiberglass fabric. In a particular example, the bonded abrasive can include one more layers of fiberglass between which a blend abrasive particles are bound in a bond material such as a polymer matrix. Using reinforcing layers also can allow for shear at the interface between the reinforcing layer and adjacent region(s) of the bonded abrasive (which contain abrasive particles distributed in a three dimensional bond material matrix). It will be appreciated that a reinforcing layer can consist essentially of any of the foregoing materials or consists essentially of two or more of the foregoing materials noted above.

In specific examples, the body of the bonded abrasive can include at least one or more fiberglass reinforcing layers, provided, for instance, in the form of fiberglass web(s). Fiberglass webs can include fiberglass woven from very fine fibers of glass. Fiberglass web can include leno or plain woven. The fiberglass utilized can include E-glass (alumino-borosilicate glass with less than 1 wt % alkali oxides). Other types of fiberglass can include, for example, A-glass (alkali-lime glass with little or no boron oxide), E-CR-glass (alumino-lime silicate with less than 1 wt % alkali oxides, with high acid resistance), C-glass (alkali-lime glass with high boron oxide content, used for example for glass staple fibers), D-glass (borosilicate glass with high dielectric constant), R-glass (aiumino silicate glass without MgO and CaO with high mechanical requirements), or S-glass (aiumino silicate glass without CaO but with high MgO content with high tensile strength).

Fiberglass webs can be arranged in the bonded abrasive such as a bonded abrasive wheel in any suitable manner. In certain implementations, placement of a glass fiber web at the working face of the wheel may be avoided. Any of the embodiments herein can be reinforced with at least one fiberglass web having a hole corresponding to the mounting hole of the wheel and the same diameter as the wheel. Partial web reinforcing layers that extend from the mounting hole through some but not the total radius of the wheel also can be used, as can be other web reinforcement placements.

The reinforcing layer can be characterized by one or more of the following physical parameters: weight (g/ m ), thickness (mm), openings per cm and tensile strength (MPa), which can be further delineated with respect to the tensi le strength of the warp (the long web components that run continuously for the length of the roll) and the tensile strength of the fill (the short components that run crosswise to the roll direction). In certain instances, one or more of the fiberglass webs employed has a minimum tensile strength of at least 200 MPa. Other factors include filament diameter, amount of coating, for instance, the coverage of the web with coating and others, as known in the art.

Chemical parameters can relate to the chemistry of the coating provided on the fiberglass web. Generally, there are two types of chemical "coatings." A first coating, referred to as "sizing," can be applied to the glass fiber strands immediately after they exit the bushing and include ingredients such as film formers, lubricants, silanes, which for example, can be dispersed in water. The sizing can provide protection of the fi laments from processing-related degradation (such as abrasion). It can also provide abrasion protection during secondary processing such as weaving into a web. Strategic manipulation of properties associated with the first coating (sizing) can affect the compatibility of the glass fibers with the second coating, which, in turn, can affect compatibility of the coating with the resin bond. The second coating can be applied to the glass web and traditionally includes wax, used primarily to prevent "blocking" of the webs during shipping and storage. In many cases, the second coating can be compatible with both the sizing (first coating) and the matrix resin for which the reinforcement is intended.

Bonded abrasives such as bonded abrasive wheel tools with or without one or more reinforcing layers can be prepared by combining abrasive particles, a bond material, e.g., an organic material (resin) or an inorganic material, and in many cases other ingredients, such as, for instance, fillers, processing aids, lubricants, crosslinking agents, antistatic agents and so forth.

The various ingredients can be added in any suitable order and blended using known techniques and equipment such as, for instance, Eirich mixers, e.g., Model RV02, Liitleford, bowl-type mixers and others. The resulting mixture can be used to form a green body. As used herein, the term "green" refers to a body which maintains its shape during the next process step, but generally does not have enough strength to maintain its shape permanently. Green may also refer to a body that is unfinished, or that there are further processes yet to be completed before transforming the green body to a finally-formed bonded abrasive. For example, a resin bond present in the green body is in an uncured or unpolymerized state. The green body preferably is molded in the shape of the desired article, including for example, a bonded abrasive wheel (cold, warm or hot molding).

One or more reinforcing layers can be incorporated in the green body. For example, a first portion of a mixture containing one or more types of abrasive particles and a bond material can be placed and distributed at the bottom of an appropriate mold cavity and then covered with a first reinforcing layer. A second portion of the bond/abrasive mixture can then be disposed and distributed over the first reinforcing layer. Additional reinforcing layers and/or bond/abrasive mixture layers can be provided, if so desired. The amounts of mix added to form a particular layer thickness can be modified as suitable for the intended purposes of the abrasive article. Other suitable sequences and/or techniques can be employed to shape the reinforced green body. For instance, a piece of paper or a fiberglass mesh or web or a piece of paper with a fiber glass mesh or web may be inserted in the mold cavity before the first mixture.

In some arrangements, the layers containing one or more types of abrasive particles and bond material (also referred herein as "abrasive layers") can differ from one another with respect to one or more characteristics such as, for instance, layer thickness, layer formulation (e.g., amounts and or types of ingredients being employed, grit size, grit shape, porosity), filler materials, bond composition, bond content, abrasive content, abrasive particle composition, porosity, pore size, porosity distribution, porosity type (i.e., closed and/or open porosity) and the like.

To form the bonded abrasive, such as a bonded abrasive wheel, a first abrasive layer, aj

(containing abrasive particles and bond material), is laid in the mold. A first reinforcing layer V 1 is disposed on the first abrasive layer ai, followed by a second abrasive layer, a 2 , which can be the same or different from the first abrasive layer, a ¾ . A second reinforcing layer, V 2 (which can be the same or different from Vi), can be disposed over the second abrasive layer, a 2 . If desired, a third abrasive layer, a 3 , that includes abrasive particles and bond material can be used to cover the second reinforcing layer, V 2 . The third abrasive layer a 3 can be the same or different with respect to one or more of the abrasive layers aj and/or a 2 . Additional reinforcing layers and abrasive layers can be added, essentially as described, to obtain the desired number of abrasive layers and reinforcing layers. In another approach, a first reinforcing layer Vi is placed at the bottom of the mold and covered by a first abrasive layer a ls with additional abrasive layers and reinforcing layers being disposed as described above. Arrangements in which adjacent abrasive layers a r , and a n+ i are not separated by a reinforcing layer also are possible, as are those in which two or more reinforcing layers, e.g., V a and V n+1 , are not separated by an abrasive layer. Labels made of paper or polymer may also be affixed to major faces of the wheel. These labels may be used to identify the wheels. They may be affixed to the wheel during the abrasive wheel formation process or applied after curing.

The individual thickness of the mix layers can be substantially the same. In certain instances, the thickness of the mix layers can be different. The difference in thickness between any two of the mix layers may be calculated by using formula [(tabl-tab2)/tabl]xl00%, wherein tab! is the greater thickness of the thicknesses of the two mix layers and tab2 is the smaller thickness with respect to tabl. For example, the difference in thickness between two abrasive layers can be at least 5% different, at least 10% different, at least 20% different, at least 25%; different, at least 30% different, or even at least 50% different. Engineered differences in the thicknesses between two abrasive layers can promote certain mechanical properties and advantages in grinding performance. In addition or alternatively to thickness variations, abrasive layers and/or reinforcing layers may differ with respect to formulation, materials employed and/or other properties.

Filler

Any of the abrasive layers of the embodiments herein may include one or more fillers, which can be contained within the bond. According to an embodiment, the filler can include powders, granules, spheres, fibers, or a combination thereof. In another embodiment, the filler can include an inorganic material, an organic material, or a combination thereof. For example, suitable fillers can include sand, silicon carbide, bubble alumina, bauxite, chromites, magnesite, dolomites, bubble mullite, borides, titanium dioxide, carbon products (e.g., carbon black, coke or graphite), wood flour, clay, talc, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, feldspar, nepheiine syenite, glass fibers, glass spheres , CaF 2 , KBF 4 , Cryolite ( Na 3 AlF 6 ), potassium cryolite ( 3 AIF 6 ), pyrites, ZnS, copper sulfide, mineral oil, fluorides, carbonates, calcium carbonate, or a combination thereof. In a further embodiment, the filler can include an antistatic agent, a metal oxide, a lubricant, a porosity inducer, a coloring agent, or a combination thereof. Examples of the lubricants can include stearic acid, glycerol monostearate, graphite, carbon, molybdenum disulfide, wax beads, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, or any combination thereof. Examples of the metal oxides can include lime, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, or any combination thereof.

Note that fillers may be functional, such as, grinding aids, lubricants, and porosity inducers. In alternative instances, the fillers can be used for functional and/or aesthetics, such as a coloring agent. According to an embodiment, the filler can be distinct from the abrasive particles. In yet another embodiment, the filler can include secondary abrasive particles.

In an embodiment, the amount of filler can be at least 1 part per weight of the entire weight of the entire composition, such as at least 2 parts, at least 3 parts, at least 4 parts, or even at least 5 parts. In another embodiment, the amount of the filler may be not greater than 30 parts, such as not greater than 28 parts, not greater than 27 parts, or event not greater than 25 parts by weight, based on the weight of the entire composition. It will be appreciated that the amount of the filler can be within a range including any of the minimum to maximum values noted above. For example, the amount of the filler can be within a range of 1 and 30 parts, such as 2 parts to 28 parts, or 5 to 25 parts by weight, based on the weight of the entire composition.

The bonded abrasive or mix layer(s) thereof, can be formed to include a particular content of bond material for the total volume of the bonded abrasive or a specific volume of an abrasive layer. For example, the body or abrasive layer within the body can have at least 20 vol%, such as a at least 30 vol% at least 40 vol%, at least 50 vol%, or even at least 60 voi% can be utilized. Still, in another embodiment, the content of bond material can be not greater than 90 vol%, such as not greater than 80 vol% or not greater than 70 vol% or not greater than 60 vol% or not greater than 50 vol% or not greater than 40 vol%. It will be appreciated that the body or layer of abrasive within the body can ha ve a content of bond material within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted above.

The bonded abrasive (or a given layer of abrasive within the body of the bonded abrasive) may contain a particular content of abrasive paiticles, such as at least 20 vol% abrasive particles for the total volume of the body or a layer of abrasive within the body, such as abrasive particles at least 35 voi% or at least 45 vol% or at least 55 vol% or at least 60 vol% or at least 65 vol%. Still, in another non-limiting embodiment, the content of abrasive particles can be not greater than 90 vol% or not greater than 80 voi% or not greater than 70 vol% or not greater than 60 vol or not greater than 50 vol or not greater than 40 voi%. It will be appreciated that the body or layer of abrasive within the body can have a content of abrasive particles within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted above.

The bonded abrasive body described herein can be fabricated to have a certain porosity. The porosity can be set to provide a particular performance of the bonded abrasive, including parameters such as hardness, strength, and initial stiffness, as well as chip clearance and swarf removal. Porosity can be uniformly or non-unifornily distributed throughout the body of the bonded abrasive and can be intrinsic porosity, obtained by the aiTangement of grains within the bond matrix, shape of the abrasive particles and/or bond precursors being utilized, pressing conditions, curing conditions and so forth, or can be generated by the use of pore inducers. Both types of porosity can be present.

The porosity can be closed and/or interconnected (open). In "closed" type of porosity, the pores are generally discrete with respect to each other and are not interconnected. In contrast, "open" porosity presents pores that are interconnected to one another creating an interconnected network of channels.

The finally-formed bonded abrasives may contain porosity of at least 0.1 vol %, such as at least 1 vol %, at least 2 vol %, at least 3 vol %, or even at least 5 vol % based on the total volume of the abrasive layers in the body of the bonded abrasive. In another non-limiting embodiment, the porosity may be not greater than 40 vol %, such as not greater than 35 vol %, not greater than 30 vol %, not greater than 25 vol %, or not greater than 20 vol %, not greater than 15 vol %, not greater than 10 vol %, or even not greater than 5 vol % for the total volume of abrasive layers within the body of the bonded abrasive. It will be appreciated that the porosity of the bonded abrasive can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted above, such as within the range of from 0 vol % to 40 vol %. For instances, the porosity of the bonded abrasives described herein (or of a mix layer thereof) can be within a range of from 0 vol % to 30 vol %, e.g., within a range between 1 vol % and 25 vol %, or between 5 vol % and 25 vol %.

Techniques that can be used to produce the bonded abrasive, including for example a bonded abrasive wheel with or without a reinforcing layer, can include, cold pressing, warm pressing, or hot pressing. In accordance with a particular- embodiment the process of forming the abrasive articles herein can include cold pressing. In cold pressing, the materials in the mold are maintained at approximately ambient temperature, such as less than 30° centigrade (C). Force can be applied to the materials in the mold. For example, the applied force can be at least 40 tons. The applied force may be not greater than 2000 tons. The applied force can be within a range of 100 tons to 2000 tons. Alternatively, pressure can be applied to the materials by suitable means, such as a hydraulic press. The pressure applied can be, for example, in the range of 4.2 kg/cm 2 (60 psi or 0.03 tsi), 8.4 kg/cm 2 (120 psi or 0.06 tsi) 70.3 kg/cm 2 (0.5 tsi) to 2109.3 kg/cm 2 (15 tsi), or in the range of 140.6 kg/cm 2 (1 tsi) to 843,6 kg/cm 2 (6 tsi). The holding time within the press can be, for example, within the range of from less than 2.5 seconds to 1 minute.

Wheels may be molded individually or large "bats" can be molded, from which individual wheels are later cored out. The various abrasive mix layers, which comprise abrasive grain, resin and fillers), fiberglass reinforcement and barrier layer material are sequentially placed into a mold cavity in the appropriate configuration. The barrier layer can serve as the outermost layers of the stack. The full stack can be pressed using forces commensurate with the pressures described above. The barrier layer can adhere to the abrasive mixture, and thus ultimately be bonded in-situ to the abrasive wheel as a result of the curing process.

It will be appreciated however that warm pressing or hot pressing may be utilized to form the abrasive articles. Warm pressing and hot pressing are similar to cold pressing operations, except that higher temperatures may be utilized during the application of pressure.

In the embodiments employing an organic bond material, the bonded abrasive can be formed by curing the organic bond material. As used herein, the term "final cure temperature" is the temperature at which the molded article is held to effect polymerization, e.g., cross-linking, of the organic bond materia], thereby forming the final composition of the bond material, although cross-linking can begin at lower temperatures. The curing temperature may be utilized during other processes, such as during the cold pressing operation. Alternatively, certain processes of the embodiments herein, can utilize a separate curing step, which can be separate from other processes such as the cold pressing operation. In such instances, the pressing operation may be first conducted, and the uncured abrasive article may be removed from the press and placed in a temperature-controlled chamber to facilitate curing. As used herein,

"cross-linking" refers to the chemical reaction(s) that take(s) place in the presence of heat and often in the presence of a cross-linking agent, such as "hexa" or hexamethylenetetramine, whereby the organic bond composition hardens. Generally, the molded article can be held at a final cure temperature for a period of time, such as between 6 hours and 48 hours, between 10 and 36 hours, or until the center of mass of the molded article reaches the cross-linking temperature and desired grinding performance (e.g., density of the cross-link).

Selection of a curing temperature depends, for instance, on factors such as the type of bonding material employed, strength, hardness, and grinding performance desired. According to certain embodiments, the curing temperature can be in the range including at least 100°C to not greater than 250° C. In more specific embodiments employing organic bonds, the curing temperature can be in the range including at least 150°C to not greater than 230° C.

Polymerization of novolac-based resins may occur a a temperature in the range of including at least 1 10° C and not greater than 225°C. Resole resins can polymerize at a temperature in a range of including at least 100° C and not greater than 225° C. Certain novolac resins suitable for the embodiments herein can polymerize at a temperature in a range including at least 110° C and not greater than 250° C. Barrier Layer

One or more barrier layers may be employed on the body of the bonded abrasive to facilitate improved performance of the abrasive tool. For example, the one or more barrier layers can be applied to particular surfaces of the body of the bonded abrasive to limit absorption of certain species (e.g., water) by the body, including for example, the bond material, which may facilitate improved performance of the abrasive tool.

According to an embodiment, the body of the bonded abrasive can be in close proximity with the barrier layer for construction of the abrasive tool disclosed herein. In particular embodiments, the barrier layer can be in direct contact with (i.e., abutting) at least one major surface including the bond material and abrasive particles of the bonded abrasive body. In an even more particular embodiment, the barrier layer can be directly bonded to at least one major surface including the bond material and abrasive particles of the bonded abrasive body, such that the barrier layer would not be separated from the bonded abrasive during operation of the abrasive tool. In a particular, non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can bond directly to the major surface of the bonded body without using an adhesive between the bonded body and the barrier layer.

In a non-limiting embodiment, a reinforcement layer can bond to a major surface of the bonded body and define an outermost surface of the bonded body, and the barrier layer can bond to the reinforcement layer. FIG. 2A includes a cross- sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool 200. The abrasive tool 200 includes the barrier layer 202 overlying the reinforcement layer 230 that is attached to a major surface of the bonded body 206. The reinforcement layer 230 can include any of the reinforcement materials disclosed herein. In a particular example, the reinforcement layer 230 can include fiberglass. More particularly, the reinforcement layer 230 can consist essentially of fiberglass. In another embodiment, the reinforcement layer can be applied to both major surfaces of the bonded body, and the barrier layer can bond to the reinforcement layer.

In another, non-limiting embodiment, an intermediate layer can be applied between the reinforcement layer and the barrier layer to facilitate formation of the abrasive tool. The intermediate layer can be bonded to the reinforcement layer on one side and to the barrier layer on the opposite side. In a particular yet non-limiting embodiment, the intermediate layer can include a nonwoven material, such as nonwoven fleece. In other embodiments, the barrier layer can be in direct contact with a major surface, a peripheral, surface, or both of the bonded body. FIG. 2B includes a cross-sectional view of a portion of an abrasive tool according to an embodiment. The abrasive tool 200 includes the barrier layer 202 overlying the body 206 of the bonded abrasive. The body 206 includes major surfaces 208 and 210, among which barrier layer 202 abuts the major surface 208. In FIG. 2C, the body 206 can be on top of the barrier layer 202, and the major surface 210 is in direct contact with the barrier layer 202. Alternatively, the abrasive tool 200 can include more than one barrier layers. Furthermore, the barrier layer can be in direct contact with one or more major surfaces of the body of the bonded abrasive. FIG. 2D includes a cross-sectional view of a portion of a body of a bonded abrasive including a barrier layer according to an embodiment. As illustrated, the body 206 of the bonded abrasive can be disposed between a first barrier layer 202 and a second barrier layer 204. For example, the barrier layer 202 can be in direct contact with the major surface 208 and the barrier layer 204 can be in direct contact with the major surface 210.

Although the baraer layers 202 and 204 are illustrated to be single layers, it will be appreciated that the barrier layers 202 and 204 can include more than one layer (i.e., films) as described in embodiments herein.

According to one embodiment, the barrier layer can overlie the entire surface area of the major surface of the body. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer may not extend over the peripheral surface that extends between the major surfaces of the body. In FIG. 3 A, the barrier layer 302 can overly the major surface 306 of the bonded abrasive body 312 withou extending over the peripheral surface of 310. In FIG. 3B, the barrier layer 302 can overlie the major surface 306 of the body 312 and extend over to at least a portion of the peripheral surface 310. Alternatively, in FIG. 3C, the barrier layer 302 can overlie the major surface 306 and extend to overlie the entire surface areas of the peripheral surface 310 of the body 312. In another non- limiting embodiment, the barrier layer bonded to the major surface 306 may include a different composition than the barrier layer bonded to the peripheral surface 310. In accordance with these embodiments, it may not be necessary for the barrier layer to be removed prior to use of the abrasive tool. For example, the barrier layer can be removed during operation of the abrasive tool, such as grinding or cutting, without interfering with the process of operation. For another instance, the barrier layer can be formed such that forces encountered during applications of the abrasive tool can be sufficient to selectively remove at least a portion of the barrier layer to expose at least a portion of the work surface of the bonded abrasive. Removal of the barrier layer may occur without affecting the abrasive capabilities of the bonded abrasive.

According to an embodiment, the barrier layer can include a single layer or include more than one layer, wherein each discrete layer may be referred to as a film. According to an embodiment, the barrier layer can include a metal -containing film. The metal-containing film can include a metal or a metal alloy. Particularly, the metal can be selected from the group consisting of aluminum, iron, tin, copper, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, nickel, zinc, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, silver, palladium cadmium, tantalum, tungsten, platinum, gold, and a combination thereof. The metal alloy can include an alloy including one or more of the metals disclosed herein. Moreover, the metal-containing film can consist essentially of any one of the metals noted above. Furthermore, the metal-containing film can consist essentially of a metal alloy made of two or more of the metals noted above- According to another embodiment, the barrier layer can include a polymer-containing film. The polymer-containing film can include a polymer. In a particular embodiment, the polymer-containing film can consist essentially of a polymer. Examples of the polymer can include a thermoplastic, a thermoset, or the like. In a particular embodiment, the polymer can be selected from the group consisting of a thermoplastic and a thermoset. Examples of a

thermoplastic can inciude poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polybenzimidazole,

polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polytetrafluoroethylene, a thermoplastic elastomer, ionomers,(e.g., ion-containing polymers and ion-containing

copolymers), or any combination thereof. Examples of a thermoset can include polyester, polyurethanes, phenol-formaldehyde resin, an epoxy resin, polyimide, or any combination thereof. In a more particular embodiment, the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyamide, polyolefin, polyester, polypropylene, polyvinyl, an epoxy, a resin, polyurethanes, a rubber, polyimide, phenolic, polybenzimidazole, aromatic polyamide, and a combination thereof. Exemplary ionomers can include an acid group that is partially or completely neutralized with a metal ion, such as zinc, cesium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, or potassium. The acid group can be an acid group of acrylic acid, carboxylic acid, methacrylic acid, sulfonic acid, and copolymers thereof. In a more particular embodiment, the polymer consists essentially of polyethylene terephthalate. According to another embodiment, the barrier layer can include a biaxially-oriented material. Exemplary biaxially-oriented material can include polyester, such as polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide, such as Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6, and polyolefin, such as polypropylene. It will be appreciated that the barrier layer can consist essentially of any of the foregoing materials or consists essentially of two or more of the foregoing materials noted above. In a particular embodiment, the barrier layer can be essentially free of epoxy. In one non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can be essentially free of paraffin. In still another non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can be essentially free of a wax.

In some instances, the barrier layer can include more than one layer, such as a

combination of the films in the embodiments herein. As shown in FIG. 4 A, the barrier layer 410 can include the polymer-containing film 402 overlying the metal-containing film 404.

Particularly, the polymer-containing film may be bonded directly to the metal -containing film, which may help to enhance structure stability of the barrier layer. The barrier layer may also include more than one metal-containing film, polymer-containing film, or a combination of multiple layers of these films. FIG. 4B to 4D include some exemplary configurations of the barrier layer 410. FIG. 4B depicts the metal-containing film 404 disposed between two polymer- containing films 402 and 406. In FIG. 4C, the polymer-containing film 402 is disposed between the polymer-containing film 406 and the metal-containing film 404, as shown in FIG. 4C. In a particular embodiment, the polymer-containing film, the metal-containing film, or both can be treated with an agent that can promote adhesion, such as silane, to improve bonding between the bonded body and the barrier layer. In another particular embodiment, the barrier layer can include one or more tie layers disposed between adjacent films. The tie layer can include a polymer, such as an adhesive, to facilitate bonding between dissimilar layers that otherwise may not adhere to each other. For instance, a tie layer can be placed between a PET film and a metal- containing layer or a polymer-containing layer. In another particular embodiment, the barrier layer can include a polymer based sealant layer to facilitate bonding between the barrier layer and the bonded body. In a particular yet non-limiting embodiment, the sealant layer can include a polyethylene based heat scalable material. In another particular yet non-limiting embodiment the sealant layer can include an ionomer. In a particular embodiment, the ionomer can include poIy(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) neutralized with an ion including zinc, cesium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, or a combination thereof. It will be appreciated that various combinations of one or more metal-containing films or polymer-containing films is within the scope of the present embodiments, and many other conf gurations of the barrier layer including one than one layer of the metal-containing films and the polymer-containing films would be possible and within the scope of the embodiments herein. For any of the films or layers that are indicated as disposed between, it will be appreciated that such layers may be in direct contact with each other. For example, in FIG. 4B, the metal-containing film 404 disposed between the polynier-contaimng films 402 and 406, and more particularly, the metal-containing film 404 is abutting and directly attached to the polymer-containing films 402 and 406.

In accordance with a particular embodiment, the barrier layer can include a polymer- containing film disposed between a plurality of metal-containing layers, including for example, two metal-containing films. The two metal-containing films may include the same metal material, such as aluminum, however this is not always necessary. The polymer can include any of the polymers noted herein, including for example, polyethylene. Particularly, the barrier layer can be a double-sided reflective aluminum with polyethylene woven reinforcement disposed between the two layers of aluminum.

In accordance with another particular embodiment, the barrier layer can include a metal- containing film and a polymer-containing film. The polymer-containing film can be placed between the bonded abrasive body and the metal-containing film. In a more particular embodiment, the polymer-containing film can be in direct contact with the metal-containing film. In another more particular embodiment, the metal-containing film can be the outermost layer of the barrier layer.

In another particular embodiment, the barrier layer can include a plurality of films. The barrier layer can include a first polymer-containing film, a second polymer-containing film, a metal-containing film, a third polymer-containing film, and a fourth polymer-containing film. The first polymer-containing film can include biaxially-oriented nylon, PET or polypropylene. The second polymer-containing film can include polyethylene. The metal-containing film can be foil. The third polymer-containing film can include polyethylene. The fourth polymer- containing film can include polyethylene, such as co-extruded polyethylene. In an even more particular embodiment, the fourth polymer-containing film can be the outermost layer of the barrier layer that is facing away from the bonded abrasive body. In another more particular body, the metal-containing film can be the outermost layer of the barrier layer. It will be appreciated that any of the foregoing films and the respective materials include films thai consist essentially of the corresponding materials as noted above. For example, the fourth polymer- containing film can consist essentially of co-extruded polyethylene.

In the embodiments employing barrier layer including the metal-containing film and the polymer-containing film, the average thickness of these films can be similar or different. In some embodiments, the average thickness of the polymer-containing film can be greater than the average thickness of the metal-containing film. In other embodiments, the average thickness of the metal-containing film may be greater than the average thickness of the polymer-containing film.

According to an embodiment, the metal-containing film can be bonded to the major surface of the body, such that the metal-containing film can be in direct contact with the major surface including the bond material and abrasive particles of the body. In such an embodiment, the metal-containing film can be disposed between the major surface of the body and another film overlying the metal-containing film (e.g., a polymer-containing film). According to another embodiment, the polymer-containing film can be bonded to the major surface of the body, such that the polymer-containing film can be in direct contact with the major surface including the bond material and abrasive particles of the body. In such an embodiment, the polymer- containing film can be disposed between the major surface of the body and another film overlying the polymer-containing film (e.g., a metal-containing film). In a particular

embodiment of the barrier layer including both metal-containing and polymer-containing films, the polymer-containing film can be directly bonded to the major surface of the body.

In a further embodiment, the barrier layer can include a film including wax. For instance, the barrier layer can include a film consisting essentially of wax. In another instance, the barrier layer can include a film including wax and a material different than wax, such as a blend of wax and a polymer. In a particular, non-limiting embodiment, a wax-containing fi m can include a blend of wax and polyethylene. In a more particular, non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can include a plurality of films including a wax-containing film that is immediately adjacent a major surface of the bonded body.

In another embodiment, the wax-containing film can be the outermost film of the barrier layer (e.g., faithest from the bonded body). In a particular, non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can include a plurality of films, and the outermost film can be the wax-containing film, and more particularly, the outermost film can consist essentially of wax.

In another embodiment, the barrier layer contacting the major surface of the bonded body can include a plurality of films (e.g., a polymer-containing film, a metal-containing film, or a combination thereof) including the wax-containing film. Particularly, the wax-containing film can be the outermost film of the barrier layer on the major surface, and more particularly, the outermost film can consist essentially of wax. In yet another embodiment, the barrier layer contacting the peripheral surface of the bonded body can include wax. In a particular, non- limiting embodiment, the barrier layer contacting the peripheral surface can consist essentially of a wax-containing film. In a more particular, still non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer contacting the peripheral surface can consist essentially of wax.

It has been noted that given the particular forming process of the embodiments herein, the barrier layer may be susceptible to damage, suc as the formation of perforations that can extend through the thickness of the barrier layer (e.g., partially through the thickness or entirely through the thickness). During the process of forming the abrasive tool, perforations may be formed in the barrier layer. In addition, perforations may be formed during routine handling and shipping. The perforations can have similar or different sizes. For example, the perforations can have various sizes of diameters. In an embodiment, the perforation diameter can be at least 2 πι, such as 8 μπι, at least 13 μηι, at least 25 μιη, at least 50 μηι, at least 75 μιη, at least 105 μπι, at least 145 μιη, at least 220 μηι, or even at least 280 μπι. In another embodiment, the perforation diameter of the perforations may not be greater than 1000 μηι, such as not greater than 950 μηι, not greater than 890 μηι, not greater than 810 μηι, not greater than 750 μτη, not greater than 680 μηι, not greater than 610 μηι, not greater than 520 μιπ, or even not greater than 420 μηι. It will be appreciated that the diameter of the perforations can be within a range including any of the minimum values and maximum values disclosed herein. For example, the can have the diameters of the perforations within a range of 2 μπι to 1000 μηι, such as within a range of 50 μηι to 890 μιη.

The perforations can have an average size, such as an average diameter. In an embodiment, the average diameter of the perforations can be at least 200 μηι, at least 240 μιη, at least 260 μπι, at least 285 μπι, or even at least 310 μιη. In another embodiment, the average diameter may be not greater than 580 μηι, such as not greater than 520 μηι, not greater than 480 μιτι, not greater than 430 μηι, or even not greater than 380 μη , It will be appreciated that the average diameter of the perforations can be within a range including any of the minimum values and maximum values noted above. For example, the perforations can have an average diameter within a range of 200 μηι to 580 μιη, such as within a range of 285 μιη to 430 μηι.

Density of perforation may be determined by counting the number of the perforations within randomly selected areas of a surface of the barrier layer that is facing away from the bonded abrasive body. At least 4 areas can be selected. Magnifiers or microscopes with backside illumination can be used to aid identifying the perforations. Perforation density can be the total number of perforations normalized by the total areas examined.

According to another embodiment, the perforation density may be not greater than not greater than 200 perforations/cm 2 , such as not greater than 18 0 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 160 perforations/cm", not greater than 140 perforations/cm , not greater than 120

perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 100 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 90 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 80 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 70 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 60 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 50 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 40 perforations/cm", not greater than 30 perforations/cm'', not greater than 20 perforation s/cm 2 , not greater than 15 perforations/cm", not greater than 10 not greater than 9 perforations/cm , not

2 ')

greater than 8 perforatio s/cm " , not greater than 7 perforations/cm " , not greater than 6 perforations/cm 2 , or not greater than 5 perforations/cm 2 , not greater than 4 perforations/cm ^ " , not

2 2

greater than 3 perforations/cm , not greater than 2 perforations/cm , not greater than 1 perforation/cm 2 . For at least one embodiment, the barrier layer can be essentially free of perforations. Still, in at least one non-limiting embodiment, some minor content of perforations can exist, such that the perforation density can be at least 0.1 perforations/cm 2 , such as at least 0.5 perforations/cm , at least 1 perforation/cm", at least 1.5 perforations/cm", at least 1.8

perforations/cm 2 , at least 2 perforations/cm 2 , at least 2.3 perforations/cm 2 , at least 2.5

perforations/cm 2 , at least 3 perforations/cm 2 , at least 3.5 perforations/cm 2 , at least 4

perforations/cm 2 , at least 4.5 perforations/cm" ^, at least 5 perforations/cm 2 , at least 5.6

perforations/cm , at least 6 perforations/cm% at least 6.5 perforation s/cm"\ at least 7.2

perforations/cm 2 , at least 8 perforations/cm 2 , at least 9 perforations/cm 2 , or even at least 10 perforations/cm 2 . It will be appreciated that the perforation density can be within a range including any of the minimum values to maximum values noted above. For example, the perforation density can be within a range of 0.1 perforations/cm to 200 perforations/cm , such as

2 ~*

within a range of 0.5 perforations/cm " to 180 perforations/cm", within a range of 1

perforations/cm 2 to 160 peiforations/cm z , within a range of 2 perforations/cm to 140

perforations/cm 2 , within a range of 5 perforations/cm" to 120 perforations/cm ^ ", or within a range of 10 perforations/cm ' " " " to 100 perforations/cm 2.

In an embodiment, the barrier layer can prevent or reduce water vapor transmission into the bonded abrasive body, compared to a conventional abrasive tool. In a non-limiting embodiment, water vapor resistance of the barrier layer can be tested by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), which can be determined using AST F1249-01 (Standard Test Method for Water Vapor Transmission Rate Through Plastic Film and Sheeting Using a

Modulated Infrared Sensor). In a non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer may have a WVTR of not greater than about 2.0 g/m -day (i.e., grams per square meter, per 24 hours), For example, the WVTR may be not greater than about 1.5 g/m 2 -day, such as not greater than about I g/ m 2 - day, not greater than about 0.1 g/m -day, not greater than about 0.015 g/m z -day, not greater than about 0.010 g/m 2 -day, not greater than about 0.005 g/m -day, not greater than about 0.001 g/m - day, or even not greater than about 0.0005 g/m " -clay. In another non-limiting embodiment, the WVTR of the barrier layer can be greater than 0 g/nT-day, such as at least 0.00001 g/ m ^ -day. It is to be appreciated the barrier layer can ave a WVTR in a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. For instance, the WVTR may be within a range including greater than 0 g/m -day and not greater than 2.0 g/m 2 -day, such as within a range including at least 0.00001 g/ m -day and not greater than 2.0 g/m 2 -day.

In certain embodiments, orientation of the films of the barrier layer may affect the density of the perforation. It may be desired to have the polymer-containing film as the outermost layer for the barrier layer, as in some instances, depending upon the polymer-containing film material, during processing the material may exhibit a self-sealing capability configured to seal some perforations formed in the barrier layer. Notably, certain polymer-containing films may exhibit flow behaviors during processing that facilitate flowing and sealing of perforations formed during processing. For example, the polymer-containing film that includes co-extruded polyethylene may be disposed as the outmost layer in some embodiments to reduce perforation density of the barrier layer can be obtained. In at least one other application, the polymer-containing film can be placed between the metal-containing film and the bonded abrasive body, which may help to reduce formation of perforation in the metal- containing film during the process of forming the abrasive tool. For instance, during curing, the material of the polymer-containing film may flow and seal at least some of the perforations formed in the metal-containing film. Additionally or alternatively, during processing, the material may facilitate flowing and sealing of perforations in the metal- containing film. The metal-containing film may be used as the outermost layer for the barrier layer.

Formation of the barrier layer can be carried out in-situ with the formation of the bonded abrasive (e.g. the abrasive wheel). Notably, the barrier layer can be selected such that it can withstand the forming process of forming the bonded abrasive. Moreover, the barrier layer may undergo some modification during the forming process, including for example, some physical or chemical changes that facilitate bonding of the barrier layer to one or more surfaces of the bonded abrasive body.

According to one particular forming process, the barrier layer can be disposed within the mold, on top of which an abrasive layer including abrasive particles contained in the bond material can be added in the manner in accordance with the embodiments herein. The abrasive layer can be in the form of the green body, mixture, various layers, or any other form described above. In certain instances, another barrier layer may be laid on top of the abrasive body. In some other embodiments, the barrier layer may be placed only adjacent to the bottom or top of the abrasive body. Moreover, a barrier layer may be placed in the mold such that it is adjacent the peripheral surface of the abrasive layer, such that the barrier layer can be formed on the peripheral surface of the bonded abrasive body.

In the embodiments of utilizing an organic bonding material to form the bond material, during curing of the organic bonding material, the barrier layer can adhere to one or more major surfaces of the body and/or a peripheral surface of the body. In a non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can be cure bonded to a major surface and/or a peripheral surface of the body. In another non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer can be melt bonded to a major surface and/or peripheral surface of the body. In some embodiments, hot pressing can be used to form the bonded abrasive and may be utilized for the barrier layer to directly bond to the major surface. The hot pressing operation can include parameters as detailed in the embodiments herein.

In an embodiment, after the barrier layer is applied to one or more major surfaces of the bonded abrasive body, the abrasive tools can be stacked with a metal separator placed between adjacent tools for curing. In another non-limiting embodiment, a spacer can be used between a tool and a metal separator to prevent the tool from adhering to the metal separator during curing. To facilitate separation of tools from metal separators, the spacer can be non-stick. In a particular embodiment, the space can be a non-stick film including silicone, Teflon, or Kapton. In another particular embodiment, the spacer can include fluoropolymer coated, such as PTFE, coated fiberglass. Use of the spacer can also improve contact between the barrier layer and the major surface of the bonded body, which can be expected to improve moisture resistance of the abrasive tool.

Certain temperature ranges may be particularly suitable to treat the barrier layer. For instance, the temperature can be at least 5Q°C, at least 100°C, or at least 150°C. In another instance, the temperature may be not greater than 250°C, not greater than 22 °C, or not greater than 200°C. The temperature can be within any of the minimum and maximum values disclosed herein. For example, the temperature can be within a simi lar range of curing the abrasive wheel.

While reference has been made in the foregoing to aspects of the barrier layer and the attachment of the barrier layer to at least a portion of the body of the bonded abrasive (e.g., a major surface), it will be appreciated that in certain instances, the barrier layer can be a temporary component. For example, according to one embodiment, the barrier layer is a temporary component configured to be applied to at least a portion of the body of the bonded abrasive for handling and shipment of the body. Temporary barrier layers are configured to be removed prior to use of the bonded abrasive. Certain prior art approaches of other barrier layers has been directed to permanent constructions that are removed during the use (e.g., grinding or cutting) of the bonded abrasive. By contrast, a temporary barrier layer is configured to be applied during or after formation of the bonded abrasive and removed by the user prior to use o the bonded abrasive article.

The temporary barrier layer can include any of the barrier layer materials and features described in embodiments herein. For example, in a non-limiting embodiment, the barrier layer overlying a portion of the body can include a wax, and in some instances, may be made entirely of wax. In at least one embodiment, the barrier layer comprises a film comprising wax. In one particular embodiment, the barrier layer comprising wax can cover the entire surface of the bonded abrasive body, such that the barrier layer consists essentially of wax and surrounds and seals the entire body of the bonded abrasive article.

For the purposes of those embodiments directed to a temporary barrier layer, it will be apprec ated that the barrier layer can overlie and be adhered directly to a y of the surfaces of the body as described in other embodiments herein. See, for example, the description of

embodiments relevant to FIGs. 2A-2C and 3A-3B.

FIG. 9A includes a cross- sectional illustration of an abrasive article 900 including a portion of a bonded abrasive body 901 and a barrier layer 902 according to an embodiment. In at least one embodiment, the barrier layer 902 can be adhered to at least a portion of the bonded abrasive body, such as at least a portion of the major surface of the body 901 in a peelable configuration. A peelable configuration is reference to the temporary manner in which the barrier layer 901 can be attached to the body 901.

For purposes herein, a peelable configuration is reference to a barrier layer that is configured to be removed from the body according to a particular peel strength. Notably, a peelable configuration can be adapted to be removed by hand, such that the barrier layer can be separated from the body of the abrasive article by hand. This can include removal of the barrier layer and an adhesive only by hand without any further external stimulus, such as the application of a temperature change, radiation, solvents or other chemicals and the like.

However, in alternative embodiments, the barrier layer may be attached in a temporary- manner, which may also be considered a peelable configuration, wherein the peelable

configuration is achieved by application of one or more external stimuli, including but not limited to a temperature change, radiation, solvent or other chemicals and the like. For such alternative embodiments wherein the external stimuli is applied, such external stimuli may be before or during the peeling operation, wherein an operator applies a suitable force by hand to separate the barrier layer from the body of the abrasive article. For example, in one particular alternative embodiment, the body of the abrasive article including the barrier layer may be subject to a temperature change, such as application of heat for a given duration. Such stimuli may affect a physical or chemical change in the barrier layer or an adhesive layer disposed between the barrier layer and the body that can facilitate a peelabie configuration. Notably, in such alternative embodiments, prior to the application of the external stimulus the barrier layer may not be in a peelabie state, such that the peel strength is too great to remove the barrier layer from the body by hand alone. However, the application of the external stimulus can facilitate a change to at least a portion of the barrier layer and/or adhesive layer, which may change (e.g., reduce) the peel strength and facilitate a peelabie configuration wherein the barrier layer can be removed from the body of the abrasive article by hand. Other non-limiting examples of external stimuli can include the application of a particular type of radiation (e.g., ultraviolet light, microwaves) to at least a portion of the barrier layer, application of a chemical compound (e.g., acid, base, solvent, etc.) to at least a portion of the barrier layer that will dissolve at least a portion of the barrier layer, application of heat to at least a portion of the barrier layer, application of an electrical signal, electrical current or electrical field, application of a magnetic field, application of one or more vibratory stimuli (e.g., ultrasonic energy), and the like.

I one embodiment, the peelabie configuration can defined by a particular- peel strength of the barrier layer 902 relative to the body 901. For example, the barrier layer 902 can be adhered to the body 901 such that the peel strength defining the adhesion of the barrier layer 902 to the body 902 can be not greater than 3000 g/in as measured according to ASTM F88 using a 180 degree testing setup. In still other instances, the peel strength can be not greater than 2900 g/in, such as not greater than 2800 g/in or not greater than 2700 g/in or not greater than 2600 g/in or not greater than 2500 g/in or not greater than 2400 g/in or not greater than 2300 g/in or not greater than 2200 g/in or not greater than 2100 g/in or not greater than 2000 g/in or not greater than 1900 g/in or not greater than 1800 g/in or not greater than 1700 g/in or not greater than 1600 g/in or not greater than 1500 g/in or not greater than 1400 g/in or not greater than 1300 g/in or not greater than 1200 g/in or not greater than 1100 g/in or not greater than 1000 g/in or not greater than 900 g/in or not greater than 800 g/in or not greater than 700 g/in or not greater than 600 g/in or not greater than 500 g/in or not greater than 400 g/in. In still another non-limiting embodiment, the peel strength can be at least 10 g/in, such as at least 20 g/in or at least 30 g/in or at least 40 g/in or at least 50 g/in or at least 60 g/in or at least 70 g/in or at least 80 g/in or at least 90 g/in or at least 100 g/in or at least 200 g/in or at least 300 g/in or at least 400 g/in or at least 500 g/in or at least 600 g/in or at least 700 g/in or at least 800 g/in or at least 900 g/in or at least 1000 g/in or at least 1100 g/in or at least 1200 g/in or at least 1300 g/in or at least 1400 g/in or at least 1500 g/in or at least 1600 g/in or at least 1700 g/in or at least 1800 g/in or at least 1900 g/in or at least 2000 g/in. It will be appreciated that the peel strength can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted above. For example, the peel strength can be within a range including at least 10 g/in and not greater than 3000 g/in, or within a range including at least 10 g/in and not greater than 2000 g/in or within a range including at least 10 g/in and not greater than 1500 g/in or within a range including at least 10 g/in and not greater than 500 g/in or even within a range including at least 10 g/in and not greater than 300 g/in. Such peel strengths have been shown to be suitable for adherence of the barrier layer for shipment and general handling, while also being suitable for peeling and removal of the barrier layer by hand and without the need for aggressive abrasive removal techni ues (e.g., grinding of the bonded abrasive during use).

As further illustrated in FIG. 9 and as disclosed in other embodiments herein, the barrier layer 901 can include one or more films of materials. As illustrated in FIG. 9, the barrier layer 902 can include a first film 903 defining the outermost surface of the barrier film, a second film 904 adjacent and underlying the first film 903, and a third film 905 adjacent to and underlying the second film 904. The third film 905 can define the innermost layer and be in direct contact with the body 901 of the bonded abrasive. In at least one embodiment, the barrier layer 902 can include a metal-containing film, which may be any one of the first film 903, second film 904, and third film 905. Still, in one particular embodiment, the second film 904 may be the metal - containing film. It will be appreciated that more or less films may be present within the barrier layer and the depiction of three films in FIG. 9 A is for illustration purposes only. The barrier layer 902 can have any of the constructions of the barrier layer materials disclosed in the embodiments herein. For example, in one embodiment, the barrier layer 902 can be made of a single layer of metal foil.

Moreover, it will be appreciated that one or more layers of materials may be disposed over the barrier layer 902. Such layers may be suitable for carrying markings or indicia to identify the product. Still, in another alternative embodiment, the barrier layer 902 may include a first film 903 defining the upper most film of the barrier layer, and such a first film 902 may be suitable to carry markings or indicia. In such instances, the first film 902 may be selected from a group of materials most suitable to contain markings or indicia. According to one embodiment, an adhesive layer may be disposed between the barrier layer 902 and the body 901. In such instances, the adhesive layer may be considered a separate layer from the barrier layer 902. Turning briefly to FIG. 9B, a cross-sectional illustration of a portion of an abrasive article is provided. The abrasive article 920 includes a bonded abrasive body 921, a barrier layer 922, and an adhesive layer 923 disposed between the barrier layer 922 and the body 921. As illustrated in FIG. 9B, and according to certain embodiments, the adhesive layer 923 can be abutting the barrier layer 922 and the body 921, and more particularly, can be directly attached to the barrier layer 922 and the body 921. The adhesive layer 923 can be used to temporarily adhere the barrier layer 922 on the body 921 with sufficient strength that the abrasive article 920 can be handled, shipped and stored. Still the still the adhesive strength of the adhesive layer 923 can be suitable for allowing the barrier layer 922 to be removed from the body 921 by hand, and thus configured to facilitate the peelable configuration of the barrier layer 922. Any of the embodiments herein may utilize at least one adhesive layer disposed between the barrier layer and the body of the abrasive article.

As will be appreciated, the embodiment of FIG. 9B depicts the adhesive layer 923 disposed between a major surface of the body 921 and the barrier layer 923. However, the adhesive layer 923 can be applied to any surface of the body 921 to facilitate suitable temporary adhesion of the barrier layer 922 to any portion of the body 921. The adhesive layer 923 may be in direct contact and adhered directly to any component of the abrasive tool, including an abrasive layer, a reinforcing layer, or any combination thereof. In a leas one embodiment, any one of the adhesive layers 923 described herein can be a double-sided adhesive, including adhesive material on both surfaces to facilitate suitable adhesion of the barrier layer 922 to the body 921.

According to one embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 can include a pressure-sensitive adhesive. The pressure-sensitive adhesive can include an adhesive that adheres to a surface under mechanical force applied to the adhesive layer 923. In one embodiment, a pressure- sensitive adhesive can include at least one composition selected from the group consisting of an acrylic, an acrylate, butyl rubber, ethylene-vinyl acetate, natural rubber, nitriles, silicone rubber, styrene block copolymer, vinyl ether, or any combination thereof, blend, and/or copolymer thereof. According to one particular embodiment, the pressure sensitive adhesive can consist essentially of an acrylic. The pressure sensitive adhesive may include on or more tackifiers, including but not limited to, resins (e.g., rosins and their derivatives, terpenes, modified terpenes, aliphatic resins, cycloaliphatic resins, aromatic resins, hydrogenated hydrocarbon resins, terpene- phenol resins, silicate resins (e.g., monofunctional trimethyl silane and/or quadrafunctional silicon tetrachloride), or any combination thereof, blend, and/or copolymer thereof.

In another embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 can include a water-based adhesive material that facilitates adherence to the barrier layer 922 and/or the body 921.

In still another embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 can include a temperature-sensitive adhesive, which can facilitate suitable bonding and de-bonding of the adhesive to the barrier layer 922 and/or body 921 by the application of a particular temperature to the adhesive layer 923. For example, in certain instances, the adhesive layer 923 may be applied to the banier layer 922 and/or the body 921 by applying a sufficient pressure to the adhesive layer 923 to adhere the adhesive layer 923 to the barrier layer 922 and/or body 921.

In yet another embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 can include an adhesive comprising a solvent- based adhesive. In still another embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 can include a polymer dispersion adhesive. For certain embodiments, it may be desirable for the adhesive layer 923 to include a non-reactive adhesive material, which does not chemically interact with the substrate to which it is adhered (e.g., the barrier layer 922 and/or body 921). For example, the non-reactive adhesive material can include melt-flowable material that forms a mechanical bond to the substrate to which it is adhere.

Still, in other instances, the adhesive layer 923 may include a reactive adhesive, which chemically interacts with the substrate to which it is adhered (e.g., the barrier layer 922 and/or body 921). In at least one embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 may include a reactive adhesive that can include a compatible surface coating relative to the surface of the bonded abrasive body 921. For example, the adhesive layer may include a silane coating that is configured to chemically react with the one or more material components on the surface of the bonded abrasive body.

In certain aspects, the adhesive layer 923 can include one or more materials selected from the group of starch, casein, a natural gum, a viscoelastic polymer, acrylate polymer, rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, silicone rubber, polybutene, polybutadine, lacquer, polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene vinylacetate, ethylene methacrylic acid, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene terephthalate, epoxy, ethylene acrylic acid, sulfonated polystyrene, polyamide, or any combination, blend, and/or copolymer thereof.

According to one embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 can include an adhesive material including an ionomer, which can be a copolymer containing an ion including a group of an acrylic acid, a methacrylic acid, a sulfonic acid, a carboxylic acid, an unneutralized metal ion, a partially neutralized metal ion, a fully neutralized metal ion or a combination thereof. Some suitable examples of metal ions may include at least one of zinc, cesium, magnesium, sodium, calcium, or any combination thereof.

In one embodiment, the adhesive layer 923 may include an adhesive material formed from a plasma treated polymer, a plasma deposited polymer, a flame-treated polymer, a corona- treated polymer, a mechanically roughened polymer, a silane treated polymer, a metallized polymer, a fluorinated polymer, a hydrolyzed polymer, a chemically- treated polymer, an etched polymer, an arc and flame-sprayed polymer, a vapor-polished polymer, a printed polymer, a coated polymer, or any combination thereof. Some suitable polymers can include fluorinated polymers (e.g., PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, polyolefins, poiyamides, polystyrene, vinyl, biaxially oriented polymers, or a combination thereof.

According to the embodiment of FIG. 9B the adhesive layer 923 is a discrete layer separate from the barrier layer 922 and the body 921. In other embodiments, the barrier layer 902 may include a plurality of films, and wherein at least one of the films is an adhesive layer comprising an adhesive material and configured to facilitate adhesion between the barrier layer 902 and the body 901. In such embodiments, the inner most layer, such as the third film 905 as illustrated in FIG. 9 A, can be an adhesive layer including an adhesive material that facilitate adhesion of the other films within the barrier layer 902 to the body 901. A barrier layer incorporating at least one film comprising an adhesive layer can have any of the properties and/or characteristics of the adhesive layers described in the embodiments herein. For instance, the barrier layer can include an adhesive layer similar to the adhesive layer 923 as an innermost film of the barrier layer, which can be peeled away from the body while attached to the rest of the barrier layer prior to use of the abrasive article.

In an embodiment, the barrier layer can include a pressure sensitive adhesive film. In a further embodiment, the pressure sensitive adhesive film can include acrylic based adhesives. In yet another embodiment, the pressure sensitive adhesive film can have a thickness of at least 40 microns, such as at least 45 microns, at least 48 microns, at least 52 microns, at least 56 microns, at least 58 microns, at least 60 microns, or at least 62 microns. In another embodiment, the pressure sensitive adhesive film may have a thickness not greater than 90 microns, such as not greater than 86 microns, not greater than 82 microns, not greater than 80 microns, not greater than 77 microns, not greater than 75 microns, not greater than 72 microns, not greater than 68 microns, not greater than 65 microns, not greater than 66 microns, not greater than 64 microns, or not greater than 61 microns. Moreover, the thickness of the pressure sensitive adhesive can have a thickness in a range including any of the minimum and maximum values disclosed herein, such as within a range including at least 40 microns to not greater than 90 microns, or within a range including at least 55 microns to not greater than 68 microns.

In another embodiment, the barrier layer 902 can include at least one film comprising a sacrificial material. In certain instances, the film comprising the sacrificial material is configured to be an impermanent material, which can have one or more characteristics that change due to one or more stimuli that facilitate debonding of the barrier layer 902 from the body 901. In certain instances, the film comprising the sacrificial material (i.e., sacrificial film) is placed within the barrier layer 902 such that upon application of the stimulus the sacrificial material undergoes a mechanical or chemical change and the remaining layers of the barrier layer 902 are separated from the body 901. In such instances, the sacrificial film may be the innermost film of the barrier layer 902 and in direct contact with the body 901.

In other instances, the sacrificial material may be located within the barrier layer 902 such that it facilitates separation of the barrier layer 902 into two or more portions. For example, the film comprising the sacrificial material may be an interior layer (e.g., the second film 904) contained within the barrier layer 902 and disposed between two or more films (e.g., the first film 903 and the third film 905) on either surface. In such instance, upon application of a stimulus, the sacrificial film can undergo a change and be configured to separate the barrier layer into two separate portions including the first film 903 and the third film 905. Such embodiments may be particular useful if the third film comprises a material that may be suitable for use on the bonded abrasive during grinding (e.g., a thermal barrier, lubricant layer, etc.).

In another embodiment, the barrier layer 902 can include a film comprising a sacrificial material configured to mechanically or chemically alter when exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Some non-limiting examples of such alterations can include dissociation of the adhesive material or a weakening sufficient to debond at least a portion of the barrier layer 902 from other portions of the barrier layer 902 or the body 901 . The electromagnetic radiation can be selected depending upon the properties of the sacrificial material. For example, in at least one embodiment, the electromagnetic radiation can be ultraviolet radiation (400 nm to 10 nm).

In another embodiment, the barrier layer 902 can include a film comprising a sacrificial material configured to mechanically or chemically alter when exposed to a reactive chemical agent. The chemical reactive agent may be a particular chemical compound or material that facilitates selective dissociation of the sacrificial material while leaving the oilier components of the abrasive tool intact. Notably, it may be particularly suitable to select a reactive chemical agent that is not reactive with the bonded abrasive body. Some non-limiting examples of suitable reactive chemical agents may include bases, acids, water, alcohol, polar materials (e.g., liquids), non-polar materials, surfactants, and the like. In certain instances, the sacrificial material may be configured to chemically react with the reactive chemical agent in a chemical reaction to form one or more reaction products.

In still another aspect, the barrier layer 902 can include a film including a sacrificial material configured to mechanically or chemically alter when exposed to a particular

temperature. For example, the sacrificial material may be a temperature-sensitive material thai is configured to undergo a physical or chemical change at a particular temperature, and such a change can be configured to facilitate separation between a portion of the barrier layer 902 and the body 901. For example, the sacrificial material may be configured to mechanically or chemically alter at a transition temperature. Notably, the sacrificial material can be configured to have a transition temperature that is not sufficient to cause significant changes to the bonded abrasive body 901. For example, the sacrificial material can have a transition temperature that is less than a melting temperature, softening temperature, or transition temperature of the bond material (or any other components) of the bonded abrasive body 901. Such a relationship between the transition temperature of the sacrificial material and the materials of the bonded abrasive body 901 can facilitate suitable removal of at least a portion of the barrier layer 902 without causing damage to the bonded abrasive body 901 prior to use.

According to one embodiment, the sacrificial material comprises a transition temperature of not greater than 300°C, such as not greater than 250°C or not greater than 200°C or not greater than 180°C or not greater than 150°C or not greater than 120°C or not greater than 100°C. Still, in another non-limiting embodiment, the sacrificial material can have a transition temperature of at least 30°C or at least 50°C or at least 80°C or at least 100°C or at least 150°C or at least 200°C or at least 250°C. It will be appreciated that the transition temperature can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum temperatures noted above.

In another aspect, the abrasive tool can include certain features associated with the barrier layer to facilitate hand removal of the barrier layer from at least a portion of the body prior to use of the bonded abrasive. For example, in one embodiment, the abrasive tool can include a tab extending from the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body. FIG. 9C includes a cross-sectional illustration of an abrasive tool including a tab in a sealed position according to an embodiment. FIG. 9D includes a cross-sectional illustration of an abrasive tool including a tab in an unsealed position according to an embodiment.

As illustrated in FIG. 9C, the abrasive tool 930 can include a body 931 and a barrier layer 932 adhered to at least a portion of the body 931 , wherein the barrier layer 932 can include a plurality of films 933, 934, and 934. As noted in other embodiments herein, the barrier layer 932 does not necessarily include a plurality of films and can be a monolithic material made of a single material. In one aspect, the barrier layer 932 can include a tab 936 that is extending from the barrier layer 932 and extending over a side surface 937 of the body. The tab 936 can be extending from body 931 and spaced apart from the surface of the body 931 to provide a user a suitable structure to grasp and initiate the removal of the barrier layer 932 from the body 931. As illustrated in FIG. 9D, the tab 936 can be moved in the direction 938, which can facilitate removal of the barrier layer 932 from the major surface 939 of the body 931. Accordingly, in the unsealed position as illustrated in FIG. 9D, the tab 936 is spaced apart from the surface 939 of the body 93 land the portion of the body 931 that was previously covered by the barrier layer 932 is exposed and ready for use in a grinding operation.

In another embodiment, a tab can be formed having a suitable shape and dimension and applied to the body separately from the barrier layer. For instance, the tab can be attached directly to the major surface of the body prior to applying the barrier layer. In a further embodiment, the tab can underlie a portion of the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to facilitate release of at least a portion of the barrier layer. In another embodiment, the tab can be attached to the body and extend over the edge of the body, such as overhanging the outside of the body, to facilitate grasp of the tab by hand. In yet another embodiment, the tab can have any shape and dimension suitable for hand grasping. For instance, the tab can have a rectangular, square, semicircular, or an irregular shape.

Other variations of a tab are contemplated and part of the embodiments herein. For example, the tab 936 may only be formed from a portion of the films making up the barrier layer

932. In one embodiment, wherein the barrier layer 932 includes a plurality of films (e.g., films

933, 934 and 935), the tab 936 may be formed from a portion of the films, including for example, only the film 935, or only the film 933. In certain instances, it may be suitable to make the tab 936 from the innermost film that is closest to the body 931 to ensure that the barrier layer can be properly removed.

In at least one embodiment, the tab 936 can be made of the same material as the barrier layer 932. More particularly, the tab 936 can include the same material as at least one component material of the barrier layer 932, such as one of the films of the barrier layer 932.

Still, in another embodiment, the tab 936 may be made of a different material from the material of the barrier layer 932. More particularly, the tab 936 may be made of a different material compared to at least one component material (e.g., a material of one of the films) of the barrier layer 932.

FIG. 9E includes a cross-sectional illustration of an abrasive tool including a tab in a sealed position according to an embodiment. As illustrated in FIG. 9E, the abrasive tool 940 can include a body 941 and a barrier layer 942 adhered to at least a portion of the body 941. The abrasive tool 940 can further include a tab 943 extending from a portion of the barrier layer 942 over the body 941 that may facilitate grasping by a user and removal of the barrier layer 942. In particular instances as illustrated in FIG. 9E, the barrier layer 942 can have a thickness 944 and the tab 943 can have a thickness 945. Notably, in one embodiment, the thickness 945 of the tab 943 can be less than the thickness of the barrier layer 944. Reference herein to the thicknesses can be reference to an average thickness of such components.

FIG. 9F includes a cross-sectional illustration of an abrasive tool including a tab in a sealed position according to an embodiment. As illustrated in FIG. 9F, the abrasive tool 950 can include a body 951 and a barrier layer 952 adhered to at least a portion of the body 951. The abrasive tool 950 can further include a tab 953 extending from a portion of the barrier layer 952 over the body 951 that may facilitate grasping by a user and removal of the barrier layer 952 from the body 951. In particular- instances as illustrated in FIG. 9F, the barrier layer 952 can have a portion 954 including perforations 955. The portion 954 may be a film or discrete layer within the barrier layer 952, but does not necessarily need to be in the form of a film or layer. The perforations 955 can extend partially through the thickness of the barrier layer 952 and facilitate controlled tearing of the barrier layer 952, which may facilitate removal of the barrier layer 952 from the body 951.

FIG. 9G includes a cross- sectional i llustration of an abrasi ve tool including a tab in a sealed position according to an embodiment. As illustrated in FIG. 9G, the abrasive tool 960 can include a body 961 and a barrier layer 962 adhered to at least a portion of the body 961. The abrasive tool 960 can further include a tab 963. At least a portion of the tab 936 can be disposed between the barrier layer 962 and the body 961, such that upon movement of the tab 963 from the sealed position (as illustrate) to an unsealed position (not shown) at least a portion of the barrier layer 962 is removed and/or torn. For example, the tab 963 may be a wire or string or other elongated body that can be configured to be pulled from a sealed position to an unsealed position, which will tear a portion of the barrier layer 962 and facilitate removal of the barrier layer 962 from the body 961.

In some applications, the barrier layers applied to the major surfaces can extend over the edge of the body and adhere to the other barrier layer through the inner most adhesive films of the barrier layer such that the entire body can be sealed within the barrier layer. At least one tab can be placed between and extend out of the sealed rim of the barrier layers to facilitate removal of the barrier layers by hand.

Any aspects and features of the foregoing embodiments may be combined with any other features of other embodiments herein, such that various combinations of features from different illustrations and/or embodiments may be utilized.

In another embodiment, the abrasive tool can include a coating layer overlying the barrier layer. FIG. 10 includes a cross-sectional illustration of an abrasive tool including a barrier layer and a coating layer according to an embodiment. As illustrated in FIG. 10, the abrasive tool 1000 can include a body 1001 and a barrier layer 1002 adhered to at least a portion of the body 1001, and a coating layer 1003overlying the barrier layer 1002. In at least one embodiment, the coating layer 1003 can include a material selected from the group consisting of inorganic materials, organic materials, naturally occurring materials, synthetic materials, metals, metal alloys, oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosets, resins, or any combination thereof. In another aspect, the coating layer 1003 can be bonded directly to the barrier layer 1002. In at least one embodiment, the coating layer 1003 can include wax, and more particularly, the coating layer 1003 can consist essentially of wax.

The coating layer 1003 may provide additional support to the abrasive tool and protection while handling and shipping. The coating layer 1003 may be removed with the barrier layer 1003 using any of the techniques described in the embodiments herein.

It will be appreciated that any of the methods for forming an abrasive article disclosed in other embodiments herein are suitable for forming an abrasive tool including a temporary barrier layer that is configured to be removed before use of the bonded abrasive. According to one particular embodiment, a suitable method for making the abrasive article includes applying a barrier layer to at least a portion of a body of a bonded abrasive after the bonded abrasive body is formed. Depending upon the features of the barrier layer, various suitable application processes may be utilized, including but not limited to curing, heating, cooling, reacting, pressing, use of static attraction, adhering, depositing, or any combination thereof.

Moreover, a certain method of using such an abrasive tool can include obtaining a bonded abrasive having a body including abrasive particles contained within a bond material, wherein the body further includes a barrier layer overlying at least a portion of a body and removing at least a portion of the barrier layer prior to use of the body during a grinding operation. One suitable process for removal of the barrier layer can include peeling of the barrier layer, wherein the barrier layer is attached to the portion of the body at a peel strength of not greater than 3000 g/in. In another aspect, the process of removing the barrier layer can include moving a tab extending from the barrier layer from a sealed position to an unsealed position to remove at least a portion of the barrier layer from the body. Removing of the barrier layer can be conducted by hand, such that removal by grinding or other abrasive techniques is not necessary. Other suitable removal processes can include applying a chemical reactant to the barrier layer, applying electromagnetic radiation to the barrier layer, applying heat to the barrier layer, initiating a tear- of the barrier layer along a perforated portion, applying a localized reduction in pressure to at least a portion of the barrier layer, or any combination of the foregoing.

Embodiments disclosed herein represent a departure from state of the art abrasive articles. The barrier layer in accordance with the embodiments herein may be substantially impermeable, such as entirely impermeable, to moisture. Utilizing the barrier layers to reduce moisture absorption of the bonded abrasive may improve the performance of the abrasive tool over time and mitigate aging.

Many different aspects and embodiments are possible. Some of those aspects and embodiments are described herein. After reading this specification, skilled artisans will appreciate that those aspects and embodiments are only illustrative and do not limit the scope of the present invention. Embodiments may be in accordance with any one or more of the items as listed below.

Embodiment 1. An abrasive tool comprising:

a bonded abrasive including a body comprising abrasive particles contained within a bond material; and

a barrier layer overlying a portion of the body and adhered to the major surface in a peelable configuration having a peel strength of not greater than 3000 g/in.

Embodiment 2. An abrasive tool comprising:

a bonded abrasive including a body comprising abrasive particles contained within a bond material; and

a barrier layer overlying a portion of the body and configured for removal by hand prior to use.

Embodiment 3. An abrasive tool comprising:

a bonded abrasive including a body comprising abrasive particles contained within a bond material;

a barrier layer bonded to a portion of the body; and

a tab extending from the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body.

Embodiment 4. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 2 and 3, wherein the barrier layer is adhered to the major surface in a peelable configuration having a peel strength of not greater than 3000 g/in.

Embodimen 5. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1 and 4, wherein the peel strength is not greater than 2900 g/in or not greater than 2800 g/in or not greater than 2700 g/in or not greater than 2600 g/in or not greater than 2500 g/in or not greater than 2400 g/in or not greater than 2300 g/in or not greater than 2200 g/in or not greater than 2100 g/in or not greater than 2000 g/in or not greater than 1900 g/in or not greater than 1800 g/in or not greater than 1700 g/in or not greater than 1600 g/in or not greater than 1500 g/in or not greater than 1400 g/in or not greater than 1300 g/in or not greater than 1200 g/in or not greater than 1100 g/in or not greater than 1000 g/in or not greater than 900 g/in or not greater than 800 g/in or not greater than 700 g/in or not greater than 600 g/in or not greater than 500 g/in or not greater than 400 g/in.

Embodiment 6. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1 and 4, wherein the peel strength is at least 10 g/in or at least 20 g/in or at least 30 g/in or at least 40 g/in or at least 50 g/in or at least 60 g/in or at least 70 g/in or at least 80 g/in or at least 90 g/in or at least 100 g/in or at least 200 g/in or at least 300 g/in or at least 400 g/in or at least 500 g/in or at least 600 g/in or at least 700 g/in or at least 800 g/in or at least 900 g/in or at least 1000 g/in or at least 1100 g/in or at least 1200 g/in or at least 1300 g/in or at least 1400 g/in or at least 1500 g/in or at least 1600 g/in or at least 1700 g/in or at least 1800 g/in or at least 1900 g/in or at least 2000 g/in.

Embodiment 7. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1, 2, and 3, further comprising an adhesive layer disposed between the major surface and the barrier layer.

Embodiment 8. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises a pre s sure- sensitive adhe si ve .

Embodiment 9. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises a water-based adhesive.

Embodiment 10. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises a temperature-sensitive adhesive.

Embodiment 11. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises a solvent-based adhesive.

Embodiment 12. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises a polymer dispersion adhesive.

Embodiment 13. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive is a non- reactive adhesive.

Embodiment 14. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive is a reactive adhesive.

Embodiment 15. The abrasive tool of embodiment 14, wherein the adhesive comprises a compatible surface coating relative to the portion of the body. Embodiment 16. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises starch, casein, a natural gum, or any combination thereof.

Embodiment 17. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises at least one material selected from the group consisting of viscoelastic polymers, acrylate polymer, rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, silicone rubber, polybutene, polybutadine, lacquer,

polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene vinylacetate, ethylene rnelhacrylic acid, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene tereph thai ate, epoxy, ethylene acrylic acid, sulfonated polystyrene, polyamide, or any combination , blends, and copolymers thereof.

Embodiment 18. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive comprises an ionomer including acrylic acid, methacrvlic acid, sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, unneutralized metal ions, partially neutralized metal ions, fully neutralized metal ions.

Embodiment 19. The abrasive tool of embodiment 18, wherein the metal ions include at least one of zinc, cesium, magnesium, sodium, calcium, or any combination thereof.

Embodiment 20. The abrasive tool of embodiment 7, wherein the adhesive material comprises at least one of a plasma treated polymer, a plasma deposited polymer, a flame-treated polymer, a corona-treated polymer, a mechanically roughened polymer, a silane treated polymer, a metallized polymer, a fiuorinated polymer, a hydrolyzed polymer, a chemically-treated polymer, an etched polymer, an arc and flame-sprayed polymer, a vapor-polished polymer, a printed polymer, a coated polymer, or any combination thereof.

Embodimen 21. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1 , 2, and 3, wherein the barrier layer comprises at least one film comprising a sacrificial material configured to dissociate or volatilize and separate the barrier layer from the portion of the body.

Embodiment 22. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1, 2, and 3, wherein the barrier layer comprises at least one film comprising a sacrificial material configured to mechanically or chemically alter and separate the barrier layer into two portions.

Embodiment 23. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 21 and 22, wherein the sacrificial material comprises a transition temperature of not greater than 300°C or not greater than 250°C or not greater than 200°C or not greater than 180°C or not greater than 150°C or not greater than 120°C or not greater than 100°C. Embodiment 24. The abrasive tool of embodiment 23, wherein the sacrificial material comprises a transition temperature of at least 30°C or at least 50°C or at least 80°C or at least 100°C or at least 150°C or at least 200 C C or at least 250°C.

Embodiment 25. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 21 and 22, wherein the sacrificial material comprises a material configured to mechanically or chemically change when exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

Embodiment 26. The abrasive tool of embodiment 25, wherein the electromagnetic radiation comprises ultraviolet radiation.

Embodiment 27. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 21 and 22, wherein the sacrificial material comprises a material configured to mechanically or chemically change when exposed to a reactive chemical agent.

Embodiment 28. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 21 and 22, wherein the sacrificial material comprises a material configured to mechanically or chemically change when exposed to a particular temperature.

Embodiment 29. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1, 2, and 3, wherein the barrier layer comprises wax.

Embodiment 30. The abrasive tool of embodiment 29, wherein the barrier layer consists essentially of wax and surrounds and seals the entire body of the bonded abrasive article.

Embodiment 31. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1, 2, and 3, further comprising a coating layer overlying the barrier layer, wherein the coating layer comprises a material selected from the group consisting of inorganic materials, organic materials, naturally occurring materials, synthetic materials, metals, metal alloys, oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosets, resins, or any combination thereof.

Embodiment 32. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1, 2, and 3, wherein the coating layer is bonded directly to the barrier layer.

Embodiment 33. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1 and 3, wherein the barrier layer is configured to be removed by hand.

Embodiment 34. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, further comprising a tab extending from the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body. Embodiment 35. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 3 and 34, wherein the tab comprises a string or wire disposed between the barrier layer and portion of the body.

Embodiment 36. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 3 and 34, wherein the tab is underlying a portion of the barrier layer in the sealed position.

Embodiment 37. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 3 and 34, wherein the tab is made of the same material as the barrier layer.

Embodiment 38. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 3 and 34, wherein the tab is made of the same material as at least one component material of the barrier layer.

Embodiment 39. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 3 and 34, wherein the tab is made of a different material compared to at least one component material of the banier layer.

Embodimen 40. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 3 and 34, wherein in the open position the tab is spaced apart from the portion of the body and the portion of the body is exposed.

Embodiment 41. The abrasive tool of any one of embodiments 1, 2, and 3, wherein a portion of the barrier layer is perforated.

Embodiment 42. The abrasive tool of embodiment 41, further comprising a tab extending from the perforated portion of the barrier layer.

Embodiment 43. A method for making an abrasive tool comprising:

applying a barrier layer to at least a portion of a body of a bonded abrasive, wherein the body comprises abrasive particles contained within a bond material, wherein the barrier layer is a temporary barrier layer having at least one or a combination of the following features:

a peel strength of not greater than 3000 g/in;

configured for removal by hand prior to use of the boned abrasive;

a tab extending from the barrier layer in a sealed position and configured to be moved from the sealed position to an unsealed position and release at least a portion of the barrier layer from the portion of the body.

Embodiment 44. A method for using an abrasive tool comprising:

obtaining a bonded abrasive having a body including abrasive particles contained within a bond material, wherein the body further includes a barrier layer overlying at least a portion of a body; removing at least a portion of the barrier layer prior to use of the body during a grinding operation.

Embodiment 45. The method of embodiment 44, wherein removing comprises at least one of the following:

moving a tab extending from the barrier layer from a sealed position to an unsealed position;

peeling the barrier layer from the body, wherein the barrier layer is attached to the portion of the body at a peel strength of not greater than 3000 g/in;

removing the barrier layer by hand;

applying a chemical reactant to the barrier layer;

applying electromagnetic radiation to the barrier layer;

applying heat to the barrier layer:

initiating a tear of the barrier layer along a perforated portion;

applying localized reduced pressure to a portion of the barrier layer;

or any combination of the foregoing.

Embodiment 46. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer comprises a polymer-containing film overlying the metal-containing film.

Embodiment 47. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer comprises a polymer-containing film bonded directly to the metal- containing film.

Embodiment 48. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer comprises a polymer-containing film consisting essentially of a polymer.

Embodiment 49. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of a thermoplastic and a thermoset.

Embodiment 50. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyamides, polyesters, polyethlyenes, polypropylene, polyvinyls, epoxies, resins, polyurethanes, rubbers, polyimides, phenolics, polybenzimidazole, aromatic polyamide, and a combination thereof. Embodiment 51. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer comprises a biaxially-oriented material.

Embodiment 52. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer compri ses a polymer including a biaxially-oriented material.

Embodiment 53. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the polymer comprises polyethylene terephthalate or wherein the polymer consists essentially of polyethylene terephthalate.

Embodiment 54. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer compri ses a polymer-containing film and wherein the polymer- containing film comprises an average thickness greater than an average thickness of the metal- containing film.

Embodiment 55. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer compri ses a polymer-containing film and wherein the polymer- containing film comprises an average thickness less than an average thickness of the metal - containing film.

Embodiment 56. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer comprises a polymer-containing film and wherein the polymer- containing film is bonded directly to the major surface of the body.

Embodiment 57. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the body comprises a first major surface and a second major surface opposite the first major surface, and a peripheral surface extending between the first major surface and the second major surface, and wherein the barrier layer is bonded directly to the first major surface and second major surface.

Embodiment 58. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer overlies at least a portion of the peripheral surface.

Embodiment 59. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer overlies the entire surface area of the first major surface and the second major surface.

Embodiment 60. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the metal- containing film is in direct contact with the major surface of the body. Embodiment 61. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the metal-containing film comprises a metal or metal alloy.

Embodiment 62. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the barrier layer consists essentially of the metal-containing film, wherein the barrier layer consists essentially of a single layer of the metal-containing film.

Embodimen 63. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the metal-containing film comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, iron, tin, copper, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, nickel, zinc, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, silver, palladium cadmium, tantalum, tungsten, platinum, gold, and a combination thereof.

Embodimen 64. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the abrasive particles include a material selected from the group consisting of oxides, nitrides, carbides, carbon-based materials, borides, oxynitrides, oxyearhides, oxyborides, naturally occurring minerals, and a combination thereof, and wherein the abrasive particles comprise shaped abrasive particles, wherein the abrasive particles comprise alumina.

Embodiment 65. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the body comprises a filler contained within the bond, wherein the filler is selected from the group consisting of powders, granules, spheres, fibers, and a combination thereof, wherein the filler is selected from the group consisting of an inorganic material, an organic material, and a combination thereof, wherein the filler is selected from the group consisting of sand, bubble alumina, bauxite, chromites, magnesite, dolomites, bubble mullite, borides, titanium dioxide, carbon products (e.g., carbon black, coke or graphite), wood flour, clay, talc, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, feldspar, nepheline syenite, glass spheres, glass fibers, CaF2, KBF4, Cryolite (Na3AlF6), potassium Cryolite (K3A1F6) , pyrites, ZnS, copper sulfide, mineral oil, fluorides, carbonates, calcium carbonate, and a combination thereof, wherein the filler is selected from the group consisting of an antistatic agent, a metal oxide, a lubricant, a porosity inducer, coloring agent, and a combination thereof, wherein the filler is distinct from the abrasive particles.

Embodimen 66. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the body comprises at least one reinforcing layer extending radially through at least a portion of the body, wherein the at least one reinforcing layer comprises a material selected from the group consisting of a fabric, a fiber, a film, a woven material, a non-woven material, a glass, a fiberglass, a ceramic, a polymer, a resin, a polymer, a fluorinated polymer, an epoxy resin, a polyester resin, a polyurethane, a polyester, a rubber, a polyimide, a polybenzimidazole, an aromatic polyamide, a modified phenolic resin, and a combination thereof.

Embodiment 67. The abrasive tool or method of any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the body comprises a diameter (D) extending radially across the body and a thickness (t) extending axiaily across the body, wherein the body comprises a ratio of diameter: thickness of at least about 10: 1 or at least about 20: 1 or at least about 50: 1, or at least about 100: 1.

Example 1

A conventional abrasive bonded abrasive wheel A and abrasive wheels representative of the embodiments herein with different barrier layers (wheels B to F) were tested to determine the effect of moisture on the performance. Wheels A to F were formed by the method of cold pressing including application of a pressure within a range of 90-120 bar at approximately room temperature. Then, all wheels were stacked and cured in an oven at approximately 200 °C. Wheel A was made without a barrier layer. Wheels B to F were Type 41 wheels having a structure of barrier layer / fiberglass reinforcement / abrasive mix / fiberglass reinforcement / barrier layer. The abrasive mix contained 40 voi% 46 grit ceramic-coated brown fused alumina, 34.5 vol% resin (resole and novolac), 5.75 vol% each of potassium aluminum fluoride and potassium sulfate and 14 vol% porosity for the total volume of the body of the abrasive mix. The barrier layers of wheels B to F included different combinations of the polymer-containing films and metal- containing films described in embodiments herein. The orientation of the films for each barrier layer is provided herein in the order from the outermost layer to the innermost layer (e.g., in contact with the fiberglass layer or closest to the abrasive article). The barrier layer of wheel B included a biaxially-oriented nylon film, a polyethylene film, a foil, another polyethylene film, and a film of co-extruded polyethylene. The barrier layer of wheel C included an oriented polypropylene film, a polyethylene film, a foil, and another polyethylene film.

Wheel D included a barrier layer including polyethylene woven reinforcement disposed between the aluminum films such that the aluminum films are the innermost and outermost films. The barrier layer of wheel E included aluminum foil. The barrier layer of wheel F included a low density polyethylene film. Further Information of the barrier layers of wheels B to F are provided in Table 1 below. Table 1

All the abrasive wheels were 125x1.6x22.3 mm and exposed to the same aging conditions of 90% relative humidity for at least 5 days. The abrasive wheels A, B, and D were exposed to the aging condition for 33 days, and the abrasive wheels C, E, and F were exposed for 20 days. Moisture uptake of each wheel was measured on certain days by determining the weight difference between a wheel prior to exposure and after and comparing the weight difference to the weight prior to exposure. The results are illustrated in FIG. 5. At day 5, moisture uptake in the conventional abrasive wheel A was measured to be 0.75% by weight, while wheels B to F only had approximately 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.40%, and 0.50% of moisture uptake, respectively. At day 10, moisture uptake of the conventional wheel A increased to greater than approximately 0.90%, and reached approximately 1.00% at day 20. Wheels B to F had approximately 0.10%, 0.30%, 0.40%, 0.50%, and 0.70% of moisture uptake, respectively, at day 10, and approximately 0.20%, 0.55%, 0.55%, -0.70%, and 0.80%, respectively at day 20. At day 33, wheel A had 1.10% of moisture uptake, but wheel B and D only had approximately 0.25% and 0.65% of moisture uptake, respectively.

Wheel aging and performance degradation was observed in association with moisture uptake. Dry and aged wheels A and D were subjected to G-ratio tests. Dry wheels were kept at 125 °C at least overnight. Percent reduction in G-ratio was measured by determining the difference between the average G-ratios of dry wheels and aged wheels, and dividing the difference against the average G-ratio of the dry wheels. As illustrated in FIG. 6, wheel A had a G-ratio decrease of 39%' after the aging test compared to before the aging test, while G-ratio of wheel D only dropped 25%; after the aging test compared to before the aging test. Thus wheel D and its particular barrier layer demonstrated a 14% higher retention in G-ratio compared to the standard wheel (wheel A ) with no barrier layer.

Example 2

Wheels G and H were formed in accordance with the embodiments herein. The barrier layers of wheels G and H both included a film of biaxially-oriented nylon, a polyethylene film, a film of foil, another polyethylene film, and a film of co-extruded polyethylene. In wheel G, the biaxially-oriented nylon was the outermost layer (facing away from the bonded abrasive body) of the barrier layer, while in wheel H, the film of co-extruded polyethylene, covered with an additional black paper were the outermost layers. Wheels G and H were exposed to the same aging conditions of 90% relative humidity for 7 days. As shown in FIG. 7 and Table 2 below, orientation of the films of the barrier layer had an impact on moisture uptake of the wheels. FIG. 8 includes a plot of G-ratio tests of wheels G and H conducted before and after the aging test. The G-ratio of aged wheel G decreased 27% compared to that before the aging test. The G -ratio of aged wheel H decreased 50% compared to that before the aging test. Therefore, as indicated by the data, the orientation of the barrier layer as well as the type of material can have an effect on limiting the ageing of the wheels.

Table 2

Example 3

A conventional bonded abrasive wheel 3A and abrasive wheels representative of the embodiments herein with different barrier layers (wheels 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 3F, 3G, and 3H) were tested to determine the effect of compositions of the barrier layer on moisture uptake into the bonded abrasive wheel. All the wheels were formed by the method of cold pressing utilizing a cold pressing machine (e.g., 350 Ton Press manufactured by Poggi Pasquaiino) and the pressure in the press was kept within a range of 90-120 bar (corresponding to 9 MPa to 12 MPa) at approximately room temperature. Then, the barrier layers were placed around the wheels to make the wheel samples noted in Table 3, No barrier layer was applied to wheel 3 A, The wheels were then cured in an oven at approximately 200 °C. Ten perforations were formed in the barrier layer of each side of wheel 3F by puncturing the aluminum film with a pin. The compositions and thickness of the barrier layers are included in Table 3. All the abrasive wheels were 125x1.6x22.3 mm and exposed to aging conditions as indicated in Table 3 for 7 days. Moisture uptake was determined as disclosed in Example 1.

Table 3

nylon film, polyethylene (PE) film, foil, PE film, and heavy duty coextruded polyethylene film with the biaxially orientated Nylon film as the outermost layer. The barrier layer of 3B had reduced moisture uptake, 0.09% as compared to 0.83% of the conventional sample, 3A. The barrier layer of wheel 3C included a biaxially- orientated nylon film, PE film, cross -laminated PE film, PE film. Foil, and heavy duty coextruded polyethylene with the biaxially orientated nylon film as the outermost layer. Wheel 3C had similarly low moisture uptake as 3B. The barrier layer of wheel 3D included a double sided reflective aluminum film, polyethylene woven reinforcement and a second double sided reflective aluminum film. Wheel 3D demonstrated reduced moisture uptake as compared to wheel 3A (0.14%; vs. 0.83%). The barrier layer of 3E included an aluminum film without pinholes, and wheel 3E had a moisture uptake of 0.24%. The aluminum film on each side of the abrasive body of wheel 3F had 10 pinholes, and the 3F wheel had moisture uptake of 0.3%. Wheel 3G had the barrier layer of a silane treated black PTFE film and moisture uptake of 0.17%. Wheel 3H had the barrier layer of a silane treated clear PTFE film and moisture uptake of 0.45%.

Example 4

Representative bonded abrasive wheels, 4A to 4C, were prepared and formed in the same manner as Example 3. Moisture uptake and G -ratio of the wheels were tested. The barrier layer of wheel 4A included a metalized PET film, a first tie layer, a second tie layer, and a

polyethylene based heat scalable layer. The barrier layer of wheel 4B included a polyester film, a first tie film, a foil film, a second tie film, and a polyethylene based heat scalable film. The barrier layer of wheel 4C included a PVDC coated polyester film attached to a polyethylene based heat scalable layer by an adhesive. The barrier layers were applied to the corresponding wheels with the polyethylene based heat scalable layer towards the major surfaces of the wheels after the wheels were molded and prior to curing as in Example 3.

Moisture uptake into the wheels were determined in the same manner as disclosed in Example 1 , after the wheels were exposed to 90% relative humidity at 20 °C for 7 days. In addition, a set of wheels 4A to 4C were aged in the conditions used for moisture uptake test, and another set was kept dry. Both sets were tested in manual grinding with a portable grinder on carbon steel to determine G -ratio changes of the wheels after aging. Results of moisture uptake and reduction in G-ratio of aged wheels are included in Table 4. Reduction in G-ratio was measured in the same manner as disclosed in Example 1. Compared to the other wheels, wheel 4B demonstrated remarkable results. Table 4

Example 5

Additional representative bonded abrasive wheels, 5 A, 5B, and 5C, were formed in a similar manner to that disclosed in Example 3, except that the barrier layers were formed in- situ by applying the barrier layers directly during formation of the wheels. After forming, the 5A and 5B wheels were stacked, respectively, and cured. 5C wheels were stacked with a PTFE coated fiberglass spacer applied between wheels and metal separator plates and cured. PTFE coated fiberglass were used to prevent wheels from adhering to the metal separator plates during curing. The barrier layer composition was the same for each sample, including a PET film, a first tie film, a foil film, a second tie film, and a polyethylene based heat scalable film. The polyethylene based heat scalable layer was the innermost layer (e.g., immediately adjacent the bonded abrasive body). Wheels 5A and 5C had a single barrier layer on each major surface of the wheels, while wheel 5B had two barrier layers on each major surface, with each barrier layer having the composition and orientation as disclosed herein. Moisture uptake and certain performance characteristics of the wheels are measured.

Example 6

Representative wheels 6A and 6B were formed in the same manner as wheels 5A and 5B disclosed in Example 5. A conventional wheel STD was formed in the similar manner without application of any barrier layer. 6A had a single barrier layer on each major surface of the wheel, which included a PET film, a first tie film, a foil film, a second tie film, and a

polyethylene based heat scalable film. The polyethylene based heat scalable film was the innermost layer (e.g., immediately adjacent the bonded abrasive body). 6B had the same barrier layer composition and orientation as wheel 5A. Moisture uptake and performance characteristics of the wheels are measured. Example 7

Additional representative wheels are formed including barrier layers having the compositions and orientations disclosed in Table 7, A set of wheels 7 A to 7P are formed in the same manner as disclosed in Example 3. Another set is formed in the same manner as wheels 5 A and 5B disclosed in Example 5. The wheels are aged, and moisture uptake and G-ratio reduction is measured as disclosed in Example 4.

Table 7

an additional coating. A first set of the wheels are dipped into wax or painted such that a wax top layer is formed on full wheels including the top of the barrier layers and the edges surface of the wheel body. A second set is dipped into wax in a manner such that wax is only applied to wheel edges that are not covered by the barrier layers to form an edge coating. The wheels are aged, and moisture uptake and G-ratio reduction is measured as disclosed in Example 4. Example 9

Wheels without barrier layers are formed and cured. Barrier layers having the compositions of 7C and 7D in Example 7 are formed and applied to the wheels in different manners. Barrier layers are applied to the major surfaces of some wheels by hot pressing or using an adhesive. Alternatively, barrier layers are placed over the major surfaces of wheels, and heat is applied at a temperature higher than the seal temperature of the heat scalable film to bond the barrier layers to the major surfaces of the wheels. Moisture uptake and wheel performance is tested on wheels with barrier layers as disclosed in Example 4.

Example 10

A set of wheels 7A to 7P in Example 7 are formed in a similar ex- situ manner as disclosed in Example 3, except that after the barrier layers are disposed in place, the wheels are stacked with a non-stick film placed between adjacent wheels and cured. Use of non-stick films is expected to improve contact between the barrier layer and wheel surface. Non-stick films including silicone, Teflon, or Kapton are used. Moisture uptake and certain wheel performance characteristics are tested on wheels with barrier layers.

Example 1 1

Ultra thin abrasive wheels having a thickness of about 1.6 mm and a diameter of about 127 ram were obtained from Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc., and dried at 125°C overnight. Barrier layers were applied to some of the wheels, which are referred to as Samples 11 A in this disclosure. Wheels without barrier layers are referred to as Samples 1 IB. Each barrier layer included a pressure sensitive adhesive film directly attached to an aluminum foil and was applied such that the pressure sensitive adhesive film adhered to the major surfaces of samples 11 A. The pressure se sitive adhesive film included acrylic based adhesives and had a thickness of about 2.4 mils. The aluminum foil had a thickness of 2 mils. Each barrier layer had a diameter of about 125 mm. A peel tab made of the barrier layer having a dimension of 1 3/4" x 1/2" was attached to each major surface of the wheels before the barrier layers were applied. Each tab overhung the outside of the wheel by 1/2". The barrier layers were applied on top of the peel tabs using hand pressure and hand smoothed to produce good contact with the wheel surfaces.

All of wheels were aged for 13 days at 90% humidity at 20 C and moisture uptake of each wheel was measured as disclosed in Example 4. As disclosed in Table 8, moisture uptake of samples 11A was 50% less compared to samples 11B. Performance of aged wheels is tested. The barrier layers are peeled away prior to performance tests.

Table 8

Certain attempts have been made to reduce the effects of ageing, including placing bonded abrasive articles in bags or coating the surfaces of the bonded abrasives with wax or resinous materials to seal the surfaces. However, the embodiments herein represent a departure from these techniques, and in particular, the embodiments herein facilitate efficient and large- scale manufacturing of bonded abrasive articles. Notably, in-situ formation of a barrier layer was found to be a non-trivial investigation and that one or more features of the barrier layer in combination with the bonded abrasive were found remarkable and/or unexpected, including features such as the material of the barrier layer, the water vapor transmission rate of the barrier layer, the structure and grade of the bonded abrasive, the orientation of the barrier layer relative to the bonded abrasive, the puncture density, and the like.

Note that not all of the activities described above in the general description or the examples are required, that a portion of a specific activity may not be required, and that one or more further activities may be performed in addition to those described. Still further, the order in which activities are listed is not necessarily the order in which they are performed.

Benefits, other advantages, and solutions to problems have been described above with regard to specific embodiments. However, the benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any feature(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as a critical, required, or essential feature of any or all the claims.

The specification and illustrations of the embodiments described herein are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of the various embodiments. The specification and illustrations are not intended to sen'e as an exhaustive and comprehensive description of all of the elements and features of apparatus and systems that use the structures or methods described herein. Certain features, that are for clarity, described herein in the context of separate embodiments, may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features that are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in a subcombination. Further, reference to values stated in ranges includes each and every value within that range. Many other embodiments may be apparent to skilled artisans only after reading this specification. Other embodiments may be used and derived from the disclosure, such that a structural substitution, logical substitution, or another change may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Accordingly, the disclosure is to be regarded as illustrative rather than restrictive.