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Title:
AN A.C. CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1998/033256
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An a.c. current distribution system fed by a current source for providing electrical power to a load, the current distribution system comprising a first and second conductive means connectable to the current source and coupling means to couple substantially one half of the load in series at a first position along the first conductive means and to couple substantially the other half of the load in series at a second position along the second conductive means, the first and second positions being substantially adjacent one another.

Inventors:
Rimmer, Philip John (60 Endlebury Road, Chingford, London E4 6QG, GB)
Application Number:
PCT/GB1998/000239
Publication Date:
July 30, 1998
Filing Date:
January 27, 1998
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TUNEWELL TECHNOLOGY LIMITED (31 Commercial Road, London N18 ITN, GB)
Rimmer, Philip John (60 Endlebury Road, Chingford, London E4 6QG, GB)
International Classes:
H01F29/14; (IPC1-7): H02J3/10
Foreign References:
US5465010A
EP0597661A1
EP0587923A1
US3783374A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Frankland, Nigel H. (Forrester Ketley & Co, Forrester House 52 Bounds Green Road, London N11 2EY, GB)
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Claims:
CLAIMS:
1. An a.c. current distribution system fed by a current source for providing electrical power to a load, the current distribution system comprising a first and second conductive means connectable to the current source and coupling means to couple substantially one half of the load in series at a first position along the first conductive means and to couple substantially the other half of the load in series at a second position along the second conductive means, the first and second positions being substantially adjacent one another.
2. A system according to Claim 1, wherein the load comprises two distinct half loads, each of which is ohmically connected in series to the respective conductive means.
3. A system according to Claim 1, wherein the load is inductively coupled to the respective conductive means by a transformer.
4. A system according to Claim 3, wherein the load is ohmically connected across the terminals of one or more secondary windings of the transformer and the coupling means comprises a pair of substantially identical primary windings of the transformer, each of which is ohmically connected in series to the respective conductive means, the voltage drops across the primary windings being substantially identical, such that the load is split substantially equally between the two primary windings.
5. A system according to Claim 3 or 4, wherein the transformer has an Etype core, the central core thereof being wound with a control coil operable to saturate the core to limit the voltage generated across the or each secondary winding.
6. A system according to any preceding Claim, wherein a balancing transformer centretapped to zero volts is connected across the first and second conductive means to balance voltages on the conductive means at either end of the balancing transformer to be substantially opposite one another such that the sum of these voltages at any instant is zero.
7. A system according to Claim 6, wherein the balancing transformer is a tightly coupled bifilar wound toroid.
8. A system according to Claim 6 or 7, wherein a balancing transformer is incorporated in the current distribution system if the voltage drops across the means for coupling substantially one half of the load to the first conductive means and the other half of the load to the second conductive means are not substantially identical.
9. A system according to any preceding Claims, wherein the conductive means comprises a pair of conductive tracks.
10. A system according to Claim 9, wherein the tracks are made from copper.
11. A system according to Claim 9 or 10, wherein the tracks run parallel to one another and are separated by an insulating material.
12. A system according to Claim 11, wherein the insulating material is a plastics material such as polyester, polypropylene or polyphenylene sulphide.
13. A system according to any preceding Claim, wherein the frequency of operation is in the region of 20 kHz or greater.
14. A method of reducing the electric field in a current distribution system comprising the steps of coupling a load to be powered by a current source feeding the current distribution system to a first and a second conductive means connectable to the current source wherein substantially one half of the load is coupled in series at a first position along the first conductive means and substantially the other half of the load is coupled in series at a second position along the second conductive means, the first and second positions being substantially adjacent one another such that the sum of the voltages on the conductive means in the same locality at any one instant is zero.
15. A method according to Claim 14, wherein the load comprises two distinct half loads which are ohmically connected in series to the respective conductive means.
Description:
"AN A.C. CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM" THIS INVENTION relates to improvements in or relating to an a.c.

current distribution system and more particularly relates to an a.c. current distribution system for minimising the electric field along the current distribution system.

A typical a.c. voltage distribution system is shown in Figure 1 of the accompanying drawings. The a.c. voltage distribution system comprises first and second voltage generators which generate, respectively, a.c. voltages VA and VB, VA being equal to and 1800 out of phase with VB such that VA = VB. The two voltages are fed down a power bus comprising a pair of conductive tracks which run parallel to one another and are separated from one another. As seen in Figure 1, various impedance loads may be connected to the tracks along the length of the tracks. Such a voltage distribution system is characterised by the sum of the currents in the adjacent tracks at any one instant in a specific locality along the tracks being zero thereby resulting in a low magnetic field (H-field). Similarly, the sum of the voltages in the adjacent tracks at any instant in a specific locality along the tracks are also zero. This results in a low electric field (E-field).

In some applications, it is preferable to use an a.c.

current distribution system rather than an a.c. voltage distribution system such as a current loop system. An example of such a current distribution system is shown in Figure 2 of the accompanying drawings.

A typical a.c. current distribution system comprises two a.c. current generators which generate, respectively, currents I and I at voltages V1 and V2, where V2 = V1. The current generators are regulated to be constant and precisely antiphase with one another, although the amplitude of the current need not be precisely regulated. The currents are fed to a current loop comprising a pair of conductive tracks which run parallel to one another and are separated from one another. Any impedance loads to be powered from the current loop system are connected in series to one or other of the tracks. At any instant, the sum of the currents in a specific locality along the lengths of the tracks is zero. This results in a low magnetic field. However, in contrast to the a.c. voltage distribution system, the sum of the voltages at any instant along the tracks in a specific locality is not zero and, in fact, increases along the length of the tracks depending upon the number of loads connected in series along the tracks. This results in a worsening electric field along the length of the tracks. For example, in the locality immediately between the current generators and a first load, the sum of the voltages is zero at any one instant. In the locality immediately after the first load and before the second load, the sum of the voltages is: EV = V1 + V1 - VLoad Further, at the tip of the loop, the sum of the voltages, EV, equals 2V1. The increase in the sum of the voltages, ZV, from 0 to 2V1 results in a worsening electric field along the length of the track.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an a.c.

current distribution system which does not suffer from the above- mentioned disadvantages.

Accordingly, one aspect of the present invention provides an a.c. current distribution system fed by a current source for providing electrical power to a load, the current distribution system comprising a first and second conductive means connectable to the current source and coupling means to couple substantially one half of the load in series at a first position along the first conductive means, and to couple substantially the other half of the load in series at a second position along the second conductive means, the first and second positions being substantially adjacent one another.

Another aspect of the present invention provides a method of reducing the electric field in an a.c. current distribution system comprising the steps of coupling a load to be powered by a current source feeding the current distribution system to a first and a second conductive means connectable to the current source wherein substantially one half of the load is coupled in series at a first position along the first conductive means and substantially the other half of the load is coupled in series at a second position along the second conductive means, the first and second positions being substantially adjacent one another such that the sum of the voltages on the conductive means in the same locality at any one instant is zero.

Conveniently, the load comprises two distinct half loads, each of which is ohmically connected in series to the respective conductive means.

Preferably, the load is inductively coupled to the respective conductive means by a transformer.

Advantageously, the load is ohmically connected across the terminals of one or more secondary windings of the transformer and the coupling means comprises a pair of substantially identical primary windings of the transformer, each of which is ohmically connected in series to the respective conductive means, the voltage drops across the primary windings being substantially identical, such that the load is split substantially equally between the two primary windings.

In order that the present invention may be more readily understood, embodiments thereof will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a known a.c.

voltage distribution system; FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of a known a.c.

current distribution system; FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of a first embodiment of an a.c. current distribution system according to the present invention; FIG. 4 is a second embodiment of an a.c. current distribution system according to the present invention; FIG. 5 is a further embodiment of an a.c. current distribution system according to the present invention incorporating a balancing transformer; FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of the embodiment of FIG. 2 incorporating a balancing transformer; and FIG. 7 is a schematic representation of the embodiment of FIG. 2 provided with a control coil.

Referring to Figure 2, the problem associated with known a.c. current distribution systems is that the electric field worsens as loads are connected in series along the length of the track. As previously mentioned, referring to Figure 2, a typical a.c. current distribution system comprises two a.c. current generators which generate, respectively, currents I and I at voltages V1 and V2, where V2 = V1. The currents are fed to a current loop comprising a pair of conductive tracks which run parallel to one another and are preferably separated from one another.

Any impedance loads to be powered from the current loop system are connected in series to one or other of the tracks.

At any instant, the sum of the currents in a specific locality along the lengths of the tracks is zero. This results in a low magnetic field. However, in contrast to the voltage distribution system, the sum of the voltages at any instant along the tracks in a specific locality is not zero and, in fact, increases along the length of the tracks depending upon the number of loads connected in series along the tracks. This results in a worsening electric field along the length of the tracks. For example, in the locality immediately between the current generators and a first load, the sum of the voltages is zero at any one instant. In the locality immediately after the first load and before the second load, the sum of the voltages is: ZV = V1 + V1 - VLoad Further, at the tip of the loop, the sum of the voltages, SV, equals 2V1. The increase in the sum of the voltages, SV, from 0 to 2V1 results in a worsening electric field along the length of the track.

Referring to Figure 3, an a.c. current distribution system embodying the present invention incorporates a conventional current source as previously described in relation to the current distribution system shown in Figure 2. The current source feeds the current loop comprising two conductive tracks 10,11.

An impedance load LT is to be powered from the current loop.

The load LT is split into two equal half loads LA LB which are connected in series to respective tracks 10,11 substantially adjacent one another in the same locality - i.e. distance along the tracks from the current source. Thus, half the load LA is connected in series with the first track 10 and half the load LB is connected in series with the second track 11. The voltage on track 10 immediately before the first half load LA is V1 and the voltage immediately after the first half load LA is V,-V,.

Similarly, the voltage on track 11 immediately before the second half load LB is V1 and the voltage immediately after the second half load LB on track 11 is V1~VLB. By locating half the load LT on each of the tracks 10,11, the sum of the voltages immediately preceding the half loads L,,LB on tracks 10 and 11 is zero (V1 + V1) and the sum of the voltages on the tracks 10,11 immediately after the half loads LA,LB is also zero (V1 + VLA) + (V1 - ALB), where LA = LB and VLA = VLB. In this manner, not only are any voltage drops across the impedance load LT matched, but also any phase changes. Thus, should the impedance load incorporate a reactive component, these too will sum to zero.

In contrast to the conventional a.c. current distribution system, the current distribution system embodying the present invention maintains a substantially zero electric field not only along the tracks 10,11 before any impedance loads but also after any loads since the impedance loads are split evenly at substantially the same localities along the tracks 10,11 around the current loop.

An example of a load LT which can be split into equal parts as described above would be a double incandescent stop lamp comprising two separate 5 Ohm bulbs. The first bulb could comprise the first half load LA on the first track 10 and the second bulb of the pair could comprise the second half load LB on the track 11. Alternatively, if only a single 10 Ohm incandescent bulb is to be used as part of a cluster, two separate 5 Ohm bulbs could be connected to respective tracks 10,11 rather than using a single bulb. In this manner, the load is evenly split in the same locality between the tracks and the electric field along the tracks is thus maintained at substantially zero.

Of course, there are some loads which are either impossible or impractical to split. In such circumstances, the same concept as described above is implemented but the load is inductively coupled to the tracks 10,11 of the current loop using a transformer. Such an arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 4. The unsplitable load LT is connected to the terminals of a secondary winding S of a transformer. The transformer has a pair of primary windings P1, P2. One of the primary windings P1 is connected in series with the track 10 and the other primary winding P2 is connected in series at the same locality along the lengths of the tracks 10,11 to track 11. The primary windings are adjacent one another and are inductively coupled to the secondary winding S and thence to the load LT. P1 and P2 are substantially identical primary windings which cause identical voltage drops either side thereof such that the sum of the voltages at any locality along the track 10,11 within the distribution system at any one instant is zero. Accordingly, the electric field is maintained at substantially zero.

Transformers which are used for other purposes such as isolation, voltage/current matching to a load or, indeed, control purposes can be easily integrated for use in an a.c. current distribution system embodying the present invention.

Embodiments of the present invention are particularly well suited to operation at frequencies of the 20 kHz or greater range.

Preferably, the primary windings P1 and P2 have an identical number of turns and are perfectly matched and result in a 1:1 ratio with perfect coupling. However, in some circumstances, the coupling between the primary windings is not perfect and can, therefore, lead to slight discrepancies between the voltages present immediately before the primary windings on the tracks 10,11 and those present immediately after the primary windings.

A similar problem can arise if the load described in Figure 3 is not split exactly equally when connected in series on tracks 10 and 11.

In circumstances where the load has not been split equally or when the primary windings do not exhibit perfect coupling, it is possible to remedy the situation by connecting a balancing auxiliary transformer Tx across the tracks 10,11. The auxiliary balancing transformer could be a tightly coupled bifilar wound toroid. The centre of the transformer coil is centre-tapped to zero volts. This arrangement serves to balance the voltages at the point of connection of the balancing transformer Tx to the tracks 10,11 to be exactly opposite one another such that the sum of these voltages at the locality at any instant will be zero.

Little power is transferred between the primary windings P1 and P2 so any current in the balancing transformers would be low.

Referring to Figure 6, the existing primary and secondary windings Pl, P2, Sl, S2 of an E-type core transformer connected to a load LT can be easily incorporated into an a.c. current distribution system according to the present invention by simply connecting the terminals of the first primary winding P1 in series to track 10 and the terminals of the secondary primary winding P2 in series to the track 11 at substantially the same locality along the tracks 10,11.

The auxiliary balancing transformer Tx, previously discussed in relation to Figure 5, can be implemented as shown in Figure 6. The balancing transformer Tx has been wound around the central core of the E-type core. Respective pairs of primary and secondary windings Pl, P2, Si, S2 are wound in conventional positions on the other arms of the transformer.

As previously mentioned, existing transformers used for other purposes, such as control purposes, are easily implemented in an a.c. current distribution system embodying the present invention. In one such embodiment, shown in Figure 7, the central core of the transformer shown in Figure 6 can be wound with a control winding C to replace the balancing transformer Tx The primary windings P1, P2 are split as previously described in relation to Figure 4 and connected respectively in series to the tracks 10,11 such that any voltage drop or phase shift across one primary winding is matched by one identical voltage drop or phase shift in the other primary winding. For example, for power lines or the like. When energised, the control winding saturates the core thereby limiting the voltage generated across the secondary windings S1, S2 and provided to the inductance load LT. If the current to the control winding C around the saturable core is terminated, then the core becomes substantially un-saturated enabling the normal output voltage on the secondary windings S1, S2 to power the load LT. Such an arrangement allows ready control and switching of the load by appropriately altering the current supplied to the control winding C, whilst maintaining an equal voltage drop across the primary windings connected in series to the respective tracks 10,11. In one embodiment the tracks 10,11 are made from copper and run parallel to one another and are spaced apart by a small distance in the order of lOths of millimetres. These tracks 10,11 are separated by an insulating plastics layer 12 such as a polyester, polypropylene or polyphenylene sulphide. The thickness of the insulating layer 12 is in the order of 0.lmm.

Whilst previously described embodiments are on a small scale, it is envisaged that the same concept can be easily implemented on a larger scale.




 
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