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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
ADJUSTABLE WRENCH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/146081
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An adjustable hex wrench structure having a main body configured with a socket cavity having a modified hex cross-sectional shape, and a user operable clamping screw, traversing a wall of the main body and preferably captivated against loss, with a pressure disc surface for securing a hex fastener workpiece in place in the modified hex cavity without defacing the workpiece. The main body is cylindrical and configured with a square driver opening to engage the square end of a socket wrench driver shaft. In a dual socket wrench version, two different-sized modified hex cavities, one in each end portion of the main body, having an overall size range greater than 2:1, a single shared square driver opening, configured in a central bulkhead in the main body: to deploy either cavity, the square end of the driver shaft insertable through the opposite cavity to engage the square driver opening.

Inventors:
KIM, Ee Jig (24558 Stonegate Drive, West Hills, California, 91304, US)
Application Number:
US2010/040244
Publication Date:
November 24, 2011
Filing Date:
June 28, 2010
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
KIM, Ee Jig (24558 Stonegate Drive, West Hills, California, 91304, US)
International Classes:
B25B13/30; B25B13/06; B25B13/10; B25B13/58
Foreign References:
US6923096B1
EP0672503A1
US6029548A
US4325275A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GALLENSON, Mavis S. et al. (5670 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2100Los Angeles, California, 90036, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. An adjustable wrench structure for engaging and

rotationally driving conventional hex fasteners including hex-head bolts and hex nuts of any size within a

predetermined size range, comprising:

a main body configured with at least one modified hex cavity having a modified hex cross-sectional shape having a group of three adjacent standard-sized facets and a group of three non-standard-sized facets consisting of an undersized facet and two equally oversized facets flanking the

undersized facet, the main body being configured with a threaded radial bore traversing a wall thereof diametrically opposite the undersized facet:

a clamping screw of designated outside diameter, threadedly engaged in the radial bore of said main body with an outer end extending from said main body, made and arranged to engage a hex fastener workpiece, inserted into the modified hex cavity, for purposes of enabling rotational driving of the hex fastener workpiece, by applying a clamping force, generated by rotationally tightening the clamping screw, via the clamping screw to a facet of the hex fastener and thus forcing at least one other facet of the hex fastener against a corresponding main body constraint pattern formed by at least one of the non-standard-sized facets of the modified hex cavity;

a pressure surface laterally at an inner end of said clamping screw made and arranged to optimally apply and distribute adequate working pressure against a corresponding facet of the hex fastener workpiece in response to threading rotation of said clamping screw, for adjustment of clamping pressure applied to the corresponding facet of the hex fastener workpiece, in a manner to avoid defacing the facet: and

driving means for applying torque to said main body in a manner to rotationally drive the hex fastener workpiece.

2. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in claim 1 further comprising a gripping portion located at the outer end of said clamping screw, made and arranged to facilitate manual threading rotation thereof by a user for application and adjustment of adequate working clamping pressure to the corresponding facet of the hex fastener workpiece.

3. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in claim 1 further comprising the outer end of said clamping screw being configured with a pattern of driving recesses, made and arranged to receive rotational driving torque from a known type of driving tool in a manner to clamp the hex fastener workpiece in the modified hex cavity securely for rotational driving purposes.

4. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in claim 1 wherein said main body is generally cylindrical in shape;

said modified hex cavity is located in a first end portion of said main body, and said driving means comprises said main body being configured with a drive cavity of square cross-section, located coaxially at a second end region of the main body, opposite the first end, made and arranged to operationally engage a square end portion of a conventional socket wrench driving tool .

5. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in claim 1 wherein said

pressure surface comprises:

an inwardly-facing smooth flat circular pressure surface of a pressure disc located in a lateral plane at the inner end of said clamping screw, having a diameter at least equal to the designated outside diameter of said clamping screw, made and arranged to become permanently attached to the inner end of said clamping screw whilst said clamping screw is threaded in place in said main body, thus preventing outward removal of the clamping screw from said main body

6. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in claim 1 configured in a dual embodiment comprising, in addition to said modified hex cavity and said clamping screw located at a first end portion of said main body:

a second modified hex cavity and associated captivated clamping screw, generally similar to but smaller in size than said modified hex cavity, located in a second and opposite end portion of said main body, made and arranged to

complement said first modified hex cavity and thus enable the adjustable socket wrench to accommodate an overall size range of hex fasteners greater than that of a single modified hex cavity; and

said driving means comprising a transverse circular bulkhead, disposed centrally in said main body between said first modified hex cavity and said second modified hex cavity, configured with a generally coaxial square opening made and arranged to drivingly engage a square end portion of a conventional socket wrench driving tool, such that, whichever socket cavity is selected for deployment to drive a hex fastener inserted therein, the square end portion of the conventional socket wrench driving tool may be inserted through the other socket cavity at the opposite end region of the main body and engaged into the square opening to

rotationally drive the adjustable socket wrench.

7. The adjustable socket wrench in a dual embodiment as defined in claim 6 wherein the first end portion of the main body is made to have a first diameter, the second and

opposite end portion is. made to have a second diameter, smaller than the first diameter, and a central region of the main body is configured to taper from the diameter of the first end region to the diameter of the second end region.

8. The adjustable socket wrench in a dual embodiment as defined in claim 6 wherein the overall size range is made to have at least a 2:1 ratio.

9. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in claim 5 wherein the pressure disc comprises:

a cylindrical attachment stud extending centrally as part thereof from a side of the pressure disc opposite said pressure surface, made and arranged to be force-fitted, whilst said clamping screw is threadedly engaged and

extending into said main body, into a cylindrical opening located at the inner end region of said clamping screw so as to become a permanent part of said clamping screw.

10. An adjustable hex wrench having a main body defining a socket cavity, the cavity having a hex cross-sectional shape; a user operable clamping screw traversing a wall of the main body; a pressure disc surface for securing a hex fastener workpiece in the cavity, the pressure surface disposed laterally at an inner end of the clamping screw and arranged to distribute pressure against a facet of the hex wrench, the pressure resulting from a user rotating the clamping screw.

11. The hex wrench of claim 10 wherein the main body is cylindrical in shape and configured with a square driver opening to engage the square end of a conventional socket wrench driver shaft.

12. The hex wrench of claim 10 wherein the pressure surface is large enough and smooth enough to work against defacing the facet of the hex wrench.

Description:
ADJUSTABLE WRENCH

FIELD

[0001] The present technology relates to the field of hand tools and more particularly the field of hand-operated

wrenches for driving hexagonal nuts and bolt-heads of various sizes, which conventionally requires large sets of graduated fixed-size sockets or box-end wrenches. The present technology discloses what are believed to be favorable changes in an adjustable socket wrench, previously patented by the present inventor. The socket wrench can be readily adjusted to

accommodate a wide range of sizes of hex fasteners, thus enabling a single unit to avoid the need for a substantial quantity of different sized fixed sockets or box-end wrenches. The changes include the structure in the adjustment screw for facilitating manual or tool-driven adjustment, for protecting the clamped facet of a hex fastener object against defacement, and for captivating the adjustment screw against removal and loss thru misplacement.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Conventional fixed wrenches, whether of the spanner, box-end or the socket type that snap onto a square driver shaft, have the disadvantage that a large number of different sized wrenches or sockets are required to cover a working size range of hex fasteners. For example in the inch system, the range from 3/8 to 3/4 inches (0.375" to 0.750") requires seven sockets in steps of 1/16" or thirteen sockets in steps of 1/32"; and, in the numbered metric system, the range from 10mm to 20mm (0.394" to 0.787") requires eleven sockets in steps of 1mm.

[0003] As substitutes for single or dual fixed spanner wrenches, adjustable spanners, including "monkey wrenches", "vice grips" and pipe wrenches, have been well known and widely used for many years. However such adjustable spanners effectively engage only two of the six facets of hex

fasteners and thus tend to fail and/or damage the fastener when high torque is required and applied, whereas

conventional box-end or socket wrenches engage all six facets of the hex fastener, distributing the torque and associated forces more evenly, and are thus capable of higher torque with less likelihood of failure or fastener damage.

[0004] As substitutes for single or dual fixed box-end wrenches, which engage all six facets of hex fasteners, socket wrench systems, wherein any of an assortment of sockets can be snapped onto the square end of a drive shaft driven by a ratchet handle, have become highly popular, especially to professional mechanics, for their convenience and versatility and are readily available either in

individual pieces or in sets of various sizes required to accommodate a desired size range. However, the large number of pieces required is a disadvantage to many occasional users such as typical homeowners who may have only occasional need for a wrench but the required size is unpredictable.

DISCUSSION OF KNOWN ART

[0005] U.S. patent 6,923,096 to the present inventor, Ee Jig Kim, for an ADJUSTABLE SOCKET WRENCH, discloses an adjustable box wrench structure with only two parts in its basic embodiment: a main body configured with a socket cavity having special modified hex cross-sectional shape that is asymmetric about one axis, and a user-actuated clamping screw, traversing a wall of the main body, for securing a hex fastener in place in the socket cavity. The present

disclosure is directed to further improvements applicable to the adjustable socket wrench disclosed in the λ 096 patent.

[0006] U.S. patent 4,798,108 to Wilson for an ADJUSTABLE SOCKET-FORMING DEVICE discloses a hex socket wrench structure having a cylindrical main body, configured at one end with four facets of a hexagon, in which a radially sliding jaw member is configured in one end region with the other two facets of the hexagon while the opposite end region of the jaw member is threadedly engaged by a screw, radially traversing an opposite side of the main body in a mid region thereof, by which the jaw member can be tightened onto a hex fastener that is to be driven.

[0007] U.S. patent 4,967,625 to Kolari & Kolari discloses an ADJUSTABLE JAW SOCKET having a fixed jaw configured to grip a first adjacent pair of hex faces of a fastener and a

slidingly-constrained worm-driven jaw configured to grip a second and opposite adjacent pair of hex faces of the fastener .

[0008] Both of the above described devices have the disadvantage of complexity: requiring at least three separate parts of which two demand high precision machining to form complementary channels for accurately constraining the sliding movement.

[0009] U.S. design patent 338,146 to Gramera shows an

EQUILATERAL TORQUE DRIVE DOUBLE ENDED SOCKET WRENCH FOR HEXAGONAL FASTENERS of generally tubular shape having a central bulkhead configured with a square opening for engagement by a driver from either end, and also configured externally with a central hex collar as an alternative driving means. Two different sized sockets are provided, one at each end, each of generally triangular shaped for engaging three of the six sides of a hex fastener. This approach offers the advantage of simple one-piece construction with no moving parts, however, in tradeoff, the range of hex fastener sizes accommodated, while not specified in this design patent, appears to be limited to two sizes or, at most, two very narrow ranges.

[0010] It is an attempt with present technology to provide a simple, strong, compact and economical adjustable hex wrench structure that accommodates a predetermined size range of hex fasteners such as nuts and bolt head, as an alternative to a graduated set of multiple fixed hex box-end or socket wrenches .

[0011] It is a further attempt to provide an adjustable socket wrench embodiment for use with a conventional ratchet or fixed handle driver with a shaft having a square end for engaging the socket, typically retained by a spring-loaded- ball/groove type detent configuration.

[0012] It is a further attempt to provide a user-operable clamping- adjustment member with special protective structure at the working end to avoid defacing the clamped facet of a driven hex fastener.

[0013] It is a further attempt to configure the clamping- adjustment member in a manner to provide optimal thumb/finger gripping for manual operation for adjustment as well as providing options of driving the clamping-adjustment member with conventional screwdriver type tools.

[0014] It is a further attempt to provide a dual embodiment of the adjustable socket wrench that accommodates all sizes of hex fasteners within a designated ratio of overall size range .

SUMMARY

[0015] The foregoing issues are considered by the development of the present technology of an adjustable socket wrench for hex fasteners, which in its basic embodiment, preferably consists of two main components: (1) a main body configured with a square driver socket to be driven from a conventional square driver, combined with a working socket cavity having a special modified hex cross-sectional shape with asymmetry with two oversized facets flanking an undersized facet and

(2) a clamping screw, constituting the clamping-adjustment member, threadedly engaged in a radial bore traversing a wall of the main body diametrically opposite the undersized facet. At its outer end, the clamping screw is configured with an annular drive wheel portion featuring a knurled surface around the outer circumference to enhance finger-gripping. At its inner end, the clamping screw is configured with a special circular pressure pad of designated smooth-surfaced material, made and arranged to distribute adequate working pressure applied to the clamped facet of a hex fastener object in a protective manner that avoids defacing the facet.

[0016] The clamping screw is further configured at its outer end with a recessed drive pattern that accepts optional engagement of either a regular slot type or Philips type screwdriver .

[0017] The adjustable socket wrench can be dimensioned to provide a range of about 1.7:1 so that two wrenches can be dimensioned with complementary ranges that will

accommodate all hex fasteners sizes in a total range covering at least 3:1 ratio: e.g. 5/16 to 1 inch.

[0018] In a single socket wrench unit, the square driver opening is located at an end of the unit. In dual socket wrench unit, the square driver unit is located in a central bulkhead between the two socket cavities, so that, whichever one of the two socket cavities is selected to drive a hex fastener, the square end of a conventional socket driver shaft can be inserted through the other socket cavity at the opposite end region of the dual unit and engaged into the square driver opening in the bulkhead to drive the adjustable socket in essentially the same manner as a conventional single fixed-size socket. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0019] The above and further aspects and features and

advantages of the present invention will be more fully understood from the following description taken with the accompanying drawings in which:

[0020]

FIG. 1 is an elevational side view of an adjustable socket wrench in a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

[0021]

FIG. 2 is a top view of the socket wrench of FIG. 1.

[0022]

FIG. 3 is a bottom view of the socket wrench of FIG. 1.

[0023]

FIG. 4 is a cross-section taken through axis F4-F4 of FIG. 2.

[0024]

FIG. 5 is a cross-section taken through axis F5-F5 of FIG. 1.

[0025]

FIG. 6 is a cross-section taken through axis F6-F6 of FIG. 1.

[0026]

FIG. 7 is a cross-section as in FIG. 4 showing the pre- assembly condition of the clamping screw and the pressure disc .

[0027]

FIG. 8 depicts the tool-driving pattern configured at the outer end of the clamping screw of FIGs . 1-7.

[0028]

FIG. 9 depicts the geometric shape of the modified hex cavity in FIGs. 2, 3, 5 and 6. [0029]

FIGs . 10-12 show a bottom view of the adjustable socket wrench of the present invention as in FIG. 3, shown here deployed and engaging hex fasteners of maximum, medium and minimum size, respectively.

[0030]

FIG. 13 is a side view of a dual embodiment of the adjustable socket wrench of the present invention.

[0031]

FIG. 14 is a cross-section taken through the drive bulkhead at axis F14-F14 of FIG. 13.

[0032]

FIG. 15 is a cross-section of the dual socket wrench of FIG. 13 taken through central axis F15-F15 of FIG. 14.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0033] FIG. 1 is an elevational side view of an adjustable socket wrench in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there are essentially two component parts: a cylindricqal main body 10 into which is threaded a radially oriented clamping screw 12 configured at its outer end with a grip knob 12A having an outer circumference that is

preferably knurled as shown or otherwise configured to facilitate manual adjustment of the clamping screw 12. The main body 10 and the clamping screw 12 are machined

preferably from high grade tool steel. [ 0034 ] FIG. 2 is a top view of the socket wrench of FIG. 1 showing the clamping screw 12 and a square drive socket opening 14 that accepts a conventional socket wrench driver shaft .

[0035] FIG. 3 is a bottom view of the socket wrench of FIG. 1 showing clamping screw 12 located radially and traversing the center facet of the three adjacent equal-sized facets of the modified hex cavity 16 that is unique to the present

invention. At the inner end of clamping screw 12, at the left side of modified hex cavity 16, a circular pressure disc 12B of clamping screw 12 provides a lateral clamping surface. The square drive socket opening 14 appears in the background.

[ 0036] FIG. 4 is a cross-section of FIG. 1 taken at axis F4- F4 of FIG. 2 (center of clamping screw 12), showing, in the upper part of main body 10, the square driver socket opening 14 configured with grooves 14A that are provided across each of the four walls to engage a spring-loaded ball in the driver and thus provide the well-known detented retension of the socket wrench on the driver shaft. Pressure disc 12B is seen configured with a central stud 12B' by which it is retained in a boring at the inner end of clamping screw 12.

[ 0037 ] FIG. 5 is a cross-section of FIG. 3 taken through axis F5-F5 of FIG. 1, showing the upper part of the main body 10 surrounding the square drive socket opening 14, with clamping screw 12 showing in the background.

[ 0038] FIG. 6 is a cross-section of FIG. 3 taken through axis F6-F6 of FIG. 1 at the center of clamping screw 12, shown traversing the main body 10 at the central one of three equal facets of the modified hex cavity 16. The square drive socket opening 14 appears in the background.

[0039] FIG. 7 is a cross-section as in FIG. 4 showing the pre-assembly production condition of the clamping screw 12 threaded through main body 10 and entering the modified hex cavity 16, where the pressure disc 12B is positioned ready to be assembled together with clamping screw 12. In this process, stud 126' extending from the rear side of pressure disc 12B is inserted into boring 12D of the clamping screw 12 and pressed into place as shown in FIGS. 4 and 6, with optional bonding or adhesives. Once joined together, the two pieces are intended to remain assembled permanently and to function equivalent to a single integrated part.

[0040] Pressure disc 12B is made at least as large in

diameter as the outside diameter of clamping screw 12 so to enhance the distribution of clamp pressure to avoid defacing the facet of a hex fastener being clamped in deployment of the socket wrench. Furthermore, such dimensioning of pressure disc 12B serves to retain the clamping screw 12 captive in the main body 10, preventing removal and possible

misplacement/loss of clamping screw

There is an option of forming the pressure disc integrally with clamping screw 12 and, at the outer end, making the grip knob small enough in diameter to clear the threads or else removably attached so that in manufacture the clamping screw 12, with the disadvantages of having to be made sufficiently short and having to be installed from inside the modified hex cavity 16. [0041] FIG. 8 depicts the tool-driving pattern 12C configured at the outer end of the clamping screw 12 of FIGs . 1-6, provided as an option to manual clamping adjustment and enabling the use of either a regular blade screwdriver or a Philips driver. Another option is to provide a hex opening for an Allen type driver. As an option for manual operation instead of the knurled knob, the clamping screw could be configured with a transverse bar or other form of thumb- finger grip.

[0042] FIG. 9 depicts the geometric shape of the modified hex cavity shown in FIGs. 2, 3, 5 and 6 as the key feature of the adjustable hex socket wrench of the present invetion. As in a regular equilateral hex pattern, all six angles a in the modified hex pattern are 120 degrees as indicated. However, in the pattern of the modified hex cavity 16, in a departure from a regular equilateral hexagon with six equal-sized facets, the pattern of the modified hex cavity 16 is

characterized by three of the six facets, marked A on the left hand side as shown, being made equal, having in common the regular standard dimension, while on the right hand side there are three non-standard-sized facets: two non-adjacent facets marked B that are larger than standard A, flanking the third facet marked C that is smaller than standard A.

[0043] The standard facet width A sets the maximum size hex fastener that can be accommodated; the smallest facet width C sets the minimum size, at which the fastener is engaged by a 3 facet constraint pattern in the main body. Thus the range of fastener sizes that can be accommodated in one modified hex socket cavity is the ratio A/C (>1) .

[0044] From trigonometry, in a regular hex fastener of size D (distance between parallel facets) each facet width A =

D/(2*cos 30) i.e. D*0.57735; in the modified hex shape of this invention, once C is designated to set the range, B can be calculated: B = 2*A - C.

[ 0045] In a particular embodiment that accommodates hex fasteners throughout a size range from 5/16" to 5/8", i.e. more than 3:1 ratio, the three equal facets A are made 0.478" wide, and the small facet C is made 289". The main body 10 is made 1.25" in diameter and the clamping screw is made 0.5" in outer diameter with 13 threads per inch.

[ 0046] FIGs. 10-12 show a bottom view of main body 10 of the adjustable socket wrench of the present invention as in FIG. 3, showing how the modified hex cavity 16 and clamping screw 12 are deployed to accommodate hex fasteners 18A, 18B and 18C of maximum, medium and minimum size, respectively.

[ 0047 ] FIG. 13 is an elevational side view of a dual

adjustable wrench 18 representing a particular embodiment of the present invention. A generally cylindrical main body 18 with a tapered central step contains two different sized adjustable wrenches: a larger upper portion 18A and smaller lower portion 18B, each with an associated clamping screw and a modified hex cavity, scaled in size accordingly, but otherwise configured as described above for a single unit adjustable wrench.

[ 0048] FIG. 14 is a cross-section taken through the drive bulkhead 20 at axis F14-F14 of FIG. 13 in the tapered region, showing the bulkhead 20 traversed by the square socket drive opening 14 which is shared by the two adjustable wrench units. Whichever one of the two units is deployed, the socket drive shaft is inserted through the opposite modified cavity and into the square socket drive opening 14. As described above for the single embodiment, a set of grooves configured centrally in the four walls of the square opening 14 serve to provide retention by engaging the well-known spring-loaded ball detent of the conventional socket drive shaft which can be inserted and operated from either direction,

[0049] FIG. 15, a cross-section of the dual socket wrench 18 of FIG. 13 taken through central axis F15-F15 of FIG. 14, shows the larger modified hex cavity region of the upper portion 18A and the smaller hex cavity region of the smaller lower portion 18B, each equipped with a corresponding clamping screw as described above. The two cavity regions are separated by bulkhead 20 which is seen configured with the square drive opening 14 and its detent grooves.

[0050] For dual adjustable wrench embodiments, the size ranges of the two modified hex cavities would normally be made complementary to maximize the continuous overall hex fastener size range: thus for a size range ratio D1/D2 in the larger socket cavity, the size range ratio for the smaller socket cavity is made to be D2/D3 for a total range ratio D1/D3. Size D2 is termed the crossover size, being at the low end of the higher range and at the high end of the lower range .

[0051] In an exemplary embodiment, the upper portion 18A is made 1.5" in diameter and the lower portion 18B is made 1.1" in diameter. The square drive opening 14 is typically made in either of two popular sizes: ½ inch or 3/8 inch per side, depending on the wrench size.

[0052] Although the illustrative embodiment is arranged and dimensioned as described, the invention can be practiced in any size with dimensional variations as matters of design choice, by allowing acceptable amounts of variations in the cavity size ratio and the facet size ratios in each modified hex cavity.

[ 0053] Optionally the taper in the exterior region between portions 18A and 18b could be eliminated to make the outer surface fully cylindrical.

[ 0054] The general proportions can be altered, for example the outer diameter can be increased to provide increased wall thickness around the cavities, which would increase the ultimate strength.

[ 0055] The invention could be practiced with different types and sizes of driving system as alternative to the square drive opening 14. The shape could be made rectangular, triangular, hex or other driving shape to match a

complementary driver, as a matter of design choice. Instead of rotational drive via the internal driving opening as described, the adjustable socket wrench could be driven externally by a ratchet mechanism or a gripping device such as a pipe wrench or a self-clamping wrench of the type utilized for installing and removing cylindrical oil filters. Alternatively, the exterior could be configured with a square, hex or other pattern to be engaged for rotation by a corresponding wrench type.

[0056] As alternatives to the socket wrench type embodiments described, the modified hex shape of the socket cavity and the clamping screw, as principles of the present invention, can be practiced in the form of a box-end style wrench by the addition of a driving handle extending radially from the cylindrical main body, forming in effect a box-end wrench style which may be implemented with one or two adjustable sockets. A double-ended version of the box-end wrench can be made by incorporating two cylindrical main bodies, one at each end of a handle. Each main body can be made with one or two adjustable sockets, thus a double-ended box-end wrench can be made with a total of two, three or four adjustable sockets of the present invention, providing expanded overall hex size ranges accordingly.

[0057] The invention may be embodied and practiced in other specific forms without departing from the scope and

characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are

therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being

indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description; and all variations, substitutions and changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.

[0058] All elements and methods described herein are

preferably included. Any element or method may be replaced by another or omitted altogether as will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

[0059] As short summaries, this writing has disclosed at least the following broad concepts.

Concept 1. An adjustable wrench structure for engaging and rotationally driving conventional hex fasteners including hex-head bolts and hex nuts of any size within a

predetermined size range, comprising:

a main body configured with at least one modified hex cavity having a modified hex cross-sectional shape having a group of three adjacent standard-sized facets and a group of three non-standard-sized facets consisting of an undersized facet and two equally oversized facets flanking the

undersized facet, the main body being configured with a threaded radial bore traversing a wall thereof diametrically opposite the undersized facet:

a clamping screw of designated outside diameter, threadedly engaged in the radial bore of said main body with an outer end extending from said main body, made and arranged to engage a hex fastener workpiece, inserted into the modified hex cavity, for purposes of enabling rotational driving of the hex fastener workpiece, by applying a clamping force, generated by rotationally tightening the clamping screw, via the clamping screw to a facet of the hex fastener and thus forcing at least one other facet of the hex fastener against a corresponding main body constraint pattern formed by at least one of the non-standard-sized facets of the modified hex cavity;

a pressure surface laterally at an inner end of said clamping screw made and arranged to optimally apply and distribute adequate working pressure against a corresponding facet of the hex fastener workpiece in response to threading rotation of said clamping screw, for adjustment of clamping pressure applied to the corresponding facet of the hex fastener workpiece, in a manner to avoid defacing the facet: and

driving means for applying torque to said main body in a manner to rotationally drive the hex fastener workpiece.

Concept 2. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in concept 1 further comprising a gripping portion located at the outer end of said clamping screw, made and arranged to facilitate manual threading rotation thereof by a user for application and adjustment of adequate working clamping pressure to the corresponding facet of the hex fastener workpiece.

Concept 3. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in concept 1 further comprising the outer end of said clamping screw being configured with a pattern of driving recesses, made and arranged to receive rotational driving torque from a known type of driving tool in a manner to clamp the hex fastener workpiece in the modified hex cavity securely for rotational driving purposes .

Concept 4. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in concept 1 wherein

said main body is generally cylindrical in shape; said modified hex cavity is located in a first end portion of said main body, and

said driving means comprises said main body being configured with a drive cavity of square cross-section, located coaxially at a second end region of the main body, opposite the first end, made and arranged to operationally engage a square end portion of a conventional socket wrench driving tool .

Concept 5. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in concept

1 wherein said

pressure surface comprises:

an inwardly-facing smooth flat circular pressure surface of a pressure disc located in a lateral plane at the inner end of said clamping screw, having a diameter at least equal to the designated outside diameter of said clamping screw, made and arranged to become permanently attached to the inner end of said clamping screw whilst said clamping screw is threaded in place in said main body, thus preventing outward removal of the clamping screw from said main body

Concept 6. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in concept 1 configured in a dual embodiment comprising, in addition to said modified hex cavity and said clamping screw located at a first end portion of said main body:

a second modified hex cavity and associated captivated clamping screw, generally similar to but smaller in size than said modified hex cavity, located in a second and opposite end portion of said main body, made and arranged to complement said first modified hex cavity and thus enable the adjustable socket wrench to accommodate an overall size range of hex fasteners greater than that of a single modified hex cavity; and

said driving means comprising a transverse circular bulkhead, disposed centrally in said main body between said first modified hex cavity and said second modified hex cavity, configured with a generally coaxial square opening made and arranged to drivingly engage a square end portion of a conventional socket wrench driving tool, such that, whichever socket cavity is selected for deployment to drive a hex fastener inserted therein, the square end portion of the conventional socket wrench driving tool may be inserted through the other socket cavity at the opposite end region of the main body and engaged into the square opening to

rotationally drive the adjustable socket wrench.

Concept 7. The adjustable socket wrench in a dual embodiment as defined in concept 6 wherein the first end portion of the main body is made to have a first diameter, the second and opposite end portion is made to have a second diameter, smaller than the first diameter, and a central region of the main body is configured to taper from the diameter of the first end region to the diameter of the second end region.

Concept 8. The adjustable socket wrench in a dual embodiment as defined in concept 6 wherein the overall size range is made to have at least a 2:1 ratio.

Concept 9. The adjustable socket wrench as defined in concept 5 wherein the pressure disc comprises:

a cylindrical attachment stud extending centrally as part thereof from a side of the pressure disc opposite said pressure surface, made and arranged to be force-fitted, whilst said clamping screw is threadedly engaged and

extending into said main body, into a cylindrical opening located at the inner end region of said clamping screw so as to become a permanent part of said clamping screw.

Concept 10. An adjustable hex wrench having a main body defining a socket cavity, the cavity having a hex cross- sectional shape; a user operable clamping screw traversing a wall of the main body; a pressure disc surface for securing a hex fastener workpiece in the cavity, the pressure surface disposed laterally at an inner end of the clamping screw and arranged to distribute pressure against a facet of the hex wrench, the pressure resulting from a user rotating the clamping screw.

Concept 11. The hex wrench of concept 10 wherein the main body is cylindrical in shape and configured with a square driver opening to engage the square end of a conventional socket wrench driver shaft.

Concept 12. The hex wrench of concept 10 wherein the pressure surface is large enough and smooth enough to work against defacing the facet of the hex wrench.

[0060] Broadly, this writing has disclosed the following. An adjustable hex wrench structure, in its basic embodiment, preferably includes two parts: a main body configured with a socket cavity having a modified hex cross-sectional shape, and a user operable clamping screw, traversing a wall of the main body and preferably captivated against loss, with a pressure disc surface for securing a hex fastener workpiece in place in the modified hex cavity operationally without defacing the workpiece. The main body is made cylindrical in shape and configured with a square driver opening to engage the square end of a conventional socket wrench driver shaft. In a dual socket wrench version, two different-sized modified hex cavities, one in each end portion of the main body, can provide an overall size range greater that 2:1, a single square driver opening being shared, configured in a central bulkhead in the main body: to deploy either cavity, the square end of the driver shaft can be inserted through the opposite cavity to engage the square driver opening in the known detented manner.