CLAIM 1 Beyond the 2 laws of magnet that were known to us, there's a third; that ANGULAR TERMS ROTATE; wherein the 2magnets in use [for a quick demonstration] have their NORTH and SOUTH polarities between their 2 sides along the length and not between their 2 ends across the breadth, and the first magnet [magnetl] held firmly in a horizontal position(plan view), is brought (say with its north pole side), to as close as ½ cm to an end of 2nd magnet [magnet 2], that's lying freely in a vertical position, perpendicular to the north pole side of magnetl , about 85degress to its own north pole (i.e. magnetl ) and 95 degrees to its own south pole,( i.e. magnet 1 ).
CLAIM 2 When you apply claim 1 above to 2 different bodies, where magnet 2 is fixed firmly to the edge of a free moving body or free turning wheel, and magnet 1 is fixed firmly on another body that brings magnet 1 close to magnet 2 as illustrated in claim 1 , the spin of magnet 2 will activate a pushing force on the body to which it is affixed. CLAIM 3 The repetitive or continuous actions of claim 2 above, depending on the strength or type of the magnets in use, can be variously applied as desired, through a set of gear-wheels to increase speed, which in turn runs an armature inside a coil to generate electricity, or, if built powerfully enough, to directly accelerate the body on which magnet 2 is fixed.
SPECIFICATION AND DETAILED DESCRIPTION
001. PREAMBLE AND THEORY
Prior to this moment, 2 laws of magnet were known to us.
Here, in this application, I'm asserting a third, but I'll call the 3 of them characteristics or derived laws, because it's actually a single law manifesting itself in 3 ways, depending on which 2 terms are engaged with each other.
The 1 st says LIKE TERMS REPEL
The 2 nd says UNLIKE TERMS ATTRACT
Now I'm saying: -
ANGULAR TERMS ROTATE as the 3 rd . ...FIG. 1.
It is this third characteristic that is applied to what I call, the INVENTION.
002. DIAGRAMATIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE CHARATERISTICS.
The magnet pieces to use for easier demonstration will have the following Orientation of polarities: - Fig. 2a rather than Fig.2b.
The circular magnets behind speakers are Ideal if broken into 2, 3 or 4 pieces.
1 st CHARACTERISTIC; LIKE TERMS REPEL Fig.2c
2 nd CHARACTERISTIC; UNLIKE TERMS ATTRACT Fig.2d
3 rd CHARACTERISTIC; ANGULAR TERMS ROTATE Fig.2e All these 3 are however obeying 1 basic law that has been known in the study of Magnetic field, but never expressly stated as, THE LAW
003. THE LAW OF MAGNENT
When 2 or more pieces of magnet are brought closer enough to form a common field, all the pieces STRIVE to REALIGN their terms in order to JOIN-UP into 1 single magnet.
Exhibiting the law in 1 st characteristic
As a result of this law, when their positions as we have in Fig. 3a are like terms, it means they are not in a North to South or South to North alignment for joining-up. Therefore, they'll 1 st STRIVE to REALLIGN in order to JOIN together. The tendency of the N-pole of magnet2 to reach the S-pole of magnetl i.e. STRIVING TO REALLIGN [in obedience to the law] is responsible for what makes it seem as if, their South poles are repelling. (FIG.3b) It is actually an attraction at work, but between terms that are not in alignment, and first want to re-align. In other words, the repelling force is not independent. It is a dependent variable on the function of the attracting force. It is a dependent variable, a function of a factor. This factor is the attracting force. If there is no attraction, then, there will be no repelling. This attracting force is the SOLE force. If magnet pieces were flexible, rather than the south poles repelling, one north pole would have bent backwards like a U to join the south of the other, (see FIG.3c.) This is why (as I observed) the repelling force in like terms is not as strong as the force of attraction in unlike terms. If you now use a big magnetl and a small magnet2, (See Fig.3d) then, rather than repel [as the old law says], the 3 rd characteristic will occur. The N-pole at extreme right of magnet2 will vigorously rotate (i.e. STRIVE to ALLIGN) in order to JOIN together with magnetl 's S-POLE, It means again, that an attraction was at work, It turned round by itself to form a Magnet [in obedience to the law]. I also observed that what we call repelling is less of a PUSHING-AWAY from each other, (Fig. 3e) and more of a RESISTANCE to pulling-together (Fig. 3f.)
Exhibition of the Law in 2 nd characteristic
Where the positions are unlike terms, [Fig. 3g], then the S-pole of magnet 1 , so near to the N-pole of magnet2 will readily join up because, ALIGNMENT is in place already. The 2 poles that should join together to form a magnet are nearest to each other, therefore, very strongly, they STRIVE to JOIN together.
Therefore, while in the like terms arrangement of Fig.3a, alignment is not in place, there's the need to realign in order to attract. However, in the unlike terms arrangement of Fig.3g, alignment is already in place, they will just more readily attract to join-up. Exhibition of the law in 3 rd Characteristic
Now when they are at an angle [near-perpendicular] as shown in Fig. 3h, where magnet2 tilts a little towards the like terms than the unlike terms, then when you hold magnetl strongly and in a sudden thrust bring close to magnet2 to about 1/2 cm away for about ½ a second and quickly withdraw it, magnet2 rotates using its middle as fulcrum.
The near perpendicular position is more effective than a perfect 90 degrees position, perhaps due to the fact that the force of attraction is stronger than repelling, so if it were placed at exactly 90 degrees, spinning effects may be reduced by a direct attraction since it's stronger than the repelling.
If you observe the expected direction of movement according to the polarities of the magnet pieces in diagram 3i, you'll realize that while on the left hand side the N-poles of both magnets should cause magnet2 to turn clockwise in a repelling force [or resist attraction]. On the right-hand side, the attraction between the S-pole of magnet2 and N- of magnetl should also cause magnet2 to turn clockwise. The combination of both forces results in the clockwise spin of the entire magnet2.lf you reverse the polarity of magnet2, the direction of the spin changes too to anti-clockwise. (See Fig.3j) 004. APPLICATION OF 3 rd CHARACTERISTICS TO CREATE AN INVENTION. (A HAND DEMONSTRATION)
Arrange a wheel that can freely turn and place the magnet pieces as illustrated in Fig 4a, 4b and 4c. 1set of magnetl in hand and two sets of magnet2 glued or plastered to opposite points X and Y on the wheel. Each of both magnets on points X and Y must have the same N— S position when they turn to the hand held magnetl . The wheel could be about 30cm to 45cm in diameter but not too small to bring the magnet pieces on the wheel into a common field, except you have just one set of magnet2 on the * wheel as in Fig. 4c.
Fig. 4d shows a sample of speaker magnet that is readily usable for illustration purposes. A magnet ring with a diameter of 10-15cm can be broken into 2, 3 or 4 pieces. On points X, Y and magnetl , you may use 2 or 3 of such pieces for greater effect. The bigger the magnet(s) on the wheel, the stronger the wheel will be able, to push bigger loads of overcoming friction on turning gears and armature to attain required speed.
Secondly, (just as we saw in Fig.3d) the bigger magnetl in hand is than each of magnet2 on the wheel, the faster it will spin each of magnet2 and as well the wheel. 005. IN REPLACEMENT OF THE HAND
I replaced the hand with a light plywood lever [L] as shown in Fig 5a. Triggered by an electromagnet [one can use the kick starter of a car for illustration purposes] where very little current from a small 12volt battery, thrusts the lever back and forth when switched on and off by an open switch M. The point N on the wheel is timed to bridge the open switch M just when lever L should thrust forward to activate magnets in points X and Y on the wheel. The electromagnet (the type in a kick-starter) is combined with a spring returner.
Fig.5b shows what you can use in the experiment. The brush of a small generating set as open switch M and a commutator each in points N1 and N2. Please note that the two terminals of the commutator are connected by a wire so it can close the circuit when it comes in contact with the brush.
006. HOW TO UTILISE THE INVENTION TO GENERATE ENERGY
In Fig.6a, the turning wheel is made to drive a set of reducing speed gear [in reverse arrangement to become increasing speed gears], the last of which is made to turn an armature inside a coil to generate electricity.
Part of the electricity generated is connected to a battery charger that continuously charges the battery. By this process, the battery is continually able to activate the electromagnet, which thrusts lever L forward and so, make spinning magnet2 to turn the wheel. This wheel, on which the spinning two pieces of magnet2 are fixed, turns the set of gears that runs the armature inside a coil.
ADVANTAGE AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY OF INVENTION
So, this way, energy is continually generated without having to fuel the device.
When this is developed and applied in producing electricity for homes, industries and vehicles, the trend of global warming too, will be stemmed.
007. ONE OF OTHER POSSIBLE UTILISATION
Instead of the hand held magnet, or the lever L that thrusts forward when an electromagnet is used, a bigger electromagnet may be directly used as magnetl to spin a bigger magnet2 as shown in Fig. 7a.
008. FURTHER UTILISATION.
From Fig. 2e, 3h and 3i, on the 3 rd characteristic of the magnet law, THEORETICALY, we can expect the following derivable operations. They are however subject to further developments.
If we have a long magnet rail [MAGNET1] where the top layer has a polarity (say N-pole) and the lower, the S-pole. We now have a magnet piece [Magnet2] positioned at the beginning, we should expect it to spin clockwise (Fig. 8a). If one hinges the middle of magnet 2 to the back of a non magnetic body that's hanging on rollers, the upper part of MAG2 will spin to the right & lower part to the left. So, when it's not a circular but linear application, the 2 together won't work directly.
The upper right turn only, is applied to push the load to the right, while the middle of magnet2 is least in force.Fig.8b.
In Fig. 8c, If magnet 2 in 1 , 2, 3 or more places depending on the length or no. of a container (K) are now hinged in their midpoints to the left of a non- metallic container, that's freely hanging on rollers along the path of the rail [magnetl], then the clockwise spin of all the magnet2 pieces should be able to push the container forward along the path of the rollers.
Alternately, (see Fig. 8d) magnet2 may be freely hinged in its middle to the side of the container such that when it spins, it pushes against a side contour on the container to push (K) forward.
Again, as you'll notice in Fig 8e, that rather than a bottom to top arrangement of magnetl and magnet2, it could be outer side rails of magnetl to inner side pieces of magnet2 on the container's outer side. All Magnet2 pieces must be apart enough to avoid any 2 from forming a common field.
A direct circular application of Fig 8e is in Fig. 8f., but to avoid a counter force from point R of Magnetl is difficult, so reversing the position of Magnetl from outer ring to inner position will avoid R. as we have in Fig 8g. 009. MUCH FURTHER UTILISATION
Again if the functions in Fig. 2e, 3h, 3i and 8a should hold and are verified. It should follow then that according to Fig. 9a, without the use of any battery, motion can still be activated.
As usual there's a wheel (W) that can freely rotate on a fixed plank base.
However, this time both magnets1&2 are not sitting on the wheel directly. They are on planks, Teflon or any non magnetic material. Plank P on the left and Q on the right which in turn have thrust bearings between the wheel and the planks that make them rotate freely. They are located on opposite sides on the top surface of the main wheel (W). As it obtains in 3 rd Characteristic, Plank P will carry magnetl that was hitherto carried by hand while plank Q will carry magnet2. 4 to 5 pieces of magnet may be joined in each to attain greater effect as shown in FIG.9a
In Fig. 9b, the locations of the bearings holding the planks to the top surface of the wheel are such that while plank Q's bearing position is horizontally along the wheel's diameter; plank P's bearing position is slightly above the diameter.
The reason for plank P's bearing position is that, while Q will spin neatly around its middle only in a clockwise direction, P will both turn clockwise and slightly push backwards. This position of bearing will make P to only turn around its bearing and not against it. Planks P and Q will have 2 protruding notches as shown in Fig. 9c TOP VIEW, that will immediately push against stoppers S1 and S2 in P's case, and T1 and T2 in Q's case. The combination of both should result in a clockwise movement of the entire wheel (W).
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
Demonstrates the main principle that the invention is based upon. It is a plan view of magnet 2 (Item 1b) placed on the table and (Item 1a) magnet 1 in a sudden thrust brought close to ½cm away from (1b), within a second. Both pieces will have the north to south orientation in the position indicated in the diagram.
The dotted lines of 1b show the original position. The solid lines of 1b show the final after about ½ a second thrust of 1 a to 1 b.
In all diagrams showing magnets, S implies the South Pole and N the North Pole. Figure 1a is not numbered so it can be on the back page. In all illustrations, the different diagrams are indicated by the use of FIGURES by the left merging while, the different parts in each diagram are denoted by the use of numbered ITEMS.
In all the figures, Item (1a) is the fixed or hand-held magnet 1 , while (1b) is the one left free to rotate i.e. magnet 2
Shows the perspective side view
Shows when the broken magnet rings behind the speakers are used in side perspective view. Figure 2a
Figure 2a shows the plan view of the North to South Orientation of the usable magnet; if placed on a table or floor.
Shows the orientation that cannot easily be used.
Figure 2c is the demonstration of 1 st characteristic of magnet that like terms repel.
A plan view of the pieces on a table shows the demonstration of the 2 nd characteristic that unlike terms attract.
Figure 2e shows the demonstration of the 3 rd characteristics, which is the newly identified one and the basis of the invention. It's the plan view of magnet 2 (Item 1b) on the table and magnet 1 (Item 1a) thrusted to ½cm away from it. The north side of magnet 1 (Item 1a) is thrusted towards magnet 2 (Item 1 b) at an angle a little less than 90° to the north- pole side of (Item 1 b) magnet 2.
Figure 3a & 3b
Figure 3a is a plan view to show how the SOLE law of magnet stimulates what we know to be the 1 st characteristics in Fig 3b i.e. like terms repel. The dotted arrows show the direction to which the SOLE force tends to go, as an attraction.
The 2 diagrams of Fig 3c are to further illustrate hypothetically, how the force works. The 1 st show when the 2 pieces are further apart and the 2 nd , when they are moved closer until they form a common field. The 2 nd also shows that if hypothetically, item 1b (magnet 2) were a flexible material, the way the force that we call repelling force would have exhibited itself will be to bend the North pole backwards to join (Item 1 a) magnet 1 's South pole. But because magnets are solid materials, when this tendency occurs i.e. when item 1b's north is attracted to 1a, we'll notice Item 1b's South Pole as wanting to move away, and so assume they are repelling, but the repelling is resulting from 1b's North Pole that's wanting to spin to 1 a's south pole.
Still illustrating in another way that it's only a SOLE force - the attracting force, Figure 3d shows a big magnet 1 (Item 1a) and small magnet 2 (Item 1b) in a plan view if they are placed on a table, where instead, of repelling, as the existing law stipulates, there's only a spin of (Item 1b) magnet 2 to join-up with magnet 1. (Item 1 a) Figure 3e
Shows what real repelling would have been, if both pieces were pulling apart from each other but this is not the case.
Illustrates what the experience is when unlike figure 3d, both pieces are equal, especially when too big or fixed to rotate. What one observes is that there appears to be an invisible wall of resistance preventing the 2 like terms from joining.
Is showing the obvious, where the magnets with unlike terms are readily attracted to each other.
Figure 3h & 3i
Figure 3h & 3i again are showing how the 3 rd characteristic works. The clockwise push on (Item 1b) magnet 2 on the left side which is the repelling side is tagged F1 and the clockwise pull on same magnet 2 (Item 1b) on the right side which is the attracting side is tagged F2. The combination of both is what creates the spin of magnet 2 (Item 1b). Figure 3i shows the change of direction of spin when the polarity of magnet 2 (Item 1b) is reversed. Figure 4a
SIDE VIEW - parts before assembling
This shows the different parts that are put together for the hand demonstration.
Item 4 is the top nut used to hold down washer.
Item 2 is the washer to hold the top thrust bearing in place.
Items 3a - 3c is the set of thrust bearing on top of wheel 5 that allows the wheel to run while the nut and washer are holding it in place.
Item 1a or 1b. It is item 1a if it is magnet 1 held by hand or (Item 1b) if it's any of magnet 2 pieces on the wheel with plasters. They may be taken from a broken magnet ring from back of speakers. You may use 3 or 4 pieces together depending on how powerful you want it to be. The shaded portion indicates plasters or fastners to hold it in place.
Item 1c refers to straight bar magnets. If they are available for use, they can be a replacement for any of the magnets as long as the North and south poles have the orientation in Fig. 2a.
Item 5 is the wheel made of a very light material like aluminium, Teflon or any material that may be available that is strong but light. The edges are slanted and grooved to work with other wheels in a gear.
Items 6a - 6c are a set of thrust bearing that will support the wheel (Item 5) from underneath. It will be much bigger to hold all the weight, and allows the wheel to run along with the upper bearing despite a firmly fixed screw at the top and base on which the lower bearing is placed. Item 7 is the base plank on which the lower case of thrust bearing (6c) will be placed. All other items are also rested on this bearing and the plank. The groove inside the plank is such that it can firmly hold the bearing to prevent it from sliding off mark when the wheel is running. Item 7b is like a stand to the plank. It also leaves enough clearance to allow for the nut of screw 8 and a washer without touching the floor or table 9 on which the whole apparatus is placed.
Item 8 is the long screw that will help to hold all the pieces together from (Item 4) to plank 7.
Item 9 will be either the table, desk or floor on which you have the apparatus.
SIDE VIEW (ASSEMBLED)
Figure 4b - PLAN VIEW
N refers to the North Pole sides of the magnet and S to the South Pole side. Pint X and y refer to the 2 positions of 1 b (magnet 2) pieces on the wheel. Figure 4c
This is where you have only 1 piece of magnet 2 (Item 1b) on the wheel, and the magnet stretches from one end of the wheel to the other end. Magnet 1 (Item 1 a) will only trigger at one end. At point X only.
Figure 4d shows how the magnet behind the speakers will look like before broken and after broken into 2 to 4 pieces for use in the experiment.
This figure has been redrawn to reflect a left to right position when it gets to Figure 6. Items 1-9 remain constant in designation as we have in Fig 4a. Item 1 b held by hand is however now held by a lever numbered 13. Numbering now continued on additional items.
NOTE: Items 10a and 10b (Commutators), 11 (Brush) and 17 (Auto starter-coil) are make-shift devices to quickly illustrate the experiment. They are not themselves part of the invention. All that's required is a switch.
Items 10a and b are commutators used as make-shift switches. When they bridge the 2 terminals of the brush (ii) they push lever 13 that's carrying 1a forward to activate 1b and by so doing turn wheel 5. Figure 5a
NEAR SIDE VIEW
Item 11 is the brush.
Item 12 is the stand that holds the brush in place.
Item 13, is the lever on which Item 1a (magnet 1 ) is placed instead of the hand holding it. Under the lever directly where Item 1a is, are 2 wheels. (Reverse side view). At the middle of (13) but much nearer the pulling and pushing hook from the starter-coil (17) is the fulcrum. There are 2 thrust bearings Item 14 and 15 above and below the lever to enhance its free back and forth movement.
Item 16 is the stand on which 15 is placed to adjust the height of lever 13 and as such magnet 1 (Item 1a) to match the level of Item 1 b.
Item 17 is the starter coil with an electromagnet in it. It shoots back and forth when switch 10 and 11 connects and supply current from the battery.
Item 18 is the battery that supplies the current. (Reverse Side view) Item 19 shows the wires connecting the battery, the electromagnet coil and the trigger switch in items 10 and 11 together. Broken lines have been used to differentiate (19) from other items to avoid confusion.
Also, the position of 13 before it is triggered is indicated by dotted lines. Figure 5b
This shows a closer look of the make-shift switch made up of a brush (11) and commutator (10a). The separate terminals of the commutator are bridged with a wire across the top.
Item 20 is the connecting gear wheel that transmits motion to Item 24 through shaft (21). Item 22 is the housing for ball bearings and (23) is a stand to hold them in place.
Item 25 has shorter diameter to 24 to increase speed on wheel (29). Wheel (30) also has smaller diameter to transmit increased speed to wheel (34). Wheel (34) carries the amarture where the inner magnet (35) inside a coil (stator). (Item 36) to generate electricity. (Item 37) is the Automatic Voltage regulator. (38) is the voltameter to measure voltage and (39) is the ammeter to measure current. (40) is the extension cord to which utilities needing electricity can be connected. In order to ensure that the battery does not run down quickly, current generated is applied to a battery charger (41) which in turn charges the battery (18) for continuity.
In place of the lever (13) and components (14) and (15) that are mechanically carrying magnet 1 (item 1a), through the starter coil that's used as electromagnet (Item 17). We can use a much bigger electromagnet (Item 1d) directly, with the same N-S poles position as Item 1a.
This figure replicates the basic arrangement of Fig 1. As we also have in Figure 2e, Figure 3h and items 1a and 1b of Figure 4a. Only that in this case, magnet 1 (Item 1 a) is a long rail where the South Pole faces the ground and N pole side faces up. If Magnet 2 (1b) is suspended as shown, movement of (1b) in clockwise spin is expected.
This shows how the concept of Fig 8a can be applied. If there's a nonmagnetic body (40) with a hook holding the middle of magnet 2 (1b), it will spin against the body (40).
This shows a full application where the main body or container to move is 40. The hinge that hooks the middle of magnet 2 (1A) is item (41). The contour against which magnet 2 (1a) will push is item (42). The rollers that will suspend the body (40) and enable it to move when pushed is Item 43. The tracks on which the rollers will move is item 44. Figure 8d
This is a variant of Fig. 8c where the contour (42) and magnets 1 & 2 (1a and 1b) are on the sides.
Figure 8e is yet another variant of 8d. Rather than Items 1a and 1b positioned vertically, 1b above 1a, it is positioned side by side 1a in outer side and 1 b in inner side either above or below body (40). There is now track (46) which could be single or double on the ground that undercarriage roller or wheels could move on when propelled by 1 a and 1 b. Figure 8f
This is like taking one side of the 1a and 1b and folding 1a into a ring. If you fold 1a inwards around 1b, while 1b is now fixed on a free rotating wheel in side 1a, you have figure 8f.
This is like folding item 1 a of Figure 8e outwards into an inner ring and placing 1 b on an outer free rolling wheel (Item 5) with stopper 42 on it to propel it.
Item 47 will be to hold (1a) in place to a top ceiling. Item 41 is the fulcrum around which 1b can revolve to push on stopper 42 that is permanently fixed on wheel 5. Items 48 are vertically positioned ball bearings for extra support of wheel 5 while allowing its movement at the same time.
In this figure, I still retain item 1a for magnet 1 and 1b for magnet 2 to be able to catch the link in all previous examples and this. In some cases the wheel 5 and thrust bearing 6 remain.
The points where the thrust bearings 51 and 54 are located on planks 52 and 55 are indicated.
In this figure, the stoppers on wheel 5 are 50 besides plank 52, and 53 besides plank 55. In this version, both magnet 1 (1a) and magnet (1b) exert a force through the stoppers to turn the wheel (5).
None of the 44, 086 patents published on magnet prior to now(covering both U.S and international publications), and on electricity energy that I searched through, ever envisaged a third aspect of magnetic function in any way, which is the basis of this invention.
Secondly, the present situation of frightening threats to our world environment in global warming, and the pinching heartaches and storming headaches of universal energy crises alone, are pointers to the fact that no prior art similar to this invention, exists in any publication.
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