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Title:
ANIMAL FEED AND METHODS TO PROVIDE SUCH FEED
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/038615
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention pertains to a new animal feed comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids. The invention also pertains to a composition comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids, to a corresponding kit-of-parts, to a method to feed an animal by providing feed to the animal comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids, and to a method to provide animal feed by mixing Agaricus Blazei Murril mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids with protein and/or carbohydrates and/or fats to provide the feed.

Inventors:
ROUBOS VAN DEN HIL PETRA JOHANNA (NL)
VAN KEMPEN THEODORUS ANTONIUS THERESIA (NL)
Application Number:
NL2017/050559
Publication Date:
March 01, 2018
Filing Date:
August 25, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NUTRECO NEDERLAND BV (NL)
International Classes:
A23K10/30; A23K50/30
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008051862A22008-05-02
WO2013171194A12013-11-21
Foreign References:
US20080187574A12008-08-07
CN101194674A2008-06-11
CN101371683A2009-02-25
Other References:
HENRI A FAVRE; WARREN H POWELL: "Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names", 2013
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JANSSEN, Paulus J. P. (NL)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Animal feed comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and one or more d- Ci6 organic acids.

2. Animal feed according claim 1 , characterised in that the ABM mycelium is present in an amount of 0.01 to 10 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed.

3. Animal feed according to claim 2, characterised in that the ABM mycelium is present in an amount of 0.05 to 2 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed.

4. Animal feed according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the one or more C1-C16 acids are present in an amount of 0.1 to 10 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed.

5. Animal feed according to claim 4, characterised in that the one or more C1-C16 acids are present in an amount of 0.5 to 6 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed.

6. Animal feed according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the ABM mycelium is grown on a grain substrate, in particular a rye or millet substrate.

7. Animal feed according to claim 6, characterised in that the grain substrate with the mycelium grown thereon is incorporated into the feed. 8. Animal feed according to claim 7, characterised in that the ABM mycelium is grown on the substrate until the amount of mycelium is at least 10% (w/w) on dry weight of the mixture of grain and mycelium.

9. Animal feed according to claim 8, characterised in that the ABM mycelium is grown on the substrate until the amount of mycelium is between 10 and 20% (w/w) of the total mass of the grain substrate.

10. Animal feed according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the one or more acids are chosen from C1-C16 aliphatic acids.

1 1. Animal feed according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the one or more acids are chosen from C1-C7 aliphatic acids.

12. Animal feed according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the one or more acids are chosen from Cs-Ci6 aliphatic acids.

13. Animal feed according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the animal feed is nutritionally incomplete.

14. Composition comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids.

15. Kit-of-parts comprising a first constituting part that comprises Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and a second constituting part comprising one or more C1-C16 organic acids, and optionally an instruction to orally administer both these parts to an animal.

16. Method to feed an animal by providing feed to the animal comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids.

17. Method to provide animal feed by mixing Agaricus Blazei Murril mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids with protein and/or carbohydrates and/or fats to provide the feed.

Description:
ANIMAL FEED AND METHODS TO PROVIDE SUCH FEED

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention pertains to animal feed in general. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Animal feed is used to support the normal metabolism of animals in order for these animals to stay healthy and grow to their full capabilities. In particular for food producing animals it is very important that the feed optimally supports their health since this is often reflected in their performance as measured by establishing the average daily weight gain of an animal, its weight at the age of slaughter or its age at the slaughter weight. In particular, in growing food producing animals, much attention is given to control the spreading of bacteria within a group of animals kept at a particular production site. In particular since such bacteria might be pathogenic to the animal itself (infection thus reducing the animal's health status and hence its performance) or possibly also to consumers of the animal (humans or other animals). Common methods to reduce spreading of bacteria are to use antibiotics, and/or to vaccinate the animal. Another method used is containment (quarantine) of the animal in combination with sterilizing its feed. This method however is not suitable to grow animals for consumption purposes because of the high costs involved.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the invention to provide for an animal feed that is particularly suitable to improve animal wellbeing, preferably to reduce or mitigate infection with ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria such as bacteria belonging to the enterobacteriaceae, in particular Salmonella species and Escherichia species.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In order to meet the object of the invention, an animal feed has been devised comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids. Agaricus Blazei Murill is also called Agaricus Blazei Brasiliensis, Agaricus subrufescens, or Agaricus rufotegulis. At present, it is thought that Agaricus

subrufescens is the correct name; however, in this application, the more common name Agaricus Blazei Murill will be used. Herein below, the abbreviation ABM and the terms Agaricus Blazei Murill are used interchangeably.

Surprisingly it was found that when feeding an animal with feed that comprises mycelium of ABM and one or more C1-C16 organic acids, i.e. an organic compound with acidic properties (see Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : lUPAC

Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013, Author(s) Henri A Favre, Warren H Powell, Chapter P-1 : P-10 Introduction, for the definition of an organic compound), in particular a hydrocarbon having at least one carboxylic group, as well as the organic compounds' salts and esters thereof (since it is known that both these forms are able to release the actual organic acid in the feed material), general health status and hence growth performance of the animal can be improved significantly. In particular it was found that the colonisation with pathogenic bacteria belonging to the group of the enterobacteriacea is possibly reduced, showing as less bacteria being present in the animal's faeces. This inherently means that the spreading of the bacteria to other animals is also reduced. The reason for this is not 100% clear. It is noted that the use of mycelium of Agaricus Blazei Murril for administration to laying hens is known from WO2013/171 194. It is described that the presence of the ABM mycelium in the feed improves the egg laying and optionally the egg shell quality and the egg laying period. In the art it is also known to use C1-C16 organic acids as feed preservatives, i.e. to reduce microbial growth in the feed itself (during stocking the feed). Little is known about the effect of these acids on the growth of pathogens after a host animal gets infected, let alone the combined effect when using the mycelium of ABM in the feed at the same time (either separately or mixed into the same feed composition)

It is noted that the mycelium of ABM and the organic acid(s) do not need to be present in the same feed material at the same time. It is essential that the various feed components (solid feed, drinking water etc.) taken by an animal as a whole comprise both ingredients, such that at least in the gastro-intestinal tract both ingredients are combined and act in accordance with the present invention.

As feed preservatives, typically fatty acids are being used, that is, any acid comprising a hydrocarbon chain and at least one terminal carboxylic group. In particular small chain C1-C7 acids such as formic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, benzoic acid and sorbic acid are commonly applied, but also C7-C16 medium chain fatty acids such as caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid and palmitic acid are used. The same acids can be applied in the current invention, either alone or in a mixture incorporating various short chain and/or medium chain acids.

The invention also pertains to a composition comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids. Such a composition can be used to be mixed with nutritional ingredients to provide an animal feed in line with the present invention, or for example fed separately, for example mixed with drinking water

(separate from the actual feed), such that it is ingested by an animal and is united with the feed in the gastro intestinal tract of the animal. The invention also pertains to a kit- of-parts comprising a first constituting part that comprises Agaricus Blazei Murril (ABM) mycelium and a second constituting part comprising one or more C1-C16 organic acids, and optionally an instruction to orally administer both these parts of the kit to an animal. It is noted that for the sense of the present invention the parts do not need to be present in one single container. It is foreseen that the parts are provided in separate containers, not packed together, but with the clear intention (for example by indications provided on a web-site, separate leaflet, etc.) to be used according to the teaching of the present invention, for example by adding one or both parts to animal feed, and/or one or both parts to the drinking water that is offered to the animal in conjunction with its feed.

The invention also enables a method to feed an animal by providing feed to the animal comprising Agaricus Blazei Murril mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids. This can be accomplished for example by having both ingredients present in the animal feed, or by feeding the animal with a first substance comprising the mycelium of ABM and a second substance comprising the organic acids (for example drinking water in which the acids are present). The invention also enables a method to provide animal feed by mixing Agaricus Blazei Murril mycelium and one or more C1-C16 organic acids with protein and/or carbohydrates and/or fats to provide the feed.

DEFINITIONS

Animal feed is a composition comprising animal nutrients such as fats and/or proteins and/or carbohydrates that is fed to an animal to provide in its metabolic requirements. Animal feed can be a nutritional complete feed (i.e. providing all required nutrients to support a normal metabolism of the animal), but it may also be a premix or other composition that contains only part of the required nutrients, to be mixed with other nutrients or fed separately from these other nutrients.

The total daily intake of feed is the complete mass of feed an animal takes per day, excluding drinking water.

EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

In a first embodiment of the feed according to the invention, the ABM mycelium is present in an amount of 0.01 to 10 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed. In other words, the total amount of feed (excluding the drinking water) as is fed to the animal comprises per 1000 kilograms, 0.01 to 10 kg of mycelium of ABM. This amount can be present in a nutritional complete feed as such, at a level of 0.01 to 10 kg per ton of that feed material, or may for example be present in a concentrated feed material (exceeding 10 kg/ton feed material) as long as the amount per total daily intake of feed is between 0.01 and 10 kg ABM mycelium per ton. In particular, the ABM mycelium is fed at an amount of 0.05 to 2 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed. These amounts appear to suffice for use according to the current invention. In a further embodiment the one or more C1-C16 acids are present in an amount of 0.1 to 10 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed, in particular in an amount of 0.5 to 6 kg per ton of total daily intake of feed.

In yet another embodiment the ABM mycelium is grown on a grain substrate, in particular a rye (Secale cereal) or millet (Panicum miliaceum) substrate. In a further embodiment the grain substrate with the mycelium grown thereon is incorporated into the animal feed. This appears to be a convenient method to provide the animal feed. In particular, the ABM mycelium is grown on the grain substrate until the amount of mycelium is at least 10% (w/w) on dry weight of the mixture of grain and mycelium. Below this level, a relative high amount of the grain substrate needs to be mixed with other nutritional components in order to provide for an adequate economic effect. It is preferred that the ABM mycelium is grown on the grain substrate until the amount of mycelium is between 10 and 20% (w/w) on dry weight of the mixture of grain and mycelium.

In another embodiment the one or more acids are chosen from C1-C16 aliphatic acids, in particular C1-C7 small chain acids and/or C8-C16 medium chain acids.

In still another embodiment the animal feed is nutritionally incomplete, for example since the animal feed is provided as a so-called premix (to be mixed with other feed material). Thus, in order to produce a more complete animal feed, the nutritional incomplete animal feed has to be mixed with one or more other nutritional components such as for example proteins and/or carbohydrates and/or fats.

The invention further pertains to the use of the composition of the invention against resistant bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, in particular of Salmonella and/or

Escherichia. With the term "resistant bacteria" is meant bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. Examples of such resistant bacteria include cefotaxime- resistant Escherichia Coli, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-producing E. coli).

Preferably, the invention pertains to the use of the inventive composition in animal feed against resistant bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, in particular of Salmonella and/or Escherichia.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 describes an in vitro model study for assessing the effect of an antimicrobial on bacterial growth.

Example 2 describes an in vivo study for assessing the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on bacterial shedding.

Example 3 describes a second in vivo study for assessing the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on bacterial shedding.

Example 4 describes an in vivo study for assessing the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on bacterial shedding

Example 5 describes an in vivo study with broilers assessing the transmission of Salmonella

Figure 1 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the shedding of Salmonella.

Figure 2 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on diarrhea. Figure 3 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the feed intake. Figure 4 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the feed efficacy

Figure 5 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the shedding of enterobacteriaceae in further in vivo studies.

Example 1

Example 1 describes an in vitro model study for assessing the effect of ABM mycelium on bacterial adhesion. In this method the adhesion of Salmonella typhimurium to ABM mycelium is assessed.

Use was made of a 96 wells plate on which the ABM mycelium was coated. For this, the ABM mycelium (in this and each case below a fermented rye product was actually used, in which product the amount of ABM mycelium was about 15% w/w) was suspended in PBS to a final concentration of 1 % (w/v) and mixed thoroughly. Subsequently the suspension was centrifuged to remove insoluble material. Thereafter, the supernatant was used for coating the wells of the microtiter plate. For the adhesion assessment, a Salmonella typhimurium suspension was added to the microtiter plate. The plate was then incubated for 30 minutes and after this incubation step washed with PBS.

Subsequently growth medium was added to the wells and the time to onset OD600 value was determined. The optical density (OD) measurement was used as a tool to compare numbers of adhered bacteria to the coated wells of the 96 wells plate with different compounds. The initial cell density of adhered bacteria correlates with the time- dependent detection of the growth by optical density measurement. A shorter time to onset OD600 value represents more adhesion of bacteria to the substrate, and hence an expected higher decrease of in vivo growth.

The results for the test with Salmonella typhimurium showed that the average time to onset OD600 was 4.9 hours (± 0.3h) as compared to the control (only PBS) which had an average time to onset OD600 of 7.3 hours (± 0.1 h). About twenty other compounds which were suspected of having a potential effect an adhesion (compounds not indicated in this example) showed an average time to onset OD600 generally between 5 and 8.5 hours.

In a second in vitro study the test was repeated, and additionally the effect on

Salmonella enteritidis and E. coli was measured. Also, the amount of ABM mycelium was used in the full amount (see above; denoted "100%"), half of this amount ("50%") and a quarter of this amount ("25%)". The results are indicated here beneath in table 1. Table 1. Effect of ABM mycelium in various amounts on the adhesion of various enterobacteriaceae, by measuring the time to onset OD600 in hours.

From the model studies it appears that mycelium of ABM has a significant effect on the adhesion of various enterobacteriaceae. The effect appears to be independent of the type of bacterium despite the fact that in particular the Escherichia bacteria are of a completely different species than the Salmonella bacteria. The amount of ABM mycelium does not appear to be critical to obtain the adhesion effect as such.

Example 2

Example 2 describes an in vivo study for assessing the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on bacterial shedding. In this study it was assessed whether the effect seen in vitro (see Example 1) indeed corresponds to in vivo bacterial shedding. In particular, it was assessed whether by introducing ABM mycelium in the feed of the pigs, in this case combined with an organic acids blend, the shedding of viable bacteria could be reduced. As controls, a negative control using the regular feed was used, and as a positive control the same feed with added butyrate, a particular short chain fatty acid that is commercially used in poultry feed to reduce bacterial shedding. The organic acid blend was a regular C1-C16 organic acid blend containing a combination of formic and lactic acid, added at 4 litres per 100 kg.

A total of 24 Topi*Hypor boar piglets were used. Only healthy male animals which did not receive antibiotics and which were negative for Salmonella (determined by qualitative examination of the faeces) were included in the study. Animals were identified by uniquely numbered ear tags. Animals were divided over three treatment groups (8 animals per group) by weight and litter.

Piglets were individually housed (0.8x1.6m) directly after weaning (24 days of age+/- 3 days) in pens containing tenderfoot slatted floors. The first 24 hours after weaning continuous light was provided, thereafter 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness. Piglets received feed and drinking water ad lib. The different treatments were administered in the feed during the total study period (from weaning until the end of the study) as indicated below in table 2. Table 2 Feed treatments

After 10 days piglets were orally infected with Salmonella typhimurium (in BHI medium) given by a pre-inoculated feed matrix containing 1 ml 1*10 9 cfu/ml. Oral infection was performed in this way during 7 consecutive days.

Faecal sampling was performed at day 1 , 2, 3, 4, and 7 post Salmonella infection.

Samples were stored at 4 degrees and analyzed the next day. Samples were diluted and homogenized in BPW containing novobiocin. Serial dilutions were made and plated onto selective chromogenic agar plates, and incubated o/n at 37°C. Typical Salmonella colonies were counted and the amount (cfu/gram) was calculated. Of each sample two presumptive Salmonella colonies were confirmed by qPCR for both Salmonella and Salmonella typhimurium. When no colonies were observed in the lowest dilution plates the samples were screened for Salmonella presence (qualitative) after pre-enrichment by the conventional MSRV/XLD method.

The results are indicated in Figure 1 , which shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the shedding of Salmonella. It appears that the combination of mycelium of ABM and organic acids indeed has a significant effect on the shedding of viable salmonella bacteria. In particular, the effect is very large when compared to butyrate, a compound that is used in poultry for this purpose. It is thus also clear that the in vitro model (Example 1) is predictive for the in vivo reduction of bacterial shedding. Figure 2 shows the effect on diarrhoea. A faeces scoring was performed daily from day 3 after weaning until the end of the study. Diarrhea score was determined as: 0 = normal faeces; 1 = flat faeces; 2 = wet faeces; 3 = watery faeces. The results as depicted in figure 2 show a significant reduction of the ABM mycelium on diarrhoea.

To assess performance, piglets were inspected daily. Body weight and feed intake were determined at weaning, before infection, and 7, 14, and 21 days after infection (day 0, 10, 17, 24, and 31). Feed efficacy was determined as gram growth/gram feed intake. Figure 3 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the feed intake. Figure 4 shows the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on the feed efficacy. The results show a significant positive impact on performance due to the presence of ABM mycelium in the feed.

Example 3

Example 3 describes a second in vivo study for assessing the effect of ABM mycelium combined with organic acids on bacterial shedding. In this study, as a positive control the acid blend on itself was used (thus without the ABM mycelium.

A total of 36 Topi*Hypor boar piglets were used. Only healthy male animals which did not receive antibiotics and which were negative for Salmonella (determined by qualitative examination of the faeces) were included in the study. Animals were identified by uniquely numbered ear tags. Animals were divided over three groups (12 animals per group) by weight and litter.

Piglets were individually housed (0.8x0.8m) directly after weaning (24 days of age+/- 3 days) in pens containing tenderfoot slatted floors. The first 24 hours after weaning continuous light was provided, thereafter 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness. Piglets received feed and drinking water ad lib. The different treatments were administered in the feed during the total study period (from weaning until the end of the study) as indicated below in table 3.

Table 3 Feed treatments

After 8 days piglets were orally infected with Salmonella typhimurium (in BHI medium) given by a pre- inoculated feed matrix containing 1 ml 1*10 9 cfu/ml. Oral infection was performed in this way during 7 consecutive days.

Faecal sampling was performed at day 1 , 2, 3, 4, and 5 post Salmonella infection. Samples were stored at 4 degrees and analyzed the next day. Samples were diluted and homogenized in BPW containing novobiocin. Serial dilutions were made and plated onto selective chromogenic agar plates, and incubated o/n at 37°C. Typical Salmonella colonies were counted and the amount (cfu/gram) was calculated. Of each sample two presumptive Salmonella colonies were confirmed by qPCR for both Salmonella and Salmonella typhimurium. When no colonies were observed in the lowest dilution plates the samples were screened for Salmonella presence (qualitative) after pre-enrichment by the conventional MSRV/XLD method. The results are indicated in figure 5 and correspond to the results as indicated in figure 1.

The above in vivo experiment was repeated to assess the effect on Escherichia coli shedding by pigs. The experiment was run in correspondence with the salmonella experiment as described here above, with 10 animals being used per group. The results showed that on the day of artificial E. coli infection, none of the animals were positive in their faeces for E. coli. At day 12, over 70% of the animals were positive in each group. Two days later, in the two control groups (negative control and acid blend group) the percentage of positive animals was 60%, whereas in the ABM group no shedders (0% of the animals tested positive for E. coli) were present at all.

Example 4

An in vivo study was conducted according to the protocol described in Example 2, except that 12 animals per treatment group were used and the piglets were selected based on the presence of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia Coli; the selected animals were infected with Salmonella entiritidis after 5 days. In this study the shedding of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia Coli to ABM mycelium on rye and to a combination of ABM mycelium on rye and p-1 ,4-mannobiose at 50:50. The organic acid blend was a regular C1-C16 organic acid blend containing a combination of formic and lactic acid. The total amount of the agents is the same in all experiments.

The results for the test with cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia Coli are shown in the Table below. Table 4. Effect of ABM mycelium on rye and β-1 ,4-mannobiose on the shedding of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia Coli, by measuring over the first 4 and over 16 days

The study show that mycelium of ABM on rye with or without β-1 ,4-mannobiose have a significant effect on the adhesion of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia Coli. The acid blend alone does not provide a significant reduction of the adhesion of cefotaxime- resistant Escherichia Coli.

Example 5

An in vivo study was conducted using two groups, each group comprising 6 replicating pens with 30 birds. Three birds in each pen were infected with Salmonella enteritidis (seeder birds). The broilers were fed with a conventional broiler diet during 42 days. One group of broilers was treated with ABM mycelium on rye and an organic acid blend. The organic acid blend was a regular C1-C16 organic acid blend containing a

combination of formic and lactic acid. The transmission of Salmonella to non-seeder birds was established by determining the number of infected or positive birds after 28 and 42 days.

After 28 days, the control (untreated) group consisted of 83% of infected birds, whereas the treated group contained 55% of infected birds. After 42 days, 60% of the birds were infected in the control group and 35% of positive birds in the treated group. This clearly demonstrates that the treatment aids in the containment of the Salmonella in the broilers.