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Title:
AMINO SPHINGOGLYCOLIPID ANALOGUES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/187040
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to amino sphingoglycolipid analogues and peptide derivatives thereof, compositions comprising these compounds and methods of treating or preventing diseases or conditions using such compounds, especially diseases or conditions relating to cancer, infection, atopic disorders, autoimmune disease or diabetes.

Inventors:
ANDERSON, Regan James (32B Mission Street, Waterloo, Lower Hutt, NZ)
COMPTON, Benjamin Jason (44 Guthrie Street, Waterloo, Lower Hutt, NZ)
HAYMAN, Colin Malcolm (33 Poto Road, Normandale, Lower Hutt, NZ)
HERMANS, Ian Francis (33 Epuni Street, Aro Valley, Wellington, NZ)
JOHNSTON, Karen Anne (18B Maple Grove, Maungaraki, Lower Hutt, NZ)
PAINTER, Gavin Frank (5 Mahoe Street, Waterloo, Lower Hutt, NZ)
Application Number:
NZ2015/050070
Publication Date:
December 10, 2015
Filing Date:
June 05, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ANDERSON, Regan James (32B Mission Street, Waterloo, Lower Hutt, NZ)
COMPTON, Benjamin Jason (44 Guthrie Street, Waterloo, Lower Hutt, NZ)
HAYMAN, Colin Malcolm (33 Poto Road, Normandale, Lower Hutt, NZ)
HERMANS, Ian Francis (33 Epuni Street, Aro Valley, Wellington, NZ)
JOHNSTON, Karen Anne (18B Maple Grove, Maungaraki, Lower Hutt, NZ)
PAINTER, Gavin Frank (5 Mahoe Street, Waterloo, Lower Hutt, NZ)
International Classes:
C07H15/18; A61K31/7028; A61K39/385; A61P3/10; A61P11/06; A61P35/00; A61P37/02; C07D309/14; C07H15/06; C07H15/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004094444A12004-11-04
WO2007118234A22007-10-18
WO2009060086A22009-05-14
WO2014017928A12014-01-30
WO2014200363A12014-12-18
WO2014088432A12014-06-12
Other References:
ANDERSON, R. J. ET AL.: "A self-adjuvanting vaccine induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes that suppress allergy", NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, vol. 10, 2014, pages 943 - 949, XP055241594, [retrieved on 20141005]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
AJ PARK (Level 22, State Insurance Tower,1 Willis Street, Wellington, NZ)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

wherein:

A is a self-immolative linker group;

wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group D to group A;

R 5 is a side chain of one of the following amino acids: L-lysine, L-citrulline, L- arginine, L-glutamine or L-threonine;

R 6 is a side chain of a hydrophobic amino acid;

R 9 is an alkylene group;

R32 is an alkylene group or an O-alkylene group wherein the O is attached to the carbonyl group of D2; lected from the group consisting of:

E97 wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group E to group D;

R20 is H or lower alkyl;

R2 is an alkylene group;

g is 0 when R20 is H or g is 1 when R20 is lower alkyl; provided that E is E18 only when D is D1 , D2 or D3 and provided that E is E1 , E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7, E8, E9, E10, E1 1 , E12, E13, E15, E20, E21 , E93, E94 or E96 only when D is D1 , D2, D3 or D4; and provided that E is E91 , E92 or E95 only when D is D5 and provided that E is E97 only when D is D2;

G is absent or G is an amino acid sequence of up to 6 amino acids, attached through its N-terminus to group E and through its C-terminus to group J;

J is a peptidic antigen, optionally substituted at its N and/or C-termini with up to 6 amino acids selected from the group of natural flanking residues for the antigen, and optionally terminated with NH2 at the C-terminus so as to provide a C-terminal amide, and attached to group G through its N-terminus or, wherein G is absent, attached to group E through its N-terminus;

R is H or glycosyl, provided that if R is glycosyl then R2 and R3 are both OH;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F and OR10; provided that if R2 is H, F or OR10, then R is H and R3 is OH;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F and OR10; provided that if R3 is H, F or OR10, then R is H and R2 is OH;

R6 is OH or H;

R7 is OH or H; when R7 is H, denotes an optional double bond linking the carbon adjacent to R7 with the carbon adjacent to R8;

R8 is H or C1 -C15 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group;

R 0 is glycosyl; R 2 is C6 - C30 acyl having a straight or branched carbon chain optionally substituted with one or more hydroxy groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the acyl group and/or an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group and which optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, and/or one or more optionally substituted arylene groups and wherein the carbon chain is optionally substituted with one or more deuterium atoms; wherein the optional substituents on the aryl and arylene groups may be selected from halogen, cyano, dialkylamino.C^Ce amide, nitro, C C6 alkoxy, C^C6 acyloxy and C^C6 thioalkyl;

X is O, CH2 or S; wherein

when X is CH2 then the following must all be true: the stereochemistry of the 6- membered sugar ring in formula (I) is a-D-galacto; R is H; R2 and R3 are both OH; and:

either R6 is OH and R7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R), (2S, 3S, 4S), (2R, 3S, 4S), (2R, 3S, 4R) or (2S, 3R, 4S); or R6 is OH and R7 is H, and R8 is C13H27 and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2 and 3 is (2S, 3S); when X is S then the following must all be true: the stereochemistry of the 6- membered sugar ring in formula (I) is a-D-galacto; R is H; R2 and R3 are both OH; and:

either R6 is OH and R7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R); or R6 is OH and R7 is H and the stereochemistry at the carbon atoms 2 and 3 is (2S, 3S); n is 1 when X is O or S; or n is 0 or 1 when X is CH2; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

A compound as claimed in claim 1 which is a compound of formula (la):

(la) wherein X, R1, R2, R3, R6, R7, R8, R0, R12, R15, R16, R19, R20, R21, R32, n, g, A, D, E, G and J are all as defined in claim 1;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

A compound of formula (II):

(ll)

wherein A, D, X, R1, R2, R3, R6, R7, R8, R0, R2, R5, R6, R32 , and n are all as defined above for formula (I);

Z is selected from the group consisting

Z1 Z2 Z4 Z5

Z16 Z17 Z18 Z19

0)kCH2CH2SH and

Z23 wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group Z to group D, except as defined for Z23;

R20 is as defined above for formula (I);

R23 is aryl, aralkyi or optionally substituted alkyl;

R24 is lower alkyl;

R25 is p-C6H4L wherein L is H, methoxy, COOH, C(0)NHCH2COOH or CH2CH2NMe2;

R26 is aralkyi;

R27 is H or lower alkyl;

R28 is alkylene; R3 is (CH2CH20)k

k is an integer from 2 to 100;

W is an optionally substituted cyclooctynyl ring; or W is a fused bicyclic or tricyclic ring system comprising an optionally substituted cyclooctynyl ring fused to one or more aryl groups or one or more cycloalkyl groups; wherein the cyclooctynyl ring optionally contains a N atom within the ring, which N atom is optionally substituted with an acyl group; and wherein the cyclooctynyl ring is optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxyl, alkoxy and aralkyl wherein the aryl part of this group is optionally subtituted with a carboxylic acid; and wherein * or one of the optional substituents comprises a point of attachment of Z23 to group D; provided that Z is Z1 , Z2, Z3, Z4, Z7, Z8, Z9, Z10, Z1 1 , Z13, Z15, Z16, Z17 or Z18 only when D is D1 , D2, D3 or D4 and provided that Z is Z12 only when D is D1 , D2 or D3 and provided that Z is Z5 or Z20 only when D is D5, and provided that Z is Z21 , Z22 or Z23 only when D is D2; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein A is selected from the group consisting of:

wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group A to group D;

each Q , the same or different, is independently selected from the group consisting of

H, alkyl, alkoxy, halogen, nitro, aryl; or, together with the ring to which it is attached, forms a fused bicyclic aryl group;

p is an integer from 1 to 4;

Alk is C -C4 straight chain alkyl; and R is H or lower alkyl;

provided that A is A1 only when D is D1 and provided that A is A2 only when D is D2, D3 or D5 and provided that A is A3 only when D is D1 , D3 or D4 and provided that A is A4 only when D is D2, D3 or D5 and provided that A is A5 only when D is D1 , D3 or D4.

A compound as claimed in claim 3, wherein A is A1 or A2.

A compound as claimed in claim 5, wherein A is A1 wherein R28 is H, or wherein A is A2 wherein Q is H.

A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein D is D1.

8. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6 wherein D is D2. 9. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein D is D5. 10. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein R 5 is selected from the group consisting of:

1 1. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein R 6 is selected from the group consisting of:

A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 , 2, or 4 to 1 1 , wherein J is selected from the group consisting of:

AMLGTHTMEV (SEQ ID NO: 1 ), MLGTHTMEV (SEQ ID NO:2), EAAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO:3), AAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO:4), AADHRQLQLSISSCLQQL (SEQ ID NO:5), AAGIGILTVILGVL (SEQ ID NO:6), AARAVFLAL (SEQ ID NO:7), ACDPHSGHFV (SEQ ID NO:8), ACYEFLWGPRALVETS (SEQ ID NO:9), ADHRQLQLSISSCLQQL (SEQ ID NO: 10), AEEAAGIGILT (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 ), AEEAAGIGIL (SEQ ID NO: 12), AELVHFLLL (SEQ ID NO: 13), AELVHFLLLKYRAR (SEQ ID NO: 14), AEPINIQTW (SEQ ID NO: 15), AFLPWHRLF (SEQ ID NO: 16), AGATGG RG P RGAGA (SEQ ID NO: 17), ALCRWGLLL (SEQ ID NO: 18), ALDVYNGLL (SEQ ID NO: 19), ALFDIESKV (SEQ ID NO:20), ALGGHPLLGV (SEQ ID NO:21 ), ALIHHNTHL (SEQ ID NO:22), ALKDVEERV (SEQ ID NO:23), ALLAVGATK (SEQ ID NO:24), ALLEIASCL (SEQ ID NO:25), ALNFPGSQK (SEQ ID NO:26), ALPYWNFATG (SEQ ID NO:27),

ALSVMGVYV (SEQ ID NO:28), ALWPWLLMAT (SEQ ID NO:29), ALWPWLLMA (SEQ ID NO:30), ALYVDSLFFL (SEQ ID NO:31 ), ANDPIFWL (SEQ ID NO:32), APPAYEKLSAEQ (SEQ ID NO:33), APRGPHGGAASGL (SEQ ID NO:34),

APRGVRMAV (SEQ ID NO:35), ARGPESRLL (SEQ ID NO:36), ASGPGGGAPR (SEQ ID NO:37), ATGFKQSSKALQRPVAS (SEQ ID NO:38), AVCPWTWLR (SEQ ID NO:39), AWISKPPGV (SEQ ID NO:40), AYVCGIQNSVSANRS (SEQ ID NO:41 ), CATWKVICKSCISQTPG (SEQ ID NO:42), C E F H ACWP AFTVLG E (SEQ ID NO:43), CLSRRPWKRSWSAGSCPGMPHL (SEQ ID NO:44), CMTWNQMNL (SEQ ID NO:45), CQWGRLWQL (SEQ ID NO:46), CTACRWKKACQR (SEQ ID NO:47), DPARYEFLW (SEQ ID NO:48), DTGFYTLHVIKSDLVNEEATGQFRV (SEQ ID NO:49), DVTFNIICKKCG (SEQ ID NO:50), EAAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO:51 ),

EADPTGHSY (SEQ ID NO:52), EAFIQPITR (SEQ ID NO:53),

EDLTVKIGDFGLATEKSRWSGSHQFEQLS (SEQ ID NO:54), EEAAGIGILTVI (SEQ ID NO:55), EEKLIWLF (SEQ ID NO:56), EFYLAMPFATPM (SEQ ID NO:57), EGDCAPEEK (SEQ ID NO:58), EIIYPNASLLIQN (SEQ ID NO:59),

EKIQKAFDDIAKYFSK (SEQ ID NO:60), ELTLGEFLKL (SEQ ID NO:61 ),

ELVRRILSR (SEQ ID NO:62), ESRLLEFYLAMPF (SEQ ID NO:63), ETVSEQSNV (SEQ ID NO:64), EVDPASNTY (SEQ ID NO:65), EVDPIGHLY (SEQ ID NO:66), EVDPIGHVY (SEQ ID NO:67), EVISCKLIKR (SEQ ID NO:68), EVYDGREHSA (SEQ ID NO:69), EYLQLVFGI (SEQ ID NO:70), EYLSLSDKI (SEQ ID NO:71 ),

EYSKECLKEF (SEQ ID NO:72), E YVI KVSARVRF (SEQ ID NO:73), FIASNGVKLV (SEQ ID NO:74), FINDEIFVEL (SEQ ID NO:75), FLDEFMEGV (SEQ ID NO:76), FLEGNEVGKTY (SEQ ID NO:77), FLFLLFFWL (SEQ ID NO:78), FLIIWQNTM (SEQ ID NO:79), FLLHHAFVDSIFEQWLQRHRP (SEQ ID NO:80), FLLLKYRAREPVTKAE (SEQ ID NO:81 ), FLTPKKLQCV (SEQ ID NO:82), FLWGPRALV (SEQ ID NO:83), FMNKFIYEI (SEQ ID NO:84), FMVEDETVL (SEQ ID NO:85), FPSDSWCYF (SEQ ID NO:86), FRSGLDSYV (SEQ ID NO:87), FSWAMDLDPKGA (SEQ ID NO:88), GARGPESRLLEFYLAMPFATPMEAELARRSLAQDAPPL (SEQ ID NO:89),

GDNQIMPKAGLLIIV (SEQ ID NO:90), GELIGILNAAKVPAD (SEQ ID NO:91 ), GFKQSSKAL (SEQ ID NO:92), GLASFKSFLK (SEQ ID NO:93), GLCTLVAML (SEQ ID NO:94), GLPPDVQRV (SEQ ID NO:95), GLYDGMEHLI (SEQ ID NO:96), GRAMLGTHTMEVTVY (SEQ ID NO:97), GVALQTMKQ (SEQ ID NO:98), GVGSPYVSRLLGICL (SEQ ID NO:99), AKFVAAWTLKAAA (SEQ ID NO: 100), GVLLKEFTVSGNILTIRLT (SEQ ID NO: 101 ), GVLVGVALI (SEQ ID NO: 102), GVYDGREHTV (SEQ ID NO: 103), HLFGYSWYK (SEQ ID NO: 104),

HLIRVEGNLRVE (SEQ ID NO: 105), HLSTAFARV (SEQ ID NO: 106), HLYQGCQW (SEQ ID NO: 107), HQQYFYKIPILVINK (SEQ ID NO: 108), HTMEVTVYHR (SEQ ID NO: 109), IALNFPGSQK (SEQ ID NO: 1 10), IGRIAECILGMNPSR (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 1 ), IISAWGIL (SEQ ID NO:1 12), ILAKFLHWL (SEQ ID NO: 1 13), ILDSSEEDK (SEQ ID NO: 1 14), ILDTAGREEY (SEQ ID NO: 1 15), ILHNGAYSL (SEQ ID NO: 1 16), ILSRDAAPLPRPG (SEQ ID NO: 1 17), ILTVILGVL (SEQ ID NO: 1 18), IMDQVPFFS (SEQ ID NO: 1 19), IMDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO: 120), IMIGVLVGV (SEQ ID NO: 121 ), INKTSGPKRGKHAWTHRLRE (SEQ ID NO: 122), ISGGPRISY (SEQ ID NO: 123), ISPNSVFSQWRWCDSLEDYD (SEQ ID NO: 124), I SQAVH AAH AE I N EAG R (SEQ ID NO: 125), ITDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO: 126), ITKKVADLVGF (SEQ ID NO: 127), KASEKIFYV (SEQ ID NO: 128), KAVYNFATM (SEQ ID NO: 129), KCDICTDEY (SEQ ID NO: 130), KEFTVSGNILT (SEQ ID NO: 131 ), KEFTVSGNILTI (SEQ ID NO: 132), KELEGILLL (SEQ ID NO: 133), KHAWTHRLRERKQLWYEEI (SEQ ID NO: 134), KIFGSLAFL (SEQ ID NO: 135), KIFSEVTLK (SEQ ID NO: 136), KIFYVYMKRKYEAM (SEQ ID NO: 137), KIFYVYMKRKYEAMT (SEQ ID NO: 138), KILDAWAQK (SEQ ID NO: 139), KINKNPKYK (SEQ ID NO: 140),

KISQAVHAAHAEINEAGRESIINFEKLTEWT (SEQ ID NO: 141 ),

KKLLTQHFVQENYLEY (SEQ ID NO: 142), KMDAEHPEL (SEQ ID NO: 143), KNCEPWPNAPPAYEKLSAE (SEQ ID NO: 144), KRYFKLSHLQMHSRKH (SEQ ID NO: 145), KSSEKIVYVYMKLNYEVMTK (SEQ ID NO: 146), KTWGQYWQV (SEQ ID NO: 147), KVAELVHFL (SEQ ID NO: 148), KVHPVIWSL (SEQ ID NO: 149),

KVLEYVIKV (SEQ ID NO: 150), KYDCFLHPF (SEQ ID NO: 151 ), KYVGIEREM (SEQ ID NO: 152), LAALPHSCL (SEQ ID NO: 153), LAAQERRVPR (SEQ ID NO: 154), LAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO: 155), LAMPFATPM (SEQ ID NO: 156),

LGFKVTLPPFMRSKRAADFH (SEQ ID NO: 157), LGPGRPYR (SEQ ID NO: 158), LHHAFVDSIF (SEQ ID NO: 159), LIYRRRLMK (SEQ ID NO: 160),

LKEFTVSGNILTIRL (SEQ ID NO: 161 ), LKLSGWRL (SEQ ID NO: 162),

LLANGRMPTVLQCVN (SEQ ID NO: 163), LLDGTATLRL (SEQ ID NO: 164), LLEFYLAMPFATPM (SEQ ID NO: 165), LLEFYLAMPFATPMEAELARRSLAQ (SEQ ID NO: 166), LLFGLALIEV (SEQ ID NO: 167), LLGATCMFV (SEQ ID NO:168), LLGPGRPYR (SEQ ID NO: 169), LLGRNSFEV (SEQ ID NO: 170),

LLKYRAREPVTKAE (SEQ ID NO: 171 ), LLLDDLLVSI (SEQ ID NO: 172), LLLLTVLTV (SEQ ID NO: 173), LLWSFQTSA (SEQ ID NO: 174), LLYKLADLI (SEQ ID NO: 175), LMLQNALTTM (SEQ ID NO: 176), LPAWGLSPGEQEY (SEQ ID NO: 177), LPHSSSHWL (SEQ ID NO: 178), LPRWPPPQL (SEQ ID NO: 179), LPSSADVEF (SEQ ID NO: 180), LSHLQMHSRKH (SEQ ID NO: 181 ), LSRLSNRLL (SEQ ID NO: 182), LTDLQPYMRQFVAHL (SEQ ID NO: 183), LWWVNNQSLPVSP (SEQ ID NO: 184), LYATVIHDI (SEQ ID NO: 185), LYSACFWWL (SEQ ID NO: 186),

LYVDSLFFL (SEQ ID NO: 187), MEVDPIGHLY (SEQ ID NO: 188), MIAVFLPIV (SEQ ID NO: 189), MIFEKHGFRRTTPP (SEQ ID NO: 190), MKLNYEVMTKLGFKVTLPPF (SEQ ID NO: 191 ), MLAVISCAV (SEQ ID NO: 192), MLLAVLYCL (SEQ ID NO: 193), MLMAQEALAFL (SEQ ID NO: 194), MPFATPMEA (SEQ ID NO: 195),

MPREDAHFIYGYPKKGHGHS (SEQ ID NO: 196), MSLQRQFLR (SEQ ID NO: 197), MVKISGGPR (SEQ ID NO: 198), NLVPMVATV (SEQ ID NO: 199),

NPPSMVAAGSWAAV (SEQ ID NO:200), NSIVKSITVSASG (SEQ ID NO:201 ), NSNHVASGAGEAAIETQSSSSEEIV (SEQ ID NO:202), NSQPVWLCL (SEQ ID NO:203), NTYASPRFK (SEQ ID NO:204), NYARTEDFF (SEQ ID NO:205),

NYKRCFPVI (SEQ ID NO:206), NYNNFYRFL (SEQ ID NO:207),

PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSA (SEQ ID NO:208), PFATPMEAELARR (SEQ ID NO:209), PGSTAPPAHGVT (SEQ ID NO:210), PGTRVRAMAIYKQ (SEQ ID NO:21 1 ), PGVLLKEFTVSGN I LTI RLTAADH R (SEQ ID NO:212), PLLENVISK (SEQ ID NO:213), PLPPARNGGL (SEQ ID NO:214), PLQPEQLQV (SEQ ID NO:215), PLTSIISAV (SEQ ID NO:216), PRALAETSYVKVLEY (SEQ ID NO:217),

PVTWRRAPA (SEQ ID NO:218), PYYFAAELPPRNLPEP (SEQ ID NO:219), QCSGNFMGF (SEQ ID NO:220), QCTEVRADTRPWSGP (SEQ ID NO:221 ), QGAMLAAQERRVPRAAEVPR (SEQ ID NO:222), QGQHFLQKV (SEQ ID NO:223), QLAVSVILRV (SEQ ID NO:224), QNILLSNAPLGPQFP (SEQ ID NO:225),

QQITKTEV (SEQ ID NO:226), QRPYGYDQIM (SEQ ID NO:227), QYSWFVNGTF (SEQ ID NO:228), RAGLQVRKNK (SEQ ID NO:229), REPFTKAEMLGSVIR (SEQ ID NO:230), REPVTKAEML (SEQ ID NO:231 ), RIAECILGM (SEQ ID NO:232), RKVAELVHFLLLKYR (SEQ ID NO:233), RKVAELVHFLLLKYRA (SEQ ID NO:234), RLLEFYLAMPFA (SEQ ID NO:235), RLLQETELV (SEQ ID NO:236), RLMKQDFSV (SEQ ID NO:237), RLPRIFCSC (SEQ ID NO:238), RLSSCVPVA (SEQ ID NO:239), RLVDDFLLV (SEQ ID NO:240), RMPEAAPPV (SEQ ID NO:241 ),

RMPTVLQCVNVSWS (SEQ ID NO:242), RNGYRALMDKS (SEQ ID NO:243), RNGYRALMDKSLHVGTQCALTRR (SEQ ID NO:244), RPGLLGASVLGLDDI (SEQ ID NO:245), RPHVPESAF (SEQ ID NO:246), RQKRILVNL (SEQ ID NO:247), RSDSGQQARY (SEQ ID NO:248), RTKQLYPEW (SEQ ID NO:249), RVIKNSIRLTL (SEQ ID NO:250), RVRFFFPSL (SEQ ID NO:251 ), RYQLDPKFI (SEQ ID NO:252), SAFPTTINF (SEQ ID NO:253), SAWISKPPGV (SEQ ID NO:254), SAYGEPRKL (SEQ ID NO:255), SEIWRDIDF (SEQ ID NO:256), SELFRSGLDSY (SEQ ID NO:257), SESIKKKVL (SEQ ID NO:258), SESLKMIF (SEQ ID NO:259), SFSYTLLSL (SEQ ID NO:260), SHETVIIEL (SEQ ID NO:261 ), SIINFEKL (SEQ ID NO:262), SLADTNSLAV (SEQ ID NO:263), SLFEGIDIYT (SEQ ID NO:264), SLFPNSPKWTSK (SEQ ID NO:265), SLFRAVITK (SEQ ID NO:266), SLGWLFLLL (SEQ ID NO:267), SLLMWITQC (SEQ ID NO:268), SLLMWITQCFLPVF (SEQ ID NO:269), SLLQHLIGL (SEQ ID NO:270), SLPYWNFATG (SEQ ID NO:271 ), SLSKILDTV (SEQ ID NO:272), SLYKFSPFPL (SEQ ID NO:273), SLYSFPEPEA (SEQ ID NO:274), SNDGPTLI (SEQ ID NO:275), SPRWWPTCL (SEQ ID NO:276), SPSSNRIRNT (SEQ ID

NO:277), SQKTYQGSY (SEQ ID NO:278), SRFGGAWR (SEQ ID NO:279), SSALLSIFQSSPE (SEQ ID NO:280), SSDYVIPIGTY (SEQ ID NO:281 ),

SSKALQRPV (SEQ ID NO:282), SSPGCQPPA (SEQ ID NO:283), STAPPVHNV (SEQ ID NO:284), SVASTITGV (SEQ ID NO:285), SVDYFFVWL (SEQ ID NO:286), SVSESDTIRSISIAS (SEQ ID NO:287), SVYDFFVWL (SEQ ID NO:288),

SYLDSGIHF (SEQ ID NO:289), SYLQDSDPDSFQD (SEQ ID NO:290), TFPDLESEF (SEQ ID NO:291 ), TGRAMLGTHTMEVTVYH (SEQ ID NO:292), TLDSQVMSL (SEQ ID NO:293), TLDWLLQTPK (SEQ ID NO:294), TLEEITGYL (SEQ ID NO:295), TLMSAMTNL (SEQ ID NO:296), TLNDECWPA (SEQ ID NO:297), TLPGYPPHV (SEQ ID NO:298), TLYQDDTLTLQAAG (SEQ ID NO:299), TMKQICKKEIRRLHQY (SEQ ID NO:300), TMNGSKSPV (SEQ ID NO:301 ), TPRLPSSADVEF (SEQ ID NO:302), TSCILESLFRAVITK (SEQ ID NO:303), TSEKRPFMCAY (SEQ ID NO:304), TSYVKVLHHMVKISG (SEQ ID NO:305), TTEWVETTARELPIPEPE (SEQ ID

NO:306), TVSGNILTIR (SEQ ID NO:307), TYACFVSNL (SEQ ID NO:308),

TYLPTNASL (SEQ ID NO:309), TYYRPGVNLSLSC (SEQ ID NO:310), VAELVHFLL (SEQ ID NO:31 1 ), VFGIELMEVDPIGHL (SEQ ID NO:312), VGQDVSVLFRVTGALQ (SEQ ID NO:313), VIFSKASSSLQL (SEQ ID NO:314), VISNDVCAQV (SEQ ID NO:315), VLDGLDVLL (SEQ ID NO:316), VLFYLGQY (SEQ ID NO:317),

VLHWDPETV (SEQ ID NO:318), VLLKEFTVSG (SEQ ID NO:319), VLLQAGSLHA (SEQ ID NO:320), VLPDVFIRCV (SEQ ID NO:321 ), VLPDVFIRC (SEQ ID NO:322), VLRENTSPK (SEQ ID NO:323), VLYRYGSFSV (SEQ ID NO:324),

VPGVLLKEFTVSGN I LTI RLTAADH R (SEQ ID NO:325), VPLDCVLYRY (SEQ ID NO:326), VRIGHLYIL (SEQ ID NO:327), VSSFFSYTL (SEQ ID NO:328),

WLGWFGI (SEQ ID NO:329), WPCEPPEV (SEQ ID NO:330), VWGAVGVG (SEQ ID NO:331 ), VYFFLPDHL (SEQ ID NO:332), WEKMKASEKIFYVYMKRK (SEQ ID NO:333), WLPFGFILI (SEQ ID NO:334), WNRQLYPEWTEAQRLD (SEQ ID NO:335), WQYFFPVIF (SEQ ID NO:336), WRRAPAPGA (SEQ ID NO:337),

YACFVSNLATGRNNS (SEQ ID NO:338), YFSKKEWEKMKSSEKIVYVY (SEQ ID NO:339), YLEPGPVTA (SEQ ID NO:340), YLEPGPVTV (SEQ ID NO:341 ), YLNDHLEPWI (SEQ ID NO:342), YLQLVFGIEV (SEQ ID NO:343), YLSGANLNL (SEQ ID NO:344), YLVPQQGFFC (SEQ ID NO:345), YMDGTMSQV (SEQ ID NO:346), YMIMVKCWMI (SEQ ID NO:347), YRPRPRRY (SEQ ID NO:348),

YSVYFNLPADTIYTN (SEQ ID NO:349), YSWRINGIPQQHTQV (SEQ ID NO:350), YVDFREYEYY (SEQ ID NO:351 ), YYWPRPRRY (SEQ ID NO:352), IMDQVPFFS (SEQ ID NO:353), SVDYFFVWL (SEQ ID NO:354), ALFDIESKV (SEQ ID NO:355), NLVPMVATV (SEQ ID NO:356) and GLCTLVAML (SEQ ID NO:357),

SVASTITGV (SEQ ID NO:358), VMAGDIYSV (SEQ ID NO:359), ALADGVQKV (SEQ ID NO:360), LLGATCMFV (SEQ ID NO:361 ), SVFAGWGV (SEQ ID NO:362), ALFDGDPHL (SEQ ID NO:363), YVDPVITSI (SEQ ID NO:364), STAPPVHNV (SEQ ID NO:365), LAALPHSCL (SEQ ID NO:366), SQDDIKGIQKLYGKRS (SEQ ID NO:367), FLPSDFFPSV (SEQ ID NO:368), FLPSDFFPSV (SEQ ID NO:369), TLGEFLKLDRERAKN (SEQ ID NO:370), TFSYVDPVITSISPKYGMET (SEQ ID NO:371 ), AMTQLLAGV (SEQ ID NO:372), KVFAGIPTV (SEQ ID NO:373),

AIIDGVESV (SEQ ID NO:374), GLWHHQTEV (SEQ ID NO:375), NLDTLMTYV (SEQ ID NO:376), KIQEILTQV (SEQ ID NO:377), LTFGDWAV (SEQ ID NO:378), TMLARLASA (SEQ ID NO:379), IMDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO:380),

MHQKRTAMFQDPQERPRKLPQLCTELQTTIHD (SEQ ID NO:381 ), LPQLCTELQTTI (SEQ ID NO:382), HDIILECVYCKQQLLRREVY (SEQ ID NO:383),

KQQLLRREVYDFAFRDLCIVYRDGN (SEQ ID NO:384),

RDLCIVYRDGNPYAVCDKCLKFYSKI (SEQ ID NO:385),

DKCLKFYSKISEYRHYCYSLYGTTL (SEQ ID NO:386),

HYCYSLYGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIR (SEQ ID NO:387),

YGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIRCINCQKPLCPEEK (SEQ ID NO:388),

RCINCQKPLCPEEKQRHLDKKQRFHNIRGRWT (SEQ ID NO:389),

DKKQRFHNIRGRWTGRCMSCCRSSRTRRETQL (SEQ ID NO:390),

MHGDTPTLHEYMLDLQPETTDLYCYEQLNDSSEEE (SEQ ID NO:391 ),

LYCYEQLNDSSEEEDEIDGPAGQAEPDRAHYNIVT (SEQ ID NO:392),

GQAEPDRAHYNIVTFCCKCDSTLRLCVQSTHVDIR (SEQ ID NO:393),

TLRLCVQSTHVDIRTLEDLLMGTLGIVCPICSQKP (SEQ ID NO:394), ALPFGFILV (SEQ ID NO:395), TLADFDPRV (SEQ ID NO:396), IMDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO:397), SIMTYDFHGA (SEQ ID NO:398), AQYIKANSKFIGITEL (SEQ ID NO:399),

FLYDDNQRV (SEQ ID NO:400), YLIELIDRV (SEQ ID NO:401 ), NLMEQPIKV (SEQ ID NO:402), FLAEDALNTV (SEQ ID NO:403), ALMEQQHYV (SEQ ID NO:404), ILDDIGHGV (SEQ ID NO:405), KLDVGNAEV (SEQ ID NO:406),TFEFTSFFY (SEQ ID NO:407), SWPDGAELPF (SEQ ID NO:408), GILGFVFTL (SEQ ID NO:409), ILRGSVAHK (SEQ ID NO:410) SVYDFFVWLKFFHRTCKCTGNFA (SEQ ID NO:41 1 ), DLAQMFFCFKELEGW (SEQ ID NO:412), AVGALEGPRNQDWLGVPRQL (SEQ ID NO:413) and RAHYNIVTF (SEQ ID NO:414).

A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (II) is oc-D-galacto.

A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein X is O.

A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein n is 1 , the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (II) is a-D- galacto, R6 is OH and R7 is OH.

100

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

18. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 -17 or

CN168

CN168

and a pharmaceutically acceptable exipient.

19. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17 and a pharmaceutically acceptableexipient.

20. A vaccine comprising a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17 and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent and optionally an antigen.

A method of treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer comprising administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17 to a patient requiring treatment.

22. A method as claimed in claim 21 wherein the atopic disorder is asthma.

Description:
AMINO SPHINGOGLYCOLIPID ANALOGUES FIELD OF INVENTION This invention relates generally to certain sphingoglycolipid analogues and peptide derivatives thereof, compositions comprising these compounds, including pharmaceutical compositions and adjuvant compositions, processes for preparing the compounds, and methods of treating or preventing diseases or conditions using such compounds, especially diseases or conditions relating to cancer, infection, atopic disorders, autoimmune disease or diabetes.

BACKGROUND

Invariant natural killer T-cells (NKT) are a subset of T-cells that are implicated in a broad range of diseases. In some circumstances they can enhance the response to infection (Kinjo, lllarionov et al. 201 1 ) and cancer (Wu, Lin et al. 201 1 ) but also possess the ability to suppress autoimmune disease (Hong, Wilson et al. 2001 ) and type II diabetes. Activation of NKT cells can also lead to undesirable immune responses as related to allergy, (Wingender, Rogers et al. 201 1 ) autoimmunity (Zeng, Liu et al. 2003) and atherosclerosis (Tupin, Nicoletti et al. 2004).

Unlike conventional T-cells that are restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules that present peptide antigens, NKT cells are uniquely restricted by CD1 d proteins (Bendelac, Savage et al. 2007). CD1 d proteins belong to the CD1 family that contains five members, CD1 a-e. Like MHC molecules, the CD1 family members all contain an antigen binding region that is flanked by two anti-parallel a-helices that sit above a β-sheet. Unlike MHC molecules, the binding region of the CD1 protein contains two large hydrophobic binding pockets that are suited to bind lipid antigens rather than peptide-based antigens (Li, Girardi et al. 2010). a-Galactosylceramide (a-GalCer) potently activates human and mouse NKT cells (Kawano, Cui et al. 1997). In animal studies, a-GalCer is reported to be useful in the treatment of a number of diseases including cancer, (Morita, Motoki et al. 1995; Motoki, Morita et al. 1995) and autoimmune disease (Hong, Wilson et al. 2001 ). The compound has also been shown to function as a potent vaccine adjuvant in the treatment and prophylaxis of cancer and infectious disease (Silk, Hermans et al. 2004). This adjuvant activity has been attributed to stimulatory interactions between activated NKT cells and dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells in the body. As a consequence, the DCs are rendered capable of promoting strong adaptive immune responses (Fujii, Shimizu et al. 2003; Hermans, Silk et al. 2003).

There is considerable interest in therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of cancer. The aim is to stimulate clonal expansion of T cells within a host that are capable of recognising and killing tumour cells, leaving normal tissues intact. This specificity relies on recognition of unique, tumour-derived, protein fragments presented by MHC molecules on the tumour cell surface. Vaccines used in this context typically involve injection of the defined tumour- associated "tumour antigens", or their peptide fragments, together with immune adjuvants capable of driving an immune response. In the absence of such adjuvants, the opposite outcome may ensue, with the tumour antigens actually being "tolerated" by the immune system rather than provoking tumour rejection. Advances in this therapy are therefore dependent on appropriate combinations of antigen and adjuvant (Speiser and Romero 2010).

When incorporated into a vaccine, a-GalCer must first be acquired by antigen-presenting cells in the host, and then presented to NKT cells within the local environment (Fujii, Shimizu et al. 2003; Hermans, Silk et al. 2003). This process brings the two cell-types into close association, permitting stimulatory signals to be passed from NKT cell to antigen-presenting cell.

a-Galactosylceramide (a-GalCer)

Importantly, if the same antigen-presenting cells acquire the defined antigens of the vaccine, the stimulatory signals received through interaction with NKT cells can be translated directly into a superior capacity to provoke clonal proliferation of antigen-specific T cells with capacity to kill (Hermans, Silk et al. 2003; Semmling, Lukacs-Kornek et al. 2010). One way to achieve this is to load antigen-presenting cells ex vivo with antigenic material and NKT cell ligands (Petersen, Sika-Paotonu et al. 2010). Although a promising approach, in the clinic this requires leukapheresis and the ex vivo culturing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) over 7 days in a highly controlled sterile facility to generate sufficient antigen- presenting cells, which is a cumbersome and costly process. An alternative is to target antigen-presenting cells in vivo, with covalent attachment of antigen to NKT cell ligand ensuring entry into the same cell. Although used successfully with other immune adjuvant compounds, including the covalent attachment of a TLR2 agonist to MUC1 peptides (Cai, Huang et al. 201 1 ), the approach has not been regarded as easily applicable to a-GalCer because the chemical attachment of peptide will result in a conjugate with significantly diminished, or no, capacity to stimulate NKT cells. In particular, the specific lipid moieties of a-GalCer are required for optimal binding into the A and F pockets of CD1 d, and the polar head-group is required to be positioned appropriately for interaction with the T-cell receptor of the NKT cell (Borg, Wun et al. 2007), placing particularly tight constraints on the whole glycolipid structure for activity.

Although a-GalCer has considerable biological activity it does have limitations such as poor solubility, (Ebensen, Link et al. 2007) lack of efficacy in human clinical trials, (Giaccone, Punt et al. 2002) promotion of T-cell anergy (Parekh, Wilson et al. 2005) and the generation of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines which may contribute to mixed results in model studies.

It is an object of the invention to provide novel compounds or vaccines useful as agents for treating diseases or conditions relating to cancer, infection, autoimmune disease, atopic disorders or cancer, or to at least provide a useful alternative.

STATEMENTS OF INVENTION

I ound of formula (I):

(I) wherein: A is a self-immolative linker group;

D is selected from the group consisting of:

wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group D to group A;

R 5 is a side chain of one of the following amino acids: L-lysine, L-citrulline, L-arginine, L- glutamine or L-threonine;

R 16 is a side chain of a hydrophobic amino acid;

R 19 is an alkylene group;

R 32 is an alkylene group or an O-alkylene group wherein the O is attached to the carbonyl group of D2;

E is selected from the group consisting of:

E97 wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group E to group D;

R 20 is H or lower alkyl;

R 2 is an alkylene group;

g is 0 when R 20 is H or g is 1 when R 20 is lower alkyl;

provided that E is E18 only when D is D1 , D2 or D3 and provided that E is E1 , E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7, E8, E9, E10, E1 1 , E12, E13, E15, E20, E21 , E93, E94 or E96 only when D is D1 , D2, D3 or D4; and provided that E is E91 , E92 or E95 only when D is D5 and provided that E is E97 only when D is D2;

G is absent or G is an amino acid sequence of up to 6 amino acids, attached through its N- terminus to group E and through its C-terminus to group J;

J is a peptidic antigen, optionally substituted at its N and/or C-termini with up to 6 amino acids selected from the group of natural flanking residues for the antigen, and optionally terminated with NH 2 at the C-terminus so as to provide a C-terminal amide, and attached to group G through its N-terminus or, wherein G is absent, attached to group E through its N- terminus; R is H or glycosyl, provided that if R is glycosyl then R 2 and R 3 are both OH;

R 2 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F and OR 10 ; provided that if R 2 is H, F or OR 10 , then R is H and R 3 is OH ;

R 3 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F and OR 10 ; provided that if R 3 is H, F or OR 10 , then R is H and R 2 is OH ;

R 6 is OH or H;

R 7 is OH or H; when R 7 is H, denotes an optional double bond linking the carbon adjacent to R 7 with the carbon adjacent to R 8 ;

R 8 is H or C 1 -C15 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group; R 0 is glycosyl;

R 2 is C 6 - C 30 acyl having a straight or branched carbon chain optionally substituted with one or more hydroxy groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the acyl group and/or an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group and which optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, and/or one or more optionally substituted arylene groups and wherein the carbon chain is optionally substituted with one or more deuterium atoms; wherein the optional substituents on the aryl and arylene groups may be selected from halogen, cyano, dialkylamino.C^Ce amide, nitro, Ci.C 6 alkoxy, Ci.C 6 acyloxy and Ci.C 6 thioalkyl;

X is O, CH 2 or S; wherein

when X is CH 2 then the following must all be true: the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring in formula (I) is a-D-galacto; R is H; R 2 and R 3 are both OH; and:

either R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R), (2S, 3S, 4S), (2R, 3S, 4S), (2R, 3S, 4R) or (2S, 3R, 4S); or R 6 is OH and R 7 is H, and R 8 is C 13 H 27 and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2 and 3 is (2S, 3S); when X is S then the following must all be true: the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring in formula (I) is a-D-galacto; R is H; R 2 and R 3 are both OH; and:

either R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S,

4R); or R 6 is OH and R 7 is H and the stereochemistry at the carbon atoms 2 and 3 is (2S,

3S); n is 1 when X is O or S; or n is 0 or 1 when X is CH 2 ; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Preferably, the compound of formula (I) is a compound of formula (la):

(la) wherein X, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 , R 0 , R 2 , R 5 , R 6 , R 9 , R 20 , R 2 , R 32 , n, g, A, D, E, G and J are all as defined above for formula (I);

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. mpound of formula (lb):

(lb) wherein:

A is a self-immolative linker group;

D is selected from the group consisting of:

O u R 16 O ni 0 , p15 O

D1 D2 R

wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group D to group A;

R 5 is a side chain of one of the following amino acids: L-lysine, L-citrulline, L-arginine, L- glutamine or L-threonine;

R 6 is a side chain of a hydrophobic amino acid;

R 9 is an alkylene group;

E8

wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group E to group D;

R 20 is H or lower alkyl;

R 2 is an alkylene group;

g is 0 when R 20 is H or g is 1 when R 20 is lower alkyl;

provided that E is E18 only when D is D1 , D2 or D3 and provided that E is E1 , E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7, E8, E9, E10, E1 1 , E12, E13, E15, E20, E21 , E93, E94 or E96 only when D is D1 , D2, D3 or D4; and provided that E is E91 , E92 or E95 only when D is D5;

G is absent or G is an amino acid sequence of up to 6 amino acids, attached through its N- terminus to group E and through its C-terminus to group J;

J is a peptidic antigen, optionally substituted at its N and/or C-termini with up to 6 amino acids selected from the group of natural flanking residues for the antigen, and optionally terminated with NH 2 at the C-terminus so as to provide a C-terminal amide, and attached to group G through its N-terminus or, wherein G is absent, attached to group E through its N- terminus;

R is H or glycosyl, provided that if R is glycosyl then R 2 and R 3 are both OH; R 2 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F and OR 10 ; provided that if R 2 is H, F or OR 10 , then R is H and R 3 is OH ; R 3 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F and OR 10 ; provided that if R 3 is H, F or OR 10 , then R is H and R 2 is OH ;

R 6 is OH or H; R 7 is OH or H; when R 7 is H, denotes an optional double bond linking the carbon adjacent to R 7 with the carbon adjacent to R 8 ; R 8 is H or C 1 -C15 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group;

R 0 is glycosyl;

R 2 is C 6 - C 30 acyl having a straight or branched carbon chain optionally substituted with one or more hydroxy groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the acyl group and/or an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group and which optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, and/or one or more optionally substituted arylene groups and wherein the carbon chain is optionally substituted with one or more deuterium atoms; wherein the optional substituents on the aryl and arylene groups may be selected from halogen, cyano, dialkylamino.C^Ce amide, nitro, Ci.C 6 alkoxy, Ci.C 6 acyloxy and Ci.C 6 thioalkyl; X is O, CH 2 or S; wherein

when X is CH 2 then the following must all be true: the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring in formula (I) is a-D-galacto; R is H; R 2 and R 3 are both OH; and:

either R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R), (2S, 3S, 4S), (2R, 3S, 4S), (2R, 3S, 4R) or (2S, 3R, 4S) or R 6 is OH and R 7 is H, and R 8 is C 13 H 2 7 and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2 and 3 is (2S, 3S); when X is S then the following must all be true: the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring in formula (I) is a-D-galacto; R is H; R 2 and R 3 are both OH; and:

either R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R); or R 6 is OH and R 7 is H and the stereochemistry at the carbon atoms 2 and 3 is (2S, 3S); n is 1 when X is O or S; or n is 0 or 1 when X is CH 2 ; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound of formula (I I):

(II) wherein A, D, X, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 , R 0 , R 2 , R 5 , R 6 , R 32 , and n are all as defined above for formula (I);

Z is selected from the group consisting of:

Z1 Z2

Z3 Z4 Z5

Z16 Z17 Z18 Z19

0) k CH 2 CH 2 SH and

Z23 wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group Z to group D, except as defined for Z23; R 20 is as defined above for formula (I);

R 23 is aryl, aralkyi or optionally substituted alkyl;

R 24 is lower alkyl;

R 25 is p-C 6 H 4 L wherein L is H, methoxy, COOH, C(0)NHCH 2 COOH or CH 2 CH 2 NMe 2 ;

R 26 is aralkyi;

R 27 is H or lower alkyl;

R 28 is alkylene;

R 3 is (CH 2 CH 2 0) k

k is an integer from 2 to 100;

W is an optionally substituted cyclooctynyl ring; or W is a fused bicyclic or tricyclic ring system comprising an optionally substituted cyclooctynyl ring fused to one or more aryl groups or one or more cycloalkyi groups; wherein the cyclooctynyl ring optionally contains a N atom within the ring, which N atom is optionally substituted with an acyl group; and wherein the cyclooctynyl ring is optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxyl, alkoxy and aralkyi wherein the aryl part of this group is optionally subtituted with a carboxylic acid; and wherein * or one of the optional substituents comprises a point of attachment of Z23 to group D; provided that Z is Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z7, Z8, Z9, Z10, Z11, Z13, Z15, Z16, Z17 or Z18 only when D is D1, D2, D3 or D4 and provided that Z is Z12 only when D is D1, D2 or D3 and provided that Z is Z5 or Z20 only when D is D5, and provided that Z is Z21 , Z22 or Z23 only when D is D2; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

is a compound of formula (Ila):

(Ila) wherein A, D, X, Z, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 , R 0 , R 2 , R 5 , R 6 , R 9 , R 20 , R 2 , R 23 , R 24 , R 25 , R : R 27 , R 28 , R 3 , W, k and n are all as defined above for formula (II);

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. I) is a compound of formula (lib):

(lib) wherein A, D, X, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 , R 0 , R 2 , R 5 , R 6 , R 9 and n are all as defined above for formula (lb); Z is selected from the group consisting of:

Z1 Z2 Z4 Z5

Z7 Z8 Z10 Z11

Z16

Z17 wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group Z to group D;

R 20 is as defined above for formula (I);

R 23 is aryl, aralkyl or optionally substituted alkyl;

R 24 is lower alkyl;

R 25 is p-C 6 H 4 L wherein L is H, methoxy, COOH, C(0)NHCH 2 COOH or CH 2 CH 2 NMe 2 ;

provided that Z is Z1 , Z2, Z3, Z4, Z7, Z8, Z9, Z10, Z1 1 , Z13, Z15 or Z16 only when D is D1 , D2, D3 or D4 and provided that Z is Z12 only when D is D1 , D2 or D3 and provided that Z is Z5 only when D is D5; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Preferably A is selected from the group consisting of:

wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group A to group D;

each Q , the same or different, is independently selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, alkoxy, halogen, nitro, aryl; or, together with the ring to which it is attached, forms a fused bicyclic aryl group;

p is an integer from 1 to 4;

Alk is C ! -C 4 straight chain alkyl; and

R 29 is H or lower alkyl;

provided that A is A1 only when D is D1 and provided that A is A2 only when D is D2, D3 o D5 and provided that A is A3 only when D is D1 , D3 or D4 and provided that A is A4 onh when D is D2, D3 or D5 and provided that A is A5 only when D is D1 , D3 or D4.

More preferably, A is A1 or A2. Still more preferably, A is A1 wherein R is H, or A is A2 wherein Q is H.

Preferably, Q in A2 or A3 is H. More preferably Q in A2 or A3 is H and p is 4. Alternatively preferably, Q in A2 or A3 is Me or OMe and p is 2, wherein the Me or OMe groups are situated ortho- to the heteroatom on the aromatic ring.

Preferably D is D1.

Alternatively preferably D is D2.

Alternatively preferably D is D3.

Alternatively preferably D is D4. Alternatively preferably D is D5.

More preferably R 5 is selected from the group consisting of:

Still more preferably R 5 is

Preferably R 6 is a side chain of one of the following amino acids: L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-norleucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan or L-tyrosine; that is, preferably R 6 is selected from the group consis

More preferably R 6 is selected group consisting of: Still more preferably

Preferably E is any one of E1 to E8, E93 or E94. More preferably E is any one of E1 to E4, E93 or E94.

Preferably E is E3 wherein R is H. Alternatively preferably E is E4 wherein R^ 2 u 0 is methyl Alternatively preferably E is E7 wherein R is H. Alternatively preferably E is E97.

Preferably E is E97 when D is D2, wherein R 32 is O-alkylene, preferably OCH 2 . Most preferably E is: wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group E to group D.

Preferably Z is Z23, Z22, Z21 , Z20, Z19, Z18, Z4, Z3 or Z1 . Most preferably Z is Z4. Preferably W is a cyclooctynyl ring fused to a cycloalkyi ring, preferably a cyclopropyl ring.

Preferably Z23 is

Preferably k is an integer from 10 to 32. More preferably k is an integer from 19 to 32. More preferably k is 10.

Preferably G is wherein * denotes a point of attachment of group G to group E. Alternatively preferably G is absent. Preferably J is a peptide that contains within its sequence one or more epitopes that bind to MHC molecules and induce T cell responses.

More preferably J is selected from the group consisting of: AMLGTHTMEV (SEQ ID NO: 1 ), MLGTHTMEV (SEQ ID NO:2), EAAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO:3), AAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO:4), AADHRQLQLSISSCLQQL (SEQ ID NO:5), AAGIGILTVILGVL (SEQ ID NO:6), AARAVFLAL (SEQ ID NO:7), ACDPHSGHFV (SEQ ID NO:8), AC YE F LWG P RAL VETS (SEQ ID NO:9), ADHRQLQLSISSCLQQL (SEQ ID NO: 10), AEEAAGIGILT (SEQ ID NO:1 1 ), AEEAAGIGIL (SEQ ID NO: 12), AELVHFLLL (SEQ ID NO: 13), AELVHFLLLKYRAR (SEQ ID NO: 14), AEPINIQTW (SEQ ID NO: 15), AFLPWHRLF (SEQ ID NO: 16), AGATGGRGPRGAGA (SEQ ID NO: 17), ALCRWGLLL (SEQ ID NO: 18), ALDVYNGLL (SEQ ID NO: 19), ALFDIESKV (SEQ ID NO:20), ALGGHPLLGV (SEQ ID NO:21 ), ALIHHNTHL (SEQ ID NO:22),

ALKDVEERV (SEQ ID NO:23), ALLAVGATK (SEQ ID NO:24), ALLEIASCL (SEQ ID NO:25), ALNFPGSQK (SEQ ID NO:26), ALPYWNFATG (SEQ ID NO:27), ALSVMGVYV (SEQ ID NO:28), ALWPWLLMAT (SEQ ID NO:29), ALWPWLLMA (SEQ ID NO:30),

ALYVDSLFFL (SEQ ID NO:31 ), ANDPIFWL (SEQ ID NO:32), APPAYEKLSAEQ (SEQ ID NO:33), APRGPHGGAASGL (SEQ ID NO:34), APRGVRMAV (SEQ ID NO:35),

ARGPESRLL (SEQ ID NO:36), ASGPGGGAPR (SEQ ID NO:37), ATGFKQSSKALQRPVAS (SEQ ID NO:38), AVCPWTWLR (SEQ ID NO:39), AWISKPPGV (SEQ ID NO:40),

AYVCGIQNSVSANRS (SEQ ID NO:41 ), CATWKVICKSCISQTPG (SEQ ID NO:42), CEFHACWPAFTVLGE (SEQ ID NO:43), CLSRRPWKRSWSAGSCPGMPHL (SEQ ID NO:44), CMTWNQMNL (SEQ ID NO:45), CQWGRLWQL (SEQ ID NO:46),

CTACRWKKACQR (SEQ ID NO:47), DPARYEFLW (SEQ ID NO:48),

DTGFYTLHVIKSDLVNEEATGQFRV (SEQ ID NO:49), DVTFNIICKKCG (SEQ ID NO:50), EAAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO:51 ), EADPTGHSY (SEQ ID NO:52), EAFIQPITR (SEQ ID

NO:53), EDLTVKIGDFGLATEKSRWSGSHQFEQLS (SEQ ID NO:54), EEAAGIGILTVI (SEQ ID NO:55), EEKLIWLF (SEQ ID NO:56), EFYLAMPFATPM (SEQ ID NO:57), EGDCAPEEK (SEQ ID NO:58), EIIYPNASLLIQN (SEQ ID NO:59), EKIQKAFDDIAKYFSK (SEQ ID NO:60), ELTLGEFLKL (SEQ ID NO:61 ), ELVRRILSR (SEQ ID NO:62), ESRLLEFYLAMPF (SEQ ID NO:63), ETVSEQSNV (SEQ ID NO:64), EVDPASNTY (SEQ ID NO:65),

EVDPIGHLY (SEQ ID NO:66), EVDPIGHVY (SEQ ID NO:67), EVISCKLIKR (SEQ ID NO:68), EVYDGREHSA (SEQ ID NO:69), EYLQLVFGI (SEQ ID NO:70), EYLSLSDKI (SEQ ID NO:71 ), EYSKECLKEF (SEQ ID NO:72), EYVI KVSARVRF (SEQ ID NO:73),

FIASNGVKLV (SEQ ID NO:74), FINDEIFVEL (SEQ ID NO:75), FLDEFMEGV (SEQ ID NO:76), FLEGNEVGKTY (SEQ ID NO:77), FLFLLFFWL (SEQ ID NO:78), FLIIWQNTM

(SEQ ID NO:79), FLLHHAFVDSIFEQWLQRHRP (SEQ ID NO:80), FLLLKYRAREPVTKAE (SEQ ID NO:81 ), FLTPKKLQCV (SEQ ID NO:82), FLWGPRALV (SEQ ID NO:83), FMNKFIYEI (SEQ ID NO:84), FMVEDETVL (SEQ ID NO:85), FPSDSWCYF (SEQ ID NO:86), FRSGLDSYV (SEQ ID NO:87), FSWAMDLDPKGA (SEQ ID NO:88),

GARGPESRLLEFYLAMPFATPMEAELARRSLAQDAPPL (SEQ ID NO:89),

GDNQIMPKAGLLIIV (SEQ ID NO:90), GELIGILNAAKVPAD (SEQ ID NO:91 ), GFKQSSKAL (SEQ ID NO:92), GLASFKSFLK (SEQ ID NO:93), GLCTLVAML (SEQ ID NO:94),

GLPPDVQRV (SEQ ID NO:95), GLYDGMEHLI (SEQ ID NO:96), GRAMLGTHTMEVTVY (SEQ ID NO:97), GVALQTMKQ (SEQ ID NO:98), GVGSPYVSRLLGICL (SEQ ID NO:99), AKFVAAWTLKAAA (SEQ ID NO: 100), GVLLKEFTVSGNILTIRLT (SEQ ID NO: 101 ), GVLVGVALI (SEQ ID NO: 102), GVYDGREHTV (SEQ ID NO: 103), HLFGYSWYK (SEQ ID NO: 104), HLIRVEGNLRVE (SEQ ID NO: 105), HLSTAFARV (SEQ ID NO: 106),

HLYQGCQW (SEQ ID NO: 107), HQQYFYKIPILVINK (SEQ ID NO: 108), HTMEVTVYHR (SEQ ID NO: 109), lALNFPGSQK (SEQ ID NO: 1 10), IGRIAECILGMNPSR (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 1 ), IISAWGIL (SEQ ID NO:1 12), ILAKFLHWL (SEQ ID NO: 1 13), ILDSSEEDK (SEQ ID

NO: 1 14), ILDTAGREEY (SEQ ID NO: 1 15), ILHNGAYSL (SEQ ID NO: 1 16),

ILSRDAAPLPRPG (SEQ ID NO: 1 17), ILTVILGVL (SEQ ID NO: 1 18), IMDQVPFFS (SEQ ID NO: 1 19), IMDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO: 120), IMIGVLVGV (SEQ ID NO: 121 ),

INKTSGPKRGKHAWTHRLRE (SEQ ID NO: 122), ISGGPRISY (SEQ ID NO: 123),

ISPNSVFSQWRWCDSLEDYD (SEQ ID NO: 124), I SQAVH AAH AE I N EAG R (SEQ ID NO: 125), ITDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO: 126), ITKKVADLVGF (SEQ ID NO: 127), KASEKIFYV (SEQ ID NO: 128), KAVYNFATM (SEQ ID NO: 129), KCDICTDEY (SEQ ID NO: 130),

KEFTVSGNILT (SEQ ID NO: 131 ), KEFTVSGNILTI (SEQ ID NO: 132), KELEGILLL (SEQ ID NO: 133), KHAWTHRLRERKQLWYEEI (SEQ ID NO: 134), KIFGSLAFL (SEQ ID NO: 135), KIFSEVTLK (SEQ ID NO: 136), KIFYVYMKRKYEAM (SEQ ID NO: 137),

KIFYVYMKRKYEAMT (SEQ ID NO: 138), KILDAWAQK (SEQ ID NO: 139), KINKNPKYK (SEQ ID NO: 140), Kl SQAVH AAH AE I N EAG RES 11 N FE KLTEWT (SEQ ID NO: 141 ),

KKLLTQHFVQENYLEY (SEQ ID NO: 142), KMDAEHPEL (SEQ ID NO: 143),

KNCEPWPNAPPAYEKLSAE (SEQ ID NO: 144), KRYFKLSHLQMHSRKH (SEQ ID

NO: 145), KSSEKIVYVYMKLNYEVMTK (SEQ ID NO: 146), KTWGQYWQV (SEQ ID

NO: 147), KVAELVHFL (SEQ ID NO: 148), KVHPVIWSL (SEQ ID NO: 149), KVLEYVIKV (SEQ ID NO: 150), KYDCFLHPF (SEQ ID NO: 151 ), KYVGIEREM (SEQ ID NO: 152),

LAALPHSCL (SEQ ID NO: 153), LAAQERRVPR (SEQ ID NO: 154), LAGIGILTV (SEQ ID NO: 155), LAMPFATPM (SEQ ID NO: 156), LGFKVTLPPFMRSKRAADFH (SEQ ID NO: 157), LGPGRPYR (SEQ ID NO: 158), LHHAFVDSIF (SEQ ID NO: 159), LIYRRRLMK (SEQ ID NO: 160), LKEFTVSGNILTIRL (SEQ ID NO: 161 ), LKLSGWRL (SEQ ID NO: 162),

LLANGRMPTVLQCVN (SEQ ID NO: 163), LLDGTATLRL (SEQ ID NO: 164),

LLEFYLAMPFATPM (SEQ ID NO: 165), LLEFYLAMPFATPMEAELARRSLAQ (SEQ ID NO: 166), LLFGLALIEV (SEQ ID NO: 167), LLGATCMFV (SEQ ID NO: 168), LLGPGRPYR (SEQ ID NO: 169), LLGRNSFEV (SEQ ID NO: 170), LLKYRAREPVTKAE (SEQ ID NO: 171 ), LLLDDLLVSI (SEQ ID NO: 172), LLLLTVLTV (SEQ ID NO: 173), LLWSFQTSA (SEQ ID NO: 174), LLYKLADLI (SEQ ID NO: 175), LMLQNALTTM (SEQ ID NO: 176),

LPAWGLSPGEQEY (SEQ ID NO: 177), LPHSSSHWL (SEQ ID NO: 178), LPRWPPPQL (SEQ ID NO: 179), LPSSADVEF (SEQ ID NO: 180), LSHLQMHSRKH (SEQ ID NO: 181 ), LSRLSNRLL (SEQ ID NO: 182), LTDLQPYMRQFVAHL (SEQ ID NO: 183),

LWWVNNQSLPVSP (SEQ ID NO: 184), LYATVIHDI (SEQ ID NO: 185), LYSACFWWL (SEQ ID NO: 186), LYVDSLFFL (SEQ ID NO: 187), MEVDPIGHLY (SEQ ID NO: 188), MIAVFLPIV (SEQ ID NO: 189), MIFEKHGFRRTTPP (SEQ ID NO: 190), MKLNYEVMTKLGFKVTLPPF (SEQ ID NO: 191 ), MLAVISCAV (SEQ ID NO: 192), MLLAVLYCL (SEQ ID NO: 193),

MLMAQEALAFL (SEQ ID NO: 194), MPFATPMEA (SEQ ID NO: 195),

MPREDAHFIYGYPKKGHGHS (SEQ ID NO: 196), MSLQRQFLR (SEQ ID NO: 197),

MVKISGGPR (SEQ ID NO: 198), NLVPMVATV (SEQ ID NO: 199), NPPSMVAAGSWAAV (SEQ ID NO:200), NSIVKSITVSASG (SEQ ID NO:201 ),

NSNHVASGAGEAAIETQSSSSEEIV (SEQ ID NO:202), NSQPVWLCL (SEQ ID NO:203), NTYASPRFK (SEQ ID NO:204), NYARTEDFF (SEQ ID NO:205), NYKRCFPVI (SEQ ID NO:206), NYNNFYRFL (SEQ ID NO:207), PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSA (SEQ ID NO:208), PFATPMEAELARR (SEQ ID NO:209), PGSTAPPAHGVT (SEQ ID NO:210),

PGTRVRAMAIYKQ (SEQ ID NO:21 1 ), PGVLLKEFTVSGN I LTI RLTAADH R (SEQ ID

NO:212), PLLENVISK (SEQ ID NO:213), PLPPARNGGL (SEQ ID NO:214), PLQPEQLQV (SEQ ID NO:215), PLTSIISAV (SEQ ID NO:216), PRALAETSYVKVLEY (SEQ ID NO:217), PVTWRRAPA (SEQ ID NO:218), PYYFAAELPPRNLPEP (SEQ ID NO:219), QCSGNFMGF (SEQ ID NO:220), QCTEVRADTRPWSGP (SEQ ID NO:221 ),

QGAMLAAQERRVPRAAEVPR (SEQ ID NO:222), QGQHFLQKV (SEQ ID NO:223), QLAVSVILRV (SEQ ID NO:224), QNILLSNAPLGPQFP (SEQ ID NO:225), QQITKTEV (SEQ ID NO:226), QRPYGYDQIM (SEQ ID NO:227), QYSWFVNGTF (SEQ ID NO:228),

RAGLQVRKNK (SEQ ID NO:229), REPFTKAEMLGSVIR (SEQ ID NO:230), REPVTKAEML (SEQ ID NO:231 ), RIAECILGM (SEQ ID NO:232), RKVAELVHFLLLKYR (SEQ ID NO:233), RKVAELVHFLLLKYRA (SEQ ID NO:234), RLLEFYLAMPFA (SEQ ID NO:235),

RLLQETELV (SEQ ID NO:236), RLMKQDFSV (SEQ ID NO:237), RLPRIFCSC (SEQ ID NO:238), RLSSCVPVA (SEQ ID NO:239), RLVDDFLLV (SEQ ID NO:240), RMPEAAPPV (SEQ ID NO:241 ), RMPTVLQCVNVSWS (SEQ ID NO:242), RNGYRALMDKS (SEQ ID NO:243), RNGYRALMDKSLHVGTQCALTRR (SEQ ID NO:244), RPGLLGASVLGLDDI (SEQ ID NO:245), RPHVPESAF (SEQ ID NO:246), RQKRILVNL (SEQ ID NO:247), RSDSGQQARY (SEQ ID NO:248), RTKQLYPEW (SEQ ID NO:249), RVIKNSIRLTL (SEQ ID NO:250), RVRFFFPSL (SEQ ID NO:251 ), RYQLDPKFI (SEQ ID NO:252), SAFPTTINF (SEQ ID NO:253), SAWISKPPGV (SEQ ID NO:254), SAYGEPRKL (SEQ ID NO:255), SEIWRDIDF (SEQ ID NO:256), SELFRSGLDSY (SEQ ID NO:257), SESIKKKVL (SEQ ID NO:258), SESLKMIF (SEQ ID NO:259), SFSYTLLSL (SEQ ID NO:260), SHETVIIEL (SEQ ID NO:261 ), SIINFEKL (SEQ ID NO:262), SLADTNSLAV (SEQ ID NO:263), SLFEGIDIYT (SEQ ID NO:264), SLFPNSPKWTSK (SEQ ID NO:265), SLFRAVITK (SEQ ID NO:266), SLGWLFLLL (SEQ ID NO:267), SLLMWITQC (SEQ ID NO:268), SLLMWITQCFLPVF (SEQ ID NO:269), SLLQHLIGL (SEQ ID NO:270), SLPYWNFATG (SEQ ID NO:271 ), SLSKILDTV (SEQ ID NO:272), SLYKFSPFPL (SEQ ID NO:273), SLYSFPEPEA (SEQ ID NO:274), SNDGPTLI (SEQ ID NO:275), SPRWWPTCL (SEQ ID NO:276), SPSSNRIRNT (SEQ ID NO:277), SQKTYQGSY (SEQ ID NO:278), SRFGGAWR (SEQ ID NO:279),

SSALLSIFQSSPE (SEQ ID NO:280), SSDYVIPIGTY (SEQ ID NO:281 ), SSKALQRPV (SEQ ID NO:282), SSPGCQPPA (SEQ ID NO:283), STAPPVHNV (SEQ ID NO:284), SVASTITGV (SEQ ID NO:285), SVDYFFVWL (SEQ ID NO:286), SVSESDTIRSISIAS (SEQ ID NO:287), SVYDFFVWL (SEQ ID NO:288), SYLDSGIHF (SEQ ID NO:289), SYLQDSDPDSFQD (SEQ ID NO:290), TFPDLESEF (SEQ ID NO:291 ), TGRAMLGTHTMEVTVYH (SEQ ID NO:292), TLDSQVMSL (SEQ ID NO:293), TLDWLLQTPK (SEQ ID NO:294), TLEEITGYL (SEQ ID NO:295), TLMSAMTNL (SEQ ID NO:296), TLNDECWPA (SEQ ID NO:297), TLPGYPPHV (SEQ ID NO:298), TLYQDDTLTLQAAG (SEQ ID NO:299), TMKQICKKEIRRLHQY (SEQ ID NO:300), TMNGSKSPV (SEQ ID NO:301 ), TPRLPSSADVEF (SEQ ID NO:302),

TSCILESLFRAVITK (SEQ ID NO:303), TSEKRPFMCAY (SEQ ID NO:304),

TSYVKVLHHMVKISG (SEQ ID NO:305), TTEWVETTARELPIPEPE (SEQ ID NO:306), TVSGNILTIR (SEQ ID NO:307), TYACFVSNL (SEQ ID NO:308), TYLPTNASL (SEQ ID NO:309), TYYRPGVNLSLSC (SEQ ID NO:310), VAELVHFLL (SEQ ID NO:31 1 ),

VFGIELMEVDPIGHL (SEQ ID NO:312), VGQDVSVLFRVTGALQ (SEQ ID NO:313), VIFSKASSSLQL (SEQ ID NO:314), VISNDVCAQV (SEQ ID NO:315), VLDGLDVLL (SEQ ID NO:316), VLFYLGQY (SEQ ID NO:317), VLHWDPETV (SEQ ID NO:318), VLLKEFTVSG (SEQ ID NO:319), VLLQAGSLHA (SEQ ID NO:320), VLPDVFIRCV (SEQ ID NO:321 ), VLPDVFIRC (SEQ ID NO:322), VLRENTSPK (SEQ ID NO:323), VLYRYGSFSV (SEQ ID NO:324), VPGVLLKEFTVSGNILTIRLTAADHR (SEQ ID NO:325), VPLDCVLYRY (SEQ ID NO:326), VRIGHLYIL (SEQ ID NO:327), VSSFFSYTL (SEQ ID NO:328), WLGWFGI (SEQ ID NO:329), WPCEPPEV (SEQ ID NO:330), VWGAVGVG (SEQ ID NO:331 ), VYFFLPDHL (SEQ ID NO:332), WEKMKASEKIFYVYMKRK (SEQ ID NO:333), WLPFGFILI (SEQ ID NO:334), WNRQLYPEWTEAQRLD (SEQ ID NO:335), WQYFFPVIF (SEQ ID NO:336), WRRAPAPGA (SEQ ID NO:337), YACFVSNLATGRNNS (SEQ ID NO:338),

YFSKKEWEKMKSSEKIVYVY (SEQ ID NO:339), YLEPGPVTA (SEQ ID NO:340),

YLEPGPVTV (SEQ ID NO:341 ), YLNDHLEPWI (SEQ ID NO:342), YLQLVFGIEV (SEQ ID NO:343), YLSGANLNL (SEQ ID NO:344), YLVPQQGFFC (SEQ ID NO:345), YMDGTMSQV (SEQ ID NO:346), YMIMVKCWMI (SEQ ID NO:347), YRPRPRRY (SEQ ID NO:348), YSVYFNLPADTIYTN (SEQ ID NO:349), YSWRINGIPQQHTQV (SEQ ID NO:350),

YVDFREYEYY (SEQ ID NO:351 ), YYWPRPRRY (SEQ ID NO:352), IMDQVPFFS (SEQ ID NO:353), SVDYFFVWL (SEQ ID NO:354), ALFDIESKV (SEQ ID NO:355), NLVPMVATV (SEQ ID NO:356) and GLCTLVAML (SEQ ID NO:357),

SVASTITGV (SEQ ID NO:358), VMAGDIYSV (SEQ ID NO:359), ALADGVQKV (SEQ ID NO:360), LLGATCMFV (SEQ ID NO:361 ), SVFAGWGV (SEQ ID NO:362), ALFDGDPHL (SEQ ID NO:363), YVDPVITSI (SEQ ID NO:364), STAPPVHNV (SEQ ID NO:365),

LAALPHSCL (SEQ ID NO:366), SQDDIKGIQKLYGKRS (SEQ ID NO:367), FLPSDFFPSV (SEQ ID NO:368)

FLPSDFFPSV (SEQ ID NO:369), TLGEFLKLDRERAKN (SEQ ID NO:370),

TFSYVDPVITSISPKYGMET (SEQ ID NO:371 ), AMTQLLAGV (SEQ ID NO:372),

KVFAGIPTV (SEQ ID NO:373), AIIDGVESV (SEQ ID NO:374), GLWHHQTEV (SEQ ID NO:375), NLDTLMTYV (SEQ ID NO:376), KIQEILTQV (SEQ ID NO:377), LTFGDWAV (SEQ ID NO:378), TMLARLASA (SEQ ID NO:379), IMDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO:380), MHQKRTAMFQDPQERPRKLPQLCTELQTTIHD (SEQ ID NO:381 ), LPQLCTELQTTI (SEQ ID NO:382), HDIILECVYCKQQLLRREVY (SEQ ID NO:383),

KQQLLRREVYDFAFRDLCIVYRDGN (SEQ ID NO:384),

RDLCIVYRDGNPYAVCDKCLKFYSKI (SEQ ID NO:385),

DKCLKFYSKISEYRHYCYSLYGTTL (SEQ ID NO:386),

HYCYSLYGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIR (SEQ ID NO:387),

YGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIRCINCQKPLCPEEK (SEQ ID NO:388),

RCINCQKPLCPEEKQRHLDKKQRFHNIRGRWT (SEQ ID NO:389),

DKKQRFHNIRGRWTGRCMSCCRSSRTRRETQL (SEQ ID NO:390),

MHGDTPTLHEYMLDLQPETTDLYCYEQLNDSSEEE (SEQ ID NO:391 ),

LYCYEQLNDSSEEEDEIDGPAGQAEPDRAHYNIVT (SEQ ID NO:392),

GQAEPDRAHYNIVTFCCKCDSTLRLCVQSTHVDIR (SEQ ID NO:393),

TLRLCVQSTHVDIRTLEDLLMGTLGIVCPICSQKP (SEQ ID NO:394), ALPFGFILV (SEQ ID NO:395), TLADFDPRV (SEQ ID NO:396), IMDQVPFSV (SEQ ID NO:397), SIMTYDFHGA (SEQ ID NO:398), AQYIKANSKFIGITEL (SEQ ID NO:399), FLYDDNQRV (SEQ ID NO:400), YLIELIDRV (SEQ ID NO:401 ), NLMEQPIKV (SEQ ID NO:402), FLAEDALNTV (SEQ ID NO:403), ALMEQQHYV (SEQ ID NO:404), ILDDIGHGV (SEQ ID NO:405), KLDVGNAEV (SEQ ID NO:406),TFEFTSFFY (SEQ ID NO:407), SWPDGAELPF (SEQ ID NO:408), GILGFVFTL (SEQ ID NO:409), ILRGSVAHK (SEQ ID NO:410)

SVYDFFVWLKFFHRTCKCTGNFA (SEQ ID NO:41 1 ), DLAQMFFCFKELEGW (SEQ ID NO:412), AVGALEGPRNQDWLGVPRQL (SEQ ID NO:413) and RAHYNIVTF (SEQ ID NO:414). Still more preferably J is selected from the group consisting of:

IMDQVPFSV, YLEPGPVTV, LAG IG I LTV, YMDGTMSQV, SI INFEKL, I S QAVH AAH AE I N EAG R , KISQAVHAAHAEINEAGRESI INFEKLTEWT, KAVYNFATM, MLMAQEALAFL, SLLMWITQC, GARGPESRLLEFYLAMPFATPMEAELARRSLAQDAPPL, VPGVLLKEFTVSGNILTIRLTAADHR, ESRLLEFYLAMPF, SLLMWITQCFLPVF,

ILHNGAYSL, GVGSPYVSRLLGICL, AKFVAAWTLKAAA, IMDQVPFFS, SVDYFFVWL, ALFDIESKV, NLVPMVATV and GLCTLVAML.

Alternatively more preferably J is selected from the group consisting of:

SVASTITGV, VMAGDIYSV, ALADGVQKV, LLGATCMFV, SVFAGWGV, ALFDGDPHL, YVDPVITSI , STAPPVHNV, LAALPHSCL, SQDDIKGIQKLYGKRS, FLPSDFFPSV,

FLPSDFFPSV, TLGEFLKLDRERAKN, TFSYVDPVITSISPKYG MET, AMTQLLAGV, KVFAGIPTV, AI IDGVESV, GLWHHQTEV, NLDTLMTYV, KIQEILTQV, LTFGDWAV, TMLARLASA, IMDQVPFSV, MHQKRTAMFQDPQERPRKLPQLCTELQTTIHD,

LPQLCTELQTTI, HDI ILECVYCKQQLLRREVY, KQQLLRREVYDFAFRDLCI VYRDGN , RDLCIVYRDGNPYAVCDKCLKFYSKI , DKCLKFYSKISEYRHYCYSLYGTTL,

HYCYSLYGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIR, YGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIRCINCQKPLCPEEK, RCINCQKPLCPEEKQRHLDKKQRFHNIRGRWT,

DKKQRFHNIRGRWTGRCMSCCRSSRTRRETQL,

MHGDTPTLHEYMLDLQPETTDLYCYEQLNDSSEEE,

LYCYEQLNDSSEEEDEIDGPAGQAEPDRAHYNIVT,

GQAEPDRAHYNIVTFCCKCDSTLRLCVQSTHVDIR,

TLRLCVQSTHVDIRTLEDLLMGTLGIVCPICSQKP, ALPFGFILV, TLADFDPRV,

IMDQVPFSV, SIMTYDFHGA, FLYDDNQRV, YLIELIDRV, NLMEQPIKV, FLAEDALNTV, ALMEQQHYV, ILDDIGHGV, and KLDVGNAEV.

Preferably Z is any one of Z1 to Z5. Still more preferably Z is Z1 . Still more preferably Z is Z1 wherein R 20 is methyl.

Preferably the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (I I) is oc-D-galacto.

Preferably R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R). More preferably the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (II) is oc-D-galacto and R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R).

Preferably X is O. More preferably X is O and the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (II) is oc-D-galacto and R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R).

Preferably R 23 is 2-sulfoethyl. Preferably R 2 is C 26 acyl having a straight or branched carbon chain optionally substituted with one or more hydroxy groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the acyl group and/or an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group and which optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, and/or one or more optionally substituted arylene groups and wherein the carbon chain is optionally substituted with one or more deuterium atoms; wherein the optional substituents on the aryl and arylene groups may be selected from halogen, cyano, dialkylamino.C^Ce amide, nitro, C^C 6 alkoxy, C^C 6 acyloxy and Ci_C 6 thioalkyl. More preferably, R 2 is C 26 acyl.

Alternatively preferably R 2 is Cn acyl having a straight or branched carbon chain optionally substituted with one or more hydroxy groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the acyl group and/or an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group and which optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, and/or one or more optionally substituted arylene groups and wherein the carbon chain is optionally substituted with one or more deuterium atoms; wherein the optional substituents on the aryl and arylene groups may be selected from halogen, cyano, dialkylamino, Ci.C 6 amide, nitro, Ci.C 6 alkoxy, Ci.C 6 acyloxy and Ci.C 6 thioalkyl. More preferably, R 2 is Cn acyl.

Preferably R 8 is C 10 to C 14 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group. More preferably, R 8 is C 10 to C 14 alkyl.

Even more preferably, R 8 is C 13 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group. Most preferably, R 8 is C 13 alkyl. Preferably, n in formula (I) or formula (II) is 1 , the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (I I) is a-D-galacto, R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH. It is further preferred that n in formula (I) or formula (I I) is 1 , the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (I I) is α-D-galacto, R 6 is OH , R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R).

Alternatively preferably, n in formula (I) or formula (I I) is 0, X is CH 2 , the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (I I) is α-D-galacto, R 6 is OH and R 7 is OH. It is further preferred that n in formula (I) or formula (I I) is 0, the stereochemistry of the 6-membered sugar ring of formula (I) or formula (I I) is α-D-galacto, R 6 is OH , R 7 is OH and the stereochemistry at carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 is (2S, 3S, 4R).

Preferably, in formula (I) or formula (I I) when X is O, R 6 is OH , R 7 is H, R 8 is C^C^ alkyl and j s a double bond linking the carbon adjacent to R 7 with the carbon adjacent to R 8 , then the stereochemistry at the carbon atoms 2, 3 is (2S, 3R).

Preferably R is H. It is also preferred that R 2 is OH. More preferably R is H and R 2 is OH . Preferably R 3 is OH . Preferably R 6 is OH .

Preferably R 7 is OH . More preferably R 6 and R 7 are both OH.

Alternatively it is preferred that one of R 6 and R 7 is H. Preferably, R 8 is C1 -C15 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group.

More preferably, R 8 is C1 -C15 alkyl. Most preferably, R 8 is C1 -C15 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain. Preferably R 8 is C 13 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group. More preferably R 8 is C 13 alkyl. Most preferably, R 8 is C 13 alkyl having a straight carbon chain.

Alternatively preferably R 8 is C 5 alkyl having a straight or branched carbon chain, wherein the carbon chain optionally incorporates one or more double bonds, one or more triple bonds, one or more oxygen atoms and/or a terminal or non-terminal optionally substituted aryl group.

More preferably R 8 is C 5 alkyl. Most preferably, R 8 is R 5 alkyl having a straight carbon chain. Still more preferably R 8 is Ci-Ci 5 alkyl, R 7 is OR 12 and R 6 is OH. Still more preferably R 8 is d-C 15 alkyl, R 7 is OR 12 , R 6 is OH and X is O.

Preferably R 2 is acyl having a straight carbon chain from 6 to 30 carbon atoms long. More preferably R 2 is C 26 acyl. More preferably R 2 is C 26 acyl having a straight carbon chain. More preferably X is O and R 2 is acyl having a straight carbon chain from 6 to 30 carbon atoms long.

Alternatively preferably R 2 is acyl having a straight carbon chain from 6 to 30 carbon atoms long and having an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group.

More preferably R 2 is Cn acyl having an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group.

Still more preferably the optionally substituted aryl group is phenyl, optionally substituted with a halogen, e.g. a fluorine, e.g. the optionally substituted aryl group is p-fluorophenyl. More preferably X is O and R 2 is acyl having a straight carbon chain from 6 to 30 carbon atoms long and having an optionally substituted chain terminating aryl group.

Preferably R is benzyl. Preferably any halogen in the compound of formula (I) or (II) is fluorine. Preferably the compound of formula (I) is a compound selected from the group consisting of:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. ϋ)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In another aspect the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

In another aspect the invention provides an immunogenic composition comprising a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 (as defined below) and a able diluent and optionally an antigen.

CN168

In another aspect the invention provides a vaccine comprising a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent and optionally an antigen. In another aspect the invention provides a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168, and optionally an antigen, for use in the preparation of a vaccine.

In another aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 and a pharmaceutically acceptable exipient.

In another aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) and a pharmaceutically acceptable exipient.

In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is an immunogenic composition optionally comprising an antigen. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is a vaccine optionally comprising an antigen.

The antigen may be, or may be a combination of, a bacterium such as Bacillus Calmette- Guerin (BCG), a virus, a protein or peptide. Examples of suitable antigens include, but are not limited to, Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1 ), (Li, Oka et al. 2008) tumor-associated antigen MUC1 , (Brossart, Heinrich et al. 1999) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), (Lu, Liang et al. 2006) HPV E6E7, (Davidson, Faulkner et al. 2004) NY-ESO-1 (Karbach, Gnjatic et al. 2010), tyrosinase-related protein (Trp)-2 (Noppen, Levy et al. 2000; Chang 2006), survivin (Schmitz, Diestelkoetter et al. 2000; Friedrichs, Siegel et al. 2006; Ciesielski, Kozbor et al. 2008), MART-1 (Bettinotti, Kim et al. 1998; Jager, Hohn et al. 2002), CEA691 (Huarte, Sarobe et al. 2002) and glycoprotein 100 (gp100) (Levy, Pitcovski et al. 2007), helper epitopes (Alexander, Sidney et al 1994), Topoisomerase II a, Integrin β8 subunit precursor, Abl-binding protein C3, TACE/ADAM 17, Junction plakoglobin, EDDR1 and BAP31 (Berinstein, Karkada et al 2012).

In still another aspect the invention provides a compound of formula (I) or formula (II) in combination with at least one other compound, e.g. a second drug compound, e.g. an antibacterial agent or an anti-cancer agent such as Vemurafenib (PLX4032), Imatinib or Carfilzomib.

In yet another aspect the invention provides the use of a compound of formula (I) or formula (II) as a medicament. In another aspect the invention provides the use of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 for treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer.

In another aspect the invention provides the use of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168, for treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer.

In another aspect the invention provides a compound of formula (I) or formula (II) for use in the manufacture of a medicament.

In another aspect the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition for treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer, comprising a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168.

In another aspect the invention provides a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 for treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer.

In another aspect the invention provides the use of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 in the manufacture of a medicament for treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer.

In another aspect the invention provides a method of treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer comprising administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 to a patient requiring treatment.

In another aspect the invention provides a method of treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer comprising sequential administration of pharmaceutically effective amounts of one or more compounds of formula (I) or formula (II) and/or CN168 to a patient requiring treatment. The compounds of formula (I) or (II) or CN168 may be formulated as a vaccine, for separate, sequential administration. The sequential administration may include two or more administration steps, preferably wherein the compounds of formula (I) or (II) or CN168 are administered 1 to 90 days apart, preferably 14 to 28 days apart. The sequential administration may include administering the same compound of formula (I) or (II) or CN168 two or more times. Alternatively, the sequential administration may include administering differing compounds of formula (I) or (II) or CN168 two or more times. Alternatively, the sequential administration may include administering a compound of formula (I) or (II) or CN168 one or more times, and administering a-galactosylceramide one or more times.

In another aspect the invention provides the use of a compound of formula (I) or formula (II) in combination with at least one other compound, e.g. a second drug compound, e.g. an anti-bacterial agent or an anti-cancer agent such as Vemurafenib (PLX4032), Imatinib or Carfilzomib for treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer. In another aspect the invention provides a method of treating or preventing an infectious disease, an atopic disorder, an autoimmune disease, diabetes or cancer comprising administering to a patient a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 in combination with at least one other compound, e.g. a second drug compound, e.g. an anti-bacterial agent or an anti-cancer agent such as Vemurafenib (PLX4032), Imatinib or Carfilzomib. The compound of formula (I) or formula (II) and the other compound may be administered separately, simultaneously or sequentially.

The diseases or conditions include cancer, e.g. melanoma, prostate, breast, lung, glioma, lymphoma, colon, head and neck and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPV); infectious diseases, e.g. HIV; bacterial infections; atopic diseases, e.g. asthma; or autoimmune diseases.

In another aspect the invention provides a method of treating or preventing asthma comprising administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168 to a patient requiring treatment.

In another aspect the invention provides a vaccine for preventing asthma comprising administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN168. In another aspect the invention provides a method of modifying an immune response in a patient, comprising administering a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (II) or CN 168, and optionally an antigen, to the patient. Preferably the patient is a human.

Preferably the compound is a compound of formula (I). The compound of formula (I) may be selected from the group consisting of compounds (a), (b), (c) and (d), as defined above. Alternatively preferably the compound is a compound of formula (II). The compound of formula (II) may be selected from the group consisting of compounds (e), (f), (g), (h), (j) and (k), as defined above.

Compounds of formula (I) and formula (II) are described herein as "compounds of the invention". A compound of the invention includes a compound in any form, e.g. in free form or in the form of a salt or a solvate.

It will be appreciated that any of the sub-scopes disclosed herein, e.g. with respect to X, R , k, g, W, Alk 1 , Q , Z, A, D, E, G and J may be combined with any of the other sub-scopes disclosed herein to produce further sub-scopes.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Definitions

The term "cancer" and like terms refer to a disease or condition in a patient that is typically characterized by abnormal or unregulated cell growth. Cancer and cancer pathology can be associated, for example, with metastasis, interference with the normal functioning of neighbouring cells, release of cytokines or other secretory products at abnormal levels, cell proliferation, tumour formation or growth, suppression or aggravation of inflammatory or immunological response, neoplasia, premalignancy, malignancy, invasion of surrounding or distant tissues or organs, such as lymph nodes, etc. Particular cancers are described in detail herein. Examples include lung, glioma, lymphoma, colon, head and neck and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPV), melanoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myeloma, prostate, breast, glioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatic cancers. "Infections" and like terms refer to diseases or conditions of a patient comprising internal and/or external growth or establishment of microbes. Microbes include all living forms too small to be seen by eye, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Included are aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as cocci, bacilli, spirochetes, and mycobacteria. Particular infectious disorders are described in detail herein. Examples include bacterial or viral infections, e.g. HIV.

"Atopic disorders" and like terms refer to a disease or condition of a patient that is typically characterized by an abnormal or up-regulated immune response, for example, an IgE- mediated immune response, and/or Th2-cell immune response. This can include hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., Type I hypersensitivity), in particular, as associated with allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic (e.g. extrinsic) asthma. Typically, atopic disorders are associated with one or more of rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion (upper respiratory tract), wheezing, dyspnea (lower respiratory tract), itching (e.g., eyes, skin), nasal turbinate edema, sinus pain on palpation, conjunctival hyperemia and edema, skin lichenification, stridor, hypotension, and anaphylaxis. Particular atopic disorders are described in detail herein.

The term "patient" includes human and non-human animals. Non-human animals include, but are not limited to birds and mammals, in particular, mice, rabbits, cats, dogs, pigs, sheep, goats, cows, horses, and possums.

"Treatment" and like terms refer to methods and compositions to prevent, cure, or ameliorate a medical disease, disorder, or condition, and/or reduce at least a symptom of such disease or disorder. In particular, this includes methods and compositions to prevent or delay onset of a medical disease, disorder, or condition; to cure, correct, reduce, slow, or ameliorate the physical or developmental effects of a medical disease, disorder, or condition; and/or to prevent, end, reduce, or ameliorate the pain or suffering caused by the medical disease, disorder, or condition.

The term "amino acid" includes both natural and non-natural amino acids.

The term "antigen" refers to a molecule that contains one or more epitopes (linear, overlapping, conformational or a combination of these) that, upon exposure to a subject, will induce an immune response that is specific for that antigen. The term "antigen" includes neoantigens. Typical neoantigens are small proteins resulting from mutations in cancer cells, that may activate the immune system. The term "self-immolative linker" means any chemical group that, by covalent attachment, bridges a second and a third chemical group, wherein the covalent bond between the self- immolative linker and the second chemical group is metabolically cleavable in vivo and wherein, upon cleavage of this covalent bond in vivo, the self-immolative linker is detached from the third chemical group through spontaneous chemical bond rearrangements. At least one, preferably both, of the second and third chemical groups is a biologically active, e.g. pharmaceutically active, agent or prodrug thereof. Most preferably, each of the second and third chemical groups is independently an immune stimulant (e.g. pattern recognition receptor agonist, TLR agonist or NKT-cell agonist), an antigen (e.g. peptide, protein or carbohydrate) or a targeting group (e.g. antibody or glycan). In some examples, upon detachment of the self-immolative linker from the second chemical group, the self-immolative linker fragments and detaches from the third chemical group. Examples of self-immolative linkers are described in Philip L. Carl, Prasun K. Chakravarty, John A. Katzenellenbogen, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1981 , Vol. 24, No. 5, pg 479; and Simplicio et al., Molecules, 2008, vol. 13, pg 519. The covalent bond between the self-immolative linker and the second chemical group may be cleaved by, for example, an esterase, a peptidase, a phosphatase, a phospholipase or a hydrolase, or by way of a redox or pH-dependent process.

The term "alkyl", unless otherwise defined, means any saturated hydrocarbon radical having up to 30 carbon atoms and includes any C^-C 25 , Ci-C 20 , C^-C^ 5 , Ci-Ci 0 , or C-|-C 6 alkyl group, and is intended to include cyclic (including fused bicyclic) alkyl groups (sometimes referred to herein as "cydoalkyi"), straight-chain and branched-chain alkyl groups, and straight or branched chain alkyl groups substituted with cyclic alkyl groups. Examples of alkyl groups include: methyl group, ethyl group, n-propyl group, /so-propyl group, cyclopropyl group, n- butyl group, /so-butyl group, sec-butyl group, i-butyl group, n-pentyl group, 1 , 1 - dimethylpropyl group, 1 ,2-dimethylpropyl group, 2,2-dimethylpropyl group, 1 -ethylpropyl group, 2-ethylpropyl group, n-hexyl group, cyclohexyl group, cyclooctyl group, and 1 -methyl- 2-ethylpropyl group. The term "alkylene" means a diradical corresponding to an alkyl group. Examples of alkylene groups include methylene group, cyclohexylene group, ethylene group. An alkylene group can incorporate one or more cyclic alkylene group(s) in the alkylene chain, for example, "alkylene" can include a cyclohexylene group attached to a methylene group. Any alkylene group may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, halogen, e.g. fluorine, alkyl, e.g. methyl, and aryl. Any alkylene may optionally include one or more arylene moieties within the alkylene chain, for example, a phenylene group may be included within an alkylene chain. The term "lower alkyl" means any saturated hydrocarbon radical having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms and is intended to include both straight- and branched-chain alkyl groups. Any alkyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of S0 3 H (or a salt thereof), hydroxy and halogen, e.g. fluorine.

The term "alkenyl" means any hydrocarbon radical having at least one double bond, and having up to 30 carbon atoms, and includes any C 2 -C 25 , C 2 -C 20 , C 2 -C 15 , C 2 -C 10 , or C 2 -C 6 alkenyl group, and is intended to include both straight- and branched-chain alkenyl groups. Examples of alkenyl groups include: ethenyl group, n-propenyl group, /so-propenyl group, n- butenyl group, /so-butenyl group, sec-butenyl group, f-butenyl group, n-pentenyl group, 1 , 1 - dimethylpropenyl group, 1 ,2-dimethylpropenyl group, 2,2-dimethylpropenyl group, 1 - ethylpropenyl group, 2-ethylpropenyl group, n-hexenyl group and 1 -methyl-2-ethylpropenyl group.

The term "lower alkenyl" means any hydrocarbon radical having at least one double bond, and having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, and is intended to include both straight- and branched- chain alkenyl groups.

Any alkenyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, hydroxy and halogen, e.g. fluorine.

The term "aryl" means an aromatic radical having 4 to 18 carbon atoms and includes heteroaromatic radicals. Examples include monocyclic groups, as well as fused groups such as bicyclic groups and tricyclic groups. Examples include phenyl group, indenyl group, 1 - naphthyl group, 2-naphthyl group, azulenyl group, heptalenyl group, biphenyl group, indacenyl group, acenaphthyl group, fluorenyl group, phenalenyl group, phenanthrenyl group, anthracenyl group, cyclopentacyclooctenyl group, and benzocyclooctenyl group, pyridyl group, pyrrolyl group, pyridazinyl group, pyrimidinyl group, pyrazinyl group, triazolyl group (including a 1 -H-1 ,2,3-triazol-1 -yl and a 1 -H-1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl group), tetrazolyl group, benzotriazolyl group, pyrazolyl group, imidazolyl group, benzimidazolyl group, indolyl group, isoindolyl group, indolizinyl group, purinyl group, indazolyl group, furyl group, pyranyl group, benzofuryl group, isobenzofuryl group, thienyl group, thiazolyl group, isothiazolyl group, benzothiazolyl group, oxazolyl group, and isoxazolyl group. The term "arylene" means a diradical corresponding to an aryl group. Examples include phenylene group.

The term "aralkyi" means an aryl group which is attached to an alkylene moiety, where aryl and alkylene are as defined above. Examples include benzyl group.

Any aryl or aralkyi group may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of alkyl, halogen, cyano, dialkylamino, amide (both N- linked and C-linked: -NHC(0)R and -C(O)NHR), nitro, alkoxy, acyloxy and thioalkyl.

The term "alkoxy" means an OR group, where R is alkyl as defined above. The term "lower alkoxy" means an OR group, where R is "lower alkyl" as defined above.

The term "acyl", unless otherwise defined, means C(=0)R' group, where R' is alkyl as defined above.

The term "acyloxy" means OR" group, where R" is acyl as defined above.

The term "glycosyl" means a radical derived from a cyclic monosaccharide, disaccharide or oligosaccharide by removal of the hemiacetal hydroxy group. Examples include oc-D- glucopyranosyl, oc-D-galactopyranosyl, β-D-galactopyranosyl, oc-D-2-deoxy-2- acetamidogalactopyranosyl.

The term "amide" includes both N-linked (-NHC(O)R) and C-linked (-C(O)NHR) amides.

The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" is intended to apply to non-toxic salts derived from inorganic or organic acids, including, for example, the following acid salts: acetate, adipate, alginate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, bisulfate, butyrate, citrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, formate, fumarate, glucoheptanoate, glycerophosphate, glycolate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2- hydroxyethanesulfonate, lactate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate,

2- naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oxalate, palmoate, pectinate, persulfate,

3- phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, p-toluenesulfonate, salicylate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, and undecanoate. For the purposes of the invention, any reference to the disclosed compounds includes all possible formulations, configurations, and conformations, for example, in free form (e.g. as a free acid or base), in the form of salts or hydrates, in the form of isomers (e.g. cis/trans isomers), stereoisomers such as enantiomers, diastereomers and epimers, in the form of mixtures of enantiomers or diastereomers, in the form of racemates or racemic mixtures, or in the form of individual enantiomers or diastereomers. Specific forms of the compounds are described in detail herein.

As used in this specification, the words "comprises", "comprising", and similar words, are not to be interpreted in an exclusive or exhaustive sense. In other words, they are intended to mean "including, but not limited to".

Any reference to prior art documents in this specification is not to be considered an admission that such prior art is widely known or forms part of the common general knowledge in the field.

The Compounds of the Invention

The compounds of the invention, particularly those exemplified, are useful as pharmaceuticals, particularly for the treatment or prevention of diseases or conditions relating to cancer, infection, atopic disorders or autoimmune disease. The compounds of the invention are also useful as vaccine adjuvants or simple vaccines. For example, a compound of the invention may be formulated in a vaccine together with one or more antigens. The compounds of the invention are useful in both free base form and in the form of salts and/or solvates.

The carbon atoms of the acyclic moiety of the compounds of formula (I) and formula (II) are numbered as shown below. This is the numbering used herein to denote these carbon atoms.

(I)

The applicants have surprisingly found that 6-amino-6-deoxy-a-galactosylceramide peptide conjugates of formula (I) (such as CN169) can induce an increased antigen-specific T cell response as compared to admixed controls comprising of a-GalCer and peptide in in vivo models.

Compounds of formula (I) of the invention are useful as simple synthetic vaccines, vaccine adjuvants or immunomodulatory drugs. Without wishing to be bound by theory, the applicants propose that such compounds are chemically stable, but can be cleaved enzymatically or at specific sites in vivo. The compounds of formula (I) constitute antigen- adjuvant conjugates (AAC) that can serve as precursors to amines (Γ), Scheme 1 (e.g. CN168) and an antigen-containing component. The antigen component may then be further processed by the antigen-presenting cell and ultimately loaded and displayed by MHC molecules.

CN168

Advantageously, this approach provides for the incorporation of a range of "trigger" groups to allow control of the rate of release of amines (e.g. CN168) and peptide antigens. cheme 1

In particular the 6-azido a-GalCer derivative 2 can be reduced to the amine CN168 and reacted in situ with (4-nitrophenoxy)carbonyloxymethyl 4-oxopentanoate to afford the ketone 3. The ketone 3 can then be coupled with N-terminally modified peptides such as AoAA- FFRKSIINFEKL (Scheme 2).

Levulinic acid is coupled with AoAA-FFRKSIINFEKL to afford CN159, a presumed in vivo breakdown product of CN169 (Scheme 3). cheme 3

CN159

When injected into mice CN169 is able to potently activate B cells, as measured in the blood (Figure 1 ). Without wishing to be bound by theory, the applicants hypothesise that CN169 is cleaved enzymatically to release a peptide component and ultimately the glycolipid CN168 that is hypothesised to be responsible for the observed activity.

Advantageously, vaccination of mice with CN169 (which contains the peptide SIINFEKL - an epitope of chicken ovalbumin protein that binds the MHC molecule H-2K ) is immunologically superior to vaccination with a-GalCer and peptide. For example, vaccination with CN 169 results in a larger population of peptide-specific T cells (defined as Voc2 + CD45.1 + cells by flow cytometry) as compared with vaccination with admixed a-GalCer and SIINFEKL peptide, or a-GalCer and CN159, the same peptide further comprising the N-terminal substitution required for linkage (Figure 2).

When injected into mice, the amine CN168 is able to potently activated dendritic cells (DC) as measured by an up-regulation of CD86 (Figure 3). Other Aspects

The compounds of the invention may be administered to a patient by a variety of routes, including orally, parenterally, by inhalation spray, topically, rectally, nasally, buccally, intravenously, intra-muscularly, intra-dermally, subcutaneously or via an implanted reservoir, preferably intravenously. The amount of compound to be administered will vary widely according to the nature of the patient and the nature and extent of the disorder to be treated. Typically the dosage for an adult human will be in the range 50-15000 μg/m 2 . The specific dosage required for any particular patient will depend upon a variety of factors, including the patient's age, body weight, general health, sex, etc.

For oral administration the compounds of the invention can be formulated into solid or liquid preparations, for example tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, suspensions and dispersions. Such preparations are well known in the art as are other oral dosage regimes not listed here. In the tablet form the compounds may be tableted with conventional tablet bases such as lactose, sucrose and corn starch, together with a binder, a disintegration agent and a lubricant. The binder may be, for example, corn starch or gelatin, the disintegrating agent may be potato starch or alginic acid, and the lubricant may be magnesium stearate. For oral administration in the form of capsules, diluents such as lactose and dried corn-starch may be employed. Other components such as colourings, sweeteners or flavourings may be added.

When aqueous suspensions are required for oral use, the active ingredient may be combined with carriers such as water and ethanol, and emulsifying agents, suspending agents and/or surfactants may be used. Colourings, sweeteners or flavourings may also be added.

The compounds may also be administered by injection in a physiologically acceptable diluent such as water or saline. The diluent may comprise one or more other ingredients such as ethanol, propylene glycol, an oil or a pharmaceutically acceptable surfactant. In one preferred embodiment, the compounds are administered by intravenous injection, where the diluent comprises an aqueous solution of sucrose, L-histidine and a pharmaceutically acceptable surfactant, e.g. Tween 20.

The compounds may also be administered topically. Carriers for topical administration of the compounds include mineral oil, liquid petrolatum, white petrolatum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene compound, emulsifying wax and water. The compounds may be present as ingredients in lotions or creams, for topical administration to skin or mucous membranes. Such creams may contain the active compounds suspended or dissolved in one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. Suitable carriers include mineral oil, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl ester wax, cetearyl alcohol, 2-octyldodecanol, benzyl alcohol and water.

The compounds may further be administered by means of sustained release systems. For example, they may be incorporated into a slowly dissolving tablet or capsule.

Synthesis of the Compounds of the Invention

CN169 is synthesized from 6-azido-6-deoxy-a-galactosylceramide (Jervis, Cox et al. 201 1 ) which is turn is derived from diol 1 (Lee, Farrand et al. 2006).

Scheme 4

CN169

Synthesis of Compounds of Formula ( )

A variety of synthetic methods are reported in the literature, some of which are referenced herein. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that these methods can be adapted for the synthesis of compounds of formula (Γ). For a recent review of a-GalCer analogues synthesized that includes some of these methods, see Banchet-Cadeddu et al. (Banchet- Cadeddu, Henon et al. 201 1 ). The reported methods all involve a key coupling or glycosylation step that brings together the sugar and phytosphingosine components.

General Method (1) for the Synthesis of Compounds of Formula ( ) In case of compounds of formula (Γ) there are two general methods. The first includes the incorporation of the azido or amino functional group before glycosylation. Routine protecting group manipulation provides access to compounds of formula (XI) where R = H and L represents a leaving group suitable for glycosylation with compounds of formula (XI I). When N is amino it is protected until the final stages of the synthetic strategy.

Scheme 5

halogen, SR, OAc, acetimidate

Starting materials include diacetonide 4 that is used to synthesize glycosyl donor 5 (Zhou, Forestier et al. 2002). Glycosylation with 6 and deprotection affords 6-amino-6-deoxy-a- GalCer (Scheme 7). In the case where R = glycosyl an initial glycosylation is required to form the disaccharide that is subsequently glycosylated with 7 (Liu, Deng et al. 2008). When R 6 and/or R 7 are OH suitable protecting groups include silyl (see 7), benzyl (Scheme 6) (Trappeniers, Van Beneden et al. 2008), acetonide or benzoate. When R 6 and/or R 7 are OH epimers are synthesized from D-ribo-phytosphingosine by protecting group manipulation and epimerisation under Mitsunobu conditions (Scheme 6) (Trappeniers, Goormans et al. 2008). For example, all 8 stereoisomers of a protected phytosphingosine acceptor have been synthesized in an approach that also allows modification of the group R 8 (Park, Lee et al. 2008; Baek, Seo et al. 201 1 ). Furthermore, 3-deoxy (Baek, Seo et al. 201 1 ) and 4-deoxy phytosphingosine (Morita, Motoki et al. 1995; Howell, So et al. 2004; Du, Kulkarni et al. 2007) derivatives have also been described. Methods for the synthesis of donors where R is glycosyl, (Veerapen, Brigl et al. 2009) R 2 or R 3 is O-glycosyl, (Kawano, Cui et al. 1997) R 2 or R 3 is either H or F, (Raju, Castillo et al. 2009) have also been reported and can be used for for the pepraration of compounds of formula (Γ). Scheme 6

General Method (2) for the Synthesis of Compounds of Formula ( )

Scheme 7

An alternative general approach for the synthesis of compounds of formula (Γ) is introduction of the amino functional group after glycosylation. Examples include the glycosylation of a TMS-protected galactosyl donor with a protected phtyoshingosine precursor followed by selective removal of the primary silyl group with acid and subsequent introduction of an azido functional group (Scheme 8) (Jervis, Cox et al. 201 1 ). Another approach includes the regio-selective opening of benzylidene acetal 9a and subsequent introduction of the azido group (Pauwels, Aspeslagh et al. 2012). cheme 8

For starting materials (Γ) where X is CH 2 and R 7 is H, these are synthesized according to reported methods for analogous compounds (Chen, Schmieg et al. 2004) using sphingosine as the starting material in place of phytosphingosine. For starting materials (Γ) in which X is S, syntheses of analogous compounds have been described (Dere and Zhu 2008; O'Reilly and Murphy 201 1 ). Amines (Γ) are further transformed into compounds of formula (II) (as shown below in General Method 3) according to the following general procedures:

General Method (3) for Synthesis of Compounds of Formula (II) Scheme 9

= V- y roxysucc n m e

For the preparation of compounds of formula (II) (Scheme 9), a mixture of amine (Γ), potentially prepared in situ from the azide, (0.05 - 0.1 M), activated carbonate or ester 10-18 (where D(PG) may be D as defined herein for formula (I) and (II) or a protected form of D, and where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) (1.05 - 2 equiv) and NEt 3 (0 - 10 equiv) are stirred in a suitable solvent (e.g. pyridine, pyridine- CHCI 3 , CHCI 3 -MeOH, DMF, DMSO) at ambient temperature until the reaction is essentially complete (TLC). Diethylamine may be added to quench excess reagent. After concentration of the mixture, the residue is purified by column chromatography on silica gel and/or C18 silica gel. Any protecting groups in D(PG) and/or Z(PG) are subsequently removed, by standard methods, (Isidro-Llobet, Alvarez et al. 2009). The deprotected products are purified by chromatography on silica gel and/or C18 silica gel. Scheme 9a

Alternatively (Scheme 9a), amine (Γ) (0.05 - 0.1 M) is reacted with activated carbonate or ester 39 (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002) (where PG' is defined as an amine protecting group, e.g. Fmoc, Boc, Alloc, preferably Fmoc) under similar conditions to the reaction shown in Scheme 9). PG' is removed by standard methods, (Isidro-Llobet, Alvarez et al. 2009), e.g. piperidine/DMF for removal of the Fmoc group, and the resulting amine is coupled with a reagent containing the component Z(PG), where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z. The reagent may be a) a carboxylic acid (20), in which case standard peptide coupling activators (e.g. HBTU, HATU) are employed; or b) an activated ester (e.g. NHS ester, pNP ester, mixed carbonic anhydride) which is derived from carboxylic acid 20 by standard methods; or c) an activated carbonate 49 (preferably pNP carbonate) which is derived from the corresponding alcohol. Any protecting groups in D(PG) and/or Z(PG) are subsequently removed, by standard methods, (Isidro-Llobet, Alvarez et al. 2009). The deprotected products are purified by chromatography on silica gel and/or C18 silica gel. General Method (4) for Synthesis of Reagents 10

Scheme 10

Esters 10 (where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) are synthesized by the reaction of 4-hydroxybenzylic alcohols 19 with carboxylic acids 20 or their activated esters in accordance with or by adapting literature procedures (Greenwald, Pendri et al. 1999). In some cases, it may be advantageous to use a protected form of 19, eg, 4-hydroxybenzyl THP ether or 4-hydroxybenzyaldehyde. The benzylic alcohol products are subsequently converted to the corresponding p-nitrophenyl carbonates 10 by reaction with bis(p-nitrophenyl carbonate) and Hunig's base in DMF (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002). Benzylic alcohols 19 are commercially available or obtained by simple derivatisation of commercially available 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols. Acids 20 are commercially available, or accessed by standard chemical transformations of common starting materials (e.g. terminal alkenoic acids, hydroxyalkanoic acids, haloalkanoic acids, aminoalkanoic acids, alkanedioic acids), or by following literature methods: (lha, van Horn et al. 2010) for Z = Z8; (Hudlicky, Koszyk et al. 1980) for Z = Z12; (Saxon and Bertozzi 2000) for Z = Z14; (Tarn, Soellner et al. 2007) for Z = Z15. Acids 20 containing a keto group (Z = Z1 ), may also be accessed by coupling of 2-metallated alkenyl reagents with haloalkanoic esters (Hatakeyama, Nakagawa et al. 2009), followed by ozonolysis of the double bond. In certain cases, groups Z in 20 may be used in protected form Z(PG) (eg, phthalimides for Z8 and Z9, thioester or disulfide for Z10, acetal or alkene for Z16, Tbeoc-Thz for Z17 (Fang, Wang et al. 2012). General Method (5) for Synthesis of Reagents 11

Scheme 11

Dipeptides 11 (where R 5 (PG) may be R 5 as defined herein for formula (I) or a protected form of R 5 and where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) are prepared by reaction of amines 21 (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002) with the appropriate acid 20 using the chloroformate method (Chaudhary, Girgis et al. 2003) to give amide products. Briefly, 20 (1.3 equiv) is dissolved in solvent (eg, in CH 2 CI 2 , THF, ether) and treated at 0 °C with NEt 3 (1 .4 equiv) followed by isobutyl chloroformate (1 .25 equiv) and, after ~30 min, the resulting solution is transferred to a solution of the amine 21 in CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH. The reaction is generally complete within 2 h at room temperature. An alternative method involves reaction of 21 with the NHS ester of 20 in a polar aprotic solvent (eg, DMF, NMP) (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002). Amines 21 may also be reacted with activated carbonates 49 (preferably pNP carbonate) derived from the corresponding alcohol, to give carbamate products. The hydroxyl group of the resultingamide or carbamate products is subsequently converted to the corresponding p-nitrophenyl carbonates 11 by reaction with bis(p-nitrophenyl carbonate) and Hiinig's base in DMF (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002).

General Method (6) for Synthesis of Carbonate and Carbamate Reagents 12-15 Scheme 12

Carbamates 12 and carbonates 13 (where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) are prepared by reaction of 4-hydroxybenzylic alcohols 19 or 4- aminobenzylic alcohols 22 with isocyanates or activated NHS carbonates as reported (Greenwald, Pendri et al. 1999). In some cases, it may be advantageous to use a protected form of 19, eg, 4-hydroxybenzyl THP ether or 4-hydroxybenzyaldehyde. The benzylic alcohol products are subsequently converted to the corresponding p-nitrophenyl carbonates 12, 13 by reaction with bis(p-nitrophenyl carbonate) and Hiinig's base in DMF (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002). Carbamates 14 and carbonates 15 are prepared in a similar manner, from phenols 23 or anilines 24, with standard manipulations for conversion of the silyl ether group into an active ester (see General Methods 8 and 9). General Method (7) for Synthesis of Reagents 16

Scheme 13

pNPO

25 16

Hal = CI or I

Esters 16 (where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) are prepared by reaction of a-haloalkyl 4-nitrophenyl carbonates 25, eg, iodomethyl 4- nitrophenyl carbonate (Gangwar, Pauletti et al. 1997) or a-chloroethyl 4-nitrophenyl carbonate) (Alexander, Cargill et al. 1988), with a carboxylic acid 20, either in the presence of Ag 2 0 or Cs 2 C0 3 , or as the preformed salt, in an anhydrous solvent (e.g. MeCN, toluene, dioxane, DMF), at a temperature between 20 and 80 °C.

General Method (8) for Synthesis of Reagents 17

Scheme 14

Esters 17 (where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) are synthesised from phenols 23 in accordance with or by adapting literature procedures, (Carpino, Triolo et al. 1989; Amsberry and Borchardt 1991 ; Amsberry, Gerstenberger et al. 1991 ; Nicolaou, Yuan et al. 1996; Greenwald, Choe et al. 2000). General Method (9) for Synthesis of Reagents 18

Scheme 15

)

Dipeptides 18 (where Z(PG) may be Z as defined herein for formula (II) or a protected form of Z) are synthesised from o-nitrophenylacetic acid esters 26 (Scheme 15), obtained from commercial sources, or by known procedures, or by Ardnt-Eistert homologation of the corresponding 6-nitrobenzoic acid esters (Atwell, Sykes et al. 1994)). The esters 26 are gem-dialkylated with an alkyl iodide and a suitable base (e.g. NaH, KO¾u, n-BuLi), optionally in the presence of 18-crown-6. The dialkylated product is, via the acid chloride, subjected to Arndt-Eistert homologation (CH 2 N 2 ; then heat or Ag(ll)). The carboxyl group is reduced to the alcohol oxidation level to prevent premature lactamization and the resulting alcohol is protected as the TBDMS ether. After reduction of the nitro group, the resulting amine 24 is coupled with dipeptides 27 (Dubowchik, Firestone et al. 2002). Fmoc cleavage is followed by amide or carbamate formation (see General Method 5). Finally, desilylation, oxidation and activation of the resulting carboxylic acid by standard methods gives reagents 18.

General Method (10) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Thiol- ene Ligation where Z is Z2, Z10 or Z17

Scheme 16

Z is Z2: The compound of formula (II) and peptide-thiol 28a or N-terminal cysteinyl peptide 28b are dissolved in an appropriate solvent. Suitable solvent systems may include chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water, or mixtures thereof. After purging with Ar, the mixture is stirred in the presence of a radical initiator under photochemical conditions (Campos, Killops et al. 2008), or alternatively, under thermal conditions (Dondoni 2008). After completion of the reaction, the product is purified by chromatography on the appropriate solid phase (e.g. silica gel, C4, and/or C18 silica). Scheme 17

Z is Z10 or Z17: The compound of formula (II) is reacted with N-terminal alkenoyl peptide 29 under the conditions described above.

General Method (11) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Azide- Alkyne Cycloaddition where Z is Z4, Z7 or Z23

Scheme 18

Z is Z4: The compound of formula (II) and N-terminal alkynoyl peptide 30 are stirred with copper (II) sulfate (up to 0.1 mM), a coordinating ligand (e.g. TBTA, THPTA or Bim(Py) 2 , preferably TBTA) (Presolski, Hong et al. 2010) and a reducing agent (e.g., copper metal, ascorbic acid or TCEP, preferably copper metal) in a deoxygenated aqueous-organic solvent system (Rostovtsev, Green et al. 2002). Suitable organic solvents may include chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, or mixtures thereof. After completion of the reaction, the crude product may be isolated from the catalyst by precipitation into aq EDTA (pH 7.7) and separation of the pellet by centrifugation. Alternatively, pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ruthenium catalysts may be employed to provide regioisomeric products (Zhang, Chen et al. 2005; Majireck and Weinreb 2006). The product is purified by chromatography on the appropriate solid phase (e.g. silica gel, C4, and/or C18 silica). cheme 19

Z is Z7: The compound of formula (II) is reacted with azido-functionalized peptide 31

under the conditions described above.

Z is Z23: The compound of formula (II) is mixed with azido-functionalized peptide 31

in an appropriate solvent at rt. After completion of the reaction, the solvent is removed and the product is purified by chromatography on the appropriate solid phase (e.g. silica gel, C4, and/or C18 silica).

General Method (12) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Thiol- Maleimide Conjugate Addition where Z is Z3, Z10 or Z17

Scheme 20

Z is Z3: The compound of formula (II) and peptide-thiol 28a or N-terminal cysteinyl peptide 28b are dissolved in an appropriate solvent system, optionally in the presence of excess TCEP to ensure the thiol remains in the reduced state. Suitable solvents may include chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water, or mixtures thereof. The mixture is stirred at 4 °C to rt. After completion of the reaction, the product is purified by chromatography on the appropriate solid phase (e.g. silica gel, C4, and/or C18 silica).

cheme 21

Z is Z10 or Z17: The compound of formula (II) is reacted with maleimido-functionalized peptide 32 under the conditions described above.

General Method (13) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Oxime or Hydrazone Formation where Z is Z1, Z8 or Z9

Scheme 22

Z is Z1 : The compound of formula (II) and either aminooxy-functionalised peptide 33 or hydrazide derivative 34 are stirred at room temperature in the minimum amount of an aqueous-organic solvent system required for dissolution of both components. Suitable organic solvents may include chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, or mixtures thereof. Anilinium acetate (Dirksen, Hackeng et al. 2006) or anilinium trifluoroacetate (up to 200 mM) may be incorporated as both buffer (pH 3.5-5.0) and catalyst for the reaction. After completion of the reaction, the product is purified by chromatography on the appropriate solid phase (i.e. silica gel, C4, and/or C18 silica). Scheme 23

(I)

Z is Z8 or Z9: The compound of formula (II) and aldehydo-functionalized peptide 35, obtained by periodate treatment of the precursor N-terminal serine peptide (Geoghegan and Stroh 1992), or keto-functionalized peptide 36 are reacted under the conditions described above.

General Method (14) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Disulfide Exchange where Z is Z10 orZ11

Scheme 24

Z is Z1 1 : The compound of formula (II) (prepared by reaction of a precursor thiol with dipyridyl disulfide) and either peptide thiol 28a or N-terminal cysteinyl peptide 28b are allowed to react at room temperature under an inert atmosphere in an appropriate solvent system buffered to pH 6.5-7.5 (Widdison, Wilhelm et al. 2006). Suitable solvents may include chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water or mixtures thereof.

Scheme 25

Z is Z10: The compound of formula (II) and disulfide-functionalized peptide 37 are reacted under the conditions described above. General Method (15) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Diels- Alder Cycloaddition where Z is Z12

Scheme 26

Z is Z12: The compound of formula (II), the diene moiety of which is either commercially available or obtained following literature methods (Hudlicky, Koszyk et al. 1980; Choi, Ha et al. 1989), and maleimido-functionalized peptide 32 are allowed to react in an appropriate solvent system (e.g., chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water or mixtures thereof) at pH≤ 6.5 (de Araujo, Palomo et al. 2006).

General Method (16) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Native Chemical Ligation where Z is Z13

Scheme 27

The compound of formula (II) and N-terminal cysteinyl peptide 28b are allowed to react in an appropriate solvent system (e.g., chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water or mixtures thereof) following literature protocols (Hackenberger and Schwarzer 2008). General Method (17) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Staudinger Ligation where Z is Z14 or Z4

Scheme 28

Z is Z14: The compound of formula (II) and azido peptide 31 are allowed to react in an appropriate solvent system (e.g., chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water or mixtures thereof) following literature protocols (Saxon and Bertozzi 2000).

Scheme 29

Z is Z4: The compound of formula (II) and peptide 38 (prepared following literature protocols) (Kiick, Saxon et al. 2002) are allowed to react as described above.

General Method (18) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) by Traceless Staudinger Ligation where Z is Z15 or Z4

Scheme 30

Z is Z15: The compound of formula (II), wherein the thioester group Z15 is prepared following literature procedures (Soellner, Tarn et al. 2006), and azido peptide 31 are allowed to react in an appropriate solvent system (e.g. chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water or mixtures thereof) following literature protocols (Soellner, Tarn et al. 2006; Tarn, Soellner et al. 2007).

General Method (19) for Coupling of Antigen to Compounds of Formula (II) where Z is Z16 or Z17

Scheme 31

Z is Z16: The compound of formula (II), wherein the aldehyde group Z16 is obtained from ozonolytic cleavage of a precursor alkene, or acidic deprotection of a precursor acetal, and N-terminal cysteinyl peptide 28b are allowed to react in an appropriate solvent system (e.g., chloroform, THF, methanol, DMF, DMSO, ferf-butanol, water or mixtures thereof) at pH 5-7, following literature protocols (Liu and Tarn 1994; Liu, Rao et al. 1996). Scheme 32

Z is Z17: The compound of formula (II) and aldehyde-terminated peptide 35, are allowed to react as described above.

General Method (20) for the Synthesis of Peptidic Antigen G-J

Functionalised peptides are synthesised according to reported methods that utilize solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) (Amblard, Fehrentz et al. 2006). In particular, the Fmoc protection approach (Atherton, Fox et al. 1978; Fields and Noble 1990) on an appropriately functionalised resin (e.g. trityl chloride resin, 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin, Wang resin, Sasrin resin, HMPB resin) can be employed for the synthesis of functionalised peptides. Peptides with C-terminal amides are constructed on Rink amide, Pal, MBHA or Sieber resins. A brief description, using trityl chloride resin, follows:

Trityl chloride resin (1 g) is swollen in dry DCM for 30 mins. After this time Fmoc-AA-OH (1 .131 g, 3.20 mmol) and DIPEA (0.669 ml, 3.84 mmol) are added with dry DCM under an argon atmosphere and the reaction stirred for 1 h. The resin is transferred to a sintered reaction vessel and washed with DCM. A solution containing HBTU (7.59 g) and 4.18 ml_ DIPEA (4.18 mL) in dry DMF (50 mL) is prepared and 8 mL of this solution is used for each coupling. The reaction sequence for coupling is as follows; swell resin in DCM for 30mins, for each iteration (i), wash thoroughly with DMF (ii), deprotect with 20% piperidine in DMF for 5mins (x2) (iii), wash with DMF (iv), swell with DCM (v), wash with DMF (vi), add amino acid and 8ml_ of coupling solution and shake for 30 mins. Steps (i) - (vi) are repeated to end of peptide. Finally, while the peptide is still attached to the resin, an appropriately functionalised acid is coupled to the free N-terminus to give the fully protected, resin-bound, functionalized peptides 28 - 38.

Cleavage from the resin: the beads are treated with 95:2.5:2.5 TFA:TIS:water for 3h, during this time the beads turn a bright red colour. After 3h the beads are filtered and washed with TFA. The TFA is evaporated and the peptide precipitated and washed with ether to afford the crude peptide. The material is purified via reverse phase preparative HPLC, eluting with 10-50% acetonitrile water with 0.1 % TFA. The material is characterised by LC-MS.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 shows CD86 expression on B cells in the peripheral blood as a readout of NKT cell activity in response to injection of compounds of the invention. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n = 3) are injected intravenously with 0.23 nmol of the indicated glycolipid compounds and then the blood samples collected 20 h later for the analysis of CD86 expression on CD45 (B220)+ B cells by antibody labelling and flow cytometry. Mean fluorescence index (MFI) ± SEM are presented, *P<0.05, *P<0.01 , ***P<0.001 . The data show that injection of the conjugate CN 169 induces activation of NKT cells resulting in levels of CD86 expression on B cells that are similar to injection of admixed a-GalCer and SI INFEKL, or admixed a-GalCer and CN 159, an N-terminal extended peptide derivative that is a presumed in vivo breakdown product of CN 169.

Figure 2 shows enumeration of T cells with specificity for the peptide antigen SIINFEKL following intravenous administration of compounds of the invention as vaccines into mice. The compounds are injected to give the equivalent molar dose of SI INFEKL peptide in each case. To increase sensitivity of the assay, all mice are initially donated a cohort of 10,000 SI INFEKL-specific T cells from a transgenic mouse encoding a T cell receptor for this antigen (OT-1 mice) by intravenous injection of the cells one day before the vaccines are administered. To discriminate the donated T cells from those of the host, the donated cells exhibit congenic expression of the CD45.1 variant of the CD45 molecule. It is therefore possible to enumerate SIINFEKL-specific T cells in blood by flow cytometry using antibodies for CD45.1 together with antibodies for the transgenic T cell receptor (Voc2). Control animals (naive) are injected with the diluent phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The data show that injection of the conjugate CN 169 induces a larger population of SI INFEKL-specific T cells than injection of admixed components a-GalCer and SI INFEKL, or admixed a-GalCer and CN 159. Each dot represents a different animal; mean per treatment group ± SEM are presented. *P<0.05, *P<0.01 , ***P<0.001

Figure 3 shows CD86 expression on dendritic cells. The data show that injection of compounds of the invention induces activation of iNKT cells and subsequent maturation of dendritic cells, as indicated by up-regulation of expression of the activation marker CD86. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n = 3) are injected intravenously with 0.571 nmol of the indicated compounds and then the spleens removed 20 h later for the analysis of CD86 expression on CD1 1 c + dendritic cells by antibody labelling and flow cytometry. Mean fluorescence index (MFI) ± SEM are presented. *P<0.05, *P<0.01 , ***P<0.001 Figure 4 shows the cytotoxic capacity of T cells with specificity for the peptide antigen SI INFEKL following intravenous administration of compounds of the invention as vaccines into wild type mice. The compounds are injected to give the equivalent molar dose of SI INFEKL peptide, in each case of 0.571 nmol. Flow cytometry is used to assess the killing of target cells comprised of syngeneic splenocytes loaded ex vivo with 5 μΜ SI INFEKL injected intravenously 7 days after vaccination. To discriminate the targets from host tissue, the injected cells are labelled with the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). A cohort syngeneic splenocytes (without peptide) labelled with the fluorescent dye cell tracker orange are also injected to serve as controls. Killing is defined as the percentage of peptide-loaded targets killed relative to control cells. Each treatment group contained 5 animals. Control animals are injected with the diluent phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The data show that injection of CI-017 induces greater SI INFEKL-specific cytotoxicity compared to injection of PBS, or injection of a-GalCer mixed with CN 159, which is an N-terminal extended SI INFEKL peptide (including the protease cleavage sequence FFRK) that is used in manufacture of the conjugate. Mean percentage of killing per group ± SEM are shown. ***p < 0.001

Figure 5 shows the antitumour effect of vaccination with conjugate vaccine CI-017 (0.571 nmol) compared to vaccination with peptide CN 159 (0.571 nmol) mixed with a-GalCer (0.571 nmol). Progression of subcutaneous B16.0VA tumours is monitored in animals treated five days after tumour challenge with intravenous CI-017 or CN 159 peptide and a-GalCer or with PBS. The mean tumour sizes per group (n = 5) ± SEM are shown. These data show that vaccination with CI-017 results in superior anti-tumour activity as compared to the control groups. ABBREVIATIONS

NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrom

HRMS High resolution mass spectrometry

ESI Electrospray ionisation

RT Room temperature

THF Tetrahydrofuran

PBS Phosphate-buffered saline HPLC High performance liquid chromatography

FCS Fetal calf serum

MS Mass spectrometry

LC-MS Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

TFA Trifluoroacetic acid

TLC Thin layer chromatography

DMF Dimethylformamide

DMSO Dimethylsulfoxide

DCM Dichloromethane

NMP N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

DDQ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1 ,4-benzoquinone

PMB p-Methoxybenzyl

DMAP 4-Dimethylaminopyridine

TMS Trimethylsilyl

DCC N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

DIPEA N,N-diisopropylethylamine

TBDPS tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl

TBAF Tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride

THP Tetrahydropyranyl

EDCI 1 -Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide

CAN Ceric ammonium nitrate

Tbeoc-Thz A/-(2-(iert-Butyldisulfanyl)ethoxycarbonyl)-L-thiazolidine-4 -carboxylic acid

HBTU 2-(1 H-benzotriazol-1 -yl)-1 , 1 ,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexaflurophosphate.

TCEP Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine)

TBTA Tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine

THPTA Tris(3-hydroxypropyltriazolylmethyl)amine

Bim(Py) 2 ((2-Benzimidazolyl)methyl)-bis-((2-pyridyl)methyl)amine

EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EXAMPLES

The examples described herein are for purposes of illustrating embodiments of the invention. Other embodiments, methods, and types of analyses are within the capabilities of persons of ordinary skill in the art and need not be described in detail herein. Other embodiments within the scope of the art are considered to be part of this invention. Anhydrous solvents are obtained commercially. Air sensitive reactions are carried out under Ar. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is performed on aluminium sheets coated with 60 F 254 silica. Flash column chromatography is performed on Merck or SiliCycle silica gel (40 - 63 μιη) or SiliCycle reversed phase (C18) silica gel (40 - 63 μιη). NMR spectra are recorded on a Bruker 500 MHz spectrometer. H NMR spectra are referenced to tetramethylsilane at 0 ppm (internal standard) or to residual solvent peak (CHCI 3 7.26 ppm, CHD 2 OD 3.31 ppm, CHD 2 S(0)CD 3 2.50 ppm). 3 C NMR spectra are referenced to tetramethylsilane at 0 ppm (internal standard) or to the deuterated solvent peak (CDCI 3 77.0 ppm, CD 3 OD 49.0 ppm, CD 3 S(0)CD 3 39.52 ppm). CDCI 3 -CD 3 OD solvent mixtures are always referenced to the methanol peak. High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra are recorded on a Q- Tof Premier mass spectrometer.

Example 1 - Synthesis of (2S,3S,4 ?)-1-0-a-6-Amino-6-deoxy-D-Galactopyranosyl-4- hexacosanoyl-2-((4-oxopentanoyloxy)methoxycarbonylamino) octadecane-1 ,3,4-triol (CN300)

CN168 CN300

Example 1.1 - (4-Nit loxymethyl 4-oxopentanoate (41 )

The silver salt of levulinic acid is prepared by adding a solution of AgN0 3 (700 mg, 4.1 mmol) in water (10 mL) to the sodium salt of levulinic acid (4.3 mmol in ~10 mL water, prepared by basification of levulinic acid with 1 M aq NaOH to pH 7-8). After 30 min, the resultant precipitate is isolated by filtration and washed with cold water followed by Et 2 0. The product is dried under vacuum to afford the silver salt as a white solid (636 mg, 69%). A mixture of iodomethyl 4-nitrophenyl carbonate (Gangwar, Pauletti et al. 1997) (105 mg, 0.325 mmol, dried by azeotropic distillation with toluene), 4A molecular sieves (~250 mg) and silver levulinate (89 mg, 0.40 mmol) in dry toluene (1.5 mL) is protected from light and stirred at 40 °C. After 4 h, the mixture is diluted with Et 2 0, filtered through celite, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (30% to 40% EtOAc/petroleum ether) to afford the title compound (41) (85 mg, 84%) as a colourless oil. H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.67-2.70 (m, 2H), 2.80-2.83 (m, 2H), 5.88 (s, 2H), 7.38-7.48 (m, 2H), 8.24-8.34 (m, 2H); 3 C NMR (126 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 27.7, 29.7, 37.6, 82.5, 121.8, 125.4, 145.7, 151.5, 155.1 , 171 .2, 206.0; HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C 13 H 13 N0 8 Na [M+Na] + 334.0539, found 334.0544.

Example 1.2 - (2S,3S,4 ?)-1 -(2,3-Di-0-benzyl-6-0-(4-toluenesulfonyl)-a-D- galactopyranosyloxy)-3,4-di(benzyloxy)-2-hexacosanoylamino-o ctadeca-6-

CN301 Tosyl chloride (0.091 g, 0.476 mmol) is added to diol 1 (0.276 g, 0.227 mmol) (which is prepared as described in Lee, A., K. J. Farrand, et al. (2006) "Novel synthesis of alpha- galactosyl-ceramides and confirmation of their powerful NKT cell agonist activity." Carbohydr Res 341 (17): 2785-2798.) stirring in pyridine (2.76 ml, 34.1 mmol) at 0 °C and the mixture left to warm to r.t. over 18 h. Over the following 8 h, the reaction mixture is warmed to 35 °C and more tosyl chloride added in aliquots (total added: 0.300 g, 1.57 mmol) until the starting material has disappeared by TLC. Once cool, the solution is diluted with EtOAc, H 2 0 is added and allowed to stir for 30 mins. The layers are then separated, the organic layer dried (MgS0 4 ) and the solvent removed. Purification of the resulting residue by silica gel chromatography (10 % EtOAc/petroleum ether changing to 20 % EtOAc/petroleum ether) gave the mono-tosylated material CN301 (0.246 g, 0.179 mmol, 79 %) as a colourless oil.

[α¾° = +16.4 (c 0.005, CHCI 3 ); H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 0.88 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H), 1.22-

1 .32 (m, 62H), 1.47-1.51 (m, 2H), 1 .86-1.95 (m, 2H), 2.02-2.06 (m, 2H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 2.43- 2.53 (m, 2H), 3.60-3.63 (m, 1 H), 3.74-3.77 (m, 4H), 3.80 (dd, J = 9.7, 3.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.93-3.94 (m, 1 H), 3.97-3.99 (m, 1 H), 4.09-4.17 (m, 2H), 4.33-4.38 (m, 1 H), 4.51 -4.54 (m, 2H), 4.58 (d, J = 1 1.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.60 (d, J = 1 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.66 (d, J = 1 1 .6 Hz, 1 H), 4.70 (d, J = 1 1 .7 Hz, 2H), 4.74 (d, J = 1 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.77 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 1 H), 5.43-5.52 (m, 2H), 5.68-5.72 (m, 1 H), 7..22-7.32 (m, 22H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H); 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 14.1 , 22.7, 25.6, 27.6, 27.8, 29.3, 29.4, 29.6, 29.7, 31.9), 36.7, 49.8, 67.1 , 67.9, 68.5, 68.9, 71.5, 72.7, 73.3, 75.7, 77.0, 79.29, 79.31 , 98.5, 125.4, 127.5, 127.6, 127.68, 127.72, 127.76, 127.8, 128.0, 128.3, 128.4, 128.5, 129.8, 132.1 , 137.8, 138.2, 138.5, 138.6, 144.8, 172.8; HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for [M+Na] + 1392.9028, found 1392.9031 .

Example 1.2 - (2S,3S,4 ?)-2-Hexacosanoylamino-1-(6-0-(4-toluenesulfonyl)-a-D- gala

CN301 CN302

Pd(OH) 2 /C (20 % Pd; ~5 mg) is added to protected tosylate CN301 (0.040 g, 0.029 mmol) stirring in anhydrous CH 2 CI 2 :MeOH (4 ml_; 1 : 1 ). The reaction vessel is evacuated and flushed with hydrogen and stirred at r.t. for 24 h. The product mixture is filtered through celite, washed repeatedly with CHCI 3 :MeOH (3: 1 ) and then concentrated. Purification by silica gel chromatography (100 % CHCI 3 changing to 10 % MeOH/CHCI 3 ) gives the target CN302 (23 mg, 0.023 mmol, 79 %) as a white solid. H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD 3: 1 ) δ 0.88 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 6H), 1 .23-1.42 (m, 68H), 1 .52-1.68 (m, 4H), 2.16-2.26 (m, 2H), 2.46 (s, 3H), 3.35-3.36 (m, 1 H), 3.52-3.58 (m, 2H), 3.64 (dd, J = 10.7, 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.70-3.76 (m, 2H), 3.83-3.87 (m, 2H), 4.03-4.06 (m, 1 H), 4.13-4.23 (m, 2H), 4.85 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.58 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H); 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD 3: 1 ) δ 14.2, 21.7, 22.9, 26.1 , 29.59, 29.63, 29.7, 29.8, 29.92, 29.95, 30.04, 32.2, 32.8, 36.8, 50.4, 68.1 , 68.9, 69.2, 69.6, 70.1 , 72.4, 74.9, 77.8, 99.9, 128.2, 130.2, 132.8, 145.5, 174.6; HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for [M+Na] + 1034.7306, found 1034.7317. Example 1.3 - (2S,3S,4 ?)-2-Hexacosanoylamino-1-(2,3,4-tri-0-acetyl-6-0-(4- tolue

CN302 CN303 Tosylate CN302 (10 mg, 9.9 μιηοΙ) is dissolved in pyridine (0.10 mL, 1 .2 mmol) and cooled to 0 °C. Acetic anhydride (0.10 mL, 1.0 mmol) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (1 .0 mg, 8.1 pmol) are then added and stirred at r.t. for 5 h. The product mixture is diluted with CH 2 CI 2 , and is washed with 1 M HCI, saturated NaHC0 3 , brine, dried (MgS0 4 ) and the solvent removed in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (20 % EtOAc/petroleum ether changing to 30 % EtOAc/petroleum ether) affords the acetylated compound CN303 (10 mg, 8.2 mol, 83 %) as a colourless oil. H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 0.88 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 6H), 1 .22-1.33 (m, 68H), 1.62-1 .75 (m, 4H), 1.97 (s, 3H), 1 .99 (s, 3H), 2.05 (s, 3H), 2.07 (s, 3H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.23-2.29 (m, 2H), 2.45 (s, 3H), 3.37 (dd, J = 10.8, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.62 (dd, J = 10.8, 2.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.98 (dd, J B = 10.3, J X = 5.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.04 (dd, J B = 10.2, J ¾x = 6.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.16 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.36 (tt, J = 9.7, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.87-4.90 (m, 2H), 5.10 (dd, J = 10.9, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 5.23 (dd, J = 9.8, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.29 (dd, J = 10.9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H), 5.41 (br d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.24 (d, J = 9.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.34 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.75 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H); HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C 67 H 115 N0 16 SNa [M+Na] + 1244.7834, found 1244.7844. Example 1.4 - (2S,3S,4/?)-1-(6-Deoxy-6-azido-a-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-2- hexacosa

CN303 CN304

To a stirred solution of the tosylate CN303 (140 mg, 0.1 15 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) is added sodium azide (150 mg, 2.28 mmol) and 15-crown-5 ether (20 mg, 0.089 mol). The mixture is heated to 90 °C for 18 hr at which time further sodium azide (50 mg, 0.041 mmol) is added and heating continued at 100 °C for 2 hrs. After cooling, the mixture is diluted with DCM (50 mL) and water (50 mL). The aqueous phase is re-extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 50 mL) and the combined organic extract is dried over MgS0 4 and filtered. The solvent is removed via reduced pressure and the crude residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (0 % to 20 % to 40 % to 100 % EtOAc/toluene) to afford the azide (1 15 mg, 96 %). The azide is dissolved in DCM/MeOH (3:3 mL) to which 30 % NaOMe in MeOH (3 drops) is added and is stirred for 3 hrs. The solvents are removed via reduced pressure and the crude solid is purified by chromatography eluting with MeOH/CHCI 3 (0 % to 20 % to 40 %) to afford the title compound CN304 (80 mg, 86 %) as a thin film. H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 0.88 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 6H), 1 .22-1 .41 (m, 68H), 1 .50-1.69 (m, 4H), 2.18-2.22 (m, 2H), 3.30-3.38 (m, 2H), 3.50-3.52 (m, 3H), 3.70-3.78 (m, 2H), 3.79-3.84 (m, 1 H), 3.85 (br s, 1 H), 3.90 (m, 1 H), 4.19- 4.23 (m, 1 H), 4.92 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 1 H); 3 C NMR (126 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 15.3, 24.0, 27.2, 30.6, 30.7, 30.9, 31.0, 33.3, 33.9, 37.9, 51 .4, 52.6, 69.2, 70.1 , 71 .0, 71.3, 71.4, 73.5, 76.1 , 101 .0, 175.6; HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C 5 oH 99 N 4 0 8 [M+H] + 883.7463, found 883.7465.

Example 1.5 - (2S,3S,4/?)-1-(6-Deoxy-6-(4-(oxopentanoyloxy)methoxycarbonyl amino)- a-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-2-hexacosanoylamino-3,4-octadecandi ol (CN300)

CN304 CN300 To a solution of the azide CN304 (18 mg, 0.020 mmol) in DCM/MeOH (1 :2, 2 mL) is added 20 % Pd(OH) 2 (20 mg) and the mixture is stirred under hydrogen for 2 hrs. After the hydrogen is removed, the mixture is filtered through celite, and washed CHCI 3 /MeOH/H 2 0 (30 mL) and hot ethanol (30 mL). The volatiles are concentrated under reduced pressure and pyridine (2 mL) is added followed by a solution of the pNP-carbonate 41 (9.8 mg, 0.032 mmol) in DCM (200 μί) followed by the further addition of triethylamine (1 mL). After stirring at 30 °C for 1 hr, the mixture is diluted with chloroform and the volatiles are removed under reduced pressure. The crude residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (1.5:40:60 to 1 .5:45:55 MeOH/dioxane/CHCI 3 ) to afford the title compound CN300 (3 mg, 0.0029 mmol, 15 %) as a thin film. H NMR (500 MHz, 1 : 1 CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD) δ 0.88-0.90 (m, 6H), 1 .24-1.34 (m, 68H), 1.55-1.72 (m, 4H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.17-2.24 (m, 2H), 2.59-2.63 (m, 2H), 2.79-2.83 (m, 2H), 3.30-3.83 (m, 1 1 H), 4.90-4.93 (m, 1 H), 5.69-5.75 (m, 2H); 3 C NMR (126 MHz, 1 : 1 CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD) δ 14.2, 22.8, 26.1 ,28.1 , 29.5, 29.9, 32.1 , 33.0, 36.7, 37.8, 41.4, 50.6, 67.5, 69.1 , 69.6, 70.4, 72.4, 75.1 , 80.4, 99.9, 156.1 , 172.3, 174.7, 208.0; HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C 5 7H 1 08N 2 O 13 Na [M+Na] + 1051 .7749, found 1051 .7750.

Example 1.6 - (2S,3S,4/?)-1-(6-Deoxy-6-amino)-a-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-2-

CN304 CN168

To a solution of the azide CN304 (18 mg, 0.020 mmol) in DCM/MeOH (1 :2, 2 mL) is added 20 % Pd(OH) 2 (20 mg) and the mixture is stirred under hydrogen for 2 hrs. After the hydrogen is removed, the mixture is filtered through celite, and washed with CHC /MeOH (30 mL) and hot ethanol (30 mL). The volatiles are concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the title compound CN168 (Zhou, Forestier et al. 2002) (13 mg, 0.015 mmol, 74%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, 3:1 CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD) δ 0.82-0.85 (m, 6H), 1.18-1.328 (m, 68H), 1.43-1.67 (m, 4H), 2.13-2.20 (m, 2H), 3.07 (dd J = 3.8, 13.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.20-3.24 (m, 1 H), 3.46-3.52 (m, 2H), 3.58-3.62 (m, 1 H), 3.68-3.76 (m, 4H), 3.85-3.89 (m, 1 H), 3.99-4.02 (m, 1 H), 4.92 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H); HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C 5 oHioiN 2 O8 [M+H] + 857.758, found 857.7559.

Example 2 - (2S,3S,4 ?)-1-(6-Deoxy-6-(4-((2-(FFRKSIINFEKL)-2-

(oxo)ethoxyimino)pentanoyloxy)methoxycarbonylamino)-a-D-g alactopyranosyloxy)-2- he

Peptide 2-(aminooxy)acetyl-FFRKSIINFEKL (12.2 mg, 7.55 mmol) and ketone CN300 (4.20 mg, 4.08 pmol) are stirred together in a mixture of THF (0.71 mL), MeOH (0.35 mL) and water/aniline/TFA (200:6:3, 0.4 mL) at 30-40 °C for 48 h. The solvent is removed and the crude product purified by preparative HPLC (Phenomenex Luna C18(2), 5 μιη, 250 x 30 mm, 35 °C, 50 mL/min; Mobile phase A = 20:80:0.05 water/MeOH/TFA; Mobile phase B = 100:0.05 MeOH/TFA; 0-10 min: 100% A - 100% B; 10-15 min: 100 % B; 15-16 min: 100% B - 100% A; 16-17 min: 100% A) to give the title compound CN169 (5.6 mg, 52%). H NMR (500 MHz, d 6 -DMSO) δ 0.69-0.96 (m, 24H), 1.00-1 .45 (m, 74H), 1.70-1 .50 (m, 27H), 1.79 (s, 3H), 1.90-2.13 (m, 6H), 2.20-2.30 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.49 (m, 6H), 2.72-2.89 (m, 7H), 2.92-2.98 (m, 1 H), 3.03-3.21 (m, 8H), 3.53-3.73 (m, 6H), 3.93-4.00 (m, 2H), 4.12-4.47 (m, 13H),4.48- 4.64 (m, 6H), 4.72 (s, 1 H), 5.35 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.61 -5.66 (m, 2H), 6.95 (s, 1 H); 7.12-7.30 (m, 15H), 7.35-8.22 (m, 22H); HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C 1 3 4H 227 N 21 0 31 [(M+2H)/2] + 1313.3416, found 1313.3412.

Example 2.1 (2S,3S,4 ?)-1-(6-Deoxy-6-(A/-(6-azidohexanoyl)-Val-Cit-4- aminobenzyloxycarbonylamino)-a-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-2-hexa cosanoylamino-3,4-

CN168

To a mixture of CN168 (20 mg, 0.023 mmol) and pNP-carbonate 92 (20 mg, 0.029 mmol) in anhydrous pyridine (600 μΙ_) under Ar is added Et 3 N (20 μΙ_, 0.28 mmol) and the mixture is stirred at rt. After 26 h, the mixture is concentrated to dryness under high vacuum, and the crude residue is purified by column chromatography on silica gel (MeOH/CHCI 3 = 0: 1 to 1 : 1 ) to afford the title compound CI022 as a white solid (20 mg, 61 %). H NMR (500 MHz, d6- DMSO) δ 0.82-0.87 (m, 12 H), 1.21 -1 .32 (m, 70 H), 1.40-1 .56 (m, 10 H), 1 .57-1.63 (m, 1 H), 1 .66-1.75 (m, 1 H), 1 .95-2.01 (m, 1 H), 2.04-2.10 (m, 2H), 2.12-2.24 (m, 2H), 2.90-2.97 (m, 1 H), 2.97-3.03 (m, 1 H), 3.1 1 -3.16 (m, 2H), 3.20-3.46 (m, 5H), 3.46-3.73 (m, 7H), 3.97 (br s, 1 H), 4.17-4.27 (m, 2H), 4.33-4.61 (m, 4H), 4.69 (s, 1 H), 4.90-4.95 (m, 2H), 5.39 (s, 2H), 5.97-6.01 (m, 1 H), 7.03-7.08 (m, 1 H), 7.26 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.55-7.61 (m, 3H), 7.81 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 1 H), 8.04 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H), 9.96 (s, 1 H); HRMS-ESI [M+Na] + calcd for sH^eNmNaOu: 1424.0135; found 1424.0134.

Example 2.2 - (2S,3S,4 ?)-1-(6-Deoxy-6-(4-(3-(FFRKSIINFEKL)-3-oxopropyl)-1 H-1 ,2,3- triazol-1 -yl)hexanoyl)-(A/-Val-Cit-4-aminobenzyloxycarbonylamino)-1-( a-D- gal

To a stirred solution of peptide 4-pentynoyl-FFRKSIINFEKL (4.2 mg, 2.6 μιηοΙ), CI022 (1 .3 mg, 0.93 μιηοΙ) and TBTA (0.35 mg, 0.66 μιηοΙ) in DMSO (280 μΙ_) is added CHCI 3 (280 μί) and MeOH (280 μΙ_) followed by a small amount of copper foil (5 mm x 2 mm) and the reaction mixture is stirred at 20 °C for 15 h then at 30 °C for 24 h. The volatiles are removed under reduced pressure to give a residue which is centrifuged with an aqueous solution of 0.05 M EDTA (pH 1 1 ) (2 x 10 mL), water (2 x 10 mL) and the remaining pellet is dried under high vacuum. The crude product is purified by preparative HPLC (Phenomenex Luna C18(1 ), 5 μιη, 250 x 10 mm, 40 °C, 3.0 mL/min; Mobile phase A = 100:0.05 water/TFA; Mobile phase B = 100:0.0.05 MeOH/TFA; 0- 5 min: 80-100% B; 5-12 min: 100% B; 12-13 min: 100-80% B; 13-15 min: 80% B) to give the title compound CI017 (1.30 mg, 46%, 97% pure by HPLC); HRMS-ESI m/z calcd for C 155 H 258 N 28 0 32 [M+2H] 2+ 151 1.9633, found 151 1.9722.

Example 3 - 4-((2-(FFRKSIINFEKL)-2-oxoethoxy)imino)pentanoic acid (CN159)

3-FFRKSIINFEKL

levulinic acid

THF/MeOH/water,

aniline pH 4 .3

Peptide 2-(aminooxy)acetyl-FFRKSIINFEKL (6.0 mg, 3.72 mmol) is dissolved in THF/MeOH (2: 1 , 600 μί) and added to an aqueous mixture of water/a niline/TFA (200:6:4, 300 μί, pH 4.3). A solution of levulinic acid (100 mg, 0.86 mmol) dissolved in MeOH (200 μί) is added and the reaction mixture stirred at 25 °C for 48 h. The solvent is removed and the crude product purified by preparative HPLC (Phenomenex Luna C18(1 ), 5 μιη, 250 x 10 mm, 40 °C, 1 .4 mL/min; Mobile phase A = 100:0.1 water/ TFA; Mobile phase B = 100:0.1 MeOH/TFA; 0-10 min: 50-100% B; 10-15 min: 100% B; 15-16 min: 100-50% B; 16-20 min: 50% B) to give the title 5 compound CN159 (3.9 mg, 62%, 96% pure by HPLC). 1 H NMR (500 MHz, d6- DMSO) δ 0.70-0.88 (m, 18H), 0.99-1 .1 1 (m, 2H), 1 .24-1 .43 (m, 7H), 1 .44-1 .60 (m, 12H), 1 .60-1 .577 (m, 8H), 1 .79 (s, 2H), 1 .91 (s, 1 H), 2.17-2.30 (m, 2H), 2.31 -2.40 m, 3H), 2.67-2.96 (m, 9H), 2.98-3.16 (m, 4H), 3.54-3.62 (m, 4H), 4.1 1 -4.62 (m, 15H), 5.00 (br s, 1 H), 6.92 (s, 1 H), 7.1 1 -7.29 (m, 17H), 7.36 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.41 (s, i o 1 H), 7.45-7.53 (m, 1 H), 7.57-7.87 (m, 8H), 7.91 -8.21 (m, 8H); HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C82H 126N 19O21 [M+H] + 1712.9376, found 1712.9366

Example 4 - Formulating Compounds of the Invention for Intravenous Injection

15 Compounds of the invention are formulated analogously to reported methods for oc-GalCer.

Briefly, solubilisation is based on excipient proportions described by Giaccone et al (Giaccone, Punt et al. 2002). Thus, 100 μί of a 10 mg/mL solution of a-GalCer or a compound of the invention in 9: 1 THF/MeOH is added to 1.78 mL of an aqueous solution of Tween 20 (15.9 mg), sucrose (177 mg) and L-histidine (23.8 mg). This homogeneous

20 mixture is freeze dried and the resulting foam is stored under Ar at -18 °C. This material is reconstituted with 1 .0 mL of PBS or water prior to serial dilutions in PBS to achieve final injectable solutions of oc-GalCer or compounds of the invention.

Example 5 - Biological Studies

25

Mice: C57BL/6 are from breeding pairs originally obtained from Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, Maine, and used according to institutional guidelines with approval from the Victoria University of Wellington Animal Ethics Committee.

30 Administration of compounds of the invention: Each compound of the invention is supplied as formulated product (see example 3), and diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for injection (0.23 nmol/mouse) by intravenous injection into the lateral tail vein. In humans the expected therapeutic dose lies in the 50-4800 ( ig/m 2 ) range (Giaccone, Punt et al. 2002). Note, 0.23 nmol in a mouse is a human equivalent dose of 30 μg/m 2 for oc-GalCer.

35 All antibody labelling is performed on ice in FACS buffer (PBS supplemented with 1 % FCS, 0.05 % sodium azide, and 2 mM EDTA). Non-specific FcR-mediated antibody staining is blocked by incubation for 10 min with anti-CD16/32 Ab (24G2, prepared in-house from hybridoma supernatant). Flow cytometry is performed on a BD Biosciences FACSCalibur or BD LSRII SORP flow cytometer with data analysis using FlowJo software (Tree Star, Inc., OR, USA).

Phenotyping B cells from peripheral blood: Antibody staining and flow cytometry are used to examine the expression of the maturation markers CD86 on peripheral blood B cells following injection of compounds of the invention. Blood was collected from the lateral tail vein, followed by lysis of red blood cells with RBC lysis buffer (Puregene, Gentra Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Antibody staining is performed in PBS 2 % fetal bovine serum and 0.01 % sodium azide. The anti-FcgRII monoclonal antibody 2.4G2 is used at 10 mg/ml to inhibit non-specific staining. Monoclonal antibodies (all BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Jose, CA, USA) are used to examine expression of CD86 on gated CD45 (B220)+ B cells.

Analysis of peptide-specific T cell proliferation in vivo: Pooled lymph node cell suspensions are prepared from animals of a cross between OT-I mice, which express a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the ovalbumin epitope SIINFEKL in the context of H-2K molecules, and B6.SJL-Ptprc a Pepc /BoyJ mice, which are congenic with C57BL/6 mice for the CD45.1 + marker. The samples are enriched for CD8 + cells using antibody coated magnetic beads (Miltenyi), and then transferred into C57BL/6 mice (1 x 10 4 per mouse). Groups of recipient animals (n = 5) are immunized with compounds of the invention one day later. Doses are chosen to provide equivalent molar values of SIINFEKL peptide. Control animals received PBS. After seven days, blood samples are collected from the lateral tail vein and stained directly ex vivo with antibodies for TCR Voc2, CD45.1 and CD8 to detect the SIINFEKL-specific CD8 + T cells by flow cytometry.

Phenotyping DC from spleen: Antibody staining and flow cytometry is used to examine the expression of maturation markers on dendritic cells in the spleen following injection of compounds of the invention (0.23nmol). Splenocyte preparations are prepared by gentle teasing of splenic tissue through gauze in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium with 2 mM glutamine, 1 % penicillin-streptomycin, 5 x 10-5 M 2-mercapto-ethanol and 5 % fetal bovine serum (all Invitrogen, Auckland, New Zealand), followed by lysis of red blood cells with RBC lysis buffer (Puregene, Gentra Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Antibody staining is performed in PBS 2% fetal bovine serum and 0.01 % sodium azide. The anti-FcgRII monoclonal antibody 2.4G2 is used at 10 mg/ml to inhibit non-specific staining. Monoclonal antibodies (all BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Jose, CA, USA) are used to examine expression of the maturation markers CD40, CD80 and CD86 on CD1 1 c+ dendritic cells.

Analysis of peptide-specific T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vivo: The cytotoxic capacity of induced CD8+ T cell responses is measured by VITAL assay (Hermans, Silk et al. 2004). Mice are immunized with the compounds of the invention, or PBS, and then injected intravenously seven days later with two populations of syngeneic splenocytes; those loaded with 500 nM, SIINFEKL-peptide and labelled with 1 .65 nM carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), or those loaded with peptide and labelled with 10 μΜ cell tracker orange (CTO). Specific lysis of the peptide-loaded targets is monitored by flow cytometry of blood or spleen samples 24 h later. Mean percent survival of peptide-pulsed (CFSE+) targets is calculated relative to that of the control population (CTO+), and cytotoxic activity is expressed as percent specific lysis (100 - mean percent survival of peptide-pulsed targets).

Analysis of anti-tumour activity: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n = 5) receive a subcutaneous injection into the flank of 1 x 10 5 B16.0VA melanoma cells, which express a cDNA encoding the chicken ovalbumin (OVA) sequence. The different groups are treated five days later by intravenous injection of one of the following; CI-017 (0.571 nmol), peptide CN159 (0.571 nmol) mixed with a-GalCer (0.571 nmol), or PBS. Mice are monitored for tumour growth every 3-4 days, and tumour size for each group calculated as the mean of the products of bisecting diameters (± SEM). Measurements are terminated for each group when the first animal develops a tumour exceeding 200 mm 2 .

Where the foregoing description reference has been made to integers having known equivalents thereof, those equivalents are herein incorporated as if individually set forth.

Although the invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood that the invention as claimed should not be unduly limited to such specific embodiments.

It is appreciated that further modifications may be made to the invention as described herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

The examples described herein are for purposes of illustrating embodiments of the invention. Other embodiments, methods, and types of analyses are within the capabilities of persons of ordinary skill in the art and need not be described in detail herein. Other embodiments within the scope of the art are considered to be part of this invention.

Although the invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood that the invention as claimed should not be unduly limited to such specific embodiments.

It is appreciated that further modifications may be made to the invention as described herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

The invention relates to sphingoglycolipid analogues and peptide derivatives thereof, which are useful in treating or preventing diseases or such as those relating to infection, atopic disorders, autoimmune diseases or cancer.

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