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Title:
AGENT FOR SUPPRESSION DUST, FIRE AND ICE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/222062
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention belongs to the field of chemistry and refers to an agent applied for fire extinguishing, fire protection, suppression of all types of absorbent and low absorbent dust and prevention of forming of ice and snow layers and their melting up to the temperature of -50 C. This invention solves the technical problems of agent with active components and production procedure which unify the field of application pertaining to different spheres of environment and material goods protection. This invention enables a quicker and more efficient fire extinguishing, its significant slowdown as well as prevention of its ignition and combustion, solves suppression of absorbent and low absorbent dust on open space areas, as well as airborne dust in closed spaces. It also solves the problem of forming and maintaining of ice and snow layers on open surfaces in conditions of extremely low temperatures (up to -50 °C). The invention in question is produced using inorganic salts solution mixture, wetting substances and organic components in weight proportions, adapted to the type of treated material and purpose.

Inventors:
DJUROVIC, Darko (Bore Stankovica no.17, Belgrade, 11000, RS)
Application Number:
RS2017/000006
Publication Date:
December 06, 2018
Filing Date:
June 01, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
AQUASTATIN LTD. BELGRADE (29.November no. 18B, Belgrade, 11460, RS)
International Classes:
A62D1/00; C09K3/18; C09K3/22; C09K5/20; E21F5/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005054407A12005-06-16
Foreign References:
KR20120052616A2012-05-24
RS20140537A12016-06-30
CN1328856A2002-01-02
FR2268062A21975-11-14
DE3817859A11989-11-30
US3956538A1976-05-11
US7297411B22007-11-20
US7470313B22008-12-30
DE10316476A12004-10-28
US1824588A1931-09-22
RS20140537A12016-06-30
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MARJANOVIC, Marjana (Misarska no.5, Belgrade, 11000, RS)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

Request for the registration of the right to the invention which relates to the composition and production process for the following agents:

1. Agent for extinguishing of class "A", "B" and "F" fires, fire prevention, suppression of all types of dust, prevention of forming of ice and snow layers on open space areas during the winter period, for impregnation and protection of porous, low porous and non-porous materials, DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent presents a solution with the composition as follows:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33%

2. Calcium carbonate

3. Glycerol - Glycerin

4. Liquid sodium silicate

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan)

6. Calcium hydroxide

7. Demineralized water

2. Class "A" fire extinguishing agent used for prevention of spontaneous combustion of coal, depots, peat bogs or certain materials, DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 62 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,001 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 310 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water 1541 kg

3. Class "A" fire prevention agent - retardant, DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 124 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,1 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 248 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water 1553 kg

4. Class "A", "B" and "F" fire extinguishing agent DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 3,727 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 1 ,688 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 0,62 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 620 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 0,32 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 0,001 kg

7. Demineralized water 5748 kg

5. Agent for dispersion suppression of absorbent and low absorbent dust on open and closed areas according to application 1 , DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition:

1 . Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 248kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,002 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 62 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide.... .3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water. 1641 kg

6. Agent for forming of crust layer on depots of powder materials in the objective of dispersion suppression DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 3,727 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 1 ,688 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 310 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 6,2 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 310 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 0,001kg

7. Demineralized water 5639 kg

7. Agent for prevention of formation of ice and snow layers on open space surfaces during the winter period and their melting DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 186 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,001 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 62 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water 690 kg

8. Impregnation and coating agent for fire protection DENOTED BY THE FACT that the stated agent possesses the following composition: The formula of impregnation agent for all porous materials as well as fire resistant coating.

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33%

2. Calcium carbonate

3. Glycerol - Glycerin

4. Liquid sodium silicate

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan

6. Calcium hydroxide

7. Demineralized water

The manner of production of agent stipulated in application 1 , DENOTED BY the stated process shown on FIG.1 and Described in Chapter INDUSTRIAL APPLLICABILITY.

Description:
AGENT FOR SUPPRESSION DUST, FIRE AND ICE

TECHNICAL FIELD

The subject matter of the present invention belongs to the field of chemistry and refers to the production and application of a water solution mixture of inorganic salts and organic compounds in specified ratio, with the capacity of long-term wetting, short-term wetting, coating, grouping, impregnation, coating of solid particles or materials, as well as significant decrease of water freezing point. In view of its characteristics the mixture is efficiently used of extinguishing of fires, protection of all porous materials from fire ignition, dispersion of all types of absorbent and dust of low water absorbency, as well as formation of ice and snow layers of roads and pedestrian zones during winter conditions.

According to the International Classification of Patents (ICP) the subject matter of the present invention can be classified and marked using basic classification symbols C01 F 11/24 and C01 F 5/30, referring to calcium and magnesium chloride.

In view of other characteristics of the invention product, apparent when applying the substance for dust suppression and prevention of forming of ice and snow layers, it can also be classified using secondary classification symbols C09K 21-00, E21 F 5/02, C09K 3/22, which define flame resistance, dust elimination and prevention of forming and binding of ice.

TECHNICAL PROBLEM

This innovation presents a solution to the technical problem of extinguishing or significantly retarding existing class "A", "B" and "F" fires, improving of fire resistance characteristics of all porous materials by their impregnation or coating, suppression of wind dispersion of absorbent and low absorbent dust in open space areas and suppression of airborne dust in closed areas, as well as forming and binding of ice and snow layers in open space areas up to the temperature of -50 °C and presents an innovative water solution mixture of inorganic salts and organic compounds with the addition of wetting substance or substance for forming of micro films, highly effective when applied for solving of above mentioned technical problems. The technical invention method unifies the production process of agents, manner of use and formulation of products. The products specified in the procedure in question are economically justifiable for use and have no adverse effects which is very important in view of environment protection.

BACKGROUND ART

Fire extinguishing agents for class "A" and "B" fires, their prevention as well as application of agents in other fields of environment protection are described in patents DE3817859A1 , which only use calcium chloride in higher concentrations then those used in the present invention product, while all the other components significantly differ and give different properties to the product. The patent US3956538 in its innovation also uses calcium chloride as its main component in larger quantities and mainly relies on its effect, opposed to the present innovation product in which all the components have their purpose as well as the fact that the present innovation product has a reduced quantity of calcium chloride, as calcium chloride can cause serious environment pollution. Patent US729741 1 refers to solely one component of the present invention and the effect that this component - sodium silicate possesses, namely its retardant characteristic for wood protection and does not refer to the characteristics of this product pertaining to extinguishing of existing fires. Patent US7470313 also just refers to the use of this agent for fire prevention and not for other purposes, which present an essential part of the present invention product. The patent DE10316476A1 also refers just to the impregnation effect using only one component of the present invention product in different concentrations. The patent US1824588 refers only to the application of calcium and magnesium chloride for dust suppression, and does not fulfill conditions for fire extinguishing as well as other applications relevant to the present invention product. The present innovation product significantly differs from the above stated patents according to its composition, manner of production and effects as well as the fact that this product unifies all the specified characteristics into one product for general use, with a uniform manner of production and application in all relevant fields in which the products stated in the above patents are applied. There is a significant innovative difference related to subject matter of patent application we submitted in the year 2014 - patent application no. P-2014/0537 pertaining to the manner of production, additional and innovative application of subject innovation product and improved physical and chemical characteristics.

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION

The mechanics of the fire phenomenon are well known. For fire to occur the following elements are required: combustible matter, supply of heat up to the ignition temperature and presence of oxygen. The ignition temperature can be generated in a number of ways: when a flame or red-hot object reaches the combustible matter; in case of an instant release of a large amount of energy, i.e. explosion; through chemical reactions between chemical elements and compounds; through chemical or biological decomposition of matters susceptible to decomposition; by using electrical power and its conversion into heat; as a result of atmospheric discharges, i.e. lightning strikes; or through the creation and discharge of static electricity.

The combustion process has been defined, and it is described as a chemical process in which the combustible matter combines chemically with oxygen, taken most commonly from the air, which causes emission of heat and generation of flame.

The combustion process is a direct result of movement of molecules in matter, and it depends on the distance between the molecules and the mutually attractive forces between them, i.e. cohesion. Cohesive forces are strongest in solid objects and least strong in gases, so the atoms in solids move in an oscillatory fashion. Exposing a solid to heat will increase the speed of motion of molecules inside the solid, increasing at the same time the internal kinetic energy and the temperature of the solid up to the ignition point, assuming that other conditions for the combustion to occur have been met. Combustion will continue if the following elements are present:

• Combustible matter

• Oxygen

• Thermal energy (heat) required to reach the ignition temperature If any of the above elements are eliminated or if their presence is reduced, the likelihood of fire will either be eliminated or reduced to a great extent, causing incomplete combustion and reducing the risk of fire to minimum. To implement effective fire protection systems and to avoid loss of life and property, legislative, administrative, technical and other measures are taken globally, while the number of specialised producers of fire extinguishers and fire prevention products is growing.

The author's analysis of the available technical solutions offered by specialised manufacturers of fire extinguishers and fire prevention products has shown that such products are only applicable in limited scopes, they are selective in terms of the type of the combustible matter, complex in terms of production, they require expensive equipment, which also makes the instruments and procedures for their application expensive. The author has created a universal and efficient product, cheap to produce and easy to apply. The author is not aware of any other product or manner of their application that are comparable to those in the present invention.

The problem of dust and its dispersal in the air is a serious problem for the modern world which greatly affects entire eco-systems. Dust causes long-lasting or even irreversible disturbances on the ecosystems' order, affecting the man - plants - animals - microclimate chain, especially if it is present in significantly and permanently elevated concentrations. Another serious problem for human health and material goods is posed by the airborne dust which occurs in various production processes in closed space areas.

As dust is very damaging for entire ecosystems and human health, in parallel to the designing and construction of production facilities, which are actually the main generators of dust, designs have also been developed and diverse safeguard measures taken, in line with mandatory regulations governing this area, to remove or mitigate the negative consequences and harmful effects of airborne dust. In designing the above solutions, it has to be ensured that the measures taken do not cause some other processes elsewhere that could be harmful to health or environment. In addition to the environmental protection aspects, account has to be taken also of the costs that such solutions involve. For a product to be highly effective and as cost-effective as possible, it is important not to put additional financial burden on the production processes, given that areas where dispersed dust must be suppressed are large as a general rule. The current efforts to prevent harmful effects of airborne dust mainly focus on extracting dust from closed work environments. This is generally achieved with a 50% - 70% efficiency using dust aspirators or filter facilities installed in the work environment. Depending on the specific construction, they can be dry filters, wet filters, membrane filters, or electro-filters. Even though filter facilities have advanced in terms of noise generation, quality of the filtered air, and technical features, still, the efficiency of this type of filtering is rather low, or almost inexistent when it comes to dust particles of up to 5 pm in size.

Today the harmful effects of airborne dust in open space areas, such as unpaved roads, tailings dams, ash dams, construction sites, dump sites, sports facilities, etc., are mainly mitigated by regular spraying with water, either manually or using water tanks or fixed spray nozzles attached to the hydrant network. This type of dust suppression seems to be efficient and cost-effective as it is easy to apply. Using the appropriate pumps, water is dispersed over the treated surface in the form of droplets or mist thereby creating wet coating on the surface which prevents further dispersion and damaging impact of dust. A major deficiency of this approach is water evaporation: at temperatures above 30°C it evaporates in 15-20 minutes so this approach requires an extensive engagement of equipment, time and enormous quantities of water to achieve the desired efficiency. Moreover, water as a dust suppression agent is useless at temperatures below 0°C because it freezes. In addition, ponds and mud are often created on the treated surfaces hampering movement of people and equipment. Apart from the widespread use of water to suppress dust, other organic or inorganic products are also used, such as bitumen, fuel oil (mazut), oil, various polymers and copolymers, etc. The author has invented a universal agent for suppressing all kinds of dust. This agent is easy to apply, effective and economically justified. The author is not aware of any other agent or manner of their application that are comparable to those in the present invention.

The problem of formation of layers of ice and snow on roads, pavements, parking areas and other open space areas at temperatures below 0°C in wintertime, is constantly present and is tackled in various ways.

Obviously, eliminating snow, frost and ice from roads and motorways greatly enhances the safety of traffic participants. Sodium chloride (NaCI), under its various names, e.g. road salt, rock salt, industrial salt, etc., is widely used for these purposes. Sodium chloride has de-icing properties, i.e. it dissolves into precipitations on roadways and thus generates a solution that has a lower freezing point than water, resulting further in the melting of snow and ice. In addition to sodium chloride, a number of other inorganic salts with similar properties are also used as they can depress the freezing point below that of the sodium chloride solution. The following are in commercial use: calcium chloride (CaCI2), magnesium chloride (MgCI2), potassium chloride (KCI), potassium acetate (CH3COONa), some other inorganic salts, as well as some organic compounds, e.g. urea CO(NH2)2, or various types of glycol.

The problem with all of the above de-icing agents is that they either have rather high freezing temperatures, which makes them ineffective at temperatures below -10 °C, or they have a strong corrosive effect on the surface on which they are applied or they have a particularly harmful effect on the environment. The materials used for the construction of modern roads, i.e. asphalt, bitumen, concrete, fillers, etc. have porous structures. Asphalt in particular has numerous surface pores. When the air/ground temperature becomes low enough, the solution which has filled these pores will freeze and expand, subjecting the asphalt to mechanical stress. After repeated freezing and thawing, the asphalt will break resulting in potholes and causing significant damage to the roads or other treated surfaces. In a typical application of the road salt, the solution that is present in the asphalt pores will freeze and thaw in a number of cycles, because it has relatively high freezing temperatures, which will cause the asphalt to break and, in addition, due to the impact of chemicals, adhesive connections between asphalt and fillers will grow less stable making the asphalt more fragile. As a result of such corrosive impact, which is also caused by most of the other widely-used de-icing agents, significant funds must be spent to repair the damaged roads. The roads damaged in this way can greatly affect road safety due to the sudden appearance of potholes. Their repairs also incur significant financial costs, while the required construction works on the road will cause additional traffic jams. The problem of damage to roads and motorways, caused during the freezing and thawing cycles, has become even more intense since the introduction of a new type of asphalt, the so-called highly-porous asphalt, in the nineties of the last century. This type of asphalt may comprise up to 20% of hollow space which has the purpose of draining the rain and water more efficiently from the roadway, as they flow away through the surface pores into the soil. The roadway surface retains practically no moisture even in the event of heavy precipitations. The use of this type of asphalt brings enormous benefits when it comes to safety of traffic under rainy conditions, but it also has a disadvantage because in wintertime much more de-icing agent with low freezing temperatures is needed. The author has invented a mixture with exceptional de-icing properties, better adhesive characteristics, and no corrosive impact on the asphalt, or concrete or any other type of surface. The author is not aware of any other agent or manner of their application that are comparable to those in the present invention.

The substance of the invention is reflected in the applicant's idea to create a mixture that is easily soluble in water in a manner and under the conditions set out by the author. A mixture of substances in an aqueous solution is thus obtained whose physical and chemical properties allow for formation of a protective layer on the treated matter in the form of a

1. Thin layer of inorganic hygroscopic salts

2. Nonporous inorganic polymer film

In the first case, the treated surface is kept in a permanently moist condition, owing to the hygroscopic properties of the mixture's active components allowing it to absorb the moisture from the air and keep it bound in a value equal to the relative moisture of the air, achieving thereby a dynamic equilibrium between the quantity of moisture in the air and in the water which is bound to the treated surface. Special procedures can be used to enhance the impact of the applied agent and make it effective over a longer period of time in case it is to be applied as a retardant. It is used in applications where lasting moisture of the treated surface is possible and preferable.

In the second case, the solution of the mixture of inorganic salts is applied on the treated surface and immediately after the solution penetrates the surface and starts drying a layer of a highly water- and fire-resistant inorganic polymer will be formed and finely distributed on the surface.

The substance of the invention is reflected in the fact that the agent, in the form of an aqueous solution or foam, can be used as a Class A, B and F fire extinguisher (fires involving solid flammable materials, polar and non-polar flammable liquids, vegetable and animal fats). In treatment of fire, the agent is not subject to thermal decomposition nor does it produce any harmful combustion products, while the agent itself is not harmful for the environment, human health, plants or animals. If applied on porous materials, the agent can achieve a permanent level of moisture on the treated surface owing to the agent's powerful hygroscopic properties, or it can create an inorganic polymer film that has powerful fire-resistant features. In any of the above cases, the agent displays distinct retardant properties which will prevent fire in the presence of open flame in an extended period of time.

The substance of the invention is also reflected in how the agent is used. More specifically, it can be used as a ready-to-use product in typical fire extinguishers or in fixed fire- protection systems that can be found in buildings; or as a ready-to-use product to be applied from fire engines, or it can be in the form of concentrate to be used for extinguishing large-scale fires whereby the product is mixed with the required amount of water directly in the fire nozzle. In addition, it can be used in the form of foam which is much more efficient than the classic air foam. The foam generated is stable and the residue left after the fire treatment is easily removed as it is water soluble. The agent itself has improved fluidity ('wet water'), it coats the combustible particles better and penetrates better into the centre point of the fire.

The substance of the invention is also reflected in the scope of its application. The agent is used to extinguish Class A fires, which means any fires involving solid combustible materials (wood, paper, coal, various forms of plastic, textile, straw, etc.) The agent is used to extinguish Class B fires, involving both non-polar and polar liquids (oil and oil derivatives and various alcohols). The agent is efficiently used to extinguish Class F fires, i.e. those involving fats of vegetable and animal origin. The agent is used efficiently to extinguish multiple classes of fires and a wide range of flammable materials, it is stable in storage and does not require special storage conditions. In contact with fire the agent does not decompose into harmful products and it is easy to apply.

The substance of the invention is also reflected in applications at extremely low temperatures. The agent has a much lower freezing point than water while retaining its properties, which allows it to be used in harsh winter conditions. It should be mentioned in particular that the use of the agent which is the subject-matter of this invention greatly reduces the amount of water needed to extinguish an identical Class A fire. Owing to the properties of its components, the agent provides an efficient coating to combustible particles and thus greatly reduces the likelihood that oxygen will access the burn area. It also provides a more efficient cooling of the particles going down below the ignition temperature. Moreover, in Class B and F fires an inorganic polymer is created, under the impact of temperature, on the surface of the combustible matter. This inorganic polymer separates the matter from the flame and prevents it from transiting into the gas (combustion) phase. At the same time, the powerful cooling effect that the water and other components of the agent have, depress the temperature below the ignition point.

Another novelty is that the agent can be efficiently used to treat fires that have caught large surface areas, such as forest fires, as well as to prevent fire spreading and reaching areas that are still not caught by it. The agent is very efficient for forming protective barriers along the fire edges that make the spread of the flame impossible or very difficult. Moreover, the surfaces susceptible to spontaneous combustion that are at high risk of fire, can be treated with the agent for preventive reasons, i.e. the agent can be used as a retardant with the aim of preventing spontaneous combustion and fire efficiently.

How the present agent works in fire treatment is reflected in the effects it has on the material caught by fire. The agent has a cooling, isolating and anti-catalytic effect on the fire. A significant share of the chemically free and chemically bound water in the agent allows for efficient cooling because the heat is released through evaporation, with the evaporation having a protracted effect because of the gradual release of additional quantities of the bound water. In this way the combustible material's temperature is depressed below the ignition temperature causing the fire to extinguish. Another property of this solution is that it creates a protective inorganic polymer layer at high fire temperatures that coats the combustible matter and detaches it from the flame, thus preventing it from transiting into the gas phase and not allowing oxygen to reach the combustible matter. All of the above coupled with the cooling effect leads to a quick fire extinction. The agent contains components in the form of micro-dispersion that produce a successful anti-catalytic impact on the flame. This prevents contact between the combustible matter and oxygen, causing thereby the flame to brake and stop spreading further, thereby suppressing the spread of the fire itself. The substance of the invention is also reflected in its efficient use in suppressing the dispersion of all types of dust present in unpaved roads, dump sites, tailings dams, coal mines, parking areas, etc., as well as in suppressing airborne dust in closed work environments or storage facilities. Dust is dispersed in open space areas due to atmospheric circulation, i.e. winds, or as a consequence of movements of vehicles or construction machinery on surfaces covered with large quantities of various types of dust. Airborne dust is present in warehouses, loading and unloading bays, industrial plants, etc., especially where light powder materials are handled or materials that generate dust easily. In both cases dust affects the surrounding environment, eco-systems, orderly functioning of equipment, as well as on the health of people, plants and animals. The negative impact of dust on human health and operation of equipment, especially sensitive devices, is even more acute in closed space areas in which significant quantities of airborne dust are generated.

The agent which is the subject-matter of this invention is an efficient solution for suppressing all kinds of dust, preventing its dispersal and bonding it to the ground.

The substance of the invention is reflected in the fact that this is a universal agent that is successful in extinguishing or preventing fire, and suppressing the dispersed or airborne dust and reducing it to concentrations in the air that will be safe for the environment, people, animals and plants.

The agent which is the subject-matter of this invention, owing to the specific combination of inorganic salts, surface active agents and higher alcohols, allows for an efficient interaction between dust particles and the agent whereby the agent, which is sprayed or applied in water mist, coats every dust particle, wets it and suppress it to the ground. When the particles fall on the ground, their static electricity is removed and they group into larger agglomerates. The particles clustered in this manner are finely coated by the agent, they are compact and retain permanent moisture which is at the level of the relative air moisture, thereby preventing them from becoming airborne again and dispersed in the air. This effect is lasting except in the case of physical removal of the agent. If we compare it to the agent that is commonly used to suppress dust dispersion, i.e. water, this agent has a number of technical and economic advantages. The main advantages are described in the section Background art. The substance of the invention is also reflected in the use of the universal agent, which is the subject-matter of this invention, to prevent formation of layers of ice and snow in open space areas (roadways, pavements, parking areas, etc.) in wintertime and at low temperatures. Owing to the combination of inorganic salts, the present agent has strong exothermic properties when it is dissolved in water. This causes the temperature to rise when it gets in contact with snow or ice layer formations, causing them to melt and change to the liquid state. When the agent concentrations in water are up to 29%, the solution's freezing point is around -30C, which prevents repeated formation of ice layers, up to this temperature. The agent is a combination of inorganic salts generally used in agriculture as mineral fertilisers, and by combining them we avoid having excessive concentrations of only one salt which could have an adverse impact on the surrounding soil or water flows. For an efficient removal of snow and ice layer formations from open space areas, only a very small quantity of the present agent is needed, i.e. around 400 g/m2. In case of enormous precipitations and extremely low temperatures, the quantity required increases to no more than 1300 g/m2.

The substance of the invention is also reflected in the manner production of the universal agent for extinguishing Class A, B and F fires, for suppressing of dust, and preventing ice and snow cover formation on open space surfaces. The entire production procedure requires a relatively small number of chemical reactors and other supporting equipment, while the production of all varieties of the agent in large volumes can be achieved in a relatively short period of time. Plant layout is shown on FIG. 1.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Drawing 1 - illustrates the technical scheme and distribution of equipment within the manufacturing plant, for the production of agents which are the subject of invention.

Drawing 2 - shows the testing freezing point of the agent which is the subject of invention.

Drawing 3 - shows the testing freezing point of the agent which is the subject of invention.

Drawing 4 - shows the testing freezing point of the agent which is the subject of invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION PRODUCT

The product, which presents the subject of invention, is described by means of numerous lower stated examples as well as pictures, schemes, diagrams and test results.

The composition of the universal agent for extinguishing of class "A", "B" and "F" fires (coal and coal dust, wood, plant remains and products, leather, textile, paper, carton, plastic mass and different types of rubber, petroleum and petroleum products, alcohol, fats of plant and animal origin), for coating of steel and porous materials as fire protection coating, for suppression of dispersion of all types of dust, for prevention of formation of ice and snow layers, is shown in table 1.

Table 1.

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33%

2. Calcium carbonate

3. Glycerol - Glycerin

4. Liquid sodium silicate

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan)

6. Calcium hydroxide

7. Demineralized water

Table 1 shows the general formula of the agent which is the subject of innovation, and for each specific application of agent a formulation is applied which differs from the basic formulation just in the quantity of agent components.

The agent is produced in 6200-liter volume reactors equipped with a motor with reductor which moves the propeller mixers situated in the reactors by dissolving a combination of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate with addition of calcium hydroxide, whereby an inorganic salt is obtained, in a defined ratio, in water. Upon obtaining the inorganic salt it undergoes deposition and after this, in reactor equipped equivalent to one mentioned above, the remaining components are added and homogenized in the solution by lightly mixing. The agent is transported by means of centrifugal pumps into the carrying reservoirs for storage and after this packaged into packaging specified by the producer or directly into fire vehicles. The production scheme, which is also a subject of innovation, is given in FIG.1. Extinguishing is to be performed in well know manners applied in practice. The initial fire can be extinguished by fire extinguishers filled with agent and larger fires are to be extinguished by fire engines applying jet streaming or sprinkling, jet, 3d extinguishing etc., which is to be determined by fire protection teams at the fire site, as well as the strength of pumps required for successful waterjet range.

Example 1

Formula of class "A" fire extinguishing agent, prevention of spontaneous combustion of coal and extinguishing of fires of other porous materials

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 62 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,001 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 310 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water 1541 kg

The agent, subject of innovation, with above specified formulation, successfully extinguishes all types of class "A" fires, with shorter extinguishing time, and impossibility of subsequent spontaneous combustion or subsequent ignition of fire sites extinguished applying agent. The consumption of stated agent is 3-5 times less than the consumption of commonly applied agent (water) used to achieve the same effect. Apart from the stated, there is also the elimination of other negative effects of water extinguishing in the sense of subsequent fires and fire ignition by other fire sources. Preventively treated coal with above mentioned agent, is not prone to spontaneous combustion after storage on depot site - impossibility of spontaneous combustion because the components in the present innovation agent constantly keep coal wet when extinguishing of existing fire. Fires in coal pits or coal depots, their extinguishing and prevention of spontaneous coal combustion phenomena, stated in the text above, today present one of the most challenging requirements of fire protection. All other class "A" fires are easier to extinguish or prevent. The agent which is the subject of innovation, specified in example 1 , has a freezing point of minus 24 degrees Celsius - FIG.2, which presents one of the novelties compared to existing products.

Example 2

Formula of fire prevention agent - retardant

1. Hydrochloric acid 31%-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 124 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,1 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 248 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide .3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water 1553 kg

The innovative agent, formula given in example 2, possess highly retardant characteristics. It can be efficiently applied as agent for treatment of surfaces on which there is a permanent danger of potential fires, in the objective of fire prevention. Its place of application is fire prevention in the vicinity of train tracks due to train arcing, easily flammable peat land, communal and other depots where spontaneous combustion can appear due to extraction of flammable gas etc. Application of agent is foreseen for effective fire prevention cause by spontaneous combustion or short presence of open flame. These types of fires occur in inhabited areas, where as a rule fire is identified only in its later escalated phases, where extinguishing is highly difficult, often with serious consequences. It also finds its use when creating of the so-called tampon zones, using standard fire protection equipment or for extinguishing of fires with airplanes where the fire in contact with innovation agent is spontaneously extinguished and its further spreading is prevented.

Example 3

Formula of class "A", "B" and "F" fire extinguishing agent:

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33% 3,727 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 1 ,688 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin . 0,62 kg 4 Liquid sodium silicate ...620 kg

5 Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) ...0,32 kg

6 Calcium hydroxide 0,001 kg

7 Demineralized water. 5748 kg

The formula given in example 3 refers to class "A", "B" and "F" fire extinguishing agent. The agent in contact with open flame, under effect of high temperature of material on fire, forms a protective layer of inorganic polymers which create a barrier in the form of fire- resistant film between the material on fire and flame. In this manner transformation of material on fire into the flammable vapor phase, as well as inflow of oxygen to material on fire is prevented. Anti - catalytic substances which prevent flame growth are also part of its composition. The water component of the agent efficiently contributes to lowering of its temperature beneath the flash point. The agent can be used with standard fire protection equipment, applied as commonly used equipment for extinguishing of fires.

Example 4

Formula of agent for suppression of absorbent and low absorbent dust

1. Hydrochloric acid 31%-33% 4779 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 2164kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 248kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 0,002 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 62 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 3-7 kg

7. Demineralized water 1641 kg

The formula given in example 4 refers to the use of agent, subject of application, for treating of all types of dust in the objective of suppressing its disbursement and maintaining of moisture of layer treated with agent. The mixture of inorganic salts, present in the product, is highly hygroscopic and it effectively absorbs air moisture and enables the surface treated with agent to dry only to the steady state with air moisture, which means that the surface remains permanently moist. The agent has an excellent wetting ability as well as ability of coating of particles difficult to wet. The absorbed moisture increases their mass, and the film formed by the agent frees them from static electricity, enabling their grouping into permanently moist lager agglomerates. In this manner a less loose protection layer is formed on the treated surface preventing disbursement of particles. The freezing point of the agent is -32.2 - FIG. 3. Treatment with this innovative product can be performed by using auto - tanks equipped with adequate nozzles, or if smaller surfaces are in question by manual or motor driven atomizers. This agent and all other variations of the product is produced in the universal plant in the manner which is also the subject of patent application.

Example 5

The formula of agent for forming of crust layer on powder material depots in the objective of dispersion suppression

1. Hydrochloric acid 31%-33% 3,727 kg

2. Calcium carbonate 1 ,688 kg

3. Glycerol - Glycerin 310 kg

4. Liquid sodium silicate 6,2 kg

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan) 310 kg

6. Calcium hydroxide 0,001 kg

7. Demineralized water 5639 kg

The formula given in example 4 refers to use of agent, subject of application, for forming of curst on powder material (ash, tailings, coal dust) surfaces in the objective of dispersion suppression and environment protection. The agent in question has an excellent wetting ability and when material is treated with it well coats each particle. As a result, the surface remains moist up to the moment of evaporation of excess water, when a crust is formed on the treated surface. The surfaces can be treated with the agent using auto - tanks equipped with adequate nozzles, manual or motor driven atomizers.

Example 6

The formula of agent for prevention of formation of ice and snow layers on roads and pedestrian areas in winter condition: 1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33%

2. Calcium carbonate

3. Glycerol - Glycerin

4. Liquid sodium silicate

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan

6. Calcium hydroxide

7. Demineralized water

The formula given in example 6. refers to the application of universal agent in the objective of prevention of forming of ice layers at low temperatures during the winter period, as well as forming of snow layers due to snow fall. It is applied on roads, sidewalks, parkings and all other open space areas on which forming of ice or snow layers is undesirable. The agent, the subject of patent application, can also be used for melting of already formed layers as well as for preventive treatment of surfaces preventing the binding of ice and snow to the treated surfaces. Due to high exothermicity when dissolved, the agent is much more efficient than the widely used application of road salt. Also unlike other agents it is without corrosive effect. It is applied on the surface either by tanks equipped with nozzles or by manual or motor driven atomizers. Freezing point of agent is >-50 - FIG. 4.

Example 7

The formula of impregnation agent for all porous materials as well as fire resistant coating.

1. Hydrochloric acid 31 %-33%

2. Calcium carbonate

3. Glycerol - Glycerin

4. Liquid sodium silicate

5. Non-ionic surfactant (Empilan)

6. Calcium hydroxide

7. Demineralized water

The formula given in example 6. refers to the application of present innovation agent in the process of impregnation of all porous materials, as well as to protection in the form of durable material coatings. Materials treated with this innovation product become fire and water resistant as well as resistant to air moisture. After performing treatment of material, it is possible to coat the material with other protective or decorative coating. This is particularly important in the wood and construction industry, production of timber, furniture parts or steel constructions. The agent possesses a great adhesive strength as well as efficient penetration into all pores of the material, so that the applied coating has a many year duration and can only be physically removed from the treated surface.

The agent which is the subject of application is easily applied on surfaces. If the surface in question is a steel construction, the agent is applied with a gun, brush or roller in the amount of 500-1000 microns, depending of the thickness of the steel construction. The agent is applied twice. The time in-between applications is used for drying and amounts to approximately one hour in ideal weather conditions - it can be dried naturally or force dried. After drying, the treated surface is permanently fire resistant up to 90 minutes, this is achieved in the manner that when on fire the agent binds the temperature and does not allow deformation of the steel construction. The agent apart from fire resistant characteristics is also water resistant and inhibits corrosion. If the agent, subject of application is applied on timber or parts made of wood, it is applied as stated above with the specified equipment or by manner of so call impregnation. This is performed by lowering of wood into a bath filled with agent where it remains for a period of 30 minutes. The quantity of the applied agent is from 500 to 1200 microns in two coats and the drying time is around 45 minutes, while for impregnation the drying time is approximately two hours. As in the above steel construction example the coated object is fire resistant up to 90 minutes.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT OF THE INVENTION

Agent for class "A" fire extinguishing, prevention of spontaneous combustion of coal and extinguishing of fires of other porous materials

The agent, subject of innovation, with above specified formulation, successfully extinguishes all types of class "A" fires, with shorter extinguishing time, and impossibility of subsequent spontaneous combustion or subsequent ignition of fire sites extinguished applying agent. The consumption of stated agent is 3-5 times less than the consumption of commonly applied agent (water) used to achieve the same effect. Apart from the stated, there is also the elimination of other negative effects of water extinguishing in the sense of subsequent fires and fire ignition by other fire sources. Preventively treated coal with above mentioned agent, is not prone to spontaneous combustion after storage on depot site - impossibility of spontaneous combustion because the components in the present innovation agent constantly keep coal wet when extinguishing of existing fire. Fires in coal pits or coal depots, their extinguishing and prevention of spontaneous coal combustion phenomena, stated in the text above, today present one of the most challenging requirements of fire protection. All other class "A" fires are easier to extinguish or prevent. The agent which is the subject of innovation, specified in example 1 , has a freezing point of minus 24 degrees Celsius - FIG.2, which presents one of the novelties compared to existing products.

Example for prevention of spontaneous coal combustion with agent that is subject of innovation:

Prevention of spontaneous coal combustion on depots and tailings is performed by treatment of coal or tailings on conveyer belt prior to placing on depot. The treatment is performed by spraying of coal or tailings on conveyer belt, using dispersion system with pressure control within the system. The agent, subject of innovation is uniformly distributed on coal by means of dispersion system, which is economically the most efficient way.

Prevention of spontaneous coal combustion on depots is performed in a manner that coal or tailings are distributed in layers 20 to 30 cm thick and each layer is treated with the agent. For this purpose, the sprinklers are used - high capacity long range water cannons, backpack sprayers - atomizers for smaller depots or truck tanks or other tanks equipped with pumps and adequate nozzles. The best results are achieved when, agent is sprinkled on the surface to secure slow absorption of the agent and protection of the depot.

Agent for fire prevention - retardant

The subject of invention is an agent that possess highly retardant characteristics. It can be efficiently applied as agent for treatment of surfaces on which there is a permanent danger of potential fires, in the objective of fire prevention. Its place of application is fire prevention in the vicinity of train tracks due to train arcing, easily flammable peat land, communal and other depots where spontaneous combustion can appear due to extraction of flammable gas etc. Application of agent is foreseen for effective fire prevention cause by spontaneous combustion or short presence of open flame. These types of fires occur in inhabited areas, where as a rule fire is identified only in its later escalated phases, where extinguishing is highly difficult, often with serious consequences. It also finds its use when creating of the so-called tampon zones, using standard fire protection equipment or for extinguishing of fires with airplanes where the fire in contact with innovation agent is spontaneously extinguished and its further spreading is prevented.

Agent for extinguishing class "A", "B" and "F" fires

The agent in contact with open flame, under effect of high temperature of material on fire, forms a protective layer of inorganic polymers which create a barrier in the form of fire- resistant film between the material on fire and flame. In this manner transformation of material on fire into the flammable vapor phase, as well as inflow of oxygen to material on fire is prevented. Anti - catalytic substances which prevent flame growth are also part of its composition. The water component of the agent efficiently contributes to lowering of its temperature beneath the flash point. The agent can be used with standard fire protection equipment, applied as commonly used equipment for extinguishing of fires.

Agent for suppression of absorbent and low absorbent dust

This agent, subject of application, is for treating of all types of dust in the objective of suppressing its disbursement and maintaining of moisture of layer treated with agent. The mixture of inorganic salts, present in the product, is highly hygroscopic and it effectively absorbs air moisture and enables the surface treated with agent to dry only to the steady state with air moisture, which means that the surface remains permanently moist. The agent has an excellent wetting ability as well as ability of coating of particles difficult to wet. The absorbed moisture increases their mass, and the film formed by the agent frees them from static electricity, enabling their grouping into permanently moist lager agglomerates. In this manner a less loose protection layer is formed on the treated surface preventing disbursement of particles. The freezing point of the agent is -32.2 - FIG. 3. Treatment with this innovative product can be performed by using auto - tanks equipped with adequate nozzles, or if smaller surfaces are in question by manual or motor driven atomizers. This agent and all other variations of the product is produced in the universal plant in the manner which is also the subject of patent application.

Agent for forming of crust layer on powder material depots in the objective of dispersion suppression

This agent, subject of application, is for forming of curst on powder material (ash, tailings, coal dust) surfaces in the objective of dispersion suppression and environment protection. The agent in question has an excellent wetting ability and when material is treated with it well coats each particle. As a result, the surface remains moist up to the moment of evaporation of excess water, when a crust is formed on the treated surface. The surfaces can be treated with the agent using auto - tanks equipped with adequate nozzles, manual or motor driven atomizers.

Agent for prevention of formation of ice and snow layers on roads and pedestrian areas in winter condition

This is universal agent that can be used in the objective of prevention of forming of ice layers at low temperatures during the winter period, as well as forming of snow layers due to snow fall. It is applied on roads, sidewalks, parkings and all other open space areas on which forming of ice or snow layers is undesirable. The agent, the subject of patent application, can also be used for melting of already formed layers as well as for preventive treatment of surfaces preventing the binding of ice and snow to the treated surfaces. Due to high exothermicity when dissolved, the agent is much more efficient than the widely used application of road salt. Also unlike other agents it is without corrosive effect. It is applied on the surface either by tanks equipped with nozzles or by manual or motor driven atomizers. Freezing point of agent is >-50 - FIG. 4. Agent for impregnation of all porous materials as well as fire resistant coating

Materials treated with this innovation product become fire and water resistant as well as resistant to air moisture. After performing treatment of material, it is possible to coat the material with other protective or decorative coating. This is particularly important in the wood and construction industry, production of timber, furniture parts or steel constructions. The agent possesses a great adhesive strength as well as efficient penetration into all pores of the material, so that the applied coating has a many year duration and can only be physically removed from the treated surface.

The agent which is the subject of application is easily applied on surfaces. If the surface in question is a steel construction, the agent is applied with a gun, brush or roller in the amount of 500-1000 microns, depending of the thickness of the steel construction. The agent is applied twice. The time in-between applications is used for drying and amounts to approximately one hour in ideal weather conditions - it can be dried naturally or force dried. After drying, the treated surface is permanently fire resistant up to 90 minutes, this is achieved in the manner that when on fire the agent binds the temperature and does not allow deformation of the steel construction. The agent apart from fire resistant characteristics is also water resistant and inhibits corrosion. If the agent, subject of application is applied on timber or parts made of wood, it is applied as stated above with the specified equipment or by manner of so call impregnation. This is performed by lowering of wood into a bath filled with agent where it remains for a period of 30 minutes. The quantity of the applied agent is from 500 to 1200 microns in two coats and the drying time is around 45 minutes, while for impregnation the drying time is approximately two hours. As in the above steel construction example the coated object is fire resistant up to 90 minutes.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

Manner of industrial production is shown on the scheme in FIG. 1. In the first phase required inorganic salts are produced in reactors of specific volume or they are dissolved up to a certain concentration. The reactors as well as all the necessary equipment are equipped with measuring-regulation devices, which monitor and regulate technological parameters, such as temperature, density, pressure, flow, dosing of required raw material, operation duration etc. The reactors are equipped with mixer with a changable number of rotations and placed on load cells. After obtaining the required quantity of inorganic solution mixture as basic component, organic components are added which are used in significantly smaller quantities, by means of dozer. After this additional homogenization of agent is performed, which is then by means of centrifugal pumps transported to the carrying reservoirs for storage or directly into the fire vehicles.

Compliant to excellent results of tests performed on different materials, the innovative agent is recommended to be used for the following:

1. Extinguishing of class "A" fires

2. Prevention of class "A" fires

3. Extinguishing of class "B" fires (polar and non-polar solvents)

4. Extinguishing of class "F" fires (fats of plant and animal origin)

5. Suppression of dispersions of all kinds of high and low absorbent dust

6. Prevention of forming of ice and snow layers during winter conditions and their

melting

7. Impregnation of different materials in the objective of obtaining of fire resistant

characteristic and protection of metal against corrosion

Due to its high efficiency, it is especially recommended for extinguishing of class "A" and "B" fires, as well as prevention of class "A" fires in the areas and places prone to such fires.

Along with the newest technical achievements and modern fire protection equipment as well as the overall activities pertaining to environment, plant and animal protection, protection of humans, water flows, land and air, it is possible to, utilizing the innovation subject, significantly prevent all possible hazards related to these fields or to significantly reduce the consequences of any accident for which the agent can be applied. The basic agent, as well as all the other agents derived from it are fully ecological and safe for use.