Claim 1. Airplane having a fuselage with a cab or without it, shortened front wings, engines with propellers and with back working ends of shafts, shortened back wings, bearing units on the front working ends of shafts of which the propellers are mounted and on these working ends of shafts have also places for fastening of connecting shafts and connecting shafts, and this airplane is made in such way that for decrease of cost of infrastructure for production and maintenance of the airplane and both for a purpose of decrease of cost and expenditure of energy when the flight and increase of steadiness of the airplane when change of flight regimes, it includes:
- shortened front wings, set on the fuselage of the airplane;
- engines with propellers and back working ends of shafts, which are set on the shortened front wings;
- shortened back wings, set on the fuselage of the airplane in the zones of air flows, produced by the propellers of the front wings;
- bearing units, on the front working ends of shafts of which the propellers are set and on these working ends of shafts have also working places for fastening of connecting shafts, and these bearing units are set on the shortened back wings;
- connecting shafts, the front ends of which are connected with back working ends of shafts of engines with propellers, but the back ends of these connecting shafts are connected with the working places of shafts of bearing units, and these connecting shafts are outside the fuselage of the airplane, but connection of ends of the connecting shafts with the shafts of engines and with ones of the bearing units may be made by any method.
This invention concerns airplanes, especially propeller airplanes, equipped with front and back shortened wings, each one of which is equipped either with an engine with propeller only or with a propeller, set by means of bearing unit on the wing, only, and the airplane is equipped with connecting shafts, situated outside the fuselage of the airplane, which transmit the necessary power from engines to propellers and so provides rotation of propellers in the bearing units, and all this provides possibility: to shorten the length of wings, to decrease the cost of airplane production and maintenance infrastructure, to decrease the cost of flight and flight power expenses and also to increase of airplane stability on change of flight regime.
There is known an airplane, Patent RU Jfe 2082650, B64C 1/20, B64D 1/22, 9/00, B64C 39/02, published 27.06.1997, which consists of fuselage, wings with engines and propellers and empennage with horizontal wings. The lining force produced on the unit of surface of wings of that airplane is not constant by their length. So when travel of airplane in space the lifting force on the unit of surface of wings areas in the zone of airflows, created by propeller with engine, is greater than the lifting force arising on the units of surface of other areas of wings. As the diameter of propeller may not be increased extremely, it is necessary for achievement of the needed lining force of the wings to increase their length by increase of lengths of areas which are out of zones of air flows, created by propellers.
Accordingly, because of increase of length of the wings, the lateral dimension of the airplane increases, and both the dimensions of infrastructure of production and maintenance (assembly workshop dimensions, with of runway, with of airplane hangars etc.) increase. As a result a cost of production, maintenance and flight of the airplane increases. The basic lining power arises on the front wings. The lining power arising on the horizontal wings of the empennage is not big. As a result, in the first approximation, this lifting power might be not taken into account. In this case the airplane might be imagined as one-support beam. The basic lining power (or beam support) is in the zone of wings and engines with propellers. For steady flight of the airplane the exact fixation of weight comparatively a point of lifting force effect is needed. As a result a cost of flight increases. Besides that the airplane having practically one support by the flight, even in the case of exact fixation of weight comparatively a point of lifting force effect, easy goes out from the steady flight condition. Variation of flight parameters or change of flight space parameters can upset the steadiness of the airplane.
The air flows, created by the propellers, flow round the part of surface of front wings and by giving them a part of their energy create basic lifting force of wings. But a considerable part of that energy remains in that flows and after they pass the front wings speeds away to the space. As a result the expenditure of energy increases by flight, and the cost of the flight increases.
Disclosure of Invention
A task of the invention is creation of improved airplane with shortened wings, decreased cost of infrastructure of production and maintenance of the airplane, and also with decreased cost and expenditure of energy by flight and greater steadiness of the airplane by change of flight regimes.
These technical results are achieved by that the improved airplane by this invention is provided by:
- shortened front wings;
- engines with propellers and back working ends on shafts, and these engines are set on shortened front wings;
- shortened back wings, situated in the zone of ail flows produced by front wings propellers;
- bearing units on the front ends of the working shafts, on which the propellers are set and there are places on these ends of shafts for adjunction of connecting shafts, and these bearing units are set on the shortened back wings;
- connecting shafts, set outside the fuselage of the airplane, by this the front ends of these shafts are fastened to the back working ends of the shafts of engines, set on front wings, and back ends of the connecting shafts are fastened to the working ends of the shafts of bearing units, set on the back wings, and so by the flight of the airplane and in other case of necessity the connecting shafts provide rotation of back wings propellers and transmission of the needed power from engines to the bearing units with propellers.
Brief Description of Drawings
The realization of the invention is described with reference to drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 shows as a scheme the view from above of the airplane according to the invention. Fig. 2 shows as a scheme the side view of section of Fig. 1 by B-B, according to the invention.
Best Mode for Carrying out the Invention
The airplane (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) consists of fuselage 2 in front part of which the pilot cab 3 can be arranged, if it is necessary. There are fastened front shortened wings 4 on which engines 5 with propellers 6 are set, to the fuselage. The shafts of the engines have front working ends 7 on which propellers 6 are mounted.
The dimension D, which is equal to the diameter of circle, which is circumscribed by the ends of propellers 6 by their rotation, is equal or a little less than the front wing 4. As a result the air flows, created by propellers 6, overlap almost whole length of the wing 4.
Behind the wing 4, in a zone of air flows of propellers 6, the shortened back wings 1 1 , on which the bearing units 12 with propellers 13 of d dimension, are set. These propellers 13 are mounted on the front working ends of the shafts of bearing units 12. The length of the wings 1 1 is equal to the length of wings 4 or is less than they. Being of the wings 1 1 lets to liquidate the horizontal wings of the empennage of the airplane, retaining the vertical rudder 15 only.
There are connecting shafts 17 connected to the working end 8 of engines 5 and to the front working ends 14 of bearing units 12 by use of couplings 16 or by any other way. These shafts may be either cardan ones or of any other construction.
The number, construction, dimensions and mutual placement of fuselage, wings, engines with propellers, bearing units with propellers, connecting shafts and also dimensions D and d of propellers are fixed be the type of produced airplane, its purpose and needed working diagrams.
When of flight the of the airplane, the air flows, produced by rotating propellers 6, flow round the wings 4 and produce the necessary lifting forces. After the flow round the wings 4 is over, these air flows still have a sufficient energy. Therefore by they pass the wings 11 , this energy of the air flows is used for creation of extra lifting power by wings 1 1.
The propellers 13 of d dimension, rotated by the engine 5 through the shafts 17, produce extra air flows, and this lets to create necessary lifting force of the wings 1 1 ,
As practically whole surface of the wings 4 and 1 1 is covered by air flows of the propellers 6 and partially of the propellers 13, the produced lifting forces are enough for flight, even when a shortened length of wings.
As a result the overall dimension A of the airplane diminishes and accordingly the cost of airplane production and maintenance infrastructure diminishes too. As the air flows coming from the propeller 6, are used twice - both on the wings 4 and on the wings 1 1 , the coefficient of use of energy of engines in all increases, by what the cost of flight and the energy expenditure by the flight diminish.
Being of propellers 6 and 13, which produce the lifting power on the wings 4 and 1 1, transforms this airplane in a two-support beam, by what the airplane is more steady by the flight, as compared with the existing airplanes.
I wish it to be understand that we do not desire to be limited to the exact details of construction shown and described in my patent, the modifications, admissible in the framework of this patent, may be made to them by a person skilled in the appropriate field.