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Title:
ADAPTIVE LIGHTING ARRAY WITH IMAGE-BASED CONTROL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/155426
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A light assembly is configured to selectively illuminate an operating region in a surgical suite. The assembly comprises a plurality of lighting modules comprising a plurality of light sources configured to emit light. The assembly further comprises at least one imager configured to capture image data disposed in at least one of the lighting modules. An articulating head assembly is configured to support each of the lighting modules. The articulating head assembly comprises a plurality of actuators configured to rotate each of the lighting modules about a first axis and a second axis. The assembly further comprises a controller. The controller is configured to scan the image data for at least one region of interest comprising at least one of a shaded region and a contaminated region.

Inventors:
HALLACK, Jason D. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
LINTZ, Joshua D. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
FALB, David M. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
GEERLINGS, Kurtis L. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
TONAR, William L. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
HAMLIN, Bradley R. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
SCHUT, Jeremy A. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
VANVUUREN, Mark A. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
VEENMAN, Steven J. (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
Application Number:
IB2019/051048
Publication Date:
August 15, 2019
Filing Date:
February 08, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GENTEX CORPORATION (600 North Centennial Street, Zeeland, Michigan, 49464, US)
International Classes:
H05B37/02; F21V17/02
Foreign References:
US5347431A1994-09-13
US7224472B22007-05-29
US6471363B22002-10-29
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CALLAGHAN, Terry S. (Price Heneveld LLP, 695 Kenmoor S.E.,P.O. Box 256, Grand Rapids Michigan, 49501-2567, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A light assembly configured to selectively illuminate an operating region in a surgical suite, the assembly comprising:

a plurality of lighting modules comprising a plurality of light sources configured to emit light;

at least one imager configured to capture image data disposed in at least one of the lighting modules;

an articulating head assembly configured to support each of the lighting modules, wherein the articulating head assembly comprises a plurality of actuators, the actuators configured to rotate each of the lighting modules about a first axis and a second axis; and a controller configured to control the plurality of actuators to direct the light from one or more of the lighting modules to the region of interest.

2. The lighting assembly according to claim 1, wherein the lighting modules form an array in connection with the articulating head assembly via a central control arm.

3. The lighting assembly according to claim 2, wherein the articulating head assembly comprises a central control arm defining a first axis, the central control arm in connection with a first actuator configured to rotate the plurality of lighting modules about the first axis.

4. The lighting assembly according to claim 3, wherein the articulating head assembly further comprises a plurality of secondary support arms extending from the central support arm.

5. The lighting assembly according to claim 4, wherein the plurality of secondary support arms define a second axis, the secondary support arms in connection with a second actuator configured to rotate the plurality of lighting modules about the second axis.

6. The lighting assembly according to claim 5, wherein the second axis is substantially perpendicular to the first axis.

7. The lighting assembly according to any one of claims 5-6, further comprising a lateral support structure configured to support at least one of the plurality of lighting modules.

8. The lighting assembly according to claim 7, wherein the at least one of the plurality of lighting modules is in connection with the lateral support structure via a third actuator.

9. The lighting assembly according to claim 8, wherein the third actuator is configured to rotate the at least one lighting module of the plurality of lighting modules relative to the plurality of lighting modules.

10. The lighting assembly according to claim 9, wherein the rotation of the at least one lighting module adjusts an illumination region of the plurality of lighting modules.

11. A method for controlling a lighting assembly comprising:

controlling a plurality of emission directions of a plurality of light emissions from a plurality of lighting modules, wherein each of the lighting assemblies comprises a articulating head assembly configured to control the emission directions about a plurality of rotational axes;

illuminating an operating region with the plurality of light emissions;

capturing image data in a field of view of at least one camera, the image data comprising reflected light from the plurality of emissions;

identifying an illumination variation in the image data; and

controlling the plurality of lighting modules to limit the illumination variation in the image data.

12. The method according to claim 11, further comprising:

controlling a first articulating head assembly of the first lighting module from a first origin and a second articulating head assembly of the second lighting module from a second origin.

IB. The method according to claim 12, wherein the second origin is separated spatially from the first origin.

14. The method according to claim 13, further comprising:

identifying the illumination variation in the image data as an occluded region, wherein the occluded region comprises a location blocked from transmission by the first emission.

15. The method according to claim 14, further comprising:

illuminating the occluded region with the second emission.

16. The method according to claim 15, wherein the spatial separation of the second origin relative to the first origin provides for the illuminating of the occluded region with the second emission.

17. A system configured to illuminate an operating region comprising:

a plurality of lighting assemblies comprising:

a plurality of lighting modules comrpising a plurality of light sources; and an articulating head assembly in connection with each of the lighting modules, the articulating head assemblies configured to support each of the lighting modules and rotate each of the lighting modules about a first axis and a second axis;

at least one imager configured to capture image data comprising light reflected from the light sources in the operating region;

a controller configured to control the plurality of actuators to direct the light from one or more of the lighting modules to a region of interest.

18. The system according to claim 17, wherein the plurality of lighting assemblies comprises a first lighting assembly configured to emit a first emission from a first lighting module and a second lighting assembly configured to emit a second emission from a second lighting module.

19. The system according to claim 18, wherein a second origin of the second emission is separated spatially from a first origin of the first emission.

20. The system according to claim 19, wherein the controller is further configured to: identify an illumination variation in the image data as an occluded region, wherein the occluded region comprises a location blocked from transmission by the first emission; and

directing the second emission to illuminate the occluded region.

Description:
ADAPTIVE LIGHTING ARRAY WITH IMAGE-BASED CONTROL

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0001] The present disclosure generally relates to illumination systems and, more particularly, to surgical theater and surgical suite illumination systems.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0002] Artificial lighting provided in surgical theaters and surgical suites may present a number of issues with regard to positioning, shadows, luminosity, and glare. Often, medical professionals are not stationary, and the lighting needs to be dynamic due to the shifting of personnel and instruments throughout the surgical procedure. Further, differences in the physical dimensions of personnel may make positioning light sources challenging. Accordingly, new illumination systems for surgical suites may be advantageous.

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT DISCLOSURE

[0003] According to one aspect of this disclosure, a light assembly is configured to selectively illuminate an operating region in a surgical suite. The assembly comprises a plurality of lighting modules comprising a plurality of light sources configured to emit light. The assembly further comprises at least one imager configured to capture image data disposed in at least one of the lighting modules. An articulating head assembly is configured to support each of the lighting modules. The articulating head assembly comprises a plurality of actuators configured to rotate each of the lighting modules about a first axis and a second axis. The assembly further comprises a controller. The controller is configured to scan the image data for at least one region of interest comprising at least one of a shaded region and a contaminated region. The controller is further configured to control the plurality of actuators to direct the light from one or more of the lighting modules on the region of interest.

[0004] According to another aspect of this disclosure, a method for controlling a lighting assembly is disclosed. The method comprises controlling a plurality of emission directions of a plurality of light emissions from a plurality of lighting modules. Each of the lighting assemblies comprises an articulating head assembly configured to control the emission directions about a plurality of rotational axes. The method further comprises illuminating an operating region with the plurality of light emissions and capturing image data in a field of view of at least one camera, the image data comprising reflected light from the plurality of emissions. The method further comprises identifying an illumination variation in the image data and controlling the plurality of lighting modules to limit the illumination variation in the image data.

[0005] According to yet another aspect of this disclosure, a system configured to illuminate an operating region is disclosed. The system comprises a plurality of lighting assemblies. The plurality of lighting assemblies comprises a plurality of lighting modules comrpising a plurality of light sources and an articulating head assembly. The articulating head assembly is in connection with each of the lighting modules. The articulating head assemblies are configured to support each of the lighting modules and rotate each of the lighting modules about a first axis and a second axis. The system further comprises at least one imager configured to capture image data comprising light reflected from the light sources in the operating region. A controller is configured to control the plurality of actuators to direct the light from one or more of the lighting modules to a region of interest.

[0006] These and other aspects, objects, and features of the present disclosure will be understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art upon studying the following specification, claims, and appended drawings. It will also be understood that features of each example disclosed herein may be used in conjunction with, or as a replacement for, features of the other examples.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] The following is a description of the figures in the accompanying drawings. The figures are not necessarily to scale, and certain features and certain views of the figures may be shown exaggerated in scale or in schematic in the interest of clarity.

[0008] In the drawings:

[0009] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a surgical suite utilizing an illumination system;

[0010] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a surgical suite comprising an illumination system configured for adaptive lighting;

[0011] FIG. 3 is a schematic view lighting module of an illumination system; [0012] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a surgical suite comprising an illumination system comprising an articulating head assembly configured for adaptive lighting;

[0013] FIG. 5 is a schematic view of an illumination system comprising an articulating head assembly including an array of lighting modules;

[0014] FIG. 6 is a schematic view of an illumination system comprising an array of articulating head assemblies, each including an array of lighting modules; and

[0015] FIG. 7 is a block diagram of an illumination system in accordance with the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0016] Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the detailed description which follows and will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the description or recognized by practicing the invention as described in the following description together with the claims and appended drawings.

[0017] As used herein, the term "and/or," when used in a list of two or more items, means that any one of the listed items can be employed by itself, or any combination of two or more of the listed items can be employed. For example, if a composition is described as containing components A, B, and/or C, the composition can contain A alone; B alone; C alone; A and B in combination; A and C in combination; B and C in combination; or A, B, and C in combination.

[0018] In this document, relational terms, such as first and second, top and bottom, and the like, are used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action, without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. The terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. An element proceeded by "comprises . . . a" does not, without more constraints, preclude the existence of additional identical elements in the process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises the element.

[0019] Referring to FIG. 1, a schematic view of a surgical suite utilizing an illumination system 10 is shown. The illumination system 10 is depicted in a surgical suite 14 and includes one or more light assemblies 18. The light assemblies 18 may include one or more light sources 20. The illumination system 10 may include one or more imagers 22 depicted to aid in the use of the illumination system 10. The imager 22 may be positioned within or coupled to the light assemblies 18 (e.g., in handles or bodies), a table 26, a wearable device 28 and/or around the surgical suite 14. The imager 22 may be a charge- coupled device (CCD) imager, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) imager, other types of imagers and/or combinations thereof. According to various examples, the imager 22 may include one or more lenses to collimate and/or focus the light reflected by the patient, the table 26 or other features of the surgical suite 14.

[0020] The table 26 may at least partially define a surgical field 30. For purposes of this disclosure, the surgical field 30 may be an operating field, which may be an isolated area where surgery is performed. All furniture and equipment in the surgical field 30 may be covered with sterile drapes. Positioned within the surgical suite 14 may be one or more instruments 34 or tools that may be utilized in various procedures. Although described in connection with the surgical suite 14, it will be understood that the illumination system 10 of the present disclosure may be utilized in a variety of environments. For example, the illumination system 10 may be utilized in automobile repair areas, doctors' offices, dentistry, photography studios, manufacturing settings, as well as other areas where dynamic lighting solutions may be advantageous.

[0021] The table 26 may be configured to support a patient during a surgical procedure.

According to various examples, the table 26 may have a square, rectangular and/or oval configuration. The table 26 may be composed of a metal (e.g., stainless steel), a polymer and/or combinations thereof. According to various examples, a sterile covering (e.g., a cloth or paper) may be positioned across a surface of the table 26. The table 26 may be configured to tilt, rotate and/or be raised or lowered. The tilting of the table 26 may be advantageous in allowing users (e.g., medical personnel) positioned around the table 26 to more easily access the patient and/or surgical field 30. In addition to tilting, it will be understood that the table 26 may be configured to raise or lower, rotate and/or slide about an X-Y plane.

[0022] As provided by various embodiments of the disclosure, the lighting system 10 may provide for adaptive lighting configured to detect lighting levels in the surgical suite 14. For example, the position of one or more instruments 34 and/or medical personnel 36 may cause one or more shadows 38 to form. The one or more imagers 22 of the system 10 may be configured to capture image data demonstrating the shadows 38. The image data may be supplied to a controller 40, which may identify the location of the shadows 38 in the surgical suite 14 and/or the surgical field 30. In response to identifying the shadows 38, the controller 40 may be configured to control the light assemblies 18 to alter the intensity, focus, and/or origin of the light emitted from the light assemblies 18 to illuminate the shadows 38. For example, the light control routine may auto adjust the intensity of one or more of the light sources 20 if another light source 20 gets blocked or begins producing shadows.

[0023] In some embodiments, the disclosure may further provide for the detection and/or treatment of potentially contaminated regions 42 of the surgical suite 14 and/or the surgical field 30. The contaminated regions 42 may correspond to regions where dirt, biological material, and/or bodily fluids (e.g. mucus, blood, saliva, urine, etc.) may be deposited in the surgical suite 14. Such material may be deposited as a result of one or more procedures or foreign contaminants shed by patients or personnel in the surgical suite 14. In such embodiments, the system 10 may be configured to selectively illuminate various regions in the surgical suite 14 with a detection emission of light ranging from approximately 25 nm to 600 nm. In response to receiving the detection emission, the contaminated regions 42 may absorb one or more bands of wavelengths in the detection emission. Based on the varying levels of absorption, the one or more imagers 22 may be configured to identify the contaminated regions 42.

[0024] In addition to identifying the contaminated regions 42, the system 10 may further provide for disinfection of the contaminated regions 42. For example, in some embodiments, one or more of the light sources 20 of the light assemblies 18 may be configured to emit wavelengths of germicidal light. Accordingly, in response to identifying the contaminated region 42 in the surgical suite 14, the controller 40 may activate a germicidal emission of the germicidal light to sterilize bacteria that may occupy the contaminated region 42. As discussed herein, the selective illumination of the region of the surgical suite 14 wherein the contaminated region 42 is located may be illuminated by selectively activating the light sources 20 and adjusting the intensity, focus, and/or origin from where the germicidal emission is emitted. The germicidal emission may comprise wavelengths of light ranging from approximately 260 nm to 270 nm. Such wavelengths may be emitted from one or more of the light sources 20, which may comprise Mercury-based lamps, Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode (UV-C LED) lamps, and/or pulsed-xenon lamps.

[0025] The light assemblies 18 may take a variety of configurations. The light assemblies may include one or more light sources 20. In a first example, the light assemblies 18 may be modular and interconnected and supported by a track system. For example, the light assemblies 18 may have a circular, oval, oblong, triangular, square, rectangular, pentagonal or higher order polygon shape. It will be understood that different light assemblies 18 may take different shapes and that the illumination system may include a variety of light assemblies 18. The track system of the light assemblies 18 may allow for one or more light assemblies 18 to be moved relative to other light assemblies 18. The shape of the light assemblies 18 may be configured to allow the light assemblies 18 to "fit" or mate together along edges of the light assemblies 18. For example, square or triangular light assemblies 18 may be grouped in contact with one another or separated to form a larger shape (e.g., a cross, pentagon, freeform, etc.). According to various examples, the light assemblies 18 may be configured to snap together, or otherwise electrically and/or mechanically connect to one another. For example, the light assemblies 18 may share electrical power with one another once connected.

[0026] In various embodiments, the light assemblies 18 of the lighting system 10 may operate independently and may also operate in conjunction with one another. For example, each of the light assemblies may comprise the controller 40 and/or be in communication with the controller 40. Accordingly, the controller 40 may selectively activate one or more of the light sources 20 of the light assemblies 18 providing for a scalable system to be formed by each of the light assemblies 18 controlled by the controller 40 in concert. In this way, the lighting system 10 may be scaled and flexibly implemented in various permanent or permanent installations in accordance with the disclosure.

[0027] In yet another example, the light assembly 18 may be configured to operate in conjunction with a mirror 41. The mirror 41 may be positioned above the table 26. In the depicted example, the mirror 41 is positioned with the ceiling of the surgical suite 14, but it will be understood that the mirror 41 may additionally, or alternatively, be suspended above the table 26. According to various examples, the mirror 41 may be concave such that light emitted by the light assembly 18 may be collimated and reflected toward the table 26 and/or the patient. In such an example, the light assembly 18 may include one or a plurality of light sources 20 positioned in a ring and configured to emit light toward the mirror 41. The light sources 20 may be positioned proximate a perimeter of the mirror 41 and/or proximate the table 26. Such an example of the light assembly 18 may be advantageous in allowing the light sources 20 and/or light assembly 18 to be positioned in unconventional locations away from a ceiling of the surgical suite 14.

[0028] As explained above, the light assemblies 18 may include one or more light sources

20 configured to emit visible and/or non-visible light. For example, the light sources 20 may be configured to emit visible light, infrared light (e.g., near-infrared and/or far- infrared) and/or ultraviolet light. In some examples, the light sources 20 may be strobed at a controlled frequency. Visible light examples of light from the light sources 20 may have a color temperature of from about 1,700 K to about 27,000 K. The color temperature of one or more of the light sources 20 may be variable across the color temperature range. In examples of the light sources 20 configured to emit infrared light, the infrared light may be used with one or more guidance systems (e.g., scanning and control systems) as described in greater detail below. In examples of the light sources 20 which emit ultraviolet light, the ultraviolet light alone, or in combination with other features (e.g., Ti0 2 coatings, films and/or paints), may be configured to provide cleaning, sanitation and/or sterilization of surfaces (e.g., the table 26, instruments 34, the light assembly 18 and/or other portions of the surgical suite 14). For example, the ultraviolet light may be used in a photocatalytic process to kill bacteria, viruses, and/or to eliminate dirt and grime.

[0029] The light sources 20 may be light-emitting diodes, incandescent bulbs, and or other light-emitting sources. The light sources 20 may also be configured to emit light which excites a fluorescent dye. In such examples, the light may be referred to as an excitation emission. The excitation emission may be infrared, visible and/or ultraviolet light. In such examples, a fluorescent dye may be applied within the surgical site (e.g., incision or open cavity) of the patient such that application of the excitation emission to the patient causes the surgical site to fluoresce in visible light. Further, a biodegradable powder may be applied to the surgical site in the patient which may carry the fluorescent dye and/or be configured to reduce glare by scattering light off wet surfaces. In such an example, the biodegradable powder may be clear such that the underlying tissues are still visible, but alters the reflection of light such that the light is not specularly reflected and perceived as glare.

[0030] According to various examples, one or more of the light sources 20 is a light engine capable of producing un-polarized and/or polarized light of one-handedness including, but not limited to, certain liquid crystal displays (LCDs), laser diodes, light- emitting diodes (LEDs), incandescent light sources, halogen light sources and/or organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In polarized light examples of the light sources 20, the light sources 20 are configured to emit a first-handedness polarization of light. According to various examples, the first-handedness polarization of light may have a circular polarization and/or an elliptical polarization. In electrodynamics, circular polarization of light is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the light wave has a constant magnitude, but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave. A circularly polarized wave can be in one of two possible states, right handedness circular polarization in which the electric field vector rotates in a right-hand sense with respect to the direction of propagation, and left handedness circular polarization in which the vector rotates in a left-hand sense. Using the handedness convention, left or right handedness is determined by pointing one's left or right thumb toward the source, against the direction of propagation, and then matching the curling of one's fingers to the temporal rotation of the field. Elliptically polarized light may also be described as having a handedness in a substantially similar manner to that of the circularly polarized examples, but the electric vector varies in magnitude during rotation. Circular polarization of the light may be achieved when linearly polarized light from the light sources 20 passes through an integral or separate quarter-wave plate. Additionally, or alternatively, a reflective polarizer may be utilized. If a reflective polarizer is used on the light sources 20, as opposed to an absorbing polarizer, the light emitted by the light sources 20 that is the "wrong" polarization (e.g., the second-handedness polarization of light) is reflected back into the light source 20 where it can be "depolarized" and reflected back toward the polarizer.

[0031] In polarized examples of the light sources 20, as the surgical site of the patient is illuminated by the first-handedness polarization of light from the light sources 20, the moisture or water present within the patient may tend to specularly reflect the first- handedness polarization of light as the second-handedness polarization of light. As explained above, the first-handedness of polarization, once specularly reflected off of the patient may reverse in handedness to form the second-handedness polarization of light and be perceived by a human and/or machine (e.g., the imager 22) observer as glare. Generally, glare is the effect caused by the specular reflection of light reflected off of a smooth surface, such as a surface film of water. This glare can visually mask the details of the object below the reflecting surface and can obscure surrounding objects because the "glare" image appears brighter than surrounding objects. The reflected second- handedness polarization of light may be opposite from the first-handedness polarization of light. In examples where the first-handedness polarization of light is circularly polarized, the first and second polarizations of light are circularly polarized opposite from one another. In other words, the first and second polarizations of light may have an opposite handedness (e.g., left handedness and right handedness). As will be explained in greater detail below, an optical filter may be incorporated into the wearable device 28, into a filter positioned between the user and the patient, the imager 22 and/or into the movable screen example of the light assembly 18.

[0032] The light sources 20 may be light-emitting diodes, incandescent bulbs, and or other light-emitting sources. The light sources 20 may also be configured to emit light which excites a fluorescent dye. In such examples, the light may be referred to as an excitation-emission. The excitation-emission may be infrared, visible and/or ultraviolet light. In such examples, a fluorescent dye may be applied within the surgical site (e.g., incision or open cavity) of the patient such that application of the excitation-emission to the patient causes the surgical site to fluoresce in visible light. Further, a biodegradable powder may be applied to the surgical site in the patient which may carry the fluorescent dye and/or be configured to reduce glare by scattering light off wet surfaces. In such an example, the biodegradable powder may be clear such that the underlying tissues are still visible, but alters the reflection of light such that the light is not specularly reflected and perceived as glare.

[0033] FIG. 2 demonstrates a schematic view of a surgical suite comprising an illumination system configured for adaptive lighting. Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 2, the illumination system 10 may include one or more imagers 22. The imager 22 may be configured to capture image data in a field of view 50 capturing at least a portion of the surgical suite 14 and/or from the surgical field BO. The imager 22 may be configured to relay visual information to the controller 40 of the illumination system 10. The controller 40 may include a memory and a processor. The memory may store computer executable commands (e.g., routines) which are controlled by the processor. According to various examples, the memory may include a light control routine and/or an image analyzing routine. The image analyzing routine is configured to process data from the imager 22. For example, the image analyzing routine may be configured to identify shadows and luminosity of the surgical filed 30, the light from the guidance system, location of points of interest (e.g., users around the table 26, the wearable device 28) and/or gestures from the users. The controller 40 is further discussed in reference to FIG. 7, which illustrates an exemplary block diagram of the system 10.

[0034] According to various examples, the image analyzing routine may also be configured to identify the location of a plurality of markers 42 within the image. The markers 42 may be symbols, computer readable codes and/or patterns which designate a point of interest in the image. For example, a plurality of markers 42 can be positioned around the surgical field 30 such that the image analyzing routine may determine the perimeter of the surgical field 30. Further, one or more markers 42 may be positioned on the instruments 34, the users, points of interest in the surgical suite 14 and/or the patient. The image analyzing software may or may not track light from the guidance system outside of the perimeter indicated by the markers 42 and/or the surgical field 30.

[0035] Once the image analyzing routine has processed the data from the imager 22, the light control routine may control how the light assemblies 18 are operated. For example, the light control routine may be configured to move, steer, activate or otherwise influence the light assemblies 18 to emit light where the user is looking or working (e.g., as measured from the guidance system). In such embodiments, the system 10 may comprise one or more positioning devices 54 (e.g., a motor, actuator, etc.), which may correspond to electro-mechanical systems configured to adjust a position and or projection direction 56 of one or more of the light sources 20. In static, or fixed, examples of the light sources 20, the light sources 20 may be assigned to focus on various predefined points (e.g., on a patient and/or on the table 26).

[0036] In some embodiments, the controller 40 may process and control the system 10 to complete a light control routine. The light control routine may selectively activate and\or steer lighting emissions 58 from the light sources 20 adjusting an orientation, position, and/or a location of origin of the lighting emissions based on the shadows 38 or variations in illumination in the surgical suite 14. The light control routine may gradually adjust the position or orientation of the lighting emissions 58 to minimize uncomfortable fast switching of illumination. In this way, the system 10 may provide for the detection and selective illumination of various portions of the surgical suite.

[0037] It will be understood that any and all features described in connection with the light sources 20 may be applied to any and all of the examples of the light assemblies 18. For example, the in situ light assembly 18 may include pixelated and/or independently movable light sources 20 while the movable light assembly 18 may emit polarized light. Further, the steerable examples of the light sources 20 may be applied to any of the light assembly 18 examples.

[0038] According to various examples, one or more users positioned within the surgical suite 14 may include the wearable device 28. The wearable device 28 may be eyewear (e.g., goggles, eye glasses), headwear (e.g., a face shield, helmet, visor, etc.), a garment and/or combinations thereof. In eyewear examples, the wearable device 28 may be configured to enhance (e.g., by increased transmission) or eliminate one or more wavelengths or wavelength bands of light. For example, when using the fluorescent dye explained above, the wearable device 28 may allow all light of the wavelength emitted from the fluorescent dye to pass through the wearable device 28. Such a feature may be advantageous in allowing a greater visibility of the fluorescent dye which may result in a higher perceived luminance of the surgical site.

[0039] In another example, the wearable device 28 may be configured to eliminate one or more polarizations of light. As explained above, specularly reflected circularly polarized light may reverse in handedness. The wearable device 28 may be configured to allow the first handed polarization of light to pass, while eliminating the second- handedness polarization of light to minimize glare. According to various examples, polarization filtering may be accomplished by an optical filter within the wearable device 28. The optical filter is configured to reflect and/or absorb the second-handedness polarization of light. The optical filter may include one or more reflective polarizers and/or absorptive polarizers. In such examples, the optical filter may be referred to as a polarizer. Reflective polarizer examples may include a wire grid polarizer plus a quarter wave plate or optical retarder, a multilayer plastic film, such as a dual brightness enhancement film (DBEF) polarizer with a quarter wave plate, an optical retarder and/or a liquid crystal material. DBEF film or absorbing polarizer examples of the optical film may have a transmittance of ambient light and/or the first-handedness polarization of light incident on the optical filter of about 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 45%, 49%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% or greater than about 99%. Further, the optical filter may have a reflectance and/or absorbance of about 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 45%, 49%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 99% or greater of the second-handedness polarization of light. Removal of the second-handedness polarization of light may reduce and/or eliminate a perceived glare off of the surgical site. The color of the first-handedness polarization of light which passed through the optical filter may be a fairly neutral gray to avoid influencing the natural visible colors.

[0040] According to various examples, the wearable device 28 may be shuttered and linked to one or more of the light assemblies 18 and the illumination system 10 to provide different lighting for different users. For example, in strobed examples of the light sources 20, different wearable devices 28 may provide different shutter speeds and delays such that a perceived intensity of the light is different for different users. Such a feature may be programmed into the wearable device 28 or may be adjusted dynamically during surgery.

[0041] According to various examples, the wearable device 28 may be configured to reflect and/or to emit light. In reflective examples, the wearable device 28 may include a mirror 41 or other reflective surface configured to collect, reflect, redirect and/or collimate light from one or more of the light assemblies 18. For example, the reflective element of the wearable device 28 may include one or more galvanometers and/or gyroscopes which change the reflection axis of the reflective element to redirect the light from the light assembly 18 to where the wearer is looking. Additionally, or alternatively, the wearable device 28 may include one or more light sources 20. Efficiency of the light sources 20 may be increased by turning the light sources 20 on and off based on whether the wearer is looking at the surgical field 30, only turning on light sources 20 that are pointed at the field 30 (e.g., while shutting off light sources 20 that are pointing away) and/or by adjusting the intensity of light based on measured lighting and/or shadowing of the area the user is looking at. According to various examples, the wearable device 28 may be lighter and/or have an increased battery time compared to conventional lighting systems. Further, the wearable device 28 may be cordless. Further, the wearable device 28, in eyewear examples, may provide magnification of light.

[0042] According to various examples, the wearable device 28 may include one or more guidance systems. The guidance systems may include a feature to indicate where the wearer is looking and/or working. For example, the guidance system may include a laser emitting visible and/or nonvisible (e.g., infrared) light. The light emitted from the guidance system may be tracked by the imager 22 and relayed to the illumination system 10. Such tracking of the light emitted from the guidance system may allow the illumination system 10 to emit light from the light assemblies 18 where the user is looking.

[0043] As explained above, the illumination system 10 may include one or more imagers

22 which capture image data from the surgical suite 14 and/or from the surgical field 30. The imager 22 may be configured to relay visual information to a controller of the illumination system 10. The controller 40 may include a memory and a processor. The memory may store computer executable commands (e.g., routines) which are controlled by the processor. According to various examples, the memory may include a light control routine and/or an image analyzing routine. The image analyzing routine is configured to process data from the imager 22. For example, the image analyzing routine may be configured to identify shadows and luminosity of the surgical field 30, the light from the guidance system, location of points of interest (e.g., users around the table 26, the wearable device 28) and/or gestures from the users. According to various examples, the image analyzing routine may also be configured to identify the location of a plurality of markers 42 within the image. The markers 42 may be symbols, computer readable codes and/or patterns which designate a point of interest in the image. For example, a plurality of markers 42 can be positioned around the surgical field 30 such that the image analyzing routine may determine the perimeter of the surgical field 30. Further, one or more markers 42 may be positioned on the instruments 34, the users, points of interest in the surgical suite 14 and/or the patient. The image analyzing software may or may not track light from the guidance system outside of the perimeter indicated by the markers 42 and/or the surgical field 30. [0044] Once the image analyzing routine has processed the data from the imager 22, the light control routine may control how the light assemblies 18 are operated. For example, the light control routine may be configured to move, steer, activate or otherwise influence the light assemblies 18 to emit light where the user is looking or working (e.g., as measured from the guidance system). In a first example, the light control routine may steer or otherwise move the emitted light from the light sources 20 to track where the user is looking and/or where hands and instruments 34 are positioned. The light control routine may slow the speed of movement of the light relative to the movement of the user's gaze to minimize uncomfortable fast switching of illumination. In a second example, when the user's gaze is detected outside of the surgical field 30, the light assemblies 18 may be configured to emit light toward a last known gaze position. Further, the light control routine may be configured to switch off one or more light sources 20 positioned on the wearable device 28 to conserve its power. Third, the light control routine may control one or more of the lighting assemblies 18 based on gesture control. For example, where the light from different lighting assemblies 18 is directed may be indicated by gestures (e.g., displaying a single finger at a point where a first light source 20 should shine and displaying two fingers at a location where a second light source 20 should shine). Other exemplary gestures which the light control routine may respond to may include pinching to enlarge or contract the light beam. Steering of the light from the light sources 20 may be accomplished by any of the methods outlined above. In a third example, the light control routine may respond to the location and orientation of markers positioned on the user (e.g., on a head or hands/gloves).

[0045] For example, illumination from the light assemblies 18 may be moved or altered based on the head and/or hand orientation of the user. Further, the light control routine may be configured to direct or steer light from one or more of the light sources 20 to the reflector of the wearable device 28. For example by monitoring the user and movement of the marker, the image analyzing routine may determine where the reflector is and emit light at the appropriate angle towards it to illuminate the surgical site. In a fourth example, one or more of the imagers 22 may be a visible light camera which can detect shadowing and the light control routine may alter the illumination accordingly. For example, the light control routine may auto adjust the intensity of one or more of the light sources 20 if another light source 20 gets blocked or begins producing shadows. It will be understood that the light control routine may also be controlled via voice or mechanical input (e.g., foot) without departing from the teachings provided herein. In a fifth example, the light control routine may be configured to turn off one or more lights automatically. For example, if the light control routine detects that a light source 20 will shine in a user's eyes or produce glare due to the angle of the light and positioning of a user, the light control routine will automatically turn off the offending light source and compensate by activating other light sources 20 and/or increasing the luminance of the other light sources.

[0046] Still referring to FIG. 2, in some embodiments, the imager 22 may be used in conjunction with one or more infrared emitters 60. Though demonstrated as a single infrared emitter in FIG. 2, the system 10 may comprise a plurality of infrared emitters distributed throughout the light assemblies 18. In operation, the infrared emitters 60 may project an infrared emission 62 comprising a field of infrared dots 64 into the surgical suite 14. The infrared dots 64 may be detected by one or more image processors of the controller 40 based on the image data captured by the imager 22 demonstrating the field of view 50. In response to the detection, the controller 40 may identify the relative position of the infrared dots 64 and control one or more of the light sources 20 and the positioning devices 54 to direct lighting emissions 58 to illuminate a desired location in the surgical suite 14.

[0047] The controller 40 may identify a location of the infrared dots 64 in the surgical suite 14 by applying one or more image analyzing routines and a three-dimensional map of the surgical suite 14. With the three-dimensional map, any of the above-noted light control routine operations may be performed. Additionally, in order to direct the lighting emissions 58 (or various electromagnetic emissions discussed herein), the position of each of the light sources 20 and any range of motion of the projection direction 56 may be calibrated to the controller 40. Accordingly, once the location of a shadow 38 or any point of interest is identified by the controller 40 based on the infrared dots 64, the controller 40 may selectively direct one or more of the lighting emissions 58 to illuminate the shadow 38. In this way, the controller 40 may control the activation, orientation, and/or origin of the light sources 20 to illuminate a desired region or portion of the surgical suite 14 [0048] The controller 40 may also be configured to identify a location of the shadow 38 or various other points of interest (e.g., the contaminated region 42) or any various portions or regions of the surgical suite by applying one or more image recognition techniques. For example, the illumination system 10 may be configured to track the location and use of the instruments 34. For example, the instruments 34 may include a paint, marker and/or indicator which can be seen (e.g., infrared reflective and/or fluorescent) by the imager 22. Additionally, the controller 40 may be configured to detect one or more portions of the personnel 36, the table 26, a patient, or various shapes or characters captured in the image data in the field of view 50. The instruments 34 may be coded based on type (e.g., consumable tool vs. non-consumable) and/or by the operator using or placing them. The instruments 34 may be tracked as they enter and exit the surgical field 30 by showing them to imager 22. In some examples, one or more of the instruments 34 may include a radio frequency identification tracking device, which may be identified by the controller 40 for presence detection and located based on triangulation or other methods.

[0049] Still referring to FIG. 2, the system 10 may further be configured to detect and/or sterilize potentially contaminated regions 42 of the surgical suite 14 and/or the surgical field 30. The contaminated regions 42 may correspond to regions where dirt, biological material, and/or bodily fluids (e.g., mucus, blood, saliva, urine, etc.) may be deposited in the surgical suite 14. Such material may be deposited as a result of one or more procedures or foreign contaminants shed by patients or personnel in the surgical suite 14. In such embodiments, the system 10 may comprise one or more detection emitters 70 configured to selectively illuminate various regions in the surgical suite 14 with a detection emission 72. The detection emission 72 may consist of light ranging from approximately 25 nm to 600 nm. In response to receiving the detection emission, the contaminated regions 42 may absorb one or more bands of wavelengths in the detection emission 72. Based on the varying levels of absorption, the one or more imagers 22 may be configured to identify the contaminated regions 42. The imager 22 may comprise one or more color filters or colored lenses (e.g. a yellow or orange lens) that may emphasize or improve the detection contaminated regions 42.

[0050] In addition to identifying the contaminated regions 42, the system 10 may further provide for disinfection of the contaminated regions 42. For example, in some embodiments, the light sources 20 of the light assemblies 18 may comprise one or more sterilization emitters 80 configured to sterilization emissions 82 comprising wavelengths of germicidal light. Accordingly, in response to identifying the contaminated region 42 in the surgical suite 14, the controller 40 may activate the sterilization emission 82 of germicidal light such that the emission 82 impinges up the contaminated region 42 for sterilization. The sterilization emission 82 may comprise wavelengths of light ranging from approximately 250 nm to 290 nm. Such wavelengths may be emitted from one or more of the light sources 20, which may comprise Mercury-based lamps, Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes (UV-C LED) lamps, and/or pulsed-xenon lamps.

[0051] Referring to FIG. 3, a schematic view lighting module of an exemplary embodiment of the lighting assemblies is demonstrated and will be referred to as a lighting module 90. The lighting module 90 may comprise the plurality of light sources 20 disposed in a housing 91 or enclosure. The housing 91 may be configured to house the light sources 20, the one or more imagers 22, and may be configured to be suspended or otherwise mounted to one or more of the positioning devices 54. In this configuration, the lighting module 90 may provide for a modular assembly that may be utilized in a variety of applications.

[0052] The light sources of the lighting module 90 may comprise a plurality of visible light sources 92. The visible light sources 92 may comprise two or more different light sources configured to emit different color temperatures of light. For example, a first visible light source 92a may be configured to emit a warm light emission 94a (e.g. approximately 4000K color temperature). Additionally, a second visible light source 92b may be configured to emit a cool light emission 94b (e.g., approximately 6500K color temperature). Each of the emissions 94a and 94b may not be limited to the specific color temperatures discussed herein. Accordingly, the terms warm and cool may refer to the relative color temperature of the emissions 94a and 94b in the exemplary embodiment. Accordingly, the controller 40 may selectively activate each of the light sources 92a and 92b to emit the emission 94a and 94b. In this way, the system 10 may provide for a lighting module operable to control a desired lighting intensity, light beam extent or scope, and color temperature to provide dynamic lighting.

[0053] The light sources 20 may further comprise one or more of the infrared emitters

60, the detection emitters 70, and/or the sterilization emitters 80. As previously discussed, the infrared emitters 60 may project an infrared emission 62 comprising a field of infrared dots 64 into the surgical suite 14. The detection emitters 70 may be configured to emit a detection emission 72 into the surgical suite 14 to selectively illuminate one or more contaminated regions 42 for sterilization. The sterilization emitters 80 are configured to emit the sterilization emissions 82 to sterilize the surgical suite 14 including one or more specific locations identified by the controller 40 where the contaminated regions 42 are identified. Accordingly, in various embodiments, the disclosure provides for a multi-purpose, intelligent adaptive lighting system that may be implemented in the surgical suite 14 or a variety of similar applications.

[0054] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the surgical suite 14 comprising the illumination system 10 incorporating an articulating head assembly 100. Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, the articulating head assembly 100 may serve as an exemplary embodiment of the one or more positioning devices 54 in accordance with the disclosure. As illustrated in FIG. 4, a plurality of the lighting modules 90 are shown suspended from a ceiling of the surgical suite 14 by the head assemblies 100. The head assemblies 100 may be in connection with the housing 91 of the lighting module 90. The head assembly 100 may comprise a first actuator 102a configured to rotate the lighting module 90 about a first axis 104a (e.g. the Y-axis). The head assembly 100 may further comprise a second actuator 102b configured to rotate the lighting module 90 about a second axis 104b (e.g. the X-axis). In this configuration, the lighting module 90 may be suspended above the table 26 in the surgical suite 14 and the controller 40 may be configured to control the actuators 102a and 102b to aim or direct each of the emissions (e.g., 60, 70, 80, 94a, and/or 94b) as well as the field of view 50 of the imager 22 throughout the surgical suite.

[0055] The head assembly 100 may comprise one or more gimbaled arms, which can be maneuvered or adjusted in response to a movement (e.g., rotational actuation) of the actuators 102a and 102b. In this configuration, the controller 40 may be configured to control each of the actuators 102a and 102b to manipulate the orientation of the lighting module 90 on the head assembly 100 by controlling the rotation of the lighting module 90 about the first axis 104a and the second axis 104b. Such manipulation of the lighting module 90 may enable the controller 40 to direct the light sources 20 and the imager 22 to illuminate, sterilize, and/or detect an entire floor surface 106 of the surgical suite 14. In this way, the system 10 may provide an increased range of motion and increased operating region for the one or more of the light assemblies 18 as discussed herein.

[0056] The positioning devices 54 and actuators 102a, 102b, as discussed herein, may correspond to one or more electrical motors (e.g., servo motors, stepper motors, etc.). Accordingly, each of the positioning devices 54 (e.g. the actuators 102) may be configured to rotate the lighting module 360 degrees or within the boundary constraints of head assembly 100 or other support structures that may support the light assemblies 18. The controller 40 may control the positioning devices 54 to direct each of the emissions (e.g., 60, 70, 80, 94a, and/or 94b) of the light sources 20 as well as the field of view 50 of the imager 22 to target a desired location in the surgical suite 14. In order to accurately direct the lighting module 90 to target the desired location, the controller 40 may be calibrated to control the position of the lighting module 90 to target locations in a grid or work envelope of the surgical suite 14. The calibration of such a system may require maintenance in the form of calibration updates or compensation due to variations in operation of the positioning devices 54 and actuators 102a, 102b that may occur over time.

[0057] In some embodiments, the light assemblies 18 may also be positioned on a track assembly. In such embodiments, the light assemblies 18 may also be configured to translate along the first axis 104a and the second axis 104b. Such a configuration of the lighting system 10 may provide a greater range of movement such that the controller 40 can reach regions of the surgical suite 14 that may be occluded or otherwise unreachable by the emissions (e.g., 60, 70, 80, 94a, and/or 94b) of the light sources 20 as well as the field of view 50 of the imager 22.

[0058] Referring now to FIG. 5, a schematic view of the illumination system 10 comprising an articulating head assembly 110 including a lighting module array 112 of the lighting module 90 is shown. Similar to the articulating head assembly 100, the articulating head assembly 110 may serve as an exemplary embodiment of the one or more positioning devices 54 in accordance with the disclosure. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the articulating head assembly 110 comprises five of the lighting modules 90. The lighting modules 90 may be suspended from a central control arm 114 comprising a plurality of support arms 116. Extending from each of the support arms 116, a lateral support beam 118a, 118b or wing may extend laterally outward from each of the arms 116 in opposing directions. In this configuration, the lighting modules 90 are supported by the central control arm 114 in a distributed arrangement.

[0059] The central control arm 114 may be suspended from a support housing 120 along a first axis 122a (e.g., Y-axis). The support housing 120 may comprise the controller 40 and a first actuator 124a configured to rotate the central control arm 114 about the first axis. A first lighting module 90a may be suspended along a second axis 122b (e.g., X-axis) extending between the support arms 116. A second actuator 124b may be in connection with the support arms 116 and the first lighting module 90a. The second actuator 124b may be configured to rotate the first lighting assembly 124a about the second axis 122b. In this configuration, the controller 40 may control the emission direction of the first lighting module 90a to rotate approximately 360 degrees about the first axis 122a and the second axis 122b.

[0060] Each of the lateral support beams 118 may support a pair of the lighting modules

90. That is, a first support beam 118a may support a second lighting module 90b on a first side 126 and a third lighting module 90c on a second side 128. The first side 126 and the second side 128 of the first support beam 118a may extend in opposing directions from the first support beam 118 along a third axis 122c. A second support beam 118b may support a fourth lighting module 90d on the first side 126 and a fifth lighting module 90e on the second side 128. The first side 126 and the second side 128 of the second support beam 118b may extend in opposing directions from the first support beam 118 along a fourth axis 122d. The third axis 122c and the fourth axis 122d may extend perpendicular to the second axis 122b.

[0061] Each of the first support beam 118a and the second support beam 118b may connect to each of the support arms 116 and rotate about the second axis 122b with the first lighting module 90a. Additionally, each of the lateral support beams 118a, 118b may comprise at least one actuator configured to rotate the lighting modules 90b, 90c, 90d, and 90e about the third axis 122c and the fourth axis 122d. For example, the first support beam 118a may comprise a third actuator 124c in connection with the second lighting module 90b and the third lighting module 90c along the third axis 122c. The second support beam 118b may comprise a fourth actuator 124d in connection with the fourth lighting module 90d and the fifth lighting module 90e along the fourth axis 122d. In this configuration, the controller 40 may control the second actuator 124b to rotate each of the lighting modules 90b, 90c, 90d, and 90e about the second axis 122b. Additionally, the controller 40 may control the third actuator 124c to rotate the second and third lighting modules 90b and 90c about the third axis 122c. Finally, the controller 40 may control the fourth actuator 124d to rotate the fourth and fifth lighting modules 90d and 90e about the fourth axis 122d.

[0062] As previously discussed, each of the lighting modules 90 may comprise an imager

22. In some embodiments, the articulating head assembly 110 may comprise a single imager 22 or an imager array 126. For example, imager array 126 may be formed as follows: the first lighting module 90a may comprise a first imager 22a, the second lighting module 90b may comprise a second imager 22b, the third lighting module 90c may comprise a third imager 22c, the fourth lighting module 90d may comprise a fourth imager 22d, and/or the fifth lighting module 90e may comprise a fifth imager 22e. Each of the imagers 22 may be configured to capture the image data in corresponding fields of view 50a, 50b, 50c, 50d, and 50e (not shown for clarity). The controller 40 may process the image data from each of the imagers 22 to identify a region of interest, which may include the shadow 38 or the contaminated region 42. Accordingly, the controller 40 may scan the image data from each of the imagers 22 and adjust the orientation of each of the lighting modules 90 to dynamically control the light in the surgical suite 14.

[0063] Though the imagers 22 are discussed as being incorporated on each of the lighting modules 90, the system 10 may be configured to capture image data from any location in the surgical suite 14. As further discussed in reference to FIG. 6, a plurality of the articulating head assemblies 110 may be controlled by a central controller in communication with each of the controllers 40. In such embodiments, the central controller may be configured to process the image data from the one or more imagers 22 and communicate control signals for each of the plurality of lighting modules 90 and the actuators 124a, 124b, 124c, 124d of the articulating head assemblies 110. Accordingly, the system 10 may be implemented in a variety of beneficial embodiments without departing from the spirit of the disclosure.

[0064] FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the illumination system 10 comprising a head assembly array formed by a plurality of the articulating head assemblies 110. Each of the articulating head assemblies 110 may comprise the lighting module array 112. As demonstrated, the head assembly array 130 comprises a first head assembly 110a, a second head assembly 110b, a third assembly 110c, and a fourth head assembly llOd. Each of the head assemblies 110 comprises a corresponding lighting module array 112. For example, the first head assembly 110a comprises the first lighting module array 112a, the second head assembly 110b comprises the second lighting module array 112b, the third head assembly 110c comprises the third lighting module array 112c, and the fourth head assembly llOd comprises the fourth lighting module array 112d.

[0065] Each of the head assemblies 110 of the head assembly array 130 may comprise a controller 40 (e.g., a first controller 40a, a second controller 40b, a third controller 40c, and a fourth controller 40d). The controllers 40 may be configured to independently control each of the actuators 124 as discussed in reference to FIG. 5. Additionally, the controllers 40 may be in communication via a central control system or a distributed control system incorporated in each of the controllers 40. In this configuration, each of the controllers 40 may be configured to identify an orientation of the actuators 124 and the corresponding positions of the lighting modules 90. Based on this information, the system 10 may be configured to map a combined illumination pattern or illumination coverage of each of the emissions that may be emitted from the light sources 20 of the lighting modules 90. As previously discussed, the map of the combined illumination or emission coverage of the combined lighting modules 90 may be programmed into the controllers 40 of the system 10 by one or more calibration methods. In this way, the system 10 may control each lighting module 90 of the head assemblies 110 in concert to provide a scalable, dynamic-lighting system operable to emit the various emissions of light as discussed herein.

[0066] As previously discussed, the system 10 may comprise one or more imagers 22. In the exemplary embodiment, the controllers 40a, 40b, 40c, and 40d are in communication with a central controller 131. The central controller 131 may comprise or be in communication with one or more of the imagers 22. In such embodiments, the imager 22 of the central controller 131 may be configured to identify one or more obstructions in a region of interest 132. The region of interest 132 may be identified by a gesture, input via a user interface, identified by a radio frequency identification tracking device, or programmed into the central controller 131 in relation to a specific procedure. Though discussed in reference to the central controller 131, each of the controller 40 of the head assemblies 110 may alternatively have a single imager or multiple imagers. In such embodiments, the controllers 40 of each of the head assemblies 110 may be configured to detect the obstructions and communicate among one another to identify the best response to adjust the lighting modules 90 to illuminate the region of interest 132.

[0067] The identification of one or more obstructions 136 may be based on a detection of an object in the image data. The obstructions 136 may be identified in response to detecting one or more pulsed infrared emissions 62 emitted from the lighting modules 90. For example, the central controller 131 may be calibrated such that the location of each of the infrared emitters 60 is indicated in programming. Accordingly, by cycling through the infrared emitters 60 of each of the lighting modules (90a, 90b, 90c... 90m), the controller 40 may identify a location of the obstructions 136 based on a timed detection of each of the infrared emissions 62. In this way, the central controller 131 may detect a location of the obstructions 136 in relation to a projection trajectory of each of the infrared emitters 62 to identify a clear or unobstructed trajectory 134. Once the unobstructed trajectory 134 is identified, the central controller 131 may control one or more of the light sources 20 to illuminate the region of interest 132.

[0068] In some embodiments, the obstructions 136 may similarly be identified based on a depth image data that may be captured by the imagers 22 in a stereoscopic configuration. As previously discussed, the imagers 22 may be incorporated in one or more of the lighting modules 90 and/or various components of the system 10. Based on the depth image data, the system 10 may be configured to identify that the light emitted from one or more of the lighting modules 90 is reflected from the obstruction 136 and reflected back in the depth image data at a depth that differs from one or more of the other lighting modules 90. Based on the difference in depth, the controller 40 of the system 10 may be configured to identify that one or more of the emissions from the light sources 20 of the lighting modules 90 is blocked by the obstructions 136. In response to the detection, the controller 40 may activate an additional or alternative lighting module 90 to illuminate the region of interest 132, which may be confirmed by illuminating the region 132 having a greater depth in the depth image data relative to the obstruction 136.

[0069] In some embodiments, the controllers 40 may communicate within the system 10 to identify the region of interest 132 between two or more of the imagers 22, which may be incorporated in two or more or the lighting modules 90. That is, the two or more lighting modules 90 from which the image data is processed to identify the region of interest 132 may be incorporated in a single head assembly 110 or captured by imagers 22 in two or more of the head assemblies 110 (e.g., 110a and 110b). In this way, the system 10 may operate as a distributed scanning and illumination system formed by the head assemblies 110 and controlled to operate as a unified system via communication among the controllers 40 and/or a central controller.

[0070] In general, the central controller 131 or the controllers 40 may be configured to identify one or more light sources 20 of the lighting assemblies or lighting modules 90 with a line of sight or projection trajectory 134 aligned with the region of interest 132 without interference by one or more obstructions 136. Upon identifying at least one lighting assembly 18 or lighting modules 90 in one or more of the head assemblies 110 with the clear projection trajectory 134, the central controller 131 may respond by controlling one or more of the controllers 40 to position the at least one lighting assembly 18 to direct an emission to the region of interest 132. In this configuration, the head assembly array 130 may provide for effective lighting even when tasked with illuminating obstructed regions that change over time.

[0071] As an example of a control sequence of the system 10, the system 10 may initially illuminate the table 26 via a lighting module of the second head assembly 110b by emitting a second emission 138 of visible light. After the initial operation of the system 10, the imager 22 may detect the obstruction 136 in the field of view 50, which may result in one or more shadows 38 in the region of interest 132. In response to identifying the obstruction 136, the central controller 131 may control controllers 40a and 40b activating a lighting module of the first head assembly 110a that may have the clear projection trajectory 134 via activating a first emission 140 of visible light. Once the first emission 140 is activated, the system 10 may continue to monitor the image data to verify that the first emission 140 remains unobstructed. In this way, the head assembly array 130 may be configured to illuminate the region of interest 132 by controlling a plurality of the head assemblies 110 in combination.

[0072] Though specific reference is made to identifying a location of the obstruction 136 and the clear projection trajectory 134 from the image data, the system 10 may utilize one or more algorithms configured to identify and project light to the region of interest 132 via a predictive or experimental algorithm. Such algorithms may apply various inference as well as trial and error to gradually move one or more of the head assemblies 110 and gradually activating the light sources 20 to illuminate the region of interest 132. In these methods as well as others discussed herein, the system may consistently monitor the region or regions of interest 132 for changes or improvements in lighting. In this way, the system 10 may be configured to continue positioning operations that improve the projection trajectory of the light as indicated by the image data from the imagers 22. Such a routine may be applied alone or in combination with the location detection based control discussed herein.

[0073] Referring to FIG. 7, a block diagram of an illumination system 10 is shown. As discussed herein, the illumination system 10 may include one or more imagers 22 configured to capture image data from the surgical suite 14 and/or from the surgical field 30. The imagers 22 may be configured to relay visual information to the controller 40 of the illumination system 10. The controller may include a memory 150 and a processor 152. The memory 150 may store computer executable commands (e.g., routines) which are controlled by the processor 152. According to various examples, the memory 150 may include a light control routine and/or an image analyzing routine.

[0074] Once the image analyzing routine has processed the image data from the imager

22, the controller 40 may communicate one or more control instructions to a motor or actuator controller 154. In response to the control signals, the motor controller 154 may control the actuators 102, 124 or the positioning devices 54 to move, steer, or otherwise adjust an orientation of the light assemblies 18. In this way, the controller 40 may direct the lighting assemblies 18 to emit light and/or direct the field of view 50 to a desired location. The system 10 may additionally comprise one or more power supplies 156. The power supplies 156 may provide for one or more power supplies or ballasts for various components of the lighting assembly 18 as well as the actuators 104 or positioning devices 54.

[0075] In some embodiments, the system 10 may further comprise one or more communication circuits 158, which may be in communication with the processor 152. The communication circuit 158 may be configured to communicate data and control information for operating the system 10 to a display or user interface 160. The interface 160 may comprise one or more input or operational elements configured to control the system 10 and communicate data identified by the gauge system 10. The communication circuit 158 may further be in communication with additional lighting assemblies 18, which may operate in combination as an array of lighting assemblies. The communication circuit 158 may be configured to communicate via various communication protocols. For example, communication protocols may correspond to process automation protocols, industrial system protocols, vehicle protocol busses, consumer communication protocols, etc. Additional protocols may include, MODBUS, PROFIBUS, CAN bus, DATA HIGHWAY, DeviceNet, Digital multiplexing (DMX512), or various forms of communication standards.

[0076] In various embodiments, the system 10 may comprise a variety of additional circuits, peripheral devices, and/or accessories, which may be incorporated into the system 10 to provide various functions. For example, in some embodiments, the system 10 may comprise a wireless transceiver 162 configured to communicate with a mobile device 164. In such embodiments, the wireless transceiver 162 may operate similar to the communication circuit 158 and communicate data and control information for operating the system 10 to a display or user interface 160 of the mobile device 164. The wireless transceiver 162 may communicate with the mobile device 164 via one or more wireless protocols (e.g. Bluetooth ® ; Wi-Fi (802.11a, b, g, n, etc.); ZigBee ® ; and Z-Wave ® ; etc.). In such embodiments, the mobile device 164 may correspond to a smartphone, tablet, personal data assistant (PDA), laptop, etc.

[0077] In various embodiments, the light sources 20 may be configured to produce un polarized and/or polarized light of one-handedness including, but not limited to, certain liquid crystal displays (LCDs), laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), incandescent light sources, gas discharge lamps (e.g., xenon, neon, mercury), halogen light sources, and/or organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In polarized light examples of the light sources 20, the light sources 20 are configured to emit a first-handedness polarization of light. According to various examples, the first-handedness polarization of light may have a circular polarization and/or an elliptical polarization. In electrodynamics, circular polarization of light is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the light wave has a constant magnitude, but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

[0078] As discussed, the light assemblies 18 may include one or more of the light sources 20. In examples including a plurality of light sources 20, the light sources 20 may be arranged in an array. For example, an array of the light sources 20 may include an array of from about 1x2 to about 100x100 and all variations therebetween. As such, the light assemblies 18 including an array of the light sources 20 may be known as pixelated light assemblies 18. The light sources 20 of any of the light assemblies 18 may be fixed or individually articulated. The light sources 20 may all be articulated, a portion may be articulated, or none may be articulated. The light sources 20 may be articulated electromechanically (e.g., a motor) and/or manually (e.g., by a user). In static, or fixed, examples of the light sources 20, the light sources 20 may be assigned to focus on various predefined points (e.g., on a patient and/or on the table 26).

[0079] Modifications of the disclosure will occur to those skilled in the art and to those who make or use the disclosure. Therefore, it is understood that the embodiments shown in the drawings and described above are merely for illustrative purposes and not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure, which is defined by the following claims as interpreted according to the principles of patent law, including the Doctrine of Equivalents.

[0080] It will be understood by one having ordinary skill in the art that construction of the described disclosure, and other components, is not limited to any specific material. Other exemplary embodiments of the disclosure disclosed herein may be formed from a wide variety of materials unless described otherwise herein.

[0081] For purposes of this disclosure, the term "coupled" (in all of its forms: couple, coupling, coupled, etc.) generally means the joining of two components (electrical or mechanical) directly or indirectly to one another. Such joining may be stationary in nature or movable in nature. Such joining may be achieved with the two components (electrical or mechanical) and any additional intermediate members being integrally formed as a single unitary body with one another or with the two components. Such joining may be permanent in nature or may be removable or releasable in nature unless otherwise stated.

[0082] It is also important to note that the construction and arrangement of the elements of the disclosure, as shown in the exemplary embodiments, is illustrative only. Although only a few embodiments of the present innovations have been described in detail in this disclosure, those skilled in the art who review this disclosure will readily appreciate that many modifications are possible (e.g., variations in sizes, dimensions, structures, shapes and proportions of the various elements, values of parameters, mounting arrangements, use of materials, colors, orientations, etc.) without materially departing from the novel teachings and advantages of the subject matter recited. For example, elements shown as integrally formed may be constructed of multiple parts, or elements shown as multiple parts may be integrally formed, the operation of the interfaces may be reversed or otherwise varied, the length or width of the structures and/or members or connector or other elements of the system may be varied, and the nature or numeral of adjustment positions provided between the elements may be varied. It should be noted that the elements and/or assemblies of the system may be constructed from any of a wide variety of materials that provide sufficient strength or durability, in any of a wide variety of colors, textures, and combinations. Accordingly, all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the present innovations. Other substitutions, modifications, changes, and omissions may be made in the design, operating conditions, and arrangement of the desired and other exemplary embodiments without departing from the spirit of the present innovations.

[0083] It will be understood that any described processes, or steps within described processes, may be combined with other disclosed processes or steps to form structures within the scope of the present disclosure. The exemplary structures and processes disclosed herein are for illustrative purposes and are not to be construed as limiting.

[0084] It is also to be understood that variations and modifications can be made on the aforementioned structures and methods without departing from the concepts of the present disclosure, and further, it is to be understood that such concepts are intended to be covered by the following claims, unless these claims, by their language, expressly state otherwise. Further, the claims, as set forth below, are incorporated into and constitute part of this Detailed Description.

[0085] As used herein, the term "about" means that amounts, sizes, formulations, parameters, and other quantities and characteristics are not and need not be exact, but may be approximate and/or larger or smaller, as desired, reflecting tolerances, conversion factors, rounding off, measurement error, and the like, and other factors known to those of skill in the art. When the term "about" is used in describing a value or an end-point of a range, the disclosure should be understood to include the specific value or end-point referred to. Whether or not a numerical value or end-point of a range in the specification recites "about," the numerical value or end-point of a range is intended to include two embodiments: one modified by "about," and one not modified by "about." It will be further understood that the end-points of each of the ranges are significant both in relation to the other end-point and independently of the other end-point.

[0086] The terms "substantial," "substantially," and variations thereof as used herein are intended to note that a described feature is equal or approximately equal to a value or description. For example, a "substantially planar" surface is intended to denote a surface that is planar or approximately planar. Moreover, "substantially" is intended to denote that two values are equal or approximately equal. In some embodiments, "substantially" may denote values within about 10% of each other, such as within about 5% of each other, or within about 2% of each other.