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Title:
ABRASIVE TOOLS AND METHODS OF FORMING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/005444
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to abrasive tools and methods of forming. An abrasive article can includes a body having abrasive particles contained in a bond material. The abrasive particles include a first type of abrasive particle and a second type of abrasive particle. The first type of abrasive particle can include brown alumina, and the second type of abrasive particle can include a carbonate. The body can have an abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/Ca1) of not greater than 1, wherein Ca1 represents the content (vol%) of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the body and Ca2 represents the content (vol%) of the second type of abrasive particle for the total volume of the body. In some instances, the abrasive tool can include a cutting wheel, such as a chop saw or a cut-off wheel.

Inventors:
GAO, Kuo (502 No.49, Nong 560Heqing Road, Shanghai 0, 200240, CN)
Application Number:
US2018/036304
Publication Date:
January 03, 2019
Filing Date:
June 06, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SAINT-GOBAIN ABRASIVES, INC. (One New Bond Street, Worcester, Massachusetts, 01615-0138, US)
SAINT-GOBAIN ABRASIFS (Rue de l'Ambassadeur, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, FR)
International Classes:
C09K3/14; B24D3/28; C09G1/02
Foreign References:
US5702811A1997-12-30
US20150251294A12015-09-10
US5011512A1991-04-30
US20130337729A12013-12-19
JP2000087010A2000-03-28
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GUO, Lei et al. (Abel Law Group, LLP8911 N. Capital of Texas Hwy,Bldg. 4, Suite 420, Austin Texas, 78759, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. An abrasive article, comprising:

a body including an abrasive portion including abrasive particles contained in a bond

material,

wherein the abrasive particles include a first type of abrasive particle including brown

alumina and a second type of abrasive particle including carbonate; and

wherein the body comprises an abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/Cal) of not greater than 1, wherein Cai represents the content (vol%) of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion and Ca2 represents the content (vol%) of the second type of abrasive particle for the total volume of the abrasive portion.

2. The abrasive article of claim 1, wherein the abrasive article includes a bonded abrasive tool.

3. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the brown alumina comprises Al203within a range of 88 wt% to 99 wt% for a total weight of the brown alumina, Fe203 within a range of 0.03 wt% to about 4 wt% for the total weight of the brown alumina, Ti02 within a range of 0.1 wt% to about 3 wt% for the total weight of the brown alumina, Si02 within a range of 0.05 wt% to 5 wt% for the total weight of the brown alumina, or any combination thereof.

4. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/Cai) is at least

0.13 and not greater than 0.6.

5. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the body comprises a content of the second type of the abrasive particles of at least 7 vol% and not greater than 45 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

6. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the first type of the abrasive particles

comprises brown fused alumina.

7. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the first type of the abrasive particles consists essentially of brown fused alumina.

8. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the second type of abrasive particle

comprises calcium carbonate.

9. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the second type of abrasive particle

comprises calcium magnesium carbonate.

10. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the second type of abrasive particle

comprises dolomite (CaMg(C03)2).

11. The abrasive article of claim 10, wherein the second type of abrasive particle consists essentially of dolomite.

12. The abrasive article of claim 10, wherein the second type of the abrasive particles

comprises an average particle size of at least 250 μιη and not greater than 800 μιη.

13. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive portion comprises a filler material including pyrite, cryolite, CaO, or any combination thereof.

14. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive portion comprises a filler material present in a content of at least 2 vol % and not greater than 15 vol% for the total volume of the abrasive portion

15. The abrasive article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive portion comprises for a total volume of the abrasive portion:

a porosity of at least 7 vol% and not greater than 30 vol%;

the bond material of at least 25 vol% and not greater than 62 vol%, wherein the bond material comprises an organic material; and

abrasive particles of at least 30 vol% and not greater than 60 vol%.

Description:
ABRASIVE TOOLS AND METHODS OF FORMING

TECHNICAL FIELD

The disclosure generally relates to abrasive articles and in particular to abrasive wheels suitable for use as a chop saw or cut-off wheel and to methods for producing such abrasive wheels.

Typically, bonded abrasive articles are prepared by blending abrasive particles with a bond material and optional additives and shaping the resulting mixture to form a green body by using, for instance, a suitable mold. In some cases, the green body can be thermally processed, for example, by curing, sintering and so forth, to produce a bonded abrasive article, in which the abrasive particles are contained within a bond matrix. Among bonded abrasive articles, abrasive wheels often are prepared for grinding, cutting, polishing, and the like. A need for improved abrasive articles continues to exist.

In an embodiment, the disclosure is directed to an abrasive article including a body. The body can include an abrasive portion including abrasive particles contained in a bond material. The abrasive particles can include a first type of abrasive particles including brown alumina and a second type of abrasive particles including carbonate. The abrasive portion can have an abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/C al ) of not greater than 1, wherein C al represents the content (vol%) of the first type of abrasive particles for a total volume of the abrasive portion and Ca2 represents the content (vol%) of the second type of abrasive particles for the total volume of the abrasive portion. In some instances the abrasive article can include a bonded abrasive article. An exemplary bonded abrasive article can include cutting wheel, such as a chop saw, a cutoff wheel, or the like.

The above and other features described herein including various details of construction and combinations of parts, and other advantages, will now be more particularly described with reference to the accompanying drawings and pointed out in the claims. It will be understood that the particular method and article embody certain features that are shown by way of illustration and not as limitations and that the principles and features described herein may be employed in various and numerous embodiments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the accompanying drawings, reference characters refer to the same parts throughout the different views. The drawings are not necessarily to scale.

FIG. 1 includes a flow diagram of a method to make a cutting wheel according to one embodiment. FIG. 2 includes a side view of a cutting wheel in accordance with an embodiment. FIG. 3 includes cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 according to an embodiment.

FIG. 4 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 in accordance with another embodiment.

FIG. 5 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 in accordance with an additional embodiment.

FIG. 6 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with an embodiment.

FIG. 7 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with another embodiment.

FIG. 8 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with an additional embodiment.

FIG. 9 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with a further embodiment.

FIG. 10 includes a graph indicating G-ratio for cutting wheels with different content ratios of a first type of abrasive particle to a second type of abrasive particle in accordance with embodiments herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)

The following description in combination with the figures is provided to assist in understanding the teachings disclosed herein. The following discussion will focus on specific implementations and embodiments of the teachings. This focus is provided to assist in describing the teachings and should not be interpreted as a limitation on the scope or applicability of the teachings. However, other teachings can certainly be used in this application.

As used herein, the terms "comprises," "comprising," "includes," "including," "has," "having" or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion. For example, a method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of features is not necessarily limited only to those features but may include other features not expressly listed or inherent to such method, article, or apparatus. Further, unless expressly stated to the contrary, "or" refers to an inclusive-or and not to an exclusive-or. For example, a condition A or B is satisfied by any one of the following: A is true (or present) and B is false (or not present), A is false (or not present) and B is true (or present), and both A and B are true (or present).

Also, the use of "a" or "an" is employed to describe elements and components described herein. This is done merely for convenience and to give a general sense of the scope of the invention. This description should be read to include one or at least one and the singular also includes the plural, or vice versa, unless it is clear that it is meant otherwise. For example, when a single item is described herein, more than one item may be used in place of a single item. Similarly, where more than one item is described herein, a single item may be substituted for that more than one item.

Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. The materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting. To the extent that certain details regarding specific materials and processing acts are not described, such details may include conventional approaches, which may be found in reference books and other sources within the manufacturing arts.

FIG. 1 includes a flow diagram of a method 100 to make an abrasive tool, such as a cutting wheel, according to one embodiment. In particular, at 102, the method 100 can include providing a mixture including abrasive particles and a bond material. The mixture can also include additional components, such as processing aids, lubricants (e.g., wetting agents), curing agents, crosslinking agents, antistatic agents, a porosity inducer, coloring agents, a filler material, and the like.

In an embodiment, the mixture can include a certain content of abrasive particles to facilitate formation of the abrasive tool. For example, the mixture can include at least 56 wt% abrasive particles for a total weight of the mixture, such as at least 59 wt%, or at least 64 wt%, or at least 66 wt% abrasive particles for a total weight of the mixture. In another embodiment, the mixture may include not greater than 79 wt% abrasive particles for a total weight of the mixture, such as not greater than 73 wt% or not greater than 68 wt% abrasive particles for a total weight of the mixture. It will be appreciated that the content of abrasive particles in the mixture can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular embodiment, the mixture can include abrasive particles within a range of 64 wt% to 73 wt% abrasive particles for a total weight of the mixture.

According to one aspect, the mixture can include more than one type of abrasive particle, where different types of abrasive particles can differ from each other based on hardness, toughness, composition, manufacturing process, and a combination thereof. In an embodiment, the abrasive particles can include a first type of abrasive particle. In a particular embodiment, at least 15% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the first type of abrasive particle. For example, in some instances, at least 25% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the first type of abrasive particle, or at least 38% a total weight of the abrasive particle can include the first type of abrasive particle, or at least 47%, or at least 55%, or at least 62%, or at least 67% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the first type of abrasive particle. In additional embodiments, not greater than 95% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the first type of abrasive particle, such as not greater than 95%, or not greater than 91%, or not greater than 81%, or not greater than 76%, or not greater than 71% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the first type of abrasive particle. It will be appreciated that the content of the first type of abrasive particle can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, 62% to 91% of the total weight of the abrasive particles can include the first type of abrasive particle.

In another embodiment, the mixture can include a certain content of the first type of abrasive particle that can facilitate improved formation and/or property of the abrasive article. For instance, a content of the first type of abrasive particle can be at least 15 wt% for a total weight of the mixture, such as at least 28 wt%, or at least 35 wt%, or at least 43 wt%, or at least 50 wt%, or at least 58 wt%, or at least 6 wt% for the total weight of the mixture.

Additionally or alternatively, the mixture may include the first type of abrasive particle in an amount not greater than 85 wt% for a total weight of the mixture, such as not greater than 80 wt%, or not greater than 73 wt%, or not greater than 65 wt%, or not greater than 58 wt%, or not greater than 52 wt % for a total weight of the mixture. It will be appreciated that the content of the first type of abrasive particle in the mixture can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein.

In a further embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can have a density of at least 3.55 g/cm 3 , such as at least 3.60 g/cm 3 or at least 3.70 g/cm 3 or at least 3.80 g/cm 3 or at least 3.90 g/cm . In another aspect, the density of the first type of abrasive particle may be not greater than 4.00 g/cm 3 , such as not greater than 3.90 g/cm 3. It is to be understood that the first type of abrasive particle can have a density within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values disclosed herein, such as within a range of at least 3.55 g/cm to not greater than 4.00 g/cm 3 , such as within a range of at least 3.80 g/cm 3 to not greater than 3.90 g/cm 3 .

In certain embodiments, the first type of abrasive particle can have a Mohs hardness of at least 5, such as at least 6 or at least 7 or at least 8 or at least 9 or at least 10. In another embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle may have a Mohs hardness of not greater than 10, such as not greater than 9 or not greater than 8 or not greater than 7. Moreover, the first type of abrasive particle can have a Mohs hardness in a range including any of the minimum or maximum values noted herein. For instance, the first type of abrasive particle can have a Mohs hardness in a range of at least 5 and not greater than 10.

In a particular embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can include an oxide, such as alumina, and particularly, brown alumina. For at least one embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can consist essentially of brown alumina. According to an aspect, brown alumina can include alumina (AI 2 O 3 ) within a range of 88 wt% to 99 wt% for a total weight of brown alumina. Additionally, brown alumina can include an oxide other than alumina. For example, brown alumina can include silica (Si0 2 ) within a range of 0.05 wt% to 5 wt% for a total weight of brown alumina, iron oxide (Fe 2 0 3 ) within a range of 0.03 wt% to 4 wt% for a total weight of brown alumina, titanium oxide (Ti0 2 ) within a range of 0.1 wt% to 3 wt% for a total weight of brown alumina, or any combination thereof.

In a particular embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can include brown fused alumina. More particularly, the first type of abrasive particle can consist essentially of brown fused alumina. In one embodiment, the brown fused alumina can include A1 2 0 3 within a range of 92 wt% to 98 wt% for a total weight of the brown fused alumina, Fe 2 0 3 within a range of 0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt% for a total weight of the brown fused alumina, CaO within a range of 0.3 wt% to 0.8 wt% for a total weight of the brown fused alumina, Ti0 2 within a range of 1.1 wt% to 3.2 wt% for a total weight of the brown fused alumina, Si0 2 within a range of 0.3 wt% to 1.7 wt% for a total weight of the brown fused alumina, MgO within a range of 0.1 wt% to 0.4 wt% for a total weight of the brown fused alumina, or any

combination thereof.

In an embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can have an average particle size of at least 200 μιη, such as at least 250 μιη, or at least 300 μιη, or at least 330 μιη, or at least 340 μπι, at least 370 μιη, or at least 400 μιη, or at least 430 μιη, or at least 450 μιη, or at least 490 μηι, or at least 510 μιη, or at least 550 μιη, or at least 600 μιη, or at least 640 μιη, or at least 700 μιη. In another embodiment, the average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle may be not greater than 1150 μιη, such as not greater than 1030 μιη, or not greater than 910 μιη, or not greater than 800 μιη, or not greater than 760 μιη, or not greater than 730 μηι, or not greater than 710 μιη, or not greater than 650 μιη, or not greater than 630 μιη, or not greater than 610 μιη, or not greater than 590 μιη, or not greater than 550 μιη, or not greater than 510 μιη, or not greater than 490 μιη. It will be appreciated that the average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. In certain embodiments, the mixture can include a second type of abrasive particle. In some aspects, at least 5% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the second type of abrasive particle, or at least 9% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the second type of abrasive particle, or at least 11% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the second type of abrasive particle, or at least 18% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the second type of abrasive particle, or at least 22% of a total weight of the abrasive particles can include the second type of abrasive particle. In additional scenarios, not greater than 85% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle, not greater than 72% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle, or not greater than 65% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle, or not greater than 52% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle, or not greater than 45% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle, or not greater than 35% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle, or not greater than 33% of a total weight of the abrasive particles may include the second type of abrasive particle. It will be appreciated that the content of the second type of abrasive particle can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, 5% to 85% of the total weight of the abrasive particles can include the second type of abrasive particle.

In another embodiment, the mixture can include a certain content of the second type of abrasive particle that can facilitate improved formation and/or property of the abrasive article. In one aspect, the mixture can include at least 5 wt% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total weight of the mixture, such as at least 7 wt%, or at least 11 wt%, or at least 15 wt%, or at least 20 wt%, or at least 28 wt% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total weight of the mixture. Additionally or alternatively, the mixture may include not greater than 67 wt% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total weight of the mixture, such as not greater than 60 wt%, or not greater than 52 wt %, or not greater than 45 wt %, or not greater than 37 wt %, or not greater than 28 wt %, or not greater than 22 wt %, or not greater than 18 wt % of the second type of abrasive particle for a total weight of the mixture. It will be appreciated that the content of the second type of abrasive particle in the mixture can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein.

In some embodiments, the second type of abrasive particle can have a density of at least 2.5 g/cm 3 , or at least 2.7 g/cm 3 , or at least 2.8 g/cm 3. In another embodiment, the density of the second type of abrasive particle may not be greater than 3.1 g/cm , or not greater than 3.0 g/cm 3 , or not greater than 2.9 g/cm 3. Moreover, the second type of abrasive particle can have a density in a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein.

In a further embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can have a Mohs hardness of at least 2 or as at least 3 or at least 4. In another embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle may have a Mohs hardness of not greater than 6, such as not greater than 5 or not greater than 4. Moreover, the second type of abrasive particle can have a Mohs hardness in a range including any of the minimum or maximum values noted herein. For instance, the first type of abrasive particle can have a Mohs hardness within a range of 2 to 5. In some situations, the hardness of the second type of abrasive particle can be less than the hardness of the first type of abrasive particle.

In a further embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can an average particle size of at least 200 μιη, such as at least 250 μιη, or at least 300 μιη, or at least 330 μιη, or at least 340 μιη, or at least 370 μιη, or at least 400 μιη, or at least 430 μιη, or at least 460 μιη, or at least 490 μιη, or at least 510 μιη, or at least 520 μιη, or at least 550 μιη, or at least 600 μιη, or at least 650 μιη, or at least 700 μιη. In another embodiment, the average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle can be not greater than 1150 μιη, such as not greater than 1030 μηι, or not greater than 910 μιη, or not greater than 820 μιη, or not greater than 800 μιη, or not greater than 760 μιη, or not greater than 730 μιη, or not greater than 710 μιη, or not greater than 650 μιη, or not greater than or not greater than 630 μιη, or not greater than 610 μηι, or not greater than 590 μιη, or not greater than 550 μιη, or not greater than 520 μιη, or not greater than 490 μιη. It will be appreciated that the average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle can be within a range of 340 μιη to 820 μιη.

In a particular embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can have an average particle size that is similar to the average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle. In another embodiment, the average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle can differ from that of the second type of abrasive particle. In a further embodiment, the average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle can be within 30% of the average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle, such as within 20% or within 10% of the average size of the second type of abrasive particle.

In an embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can include a carbonate. For at least one embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can consist essentially of a carbonate. An exemplary carbonate can include calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, or a combination thereof. In a particular embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can include dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(C0 3 )2)). In a more particular embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can consist essentially of dolomite. In an illustrative embodiment, the abrasive particles of the mixture can consist essentially of brown fused alumina and dolomite.

In a particular embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle including dolomite can have a Mohs hardness of at least 2 and not greater than 4. In another particular embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle including dolomite can have an average particle size of at least 450 μιη to 600 μιη.

In an embodiment, the mixture can include at least 6 wt% bond material for a total weight of the mixture, such as at least 11 wt% or at least 15 wt% bond material for a total weight of the mixture. In other embodiments, the mixture may include not greater than 35 wt% bond material for a total weight of the mixture, such as not greater than 29 wt%, or not greater than 25 wt%, or not greater than 20 wt% bond material for a total weight of the mixture. It will be appreciated that the content of bond material can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the mixture can include an amount of bond material within a range of 10 wt% to 35 wt% for a total weight of the mixture.

In certain situations, the bond material can be provided in the form of a precursor bond material, which can form finally formed bond material upon further processing. For instance, the bond material can include a resin bond material, which can be cured to form the finally formed bond material. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the resin bond material can include an epoxy resin, a polyester resin, a phenolic resin, a cyanate ester resin, a polyurethane resin, shellacs, or a combination thereof. Furthermore, the resin bond material can be provided to the mixture as a liquid, a solid, or both. In an embodiment, the mixture can include a liquid phenolic resin, such as a resole resin, and a powdered phenolic resin, such as a novolac resin. In one illustrative embodiment, the powdered resin can include hexamine within a range of 6 wt% to 14 wt% for a total weight of the powdered resin. In certain embodiments, a ratio of powdered resin to liquid resin by weight can be at least 1: 1, at least 1.5: 1, at least 2: 1, or at least 3: 1. In other embodiments, a ratio of powder resin to liquid resin by weight can be not greater than 6: 1, not greater than 5: 1, or not greater than 4: 1.

In an additional embodiment, the mixture can optionally include a filler material. The filler material can be different from the abrasive particles based on hardness, toughness, composition, manufacturing process, particle size, or a combination thereof. In an embodiment, the mixture can include at least 5 wt% filler material for a total weight of the mixture, such as at least 9 wt%, or at least 11 wt%, or at least 14 wt% filler material for a total weight of the mixture. Additionally, the mixture may include not greater than 30 wt% filler material for a total weight of the mixture, such as not greater than 26 wt%, or not greater than 22 wt %, or not greater than 19 wt %, or not greater than 16 wt % filler material for a total weight of the mixture. It will be appreciated that the content of the filler material can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein.

The filler material can have a material selected from the group consisting of powders, granules, spheres, fibers, and a combination thereof. In one embodiment, the filler material can include a material selected from the group consisting of an inorganic material, an organic material, and a combination thereof. In a further embodiment, the filler material can include a material selected from the group consisting of sand, bubble alumina, bauxite, chromites, magnesite, bubble mullite, borides, titanium dioxide, carbon products (e.g., carbon black, coke or graphite), wood flour, clay, talc, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, feldspar, nepheline syenite, glass spheres, glass fibers, CaF 2 , KBF 4 , cryolite (Na 3 AlF 6 ), a potassium aluminum fluoride, such as potassium cryolite (K 3 A1F 6 ), pyrite, ZnS, copper sulfide, a material including Fe 2 S, such as Pyrox, mineral oil, fluorides, carbonates, calcium carbonate, and a combination thereof. In one illustrative embodiment, the filler material can include pyrite, cyrolite, CaO, or a combination thereof.

In some instances, the mixture can be combined in multiple steps. In one example, the abrasive particles are mixed with a liquid resin material to cause the liquid resin to coat the abrasive particles. A powdered phenolic resin and filler material are separately blended in a mixer and the wetted abrasive particles are then added to and mixed with the blended powders to uniformly coat the wetted abrasive particles with the blended powders.

At 104, the method 100 can include placing the mixture into a mold. The mold can be made of stainless-steel, high carbon-steel, high chrome-steel, another suitable material, or a combination thereof. In some situations, one or more layers of the mixture can be placed into the mold, such as by linear or rotational spreading. In an illustrative embodiment, other components, such as one or more reinforcement layers, can be placed above, below, or both above and below, at least one of the layers of the mixture. In certain embodiments, a reinforcement layer can comprise a material selected from the group consisting of an organic material, an inorganic material, and a combination thereof. Additionally, the reinforcement layer can comprise a material selected from the group consisting of a fabric, a fiber, a film, a woven material, a non-woven material, a glass, a fiberglass, a ceramic, a polymer, a resin, a polymer, a fluorinated polymer, an epoxy resin, a polyester resin, a polyurethane, a polyester, a rubber, a polyimide, a polybenzimidazole, an aromatic polyamide, a modified phenolic resin, and a combination thereof.

At 106, the method 100 can include applying a pressing process to the mixture while in the mold. In situations when multiple abrasive layers are formed, each of the abrasive layers can be subjected to a respective pressing process. The pressing process can include a cold pressing process, a warm pressing process, or a hot pressing process. In an illustrative embodiment, a warm pressing process can be applied at a temperature within a range of 35°C to 75°C.

At 108, the method 100 can include heating the mixture to produce a cutting wheel. In some embodiments, the heating of the mixture to produce the cutting wheel may be optional.

FIG. 2 includes a view of a cutting wheel 200 in accordance with an embodiment.

The cutting wheel 200 includes a body 202 and a mounting hole 204 for mounting the cutting wheel 200 to a cutting tool. A diameter 206 of the mounting hole 204 can be an inner diameter of the body 202 and the body 202 can have an outer diameter 208. In an

embodiment, the outer diameter 208 can be at least 220 mm, or at least 270 mm, at least 310 mm, or at least 360 mm. In another embodiment, the outer diameter 208 may be not greater than 535 mm, or not greater than 457 mm, or not greater than 415 mm, or not greater than 355 mm. It will be appreciated that the outer diameter 208 of the body 202 can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein.

In certain aspects, the inner diameter 206 can be at least 35 mm, at least 46 mm, or at least 54 mm. In other instances, the inner diameter 206 may be not greater than 90 mm, or not greater than 77 mm, or not greater than 62 mm. It will be appreciated that the inner diameter 206 of the body 202 can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein.

The body 202 can also have a thickness of at least 0.7 mm, at least 1.5 mm, or at least 1.9 mm. In some cases, the body may have a thickness of not greater than 6.5 mm, or not greater than 5.7 mm, or not greater than 4.8 mm, or not greater than 3.5 mm, or not greater than 2.2 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the body 202 can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. Further more, the body 202 can have a ratio of outer diameter 208 to thickness within a range of 125: 1 to 15: 1. The body 202 can include materials included in the mixture used to form the cutting wheel 200 as described previously with respect to FIG. 1. For example, the body 202 can include the abrasive particles provided in the mixture, the bond material provided in the mixture, and any other components provided in the mixture. Additionally, the body 202 can also include one or more abrasive portions, which may be in the form of layers extending radially within the body 202. The abrasive portion can include the abrasive particles contained within the bond material, the filler material, and any other additives that are used in the mixture. In certain instances, one or more reinforcement members, which may be in the form of a layer extending radially within the body, can be positioned adjacent to the one or more abrasive portions to separate the abrasive portions from one another. In certain constructions, one or more of the reinforcement members can be overlying or underlying material for an abrasive portion. In at least one embodiment, a reinforcement member can be in direct contact with an abrasive portion. In a particular embodiment, a reinforcement member can be bonded directly to and at least partially impregnating portions of an abrasive portion. In other designs of embodiments herein, at least one abrasive portion (or a plurality of abrasive portions) can be disposed between a first reinforcement member and a second reinforcement member. According to one construction, a plurality of abrasive portions can be employed as discrete intervening layers separating at least first and second reinforcement members.

In some cases, the body 202 can include abrasive portions that may be made from the same mixture, and thus have substantially the same contents of abrasive particles, bond material, filler material, and/or additives relative to each other. Still, it will be appreciated that in at least one embodiment, the body can include at least a first abrasive portion and a second abrasive portion, wherein the first abrasive portion can have at least one feature that is distinct from the second abrasive portion, wherein such features can include content of abrasive particles, type of abrasive particles, content of bond material, type of bond material, content of filler material, type of filler material, and the like. It will be appreciated that any combination of reinforcement members and abrasive portions are contemplated herein.

FIG. 3 includes cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 according to an embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 3, the cutting wheel has a mounting hole 204 and an abrasive portion 302. In this embodiment, the abrasive portion 302 can be the body 202 of the cutting wheel 200. The abrasive portion 302 can include the first and second types of abrasive particles contained within a bond material and a filler material. The abrasive portion 302 can also have a thickness 304. FIG. 4 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 in accordance with another embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 4, the cutting wheel has a mounting hole 204 and a body including a first abrasive portion 402 and a second abrasive portion 404. The cutting wheel 200 can also include a reinforcement member 406. The first abrasive portion 402 and the second abrasive portion 404 can include abrasive particles contained within a bond material and a filler composition contained within the bond material. In some cases, the content of abrasive particles, the content of bond material, and the content of the filler composition contained within the bond material of the first abrasive portion 402 and the second abrasive portion 404 can be substantially the same, while in other situations, at least one of the content of the abrasive particles, the content of the bond material, and a filler composition contained within the bond material of the first abrasive portion 402 and the second abrasive portion 404 can be different.

The first abrasive portion 402 can have a thickness 408 and the second abrasive portion 404 can have a thickness 410. In addition, the reinforcement member 406 can have a thickness 412. In some scenarios, the thickness 408 can be substantially the same as the thickness 410, while in other embodiments, the thickness 408 can be different from the thickness 410. Furthermore, the thickness 412 can be substantially the same or different with respect to the thickness 408, the thickness 410, or both.

FIG. 5 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 in accordance with an additional embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 2, the cutting wheel 200 includes a mounting hole 204 and a body including a first reinforcement member 502, an abrasive portion 506, and a second reinforcement member 504.

In an embodiment, an abrasive portion can include a first type of abrasive particle. In an illustrative embodiment, the first type of abrasive particle can include brown alumina. Further, the first type of abrasive particle can have an average particle size as described previously with respect to the average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle of the mixture used to form the cutting wheel 200.

The abrasive portion can also include a second type of abrasive particle, such as dolomite. Dolomite grains can be positioned in the abrasive portion such that dolomite grains are intended to strike a workpiece and assist material removal. In an embodiment, the second type of abrasive particle can have an average particle size as described previously with respect to the average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle of the mixture.

In an embodiment, an abrasive portion can include at least 30 vol% abrasive particles for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 33 vol%, or at least 35 vol% or at least 37 vol% or at least 39 vol% or at least 42 vol % or at least 44 vol% or at least 46 vol% or at least 48 vol% abrasive particles for a total volume of the abrasive portion. In another embodiment, the abrasive portion may include not greater than 65 vol% abrasive particles for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 60 vol% or not greater than 58 vol%, or not greater than 56 vol%, or not greater than 53 vol%, or not greater than 51 vol% abrasive particles, or not greater than 49 vol%, or not greater than 47 vol%, or not greater than 45 vol%, or not greater than 44 vol%, or not greater than 42 vol% abrasive particles for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that the content of abrasive particles in an abrasive portion can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the abrasive portion can include abrasive particles within a range of 39 vol% to 51 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

In a further embodiment, at least 10% of the abrasive particles in an abrasive portion can include the first type of abrasive particle, such as at least 20% or at least 30% or at least 40 % or at least 50 % or at least 60% or at least 70% or at least 80% or at least 90% of the abrasive particles in the abrasive portion can include the first type of abrasive particle. In another embodiment, not greater than 99% of the abrasive particles of an abrasive portion may include the first type of abrasive particle, such as not greater than 95% or not greater than 90% or not greater than 85% or not greater than 80% or not greater than 75% or not greater than 70% or not greater than 65% or not greater than 60% or not greater than 55% or not greater than 50% of the abrasive particles in an abrasive portion may include the first type of abrasive particle. Moreover, the first type of abrasive particle can be present in an abrasive portion in an amount within a range including any of the minimum and maximum

percentages noted herein. For example, 10% to 99% of the abrasive particles in an abrasive portion can include the first type of abrasive particle.

In a particular embodiment, an abrasive portion can include at least 10 vol% of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion. For example, an abrasive portion can include at least 15 vol%, or at least 17 vol%, or at least 19 vol%, or at least 21 vol%, or at least 22 vol%, or at least 25 vol%, or at least 28 vol%, or at least 30 vol%, or at least 31 vol%, or at least 33 vol%, or at least 35 vol%, or at least 37 vol%, or at least 39 vol%, or at least 40 vol% of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion. Additionally or alternatively, an abrasive portion may include not greater than 53 vol% of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 51 vol%, or not greater than 49 vol%, or not greater than 45 vol%, or not greater than 43 vol%, or not greater than 41 vol%, or not greater than 39 vol%, or not greater than 37 vol%, or not greater than 35 vol%, or not greater than 34 vol%, or not greater than 32 vol%, or not greater than 31 vol%, or not greater than 27 vol%, or not greater than 25 vol%, or not greater than 22 vol% of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that an abrasive portion can include a content of the first type of abrasive particle within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, an abrasive portion can include the first type of abrasive particle within a range of 22 vol% to 43 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

In an embodiment, at least 1 % of the abrasive particles of an abrasive portion can include the second type of the abrasive particles, such as at least 2% or at least 3% or at least 4% or at least 5% or at least 6% or at least 7% or at least 8% or at least 9% or at least 10% or at least 12% or at least 15% or at least 18% or at least 20% or at least 22% or at least 25% or at least 27% or at least 30% of the abrasive particles of the abrasive portion can include the second type of abrasive particle. In another embodiment, not greater than 60% of the abrasive particles in an abrasive portion may include the second type of abrasive particle, such as not greater than 55% or not greater than 50% or not greater than 45% or not greater than 40% or not greater than 37% or not greater than 35% or not greater than 32% or not greater than 30% or not greater than 27% or not greater than 25% or not greater than 23% or not greater than 20% or not greater than 18% or not greater than 15% of the abrasive particles of an abrasive portion may include the second type of abrasive particle. Moreover, the second type of abrasive particle can be present in an abrasive portion in an amount including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In an illustrative embodiment, 2% to 60% of the abrasive particles in an abrasive portion can include the second type of abrasive particle.

In another embodiment, an abrasive portion can include at least 5 vol% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 7 vol%, or at least 8 vol%, or at least 9 vol%, or at least 10 vol%, or at least 11 vol%, or at least 13 vol%, or at least 14 vol%, or at least 15 vol%, or at least 17 vol%, or at least 19 vol%, or at least 22 vol%, or at least 25 vol%, or at least 27 vol%, or at least 30 vol% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion. Additionally or alternatively, the abrasive portion may include not greater than 45 vol% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 42 vol%, or not greater than 39 vol%, or not greater than 36 vol%, or not greater than 33 vol%, or not greater than 31 vol% or not greater than 27 vol% not greater than 26 vol%, or not greater than 24 vol%, or not greater than 22 vol%, or not greater than 21 vol%, or not greater than 20 vol%, or not greater than 17 vol%, or not greater than 15 vol%, or not greater than 13 vol%, or not greater than 11 vol% of the second type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that an abrasive portion can include a content of the second type of abrasive particle within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, an abrasive portion can include the second type of abrasive particle within a range of 5 vol% to 16 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

In another embodiment, an abrasive portion can include a certain abrasive particle ratio (Ca2 C a i) that can facilitate improved formation and property of the abrasive tool, wherein C al represents the content (vol%) of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion and Ca2 represents the content (vol%) of the second type of abrasive particle for the total volume of the abrasive portion. For example, the abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/C al ) may be not greater than 1, such as not greater than 0.99 or not greater than 0.97 or not greater than 0.95 or not greater than 0.93 or not greater than 0.9 or not greater than 0.87 or not greater than 0.85 or not greater than 0.83 or not greater than 0.8 or not greater than 0.77 or not greater than 0.75 or not greater than 0.73 or not greater than 0.7 or not greater than 0.67 or not greater than 0.65 or not greater than 0.63 or not greater than 0.6 or not greater than 0.57 or not greater than 0.55 or not greater than 0.53 or not greater than 0.5 or not greater than 0.47 or not greater than 0.45 or not greater than 0.43 or not greater than 0.4 or not greater than 0.37 or not greater than 0.35 or not greater than 0.33 or not greater than 0.3. In another instance, the abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/C al ) can be at least 0.13 or at least 0.15 or at least 0.17 or at least 0.19 or at least 0.21 or at least 0.23 or at least 0.25 or at least 0.29 or at least 0.32 or at least 0.35 or at least 0.37 or at least 0.40 or at least 0.42 or at least 0.43 or at least 0.45 or at least 0.47 or at least 0.51 or at least 0.53 or at least 0.55 or at least o.57 or at least 0.59 or at least 0.61 or at least 0.64 or at least 0.66 or at least 0.69 or at least 0.71 or at least 0.74 or at least 0.77 or at least 0.8 or at least 0.82 at least 0.85 or at least 0.88 or at least 0.91 or at least 0.93 or at least 0.95 or at least 0.97 or at least 0.99. Moreover, the abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/C al ) can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. In an illustrative embodiment, the abrasive particle ratio (C a 2/C al ) can be within a range of 0.15 to 0.45.

In an embodiment, an abrasive portion can include a particle size ratio of an average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle to an average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle. For instance, the particle size ratio can be at least 0.5 or at least 0.6 or at least 0.7 or at least 0.8 or at least 0.9 or at least 1.0 or at least 1.1 or at least 1.2 or at least 1.3 or at least 1.4 or at least 1.5 or at least 1.6 or at least 1.7 or at least 1.8 or at least 1.9 or at least 2.0 or at least 2.1 or at least 2.2. In another instance, the particle size ratio of an average particle size of the first type of abrasive particle to an average particle size of the second type of abrasive particle may be not greater than 3 or not greater than 2.8 or not greater than 2.6 or not greater than 2.5 or not greater than 2.4 or not greater than 2.3 or not greater than 2.2 or not greater than 2.1 or not greater than 2.0 or not greater than 1.9 or not greater than 1.8 or not greater than 1.6 or not greater than 1.5 or not greater than 1.4 or not greater than 1.3 or not greater than 1.2 or not greater than 1.1 or not greater than 1.0 or not greater than 0.9 or not greater than 0.8. Moreover, the particle size ratio can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum values noted herein. In an illustrative embodiment, the particle size ratio of the first type to the second type of abrasive particle can be within a range of 0.7 to 1.4.

In other embodiments, an abrasive portion can include at least 21 vol% bond material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 25 vol%, or at least 27 vol%, or at least 29 vol%, or at least 30 vol%, or at least 31 vol%, at least 32 vol%, at least 36 vol%, or at least 38 vol%, or at least 40 vol%, or at least 43 vol% bond material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. Additionally or alternatively, the abrasive portion may include not greater than 62 vol% bond material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 58 vol%, or not greater than 56 vol%, or not greater than 54 vol%, or not greater than 51 vol%, or not greater than 49 vol%, or not greater than 47 vol% bond material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, or not greater than 44 vol%, or not greater than 43 vol%, or not greater than 41 vol%, or not greater than 40 vol%, or not greater than 38 vol%, or not greater than 35 vol% bond material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that the content of the bond material of an abrasive portion can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the content of the bond material of an abrasive portion can be within a range of 27 vol% to 44 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

In an embodiment, an abrasive portion can include at least 2 vol% filler material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 3 vol%, or at least 4 vol%, or at least 5 vol%, or at least 6 vol%, or at least 7 vol%, or at least 8 vol%, or at least 9 vol%, or at least 10 vol%, or at least 11 vol%, or at least 12 vol%, or at least 13 vol%, or at least 14 vol%, or at least 15 vol% filler material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. Additionally or alternatively, an abrasive portion may include not greater than 16 vol% of the filler material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 15 vol%, or not greater than 13 vol%, or not greater than 12 vol%, or not greater than 11 vol%, or not greater than 10 vol%, or not greater than 9 vol%, or not greater than 8 vol%, or not greater than 7 vol%, or not greater than 6 vol%, or not greater than 5 vol% of the filler material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that an abrasive portion can include a content of the filler material within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, an abrasive portion can include the filler material within a range of 6 vol% to 10 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

In one aspect, an abrasive portion can include a certain content of pyrite material that can facilitate improved formation and/or property of the abrasive tool. For instance, an abrasive portion can include at least 1 vol% pyrite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 2 vol%, or at least 4 vol%, or at least 5 vol%, or at least 6 vol% pyrite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. In additional embodiments, an abrasive portion may include not greater than 15 vol% pyrite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 13 vol%, or not greater than 12 vol%, or not greater than 10 vol%, or not greater than 9 vol%, or not greater than 8 vol%, or not greater than 7 vol%, or not greater than 6 vol% pyrite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that the content of the pyrite material can be within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted above. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the content of the pyrite material can be within a range of 4 vol% to 12 vol% for a total volume of an abrasive portion.

In certain instances, an abrasive portion can include at least 0.5 vol% cryolite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 0.8 vol%, or at least 1 vol%, or at least 1.2 vol%, or at least 1.4 vol%, or at least 1.5 vol%, or at least 1.7 vol%, or at least 1.8 vol%, or at least 2 vol% cryolite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. Also, an abrasive portion may include not greater than 8 vol% cryolite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 7 vol%, or not greater than 6 vol%, or not greater than 5 vol%, or not greater than 4 vol%, or not greater than 3 vol%, or not greater than 2 vol% cryolite material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that an abrasive portion can include a content of the cryolite material within a range including any of the minimum and maximum percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the content of the cryolite material can be within a range of 0.5 vol% to 5 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion. In other embodiments, an abrasive portion can include at least 0.01 vol% calcium oxide material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as at least 0.02 vol%, or at least 0.03 vol%, or at least 0.04 vol% calcium oxide material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. In additional embodiments, an abrasive portion may include not greater than 1 vol% calcium oxide material for a total volume of the abrasive portion, such as not greater than 0.8 vol%, or not greater than 0.5 vol%, or not greater than 0.2 vol%, or not greater than 0.1 vol%, or not greater than 0.08 vol%, or not greater than 0.06 vol% calcium oxide material for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that the content of the calcium oxide material can be within a range including any of the percentages noted herein. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the content of the calcium oxide material can be within a range of 0.01 vol% to 0.5 vol% for a total volume of an abrasive portion.

In particular embodiments, an abrasive portion can include an amount of porosity, such as at least 7 vol% porosity for a total volume of the abrasive portion, or at least 8 vol% or at least 10 vol% or at least 12 vol% or at least 14 vol% or at least 15 vol% or at least 17 vol% or at least 19 vol% or at least 21 vol% or at least 23 vol% or at least 25 vol% or at least 27 vol% or at least 29 vol% or at least 30 vol% porosity for a total volume of the abrasive portion. In additional cases, an abrasive portion may include not greater than 31 vol% porosity for a total volume of the abrasive portion, not greater than 30 vol% or not greater than 29 vol% or not greater than 27 vol% or not greater than 25 vol% or not greater than 24 vol% or not greater than 22 vol% or not greater than 20 vol% or not greater than 18 vol% or not greater than 17 vol% or not greater than 15 vol% or not greater than 13 vol% or not greater than 10 vol% or not greater than 9 vol% or not greater than 7 vol% porosity for a total volume of the abrasive portion. It will be appreciated that the porosity of an abrasive portion can be within a range between any of the values noted above. In a particular illustrative embodiment, the porosity of an abrasive portion can be within a range of 10 vol% to 25 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

FIG. 6 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with an embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 6, the cutting wheel 200 includes a mounting hole 204 having a diameter 206 and an abrasive portion 602 having a thickness 604. The cutting wheel 200 also includes an outer diameter 208.

FIG. 7 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with another embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 7, the cutting wheel 200 includes a mounting hole 204. The cutting wheel 200 also includes a first abrasive portion 702 and a second abrasive portion 704.

Additionally, the cutting wheel 200 includes a first reinforcement member 706 and a second reinforcement member 708. Further, the first abrasive portion 702 and the second abrasive portion 704 can each have a respective thickness, such as thickness 710. The first reinforcement member 706 and the second reinforcement member 708 can each have a respective thickness, such as thickness 712.

FIG. 8 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with an additional embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 8, the cutting wheel 200 includes a mounting hole 204, a first abrasive portion 802, and a second abrasive portion 804. The cutting wheel 200 also includes a first reinforcement member 806, a second reinforcement member 808, and a third reinforcement member 810. In some cases, as in the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 8, a portion of the second abrasive portion 804 can be in contact with the third reinforcement member 810.

FIG. 9 includes a cross-sectional view of the cutting wheel 200 of FIG. 2 having a depressed center configuration in accordance with a further embodiment. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. 9, the cutting wheel 200 includes a mounting hole 204, a first abrasive portion 902, a second abrasive portion 904, and a third abrasive portion 906. The cutting wheel 200 also includes a first reinforcement member 908 and a second reinforcement member 910.

Many different aspects and embodiments are possible. Some of those aspects and embodiments are described herein. After reading this specification, skilled artisans will appreciate that those aspects and embodiments are only illustrative and do not limit the scope of the present invention. Embodiments may be in accordance with any one or more of the embodiments as listed below.

Embodiment 1. An abrasive article, comprising:

a body including an abrasive portion including abrasive particles contained in a bond material,

wherein the abrasive particles include a first type of abrasive particle including brown alumina and a second type of abrasive particle including carbonate; and

wherein the body comprises an abrasive particle ratio (Ca2/C al ) of not greater than 1, wherein C al represents the content (vol%) of the first type of abrasive particle for a total volume of the abrasive portion and Ca2 represents the content (vol%) of the second type of abrasive particle for the total volume of the abrasive portion.

Embodiment 2. The abrasive article of embodiment 1, wherein the abrasive article includes a bonded abrasive tool.

Embodiment 3. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the brown alumina comprises Al 2 0 3 within a range of 88 wt% to 99 wt% for a total weight of the brown alumina, Fe 2 0 3 within a range of 0.03 wt% to about 4 wt% for the total weight of the brown alumina, Ti0 2 within a range of 0.1 wt% to about 3 wt% for the total weight of the brown alumina, Si0 2 within a range of 0.05 wt% to 5 wt% for the total weight of the brown alumina, or any combination thereof.

Embodiment 4. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive particle ratio (C a2 /C al ) is at least 0.13 and not greater than 0.6.

Embodiment 5. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the body comprises a content of the second type of the abrasive particles of at least 7 vol% and not greater than 45 vol% for a total volume of the abrasive portion.

Embodiment 6. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the first type of the abrasive particles comprises brown fused alumina.

Embodiment 7. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the first type of the abrasive particles consists essentially of brown fused alumina.

Embodiment 8. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the second type of abrasive particle comprises calcium carbonate.

Embodiment 9. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the second type of abrasive particle comprises calcium magnesium carbonate.

Embodiment 10. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the second type of abrasive particle comprises dolomite (CaMg(C0 3 ) 2 ).

Embodiment 11. The abrasive article of embodiment 10, wherein the second type of abrasive particle consists essentially of dolomite.

Embodiment 12. The abrasive article of embodiment 10, wherein the second type of the abrasive particles comprises an average particle size of at least 250 μιη and not greater than 800 μιη.

Embodiment 13. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive portion comprises a filler material including pyrite, cryolite, CaO, or any combination thereof.

Embodiment 14. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive portion comprises a filler material present in a content of at least 2 vol % and not greater than 15 vol% for the total volume of the abrasive portion

Embodiment 15. The abrasive article of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the abrasive portion comprises for a total volume of the abrasive portion:

a porosity of at least 7 vol% and not greater than 30 vol%;

the bond material of at least 25 vol% and not greater than 62 vol%, wherein the bond material comprises an organic material; and

abrasive particles of at least 30 vol% and not greater than 60 vol%.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Representative cutting wheel samples, S 1 and S2, were formed according to embodiments described herein. Conventional cutting wheel samples CS were formed using the same process but having a different composition than the compositions of S I and S2. The content of each component for forming S I, S2, and CS cutting wheel samples is included and expressed both in vol% and wt% in Table 1. The volume content is for the total volume of the body of each wheel sample, and the weight content is for the total weight of each mixture prepared for forming the respective sample. Brown fused alumina abrasive particles and dolomite abrasive particles had a similar average particle size of about 600 microns. For each composition, 3 to 5 samples were formed. All of the samples were used to cut carbon steel pipes having the dimension of < 60X3mm with a cutting machine from Makita Co. Ltd. The cutting machine was operated at a speed of 3800 rotations per minute. The power of the cutting machine was 12 kW and the working volume was 220 V. Forty cuts were made to the workpiece to determine the G-Ratios of the cutting wheel samples.

Table 1

FIG. 10 includes a bar histogram indicating a mean G-ratio (represented by the bars in the figure) for the cutting wheel samples S I, S2, and CS. Cutting wheel samples S I demonstrated comparable G-Ratio compared to that of CS and S2 demonstrated improved mean G-Ratio compared to that of CS.

The foregoing embodiments are directed to abrasive products, and particularly bonded abrasive cutting wheels, which represent a departure from the state-of-the-art. The cutting wheels of the embodiments herein utilize a combination of features that facilitate improved performance over conventional cutting wheels. As described in the present application, the cutting wheels of the embodiments herein utilize a particular amount and type of abrasive particles, filler material, and bond material, which has led to significant and unexpected results in terms of the performance of the abrasive articles.

Benefits, other advantages, and solutions to problems have been described above with regard to specific embodiments. However, the benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any feature(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as a critical, required, or essential feature of any or all the claims. Reference herein to a material including one or more components may be interpreted to include at least one embodiment wherein the material consists essentially of the one or more components identified. The term "consisting essentially" will be interpreted to include a composition including those materials identified and excluding all other materials except in minority contents (e.g., impurity contents), which do not significantly alter the properties of the material. Additionally, or in the alternative, in certain non-limiting embodiments, any of the compositions identified herein may be essentially free of materials that are not expressly disclosed. The embodiments herein include range of contents for certain components within a material, and it will be appreciated that the contents of the components within a given material total 100%.

The specification and illustrations of the embodiments described herein are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of the various embodiments. The specification and illustrations are not intended to serve as an exhaustive and comprehensive description of all of the elements and features of apparatus and systems that use the structures or methods described herein. Separate embodiments may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment, and conversely, various features that are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any subcombination. Further, reference to values stated in ranges includes each and every value within that range. Many other embodiments may be apparent to skilled artisans only after reading this specification. Other embodiments may be used and derived from the disclosure, such that a structural substitution, logical substitution, or another change may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Accordingly, the disclosure is to be regarded as illustrative rather than restrictive.