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Title:
ANTAGONISTS OF PROSTAGLANDIN D2 RECEPTORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/108720
Kind Code:
A3
Abstract:
Described herein are compounds that are antagonists of PGD2 receptors. Also described are pharmaceutical compositions and medicaments that include the antagonists of PGD2 receptors described herein, as well as methods of using such antagonists of PGD2 receptors, alone and in combination with other compounds, for treating respiratory, cardiovascular, and other PGD2-dependent or PGD2-mediated conditions or diseases.

Inventors:
HUTCHINSON, John Howard (5948 Via Zurita, La Jolla, California, 92037, US)
STEARNS, Brian Andrew (3339 32nd Street, San Diego, California, 92104, US)
SEIDERS, Thomas Jon (5257 Soledad Mountain Road, San Diego, California, 92109, US)
SCOTT, Jill Melissa (456 Birmingham Drive, Cardiff, California, 92007, US)
ARRUDA, Jeannie M. (3611 Florida St. #4, San Diego, California, 92104, US)
WANG, Bowei (5025 Manor Ridge Lane, San Diego, California, 92130, US)
Application Number:
US2009/035174
Publication Date:
November 05, 2009
Filing Date:
February 25, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
AMIRA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (9535 Waples Street, Suite 100San Diego, California, 92121, US)
HUTCHINSON, John Howard (5948 Via Zurita, La Jolla, California, 92037, US)
STEARNS, Brian Andrew (3339 32nd Street, San Diego, California, 92104, US)
SEIDERS, Thomas Jon (5257 Soledad Mountain Road, San Diego, California, 92109, US)
SCOTT, Jill Melissa (456 Birmingham Drive, Cardiff, California, 92007, US)
ARRUDA, Jeannie M. (3611 Florida St. #4, San Diego, California, 92104, US)
WANG, Bowei (5025 Manor Ridge Lane, San Diego, California, 92130, US)
International Classes:
C07D285/04; A61P29/00; A61P37/08; C07D275/03; C07D291/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2001049288A12001-07-12
Foreign References:
US20040214888A12004-10-28
JP2004182657A2004-07-02
Other References:
See also references of EP 2245022A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI et al. (650 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California, 94304, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A compound of Formula (I), pharmaceutically ac acceptable solvate, or pharmaceutically acceptabl

Formula (I) wherein,

Q is tetrazolyl or -(X=O)-Q 1 ;

Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN; each R 1 is independently H, F, or each of R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C,- C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, CrCsfluoroalkoxy, Ci-Cealkoxy, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C ιo cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl); each R 8 is H;

A is -C(O)-, -C(R 14 ) 2 -, -S(O) 2 -, -C(O-NO 2 )- or-C(=NR 19 )s

R 19 is H, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or OR 22 ; each R 14 is independently H, Ci-C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 heteroalkyl, or

B is O-, -S-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 1 V; each R 16 is independently H, Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-G t heteroalkyl, or or R 34 and R 21 are taken together to form a bond if A is -C(R 14 ) 2 - and B is -NR 21 -, provided that R 11 and R 13 are not taken together to form a bond;

R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -CN, -C,-C 6 alkyl, -Q-Cβhaloalkyl, -C,- Cnheteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted aryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted

heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -C 10 heterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted aryl; or R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted monocyclic heterocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic heterocycle; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cβhaloalkyl, and

Ci-Ceheteroalkyl; or

R n and R B are taken together to form a bond; or R 10 and R L1 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=O)-); each R 20 is independently selected from Ci-Qalkyl, Ci-Cgheteroalkyl, Ci-

C f ifluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -

C 8 heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl; each R 21 is independently selected from H, C r C 6 alkyl, -CrC 6 alkyl-CO 2 H, d-Ceheteroalkyl,

Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Cgcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -

Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl; or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl.

2. The compound of claim 1 , wherein:

Q is -Cf=O)-Q 1 ; where Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN.

3. The compound of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein: each R 1 is H, F, or -CH 3 .

4. The compound of any of claims 1 -3, wherein: Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , or -N(R 21 ) 2 .

5. The compound of any of claims 1 -4, wherein: A is -C(=O)- or -C(R 14 ) 2 -;

B is -0-, -NR 21 -, or ~C(R 16 ) 2 -

6. The compound of any of claims 1 -5, wherein the compound of Formula (T) has the structure of Formula (II):

Formula (II).

The compound of claim 6, wherein: one R 1 is H, and the other R 1 is H, F, or -CH 3 .

The compound of any of claims 1-7, wherein: each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , C 1 - C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, an optionally substituted CrCecycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

The compound of any of claims 1-8, wherein:

R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -N(R 2I ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHCf=O)OR 20 , C,-C 6 alkyl, d-C f ifluoroalkyl, C 1 - Qfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), - 0CH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

10. The compound of any of claims 1-9, wherein:

R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 2I ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(=O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C,-C 6 alkyl, C 1 - C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Cgfluoroalkoxy, C]-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C] O cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cjoheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 - (C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

11. The compound of any of claims 1-10, wherein:

Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , Or-OCH 2 CH 3 ; each R 1 is H.

12. The compound of any of claims 1-11, wherein:

A is -C(=O)-.

13. The compound of any of claims 1-12, wherein:

Q 1 is -OH.

14. The compound of any of claims 1-13, wherein the compound has the structure of Formula

(ED):

Formula (III).

15. The compound of any of claims 1-14, wherein:

R 2 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , C r C 4 alkyl, C^fluoroalkyl, Q-Qfluoroalkoxy, C 1 - C 4 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; each of R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , d-C 4 alkyl, Ci - C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 a3koxy, or

16. The compound of any of claims 1-15, wherein:

R 6 is H;

R 7 is H.

17. The compound of any of claims 1-16, wherein:

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=0)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(=O)OR 20 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C δ heteroalkyi, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(Cj-C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

18. The compound of any of claims 1-17, wherein:

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , C r C 4 alkyl, C r C 4 fluoroalkyl, C]-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C t -C 4 alkoxy, C 3 -C 6 cycloatkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -C 8 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

19. The compound of any of claims 1-18, wherein:

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , - CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 (C r C 4 aIkyl), -S(=O) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)-(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)(C r C 4 alkyl), -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , - CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)NH(CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH- C(CHj) 3 , -C(=O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) 2s -C(=O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -C(K))NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), - C(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -Qcycloalkyl), - C(=0)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 heterocycloalkyl), -NHC(=O)(C,-C 4 alkyl), - NHC(=O)(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHC(=O)(optionally substituted phenyl), - NHC(=O)(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHS(=O) 2 (Ci-C 4 alkyl), - NHS(=O) 2 (C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHS(=O) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), - NHS(=O) 2 (optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHC(=O)NH 2 , - NHC(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(=O)NH(optionally substituted benzyl), cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, or an optionally substituted group selected from phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and triazinyl.

20. The compound of any of claims 1-19, wherein:

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , Q-Qalkyl, C,-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C r

C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 Cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

21. The compound of any of claims 1 -20, wherein: R 3 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CF 3 .

22. The compound of any of claims 1-21, wherein:

R 2 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , -CF 3 , or phenyl.

23. The compound of any of claims 1 -22, wherein:

R 4 is H, F, Cl, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 1 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCHi-cyclopropyl, -OCH 2 CO 2 H, -OBn, phenyl, l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl, or pyridinyl.

24. The compound of any of claims 1 -23 , wherein:

R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -η, -C r C 4 alkyl, -CrC+haloalkyl, -C r C 4 heteroalkyl, -Cη 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 -Cβcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl;

R 11 and R 13 are each H; or

R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=O».

25. The compound of any of claims 1 -24, wherein: R 10 is -H, -C r C 4 alkyl, or -C,-C 4 haloalkyl;

R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, -CrQhaloalkyl, -C,-C 4 heteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted Q-Cgcycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl;

R 11 and R 13 are each H; or

R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=O)-).

26. The compound of any of claims 1 -24, wherein:

R 10 is -H, -C r C 4 alkyl, -Ci-GJialoalkyl, -Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci oheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlCyI, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl;

R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, or -C r C 4 haloalkyl;

R 11 and R 13 are each H; or

R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=O)-).

27. The compound of any of claims 1 -24, wherein:

R 10 is -H, -C,-C 4 alkyl, -C 1 -C 4 TJaIOaIlCyI, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), or -CH 2 -C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl;

R 12 is -H, -C]-C 4 alkyl, -Ci-C 4 haloalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted Cj-Cβcycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl;

R n and R 13 are each H; or

R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=O)-).

28. The compound of any of claims 1 -24, wherein:

R 10 is -H, -C r C 4 alkyl, -d-CJialoalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

29. The compound of any of claims 1 -24, wherein: R 10 is -H, -C^alkyl, or -Q-Cihaloalkyl.

30. The compound of any of claims 1-24, wherein:

R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted Cj-Cβcycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl. 3 ϊ . The compound of any of claims 1 -30, wherein:

B is -O-.

32. The compound of any of claims 1-30, wherein the compound has a structure selected from Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI) and Formula (VIT):

Formula (TV) Formula (V)

Formula (VL) Formula (VII).

33. The compound of any of claims 1-30, wherein the compound has the structure of Formula (IV):

Formula (IV).

34. The compound of any of claims 1 -30, wherein the compound has the structure of Formula

(V):

Formula (V)

35. The compound of any of claims 1-30, wherein the compound has the structure of Formula (VI):

Foπnula (VI).

36. The compound of any of claims 1-35, wherein:

R 11 and R 13 are each H.

37. The compound of any of claims 1-30, wherein the compound has the structure of Formula

(VII):

Formula (VII),

38. The compound of any of claims 1-30, wherein the compound has a structure selected from:

Formula (UIa) Formula (HIb)

Formula (Hie) Formula (IHc)

39. The compound of any of claims 1 -23 , wherein:

R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted monocyclic heterocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic heterocycle; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cehaloalkyl, and Ci-

C 6 heteroalkyl; or R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond.

40. The compound of claim 38, wherein:

R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle;

R 1 ! and R 13 are each H; or

R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond.

41. The compound of claim 40, wherein the compound has the structure:

Formula (VDI) wherein:

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or-C(R 16 ) r ; m is 0, 1 or 2;

n is 0, 1 or 2; provided that m+n = 1 or 2; y is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

R 11 and R 13 are each H; each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , - S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - NHC(=O)R 20 , C 1 -QaIiCyI, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 4 GuOrOaIkOXy, C 1 -C 4 ItIkOXy, C r Cφheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Cβcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

42. The compound of claim 41 , wherein: B is -O-; y is 0, 1, or 2; each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -OH, Ci-Qalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 - C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C]-C 4 alkoxy, or

43. The compound of claim 40, wherein the compound has the structure:

Formula (IX) wherein:

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 16 ) 2 ~; y is O, 1, 2, 3, or 4; each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -

S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 5 -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C{=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHC(=O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Cj-Qalkoxy, an optionally substituted Ca-C^cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl. 44. The compound of claim 43, wherein:

B is -O-; yis O, 1, or 2;

each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -OH, C r C 4 alkyl, C,-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-

Qfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, or C]-C 4 heteroalkyl.

45. A compound of Formula (XVHI), pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutically acceptable solvate, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug thereof :

Formula (XVIII) wherein,

R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , C r C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C,-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or - OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl);

R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -

OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2) -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , - NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , ~C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C r C 4 alkyl, C r C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 - C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C ϊ -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl;

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, Or-C(R 1 V; each R 16 is independently H, or Ci-C 4 alkyl;

R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -C]-C 4 alkyl, -Cj-Qhaloalkyl, -Cj- dheteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl; each R 20 is independently selected from Q-Qalkyl, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, -C 1 -C( J aUCyI-CO 2 H, Q- C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl;

each R 21 is independently selected from H, C r C 6 alkyl, -C 1 -C 6 alkyl-CO 2 H, d-Cβheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 3 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl; or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl.

46. The compound of claim 45 , wherein:

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -Sf=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 2) ) 2 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - 0C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHCC=O)OR 20 , Ci-C 4 alkyl, CrC 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, d-C 4 alkoxy, d-C^eteroalkyl, C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

47. The compound of claim 46, wherein:

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , Ci-C 4 alkyl, C r C 4 ftuoroalkyl, C 1 -

C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 ~C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

48. The compound of claim 47, wherein: B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -CH 2 -;

49. The compound of claim 48 , wherein

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , -

CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(=O) 2 (C r C 4 alkyi), -S(=O) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)-(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)(C ! -C 4 alkyl), -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , - CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(=0)NH 2) -C(=O)NHCCH 3 ), -CC=O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH- CH(CH 3 J 3 , -C(=O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -C(^O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), - C(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), - C(=0)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 heterocycloalkyl), -NHC(=O)(C r C 4 alkyl), - NHC(=O)(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHC(=O)(optionally substituted phenyl), - NHC(=O)(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHS(=O) 2 (Ci-C 4 alkyl), - NHS(=O) 2 (C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHS(=O) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), - NHS(=O) 2 (optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHC(=0)NH 2 , - NHC(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(=O)NH(optionally substituted benzyl), cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, or an optionally substituted group selected

from phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and triazinyl.

50. The compound of claim 49, wherein

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 3 ;

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , or -

OCF 3 ; B is -O-.

51. The compound of any one of claims 45-50, wherein: R 10 is -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 3 ;

R 12 is -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted phenyl.

52. The compound of any one of claims 45-50, wherein:

R 10 is -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted phenyl; R 12 is -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 3 .

53. A compound selected from:

[6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1 - 1 ); [4-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-oxazolidin-3 -ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 1-2); [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-3); [4'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4- methyl-2-oxo-5~phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 1-4); [6,4'- Dimethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-5); [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-yhnethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-6); [4-Fluoro-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2- oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoiOmethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1- 7); [4-Methoxy-2'-((4S 3 5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethy]- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-8); [6-Fluoro-2'-((4S,5R)^-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazolidin-3-yhnethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-9); [6- Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-10); [6-Methoxy-2'-((4R,5S)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazolidin-3-yhnethyl)-4 < -trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-11); 2-[6- Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxa2θlidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-propionic acid (Compound 1-12); {2 t -[(4S,5R)-5-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)- 4-methyl-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 1-13); [6-Ethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxa2olidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-

trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-14); [6-Cyclopropylmethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)- 4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-15); [6-Carboxymethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 1-16); [6-Benzyloxy-2 ! - ((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-pheaiyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 1-17); [6-(4-Chloro-benzyloxy)-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-plienyl- oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-bipheαyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-18); [2"- ((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4"-trifluoromethyl- [l,l';2',r]terphenyl-4'-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-19); [2 l -((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazolidin-S-ylmethylJ-ό-pyridin-S-yl^'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid (Compound 1- 20); [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)- 4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-21); [6-Methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5- dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazolidin- 1 -ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3 -yl] -acetic acid (Compound 2-1 ); [2 1 -(3-Carboxymethyl-4-methyl-2 J 5-dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazolidin-l -ylmethyl)-6- methoxy^'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 2-2); [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-methyl- 4,5-dihydro-imidazol-l-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 3-1); [^-(S-Benzyl^-oxo-imidazolidπi-l-ylmethy^-ό-metlioxy^'-trifluorometliyl-bipb.enyl-S-yy-acetic acid (Compound 4-1); [6-Methoxy-2'-(3-methyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin-l-ylmetb.yl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-2); [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-imidazolidin-l- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-3); [2'-(3-Benzyl-2-oxo- imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-5-chloro-4 r -trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-4); [5-Chloro-2'-(3-methyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-5); [5-Chloro-2 t -(2-oxo-imidazolidin-l-ylmet]iyl)-4'-trifluorometh.yl-biphenyl- 3-ylj-acetic acid (Compound 4-6); [2'-(3-Benzyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-5'-fluoro-6- methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 4-7); [5'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2'-(3-methyl-2-oxo- imidazolidin-l-ylmetliyl)-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 4-8); [5'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2'-(2- oxo-imidazoliditi-l-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-9); [2'-(3-Benzyl-2-oxo- imidazolidin-l-ylmethy^^'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 4-10); [2'-(3- Methyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin- 1 -ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3 -yl] -acetic acid (Compound 4-11); and [2'-(2-Oxo-imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-4'-trifiuoromethyl-biplienyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-12); {3-[4-Bromo-2-(2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-phenyl}-acetic acid (Compound 5-1); and (3-{4-Bromo-2-[4-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-ylmethyl]-phenyl}- phenyl)-acetic acid (Compound 5-2); {3-[4-Bromo-2-((R)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[l,2- rf]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-phenyl} -acetic acid (Compound 6-1); {3-[4-Bromo-2-((3aS,8aR)-2- oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[l ,2-J]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-phenyl} -acetic acid (Compound 6-2); {3-[2-((3aS,8aR)-2-Oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[l,2-£/]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4-

trifluoromethyl-phenyl]-ρhenyl}-acetic acid (Compound 6-3); {3-[4-Bromo-2-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo- S^a-dihydro-SaH-indenofl^-c/loxazol-S-ylmethyO-phenyy^-niethoxy-phenylJ-acetic acid (Compound 6-4); {3-[4-Bromo-2-((3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3H-indeno[l ,2-ύ(]oxazol-3- ylmethyl)-phenyl]-4-methoxy-phenyl} -acetic acid (Compound 6-5); {4-Methoxy-3-[2-((3R,8aS)- 2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[l,2-(/]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl]-phenyl}- acetic acid (Compound 6-6); {3-[2-(2-Oxo-4,8b-dmydro-3aH-indeno[2,l-^oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4- trifluoromethyl-phenyl]-phenyl}-acetic acid (Compound 6-7); [6-Methoxy-2'-((S)-2-oxo-8,8a- dihydro-SaH-indenoIl^-^oxazol-S-ylmethylJ^'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid (Compound 6-8); [6-Fluoro-2'-((3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[l,2-rf]oxazol-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 6-9); [6-Fluoro-2'-((3aR,8aS)- 2-oxo-8 , 8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno [1 ,2-d] oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3 -yl] -acetic acid (Compound 6-10); [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-benzooxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 7-1). 54. A compound having the structure of Formula (X), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof:

Formula (X) wherein, n is 1 , 2, 3 or 4;

Q is tetrazolyl or -C(=O)-Q';

Q 1 is -OH, -OR 21 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN; each R 1 is independently selected from H, halogen, or Ci-C 4 alkyl; each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , - SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 2 ', -OCO 2 R 20 , - CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=0)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(=O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C,-C 6 alkyl, C,-C 6 fluoroalkyl, C r C 6 fluoroalkoxy, C r C 6 alkoxy, C r Ceheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic

heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl); each R 8 is H; R 22 is ~C(=O)R 24 , -C(O)OR 25 , -C(=O)N(R 26 ) 2 , -S(=O) 2 N(R 26 ) 2 or -S(=O) 2 R 25 ;

R 24 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cefluoroalkyl, CrCsheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, -Ci-C 6 alkyl- (optionally substituted C 3 -C ]0 cycloalkyl), -Ci-Qalkyl-foptionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyI-(optionally substituted aryl) or -Ci-C 6 alkyl- (optionally substituted heteroaryl); or R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ;

L 3 is a Ct-C 6 alkylene;

X 3 is a bond, -0-, -S-, -S(=0)-, -Sf=O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -;

Q 3 is -Ci-Cealkyl, -C 1 -Cefluoroalkyl an optionally substituted -Ca-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 6 atkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(oρtionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted aryl), or -Ci-C 6 alkyl- (optionally substituted heteroaryl); R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , C 1 -

C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 -C] oheterocycloalkyl), -Q- C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted aryl) or -Q-Cealkyl-toptionally substituted heteroaryl); each R 26 is independently H, -CN, d-C 6 alkyl, C r C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci O cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cjoheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -CrC 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted Cj-Ciocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl- (optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), -C^Cealkyl-foptionally substituted aryl) or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(oρtionally substituted heteroaryl); or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -C ]0 heterocycloalkyl; R 20 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -

Cgcycloalkyl, optionally substituted Cs-Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted benzyl or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and

each R 21 is independently selected from H, C r C 6 alkyl, Cj-Csheteroalkyl, d-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted CrCgcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl; or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloalkyl.

55. The compound of claim 54, wherein:

Q 1 is -OH, -OR 21 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , or -N(R 21 J 2 ; each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and -CH 3 .

56. The compound of claim 54 or claim 55, wherein: n is 1.

57. The compound of any of claims 54-56, wherein the compound of Formula (X) has the structure of Formula (XI):

Formula (XI)

58. The compound of any of claims 54-57, wherein: Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 3 .

59. The compound of any of claims 54-58, wherein: Q 1 is -OH; each R 1 is H.

60. The compound of any of claims 54-59, wherein the compound has the structure of Formula (XII):

Formula (XII)

61. The compound of any of claims 54-60, wherein: each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -

S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C 1 - C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloaLkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C r C 4 heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

62. The compound of any of claims 54-61, wherein:

R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , C r C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 QuOrOaIlCyI, an optionally substituted C 3 -C]ocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - C 10 heterocycloalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C r C 4 alkoxy, C r C 4 heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 - Cecycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

63. The compound of any of claims 54-62, wherein:

R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=0)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , -C^alkyl, C 1 - C 4 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cjoheterocycloalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C ϊ ^alkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

64. The compound of any of claims 54-63 , wherein the compound has the structure of Formula (XIH), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV) or Formula (XVI):

Formula QiIH) Formula (XTV),

Formula (XV) Formula (XVI).

65. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein;

R 24 is C 1 -C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, CrCβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, -Ci-C 4 alkyl- (optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl); or R 24 is L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ;

L 3 is a Ci-C 4 alkylene;

X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(=O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -;

Q 3 is Ci-Cβalkyl, -Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl an optionally substituted -Cs-Qocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -C I -C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl), -C]-C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl), or -Ci-C 4 alkyl- (optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

66. The compound of any of claims 54-65, wherein:

R 24 is Ci-C 4 allcyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, -C 1 -C 2 alkyl-(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl) ! -C r C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); or R^ is -Lλ^-Q 3 ;

L 3 is a C]-C 4 alkylene; X 3 is a bond, or -O-;

Q 3 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroaLkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Cj-C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl), or -Ci-QalkyHoptionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

67. The compound of any of claims 54-66, wherein:

R 24 is C r C 4 alkyl, C r C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, or -C r C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl); or

R 24 ls -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ;

L 3 is a Ci-C 4 tilkylene; X 3 is a bond, or -O-;

Q 3 is C r C 4 alkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl).

68. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein:

R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , d-Qfiuoroalkyl, C r C 4 heteroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted Q-Cβcycloalkyl), -Q- C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl).

69. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein:

R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CHj) 2 , C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Q- C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(oρtionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

70. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein:

R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CHj) 2 , C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl).

71. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein: each R 26 is independently H, -CN, Q-C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionalry substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Q-C 2 a]kyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl); or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -C 10 heterocycloalkyl.

72. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein: each R 26 is independently H, Ci-C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -CrC 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 -Qcycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Q- C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

73. The compound of any of claims 54-64, wherein: one R 26 is H and the other R 26 is H, C]-C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -CpC 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

74. The compound of any of claims 54-73 , wherein:

each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , C r C 4 alkyl, Q- C 4 alkoxy, CrC 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 GuOrOaIkOXy, or Ci-Cφheteroalkyl.

75. The compound of any of claims 54-74, wherein:

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O)R 20 , - NHC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -C r C 6 alkyl, -Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C r C 4 alkoxy, C 1 -C 4 SuOTOaIkOXy, C r C 4 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted Q-Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

76. The compound of any of claims 54-75, wherein:

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , C 1 -C 4 BUyI, d-C+fluoroalkyl, d-Qfluoroalkoxy, C r C 4 alkoxy,

77. The compound of any of claims 54-75, wherein: each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -OH, C r C 4 alkyl, Q-QaUcoxy, or C 1 -C 4 SuOrOaIlCyI.

78. The compound of any of claims 54-77, wherein: each ofR 6 and R 7 is H.

79. The compound of any of claims 54-78, wherein:

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CN, -OH, -C r C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 HuOrOaIlCyI, C^fluoroalkoxy, or C,- C 4 alkoxy.

80. The compound of any of claims 54-79, wherein:

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , -

CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 (Ci -Qalkyl), -S(=0) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=O)-(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(O)(C 1 -C 4 Ol)CyI), -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , - CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)NH 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(O)NH- C(CH 3 ) 3j -C(O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), - C(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), - C(=O)NH(optionally substituted C r C 8 heterocycloalkyl) f -NHC(O)(C r C 4 alkyl), - NHC(0)(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHC(0)(optionally substituted phenyl), - NHC(0)(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHS(O) 2 (C r C 4 alkyl), - NHS(=O) 2 (C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHS(0) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), - NHS(0) 2 (optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , - NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(=O)NH(optionally substituted bemyl), cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl,

morpholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, or an optionally substituted group selected from phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and triazinyl.

81. The compound of any of claims 54-79, wherein:

R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(=O)R 20 , - NHC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -C r C 4 alkyl, -Cj-C 4 fiuoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, C r C 4 fluoroalkoxy, or Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl.

82. The compound of claim 81 , wherein: R 2 is H;

R 3 is H;

R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -OH, -CH 3 , -OCH 3 , -CF 3 , or -OCF 3 ;

R 5 is F, Cl, Br, -OH, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 3 , or -OCF 3 .

83. The compound of any of claims 54-79, wherein:

R 5 is C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

84. A compound having the structure of Formula (XVII), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof:

Formula (XVII) wherein,

R 4 is H, halogen, -OH, -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , C r C 4 alkyl, d-Qfluoroalkyl, C r C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C]-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl);

R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 21 ) 2j -N(R 21 ) 2) -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 2I ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2} -NHC(=O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -

NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(=O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2> Ci-C 4 alkyl, C,-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -

C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C 1 -C 4 BlI-OXy, Ci-C 4 lieteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -

Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R 22 is ~C(=O)R 24 , -C(=O)OR 25 , -C(=O)N(R 26 ) 2 , -S(=O) 2 N(R 26 ) 2 or -SC=O) 2 R 25 ;

R 24 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted CrCioheterocycloalkyl, -Ci-Qalkyl-CCj-Cecycloalkyl), -C r C 2 alkyl- (optionally substituted C r Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-Coptionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-Cjalkyl-Coptionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); or

R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ;

L 3 is a Ci-C 4 alkylene;

X 3 is a bond, -0-, -S-, -S(=O)-, -S(=0) r , or -NR 21 -;

Q 3 is -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl an optionally substituted -C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(C3- C 6 cycloalkyl), substituted C 2 -Ci oheterocycloalkyl), - C]-C 2 alkyl-Coptionally substituted phenyl), or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl);

R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , C 1 -

C 4 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-CC 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci- C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 -C 1 oheterocycloalkyl), substituted phenyl) or -C r C 2 alkyl-Coptionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); each R 26 is independently H, -CN, Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-Qfluoroalkyl, C,-C,heteroalkyl, C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl- (C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Q-Cialkyl-Coptionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), - Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or substituted heteroaryl); or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -Cj oheterocycloalkyl; R 20 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Q-Ceheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -

Cgcycloalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and

each R 21 is independently selected from H, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl; or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 heterocycloaϊkyl.

85. The compound of claim 84, wherein the compound has the following structure:

86. A compound selected from:

{2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-1); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-fluoro-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-2); 2-{2 t -[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4 I -trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}- propionic acid (Compound 8-3); {2'-[l-(Acetyl-amino)-ethyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-4); {2'-[(methoxycarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 4 l -trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-5);{2 t -[(Benzyloxycarbonyl-amino)- methyl]-6-fluoro-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-6); (2'-{[(2,2,2- trifluoro-acetyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-7); {2'-[(Cycloρropanecarbonyl-amino)-methyl] -6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-8); {2'-[(Benzyloxycarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-9); 2-{[Acetyl-amino]-methyl}-5'- carboxymethyl-2'-methoxy-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (Compound 8-10); (2'-{[(3,5-Dichloro- benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino]-methyl} -6-methoxy-4'-trifiuoromethyl-biphenyl-3 -yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-11); (2'- { [(2-Chloro-benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino]-methyl} -6-methoxy-4'- trifluoroniethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-12); (2'-{[(3,5-Difluoro- benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino] -methyl } -6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3 -yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-13); (2'-{[(4-fluoro-benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-14); (2'-{[(4-Chloro-benzyloxycarbonyl)- amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifϊuoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-15); (2 1 - {[(S-Chloro-benzyloxycarbonylJ-aminol-methylJ-ό-methoxy^'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-16); [2 t -({[l-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-ethoxycarbonyl]-amino}-methyl)-6- methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 8-17); (2'-{[(2-phenoxy-

propionyl)-amino]-methyl} -6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromeihyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-18); (2'-{[(2-methoxy-acetyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-19); {2'-[3-(2-Bromo-phenyl)~ureidomethyl]-6-methoxy-4 r - trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-20); (2'-{[(2-phenoxy-acetyl)-amino]- methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-21); {2'-[(Acetyl- amino)-methyl]-4'-bromo-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-22); {4'- Acetylamino-2'-[(aceftyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-23); {2 t -[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyrazol-l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8- 24); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4 1 -trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-25); (2'-{[Acetyl-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoroniethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-26); {2 l -[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-cyclopropyl-4'-trifluoromethyl- bipb.enyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-27); {2 l -[(Acetyl-amino)-metb.yl]-6,4'-bis- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-28); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-4- methyl-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-29); {4'-Acetylamino-2'- [(acetyl-amino)-metliyl]-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-30); {2'-[(Acetyl- aminoJ-methylJ-ό-methoxy^'-methoxycarbonylamino-biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 8- 31); {2'-[(Acetyl-ammo)-metb.yl]-4'-methanesulfonylamino-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-32); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-4'-methanesulfonyl-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} - acetic acid (Compound 8-33); {2 l -[(Acetyl-amino)-meth.yl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyrrolidin-l-yl- biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-34); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyrazol- l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-35); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-4'-cyclopropyl-6- methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-36); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- [l,r;4',l"]teφhenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-37); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 4'-oxazol-2-yl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-38); [2'-[( Acetyl-amino) -methyl] -6- methoxy-4'-(lH-pyrazol-4-yl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 8-39); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)- methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyridin-2-yl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-40); {2 - [(Cyclopropoxycarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-41); [2'-(3-methyl-ureidomethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 8-42); {2'-[(Cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-43); {2'-[(Cyclopentanecarbonyl-amino)- methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biρb.enyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-44); {2 1 - [(Benzoyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biρhenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8- 45); (2 < -{[(pyridine-2-carbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-46) ; (2 1 - { [(pyτazine-2-carbonyl)-amino] -methyl} -ό-methoxy-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-47); (2'-{[(l-methyl-lH-pyrazole-3- carbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tiifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-

48); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-5'-bromo-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8- 49); {S'-Acetylamino^'-tfacetyl-aminoJ-niethylJ-δ-methoxy-biphenyl-S-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-50); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-5'-methoxycarbonylamino-biphenyl-3- yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-51); {2 1 -[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-5'-methanesulfonylamino-6- methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-52); {2 < -[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 5'-pyrrolidin-l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-53); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6- methoxy-5'-pyrazol-l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-54); {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)- methyl]-3'-methanesulfonyl-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-55); {2 1 - [(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-meth.oxy-4 I -trifluoroniethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-difluoro-acetic acid (Compound 8-56); (2'- {[(2-Benzyloxy-acetyl)-amino]-methyl} -6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-57); [2'-({[2-(4-Chloro-phenoxy)-acetyl] -amino} - methylJ-δ-methoxy^'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid (Compound 8-58); [2'-(3-Benzyl- 3 -ethyl-uτeidomethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-trifluorometliyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 8-59); [2'-(3 -Benzyl-ureidomethyl)-6 -methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3 -yl] -acetic acid (Compound 8-60); (2'-{[(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3- yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-61);[2'-(3-Cyano-ureidomethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 8-62); (2'-{[(4-Chloro-benzenesulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6- methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-63); {2'-[(Methanesulfonyl- amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-64); N-[5'- (2-methanesulfonylamino-2-oxo-ethyl)-2'-methoxy-4-trifluorometliyl-biphenyl-2-ylmethyl]- acetamide (Compound 9-1).

87. The compound of any of claims 1-86, wherein the compound is an antagonist of DP 2 .

88. The compound of any one of claims 1-87 for use in treating a disease or condition mediated by or dependent on prostaglandin D 2 .

89. The compound of claim 88, wherein the disease or condition is a respiratory disease or condition, an allergic disease or condition, or an inflammatory disease or condition.

90. The compound of claim 88, wherein the disease or condition is asthma.

91. The compound of claim 88, wherein the disease or condition is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

92. The compound of claim 88, wherein the disease or condition is allergic rhinitis.

93. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount a compound of any one of claims 1-87.

94. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 93 , wherein the pharmaceutical composition is formulated for intravenous injection, oral administration, inhalation, nasal administration, topical administration, ophthalmic administration or otic administration.

95. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 93 or claim 94, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is a tablet, a pill, a capsule, a liquid, an inhalant, a nasal spray solution, a suppository, a suspension, a gel, a colloid, a dispersion, a suspension, a solution, an emulsion, an ointment, a lotion, eye drop or an ear drop.

96. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 93-95 further comprising one or more additional therapeutically active agents selected from 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, CYSLTRl antagonists, CYSLTR2 antagonists, BLTl antagonists, BLT2 antagonists, thromboxane antagonists, DPI receptor antagonists, DPI receptor agonists, IP receptor agonists, anti-IgE, chemokine receptor antagonists, IL5 antibody, bronchodilators, theophylline, leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene formation inhibitors, decongestants, antihistamines, mucolytics, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, anticholinergics, antitussives, analgesics, expectorants, and β-2 agonists.

97. Use of a compound according to any one of claims 1 -87 in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition or disease in a mammal.

98. The use of claim 97, wherein the PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition or disease is selected from asthma, rhinitis, allergic conjuctivitis, atopic dermatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, arthritis, allergy, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, aneurysm, stroke, cancer, wound healing, endotoxic shock, pain, inflammatory conditions, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophil- associated gastrointestinal disorders (EGID), idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, otitis, airway constriction, mucus secretion, nasal congestion, increased microvascular permeability and recruitment of eosinophils, urticaria, sinusitis, angioedema, anaphylaxia, chronic cough and Churg Strauss syndrome.

99. The use of claim 97, wherein the PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition or disease is a respiratory condition.

100. The method of claim 99, wherein the respiratory condition is selected from asthma, rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

101. The use of claim 100, wherein the mammal is a human.

102. The use of any of claims 97-101 , wherein the treatment further comprises a second therapuetic agent selected from 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors, 5- lipoxygenase inhibitors, CYSLTRl antagonists, CYSLTR2 antagonists, BLTl antagonists, BLT2 antagonists, thromboxane antagonists, DPI receptor antagonists, DPI receptor agonists, IP receptor agonists, anti-IgE, chemokine receptor antagonists, IL5 antibody,

bronchodilators, theophylline, leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene formation inhibitors, decongestants, antihistamines, mucolytics, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, anticholinergics, antitussives, analgesics, expectorants, and β-2 agonists.

103. A method for treating a PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition or disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any of claims 1-87.

104. The method of claim 103, wherein the PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition or disease is selected from asthma, rhinitis, allergic conjuctivitis, atopic dermatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, arthritis, allergy, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, aneurysm, stroke, cancer, wound healing, endotoxic shock, pain, inflammatory conditions, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophil- associated gastrointestinal disorders (EGID), idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, otitis, airway constriction, mucus secretion, nasal congestion, increased microvascular permeability and recruitment of eosinophils, urticaria, sinusitis, angioedema, anaphylaxia, chronic cough and Churg Strauss syndrome.

105. The method of claim 103, wherein the PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition or disease is a respiratory condition.

106. The method of claim 105 , wherein the respiratory condition is selected from asthma, rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

107. The method of any of claims 103-106, wherein the method further comprises administering to the patient a second therapuetic agent selected from 5-lipoxygensae activating protein inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, CYSLTRl antagonists, CYSLTR2 antagonists, BLTl antagonists, BLT2 antagonists, thromboxane antagonists, DPI receptor antagonists, DPI receptor agonists, IP receptor agonists, anti-IgE, chemokine receptor antagonists, IL5 antibody, bronchodilators, theophylline, leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene formation inhibitors, decongestants, antihistamines, mucolytics, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, anticholinergics, antitussives, analgesics, expectorants, and β-2 agonists.

108. The method of any of claims 103-107, wherein the mammal is a human.

Description:

ANTAGONISTS OF PROSTAGLANDIN D 2 RECEPTORS

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U S provisional patent application no 61/031,310 entitled "ANTAGONISTS OF PROSTAGLANDIN D 2 RECEPTORS" filed on February 25, 2008, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Descnbed herein are compounds, methods of making such compounds, pharmaceutical compositions and medicaments comprising such compounds, and methods of using such compounds to treat, prevent or diagnose diseases, disorders or conditions associated with prostaglandin D 2

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Prostaglandins are acidic lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidomc acid by the action of cyclooxygenase enzymes and downstream synthases Prostaglandins have a diverse range of activities and have a well recognized role in pain and inflammation. Prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 3 ) is an acidic lipid mediator derived from the metabolism of arachidomc acid by cyclooxygenases and PGD 2 synthases PGD 2 is produced by mast cells, macrophages and TH2 lymphocytes in response to local tissue damage as well as allergic inflammation in diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis Exogenous PGD 2 applied to bronchial airways elucidates many characteristics of an asthmatic response suggesting that PGD 2 plays an important pro-inflammatory role in allergic diseases

[0004] PGD 2 bmds to a number of receptors, which include the thromboxane-type prostanoid (TP) receptor, PGD 2 receptor (DP, also known as DPi) and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2, also known as DP 2 ) DP 2 is associated with promoting chemotaxis and activation of T H 2 lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils In particular, PGD 2 binds to DP 2 , and mediates its effects through a G,-dependant elevation in calcium levels and reduction of intracellular cyclic AMP In T H 2 lymphocytes, IL4, IL5 and ILl 3 cytokine production is stimulated These cytokines have been implicated in numerous biological actions including, by way of example only, immunoglobulin E production, airway response, mucous secretion, and eosinophil recruitment

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] Presented herein are compounds, pharmaceutical compositions and medicaments, methods, for (a) diagnosing, preventing, or treating allergic and non-allergic inflammation, (b)

mitigating adverse signs and symptoms that are associated with inflammation, and/or (c) controlling immunological, proliferative or metabolic disorders These disorders anse from one or more of a genetic, iatrogenic, immunological, infectious, metabolic, oncological, toxic, surgical, and/or traumatic etiology In one aspect, the methods, compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and medicaments descnbed herein compnse antagonists OfPGD 2 receptors In one aspect, the methods, compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and medicaments descnbed herein compnse antagonists OfDP 2

[0006] In one aspect, descnbed herein are compounds of Formula (I), Formula (II), Formula (III), Formula (HIa), Formula (UIb), Formula (Die), Formula (IHd), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VIT), Formula (VHI), Formula (DC), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XTT), Formula (XHI), Formula (XTV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVII), and Formula (XVHI), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs, and pharmaceutically acceptable solvates thereof, which are anatgonists of DP 2 Compounds described herein are used to treat patients suffenng from one or more PGD 2 -dependent conditions or diseases, including, but not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, allergic conjuctivitis, atopic dermatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, arthritis, allergy, psoπasis, inflammatory bowel disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, aneurysm, stroke, cancer, wound healing, endotoxic shock, pain, inflammatory conditions, eosinophilic esophagiUs, eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders (EGK ) ), idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, ohtis, airway constriction, mucus secretion, nasal congestion, increased microvascular permeability and recruitment of eosinophils, urticaria, sinusitis, angioedema, anaphylaxia, chrome cough and Churg Strauss syndrome In some embodiments, PGD 2 -dependent conditions or diseases include those wherein an absolute or relative excess of PGD 2 is present and/or observed

[0007] In one aspect is a compound having the structure of Formula (T), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof

Formula (I)

wherein,

Q is tetrazolyl or -C(O)-Q 1 ,

Q 1 js -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN, each R 1 is independently H, F, or Ci-Qalkyl, each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -SC=O) 2 R 20 , -CC=O)R 20 , -OCC=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(=O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C 1 - Osalkyl, d-C t fluoroalkyl, d-Cβfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 - Cecycloalkyl), -0CH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubsbtuted monocyclic heteroaryl), each R 8 is H,

A is -C(O)-, -C(R 1 V. -S(O) 2 -, -C(O-NO 2 )- or -C(=NR 19 )-,

R 19 is H, -CN, C,-C 6 alkyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or -OR 22 , each R 14 is independently H, Ci-Qalkyl, Ci-GJieteroalkyl, or Ci-dhaloalkyl,

B is O-, -S-, -NR 21 -, Or-C(R 1 V. each R 16 Is independently H, C r C 4 alkyt, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, or Ci-C 4 haloalkyl, or R 14 and R 21 are taken together to form a bond if A is -C(R 1 V and B is -NR 21 -, provided that R 1 ' and R 13 are not taken together to form a bond,

R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -CN, -C 1 -C 6 SlIcJd, -C t -Cβhaloalkyl, -C r Qheteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted aryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted Qj-Cioheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), an optionally substituted Q-Cmheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted aryl, or

R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted monocyclic heterocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic heterocycle,

R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, halogen, C 1 -C 6 TmIOaIlCyI, and Ci-Cisheteroalkyl, or

R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond, or

R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(O)-),

each R 20 is independently selected from Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, -Ci-Cjalkyl-COjH, C 1 - Cefluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 21 is independently selected from H, d-C 6 aIkyl, -Ci-C 6 BUyI-CO 2 H, Ci-Qjheteroalkyl, C 1 -C 6 QuOrOaIlSyI, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl

[0008] For any and all of the embodiments, substituents are selected from among from a subset of the listed alternatives For example, in some embodiments, Q is -C(=θ)-Q', where Q 1 is -OH, -

OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN In other embodiments, Q is -C(O)-Q 1 , where

Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 In yet other embodiments, Q is -C(=θ)-Q', where Q 1 is -OH, -O(Ci-C 4 alkyl)

In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 3 In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH In one aspect, Q is -C(O)-Q 1 , where Q 1 is -OH In some embodiments, Q 1 is ^DH, -OR 20 , -

NHSO 2 R 20 , or -N(R 21 ) 2

[0009] In some embodiments, each R' is H, F, Or-CH 3 In other embodiments, one R 1 is H and the other R 1 is H, F, or -CH 3 In some embodiments, each R 1 is H

[0010] In some embodiments, at least two of R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 is H In some embodiments, R 2 and

R 3 are H

[0011] In some embodiments, at least two of R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is H In some embodiments, R 6 and

R 7 are H

[0012] In some embodiments, A is -C(=θ)- or -C(R 14 J 2 - Ih some embodiments, B is -O-, -NR 21 -

[0013] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (J) has the structure of Formula (II)

Formula (II)

[0014] In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R s , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , -SR 20 , Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-dfluoroalkyl, d-dfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C,alkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -C 8 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaiyl.

[0015] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , - C(O)R 20 -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 )* -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 2 ', -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , C,-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, C,-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-Cβalkoxy, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted d-Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloaEkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 - (substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

[0016] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 21 ^, -N(R 2 ') 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 2 ')* -OC(O)N(R 21 )* -NHC(O)NH(R 2 '), - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , d-Qalkyl, C,-C 6 fluoroalkyl, C 1 - Cjfluoroalkoxy, d-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl). [0017] In one aspect, A is -C(O)-.

[0018] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) has the structure of Formula (III):

Formula (Ul).

[0019] In some embodiments, R 2 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , d-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C]-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-G|heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[0020] In some embodiments, each of R 3 , R δ and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , C,-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, CrC 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, orCi-Qheteroalkyl.

[0021] In some embodiments, R 6 is H In some embodiments, R 7 is H

[0022] In one aspect, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -SC=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 2 ') 2 , - OC(O)N(R 21 J 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 d-Cβalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C( 5 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(subst(tuted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH2-(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl) [0023] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , C 1 - C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 OuOrOaIlCyI, C 1 -C 4 HuOTOaIkOXy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, Q-C t heteroalkyl, C 3 -C 5 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted CrCsheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl)

[0024] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CHj) 2 , - C(CH 3 J 3 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 (C 1 -C 4 BUCyI), -S(O) 2 (OpUoUaIIy substituted phenyl), -C(0)-(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(=θ)(C r C 4 alkyl), -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , - CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)NH 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH-C(CH 3 ) 3 , - C(O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), - C(0)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -C(0)NH(opUonally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl), -NHC(OXC 1 -C 4 BIlCyI), -NHC(0)(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHC(0)(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(=θXopUonally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHS(O) 2 (C 1 - C 4 alkyl), -NHS(O) 2 (C 3 -C 6 CyClOaI]CyI), -NHS(0) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), - NHS(O) 2 (OPtIOiIaIIy substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , - NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted benzyl), cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyπolidinyl, pipeπdmyl, morpholinyl, piperazmyl, thiomorpholinyl, or an optionally substituted group selected from phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, miidazolyl, pyrazolyl, lsoxazolyl, lsothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, tπazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyndinyl, pyndazinyl, pyrazinyl, pyπmidmyl, and Iπazinyl [0025] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , C r C 4 alkyl, C 1 - C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 4 SuOTOaIkOXy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substtuted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl) [0026] hi some embodiments, R 3 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CF 3 [0027} In some embodiments, R 2 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , -CF 3 , or phenyl

[0028] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 - cyclopropyl, -OCH 2 CO 2 H, -OBn, phenyl, l-methyl-l/ir-pyrazol-4-yl, orpyπdinyl [0029] In some embodiments, R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -Ci-C4βlkyl, - Ci-Gihaloalkyl, -Ci-GJieteroalkyl, -CH 2 <an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 - C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted CrCβcycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl, R 11 and R 13 are each H, or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-)

[0030] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Ci-C 4 BUCyI, or -Q-Qhaloalkyl, R 12 is -H, -Cj-Qalkyl, - Ci-C 4 haloalkyl, -Ci-Cjheteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 - C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl, R 11 and R 13 are each H, or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-)

[0031] M some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -C-Qalkyl, -d-Qhaloalkyl, -C-Qheteroalkyl, -CH 2 - (an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 - (an optionally substituted Q-Cjoheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 <? 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlCyI, or an optionally substituted phenyl, R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, or -Ci-GJialoalkyl, R 11 and R 13 are each H, or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-)

[0032] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Q-G t alkyl, -Ci-GJialoalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted (i-Cioheterocycloallcyl), or -CH 2 -C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, R 12 is -H, -C,-C 4 alkyl, -C 1 - C 4 haloalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlCyI, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl, R 11 and R 13 are each H, or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carboαyl (-C(O)-)

[0033] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, -C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl) [0034] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, or -Ci-dhaloalkyl

[0035] In some embodiments, R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 4 alkyl, -A-C^oalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), an optionally substituted C 2 -Cκ>heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl

[0036] In one aspect, B is-O-.

[0037] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) has a structure selected from Formula (JV),

Formula (V), Formula (VI) and Formula (VII):

Formula (VI) Formula (VU).

[0038] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) has a structure of Formula (IV) :

Formula (IV).

[0039] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (J) has a structure of Formula (V):

Formula (V)

[0040] Ih one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) has a structure of Formula (VI):

Formula (VD.

[0041] In one aspect, R 11 and R 13 are each H.

[0042] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (J) has a structure of Formula (VII):

Formula (VII). [0043] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) has a structure selected from:

Formula (Die) Formula (IHc)

[0044] In some embodiments, R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted monocyclic heterocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic heterocycle; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, Ci-Cβalkyl, Ci- Cβhaloalkyl, and Ci-Csheteroalkyl; or R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond. [0045) In some embodiments, R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle; R 11 and R 13 are each H; or R 1 ' and R 13 are taken together to form a bond. [0046] In one aspect, described herein is a compound with the structure of Formula (VIH):

Formula (VIIl) wherein:

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 1 V; m is O, 1 or 2; nis O, 1 or 2; provided that m+n = 1 or 2; y is O, 1, 2, 3, or 4; R 11 and R 13 are each H; each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , - S(KD) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(O)N(R 21 J 2 , - NHC(O)R 20 , C 1 -QaUyI, C t -Qfluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 4 OuOTOaIkOXy, C]-C 4 alkoxy, C,- C^ieteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Cecyoloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Csheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[0047] In one aspect, B is -O-; y is 0, 1 , or 2; each R J0 is independently H, halogen, -OH, Ci- Qalkyl, C 1 -C 4 HuOrOaIlCyI, C 1 -C 4 HuOrOaIkOXy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, orQ-Qheteroalkyl. [0048] In one aspect, described herein is a compound with the structure of Formula (DC):

Formula (K) wherein:

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 16 ) 2 -; yis O, 1, 2, 3, or 4; each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -

S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - 0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OHXR 21 ^,

Ci-dalJcyl, C 1 -C 4 OuOrOaIlQfI, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Csheterocyoloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[0049] In one aspect, B is -O-; y is 0, 1 , or 2; each R 30 is independently H, halogen, -OH, Ci- C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, orCi-C 4 heteroalkyl. [0050] In one aspect, described herein is a compound of Formula (XVIII), pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutically acceptable solvate, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug thereof :

Formula {XVm) wherein,

R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , Ci-dalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C4alkoxy, Ci-dheteroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloa]kyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - C 10 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or - OCH2-(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl);

R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -

OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ^, -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 2I ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=0)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , - NHSeO) 2 R 20 , -NHC(OPR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ^, C r C 4 alkyl, Q-Qfluoroalkyl, C 1 - C 4 fluoroalkoxy, C 1 -C 4 BIkOXy, C 1 -C 4 heteroalkyl, Cj-C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl;

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or-C(R l6 ) 2 -; each R is independently H, or d-C 4 alkyl,

R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -d-Calkyl, -d-Qhaloalkyl, -C 1 - C^ieteroalkyl, -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted C 2 -C 1 oheterocycloalkyl), -CH 2 -C 3 -

Qjcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted QrCioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, d-Cβcycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl, each R 20 is independently selected from d-Cjalkyl, d-Qjheteroalkyl, -d-Qjalkyl-COzH, C 1 - Cβfluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - C s heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 21 is independently selected from H, Ci-Cβalkyl, -Ci-Cβalkyl-CCvH, Ci-QJieteroalkyl, d-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted d-Cioheterocycloalkyl

[0051] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -SC=O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(K))R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 J 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(=O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , C,-C 4 alkyl, d-Gifluoroalkyl, Ci-G t fluoroalkoxy, Q-Cjcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C2-Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl

[0052] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , C,-C 4 alkyl, C 1 - C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl) [0053] In one aspect, B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -CH 2 - In another aspect, B is -O- [0054] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , - C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 (C 1 -C 4 BU^l), -S(OMoptionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)-<optionally substituted phenyl), -CtOXd-dalkyl), -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , - CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)NH 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(O)NH-CH(CHj) 3 , - C(O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), - C(0)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl), -NHC(θχc 1 -C 4 alkyl), -NHC(=θ)(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHC(0)(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(0)(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHS(O) 2 (Ci- C 4 alkyl), -NHSCOWCs-Cβcycloalkyl), -NHS(0) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), - NHS(O) 2 (OPtIOHaIIy substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , - NHC(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted benzyl), cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidmyl, pipeπdinyl, morpholinyl,

piperazmyl, thiomorpholinyl, or an optionally substituted group selected from phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, lmidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, lsothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, tπazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyndazinyl, pyrazinyl, pynmidinyl, and tπazinyl

[0055] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CHj) 2 , -C(CHj) 3 , -CF 3 , -

CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(=O) 2 (Ci-C 4 alkyl), cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl

[0056] In one aspect, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 3

[0057] In another aspect, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH^ 2 , -C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , -

CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , or -OCF 3

[0058] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 3 , R 12 is -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted phenyl In some embodiments, R 10 is -

H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 3 , R 12 is -H or an optionally substituted phenyl

[0059] Ih some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 -(an optionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted phenyl, R 12 is -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 3 In some embodiments, R 10 is -H or an optionally substituted phenyl, R 12 is -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 3

[0060] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (XVIII) has the following structure

[0061] In another aspect, described herein is a compound having the structure of Formula (X), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof

Formula (X) wherein, nis 1, 2, 3 or 4,

Q is tetrazolyl or -CX=O)-Q 1 ,

Q 1 is -OH, -OR 2 ', -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN, each R 1 is independently selected from H, halogen, or Ci-C 4 alkyl, each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , - SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -SC=O) 2 R 20 , -CC=O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , - CH(R 21 J 2 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - OC(=O)N(R 2I ) 2 , -NHC(=O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2) Ci-Qjalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, C 1 -C 6 alkoxy, d- Qhcteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl. optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl), each R 8 is H, R 22 is -C(O)R 24 , -C(O)OR 25 , -C(O)N(R 2 % -S(O) 2 N(R 26 ^ Or-S(O) 2 R 25 ,

R 24 is Ci-Cøilkyl, CrQjfluoroalkyl, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -C]oheterocycloalkyl, (optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 CyClO 3 ' 1 ^), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted aryl) or -Ci-Cβalkyl- (optionally substituted heteroaryl), or R 24 is -lλX 3 -Qλ

L 3 is a C,-C 6 alkylene,

X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -,

Q 3 is -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-Qjfluoroalkyl an optionally substituted an optionally substituted CrCioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 aIkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted aryl), or -Ci-C 6 alkyl- (optionally substituted heteroaryl), R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2 , C r

Cefluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-CβalkyHoptionally substituted C 3 - C 10 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Cj- C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted aryl) or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl),

each R 26 is independently H, -CN, C r Ce;alkyl, Ci-Qfmoroalkyl, C,-C<jheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Ciohetcrocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-QalkyHoptionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl), -Ci-Qalkyl- (optionally substituted CVCioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-Csalkyl-(optionally substituted aryl) or -Ci-CβalkyHpptionally substituted heteroaryl), or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl; R 20 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -

Cgcycloalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -Cjheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted benzyl or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and each R 21 is independently selected from H, Ci-Cβalkyl, Ci-Cjheteroalkyl, Ci-

C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 CyClOaIlSyI, an optionally substituted C 3 -Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl; or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -C 1( )heterocycloalkyl. [0062] In some embodiments, Q is -C( 1 O)-Q 1 In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OR 21 , - NHSO 2 R 20 , or -N(R 21 ) 2 In other embodiments, Q 1 is -OH or -OR 21 . In other embodiments, Q 1 is -OH or -0(Ci-C 4 alkyl). In yet other embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 3 In one aspect, Q 1 is -OH;

[0063] In some embodiments, each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and -CH 3 . In some other embodiments, one R 1 is H and the other R 1 is selected from H, F, and -CH 3 . hi one aspect, each R 1 is H.

[0064] In one aspect, n is 1. [0065] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (X) has the structure of Formula (XI):

Formula (XD [0066] In another aspect, the compound has the structure of Formula (XII):

Formula (XH)

[0067] In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C 1 - C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cs-C^cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, Ci-Cjfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[0068] In one aspect, R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , - C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , Ci-C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 £luoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted Q-Cioheterocycloalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, - OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

[0069] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ^, -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , -C,-C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Cioheterocycloalkyl, Ci- C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[0070] In one aspect, the compound described herein has the structure of Formula (XIII), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV) or Formula (XVI):

Formula (XV) Formula (XVI).

[0071] In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Qsfluoroalkyl, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -C 10 heterocycloalkyl, -Ci-C 4 alkyl- (optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -C 1 -C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci- C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl); or R 24 is L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ; L 3 is a Ci-C 4 alkylene; X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(=θ)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -; Q 3 is d-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl an optionally substituted -CVCiocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -C r C 4 alkyl-(optionaUy substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl), or -Ci-C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl).

[0072] In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, -C 1 -QaIlCyI- (C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlCyI), -Ci-QjalkyHoptionally substituted phenyl) or -Q-Qalkyl^optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); or R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ; L 3 is a Ci-C 4 alkylene; X 3 is a bond, or -O-; Q 3 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -C r C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl), or -Ci- C 4 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl). In some embodiments, R 24 is C 1 -C 4 BUyI, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted

monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), or R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3

[0073] In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, C I -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, or -C r

C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl), or R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 , L 3 is a Ci-Qalkylene, X 3 is a bond, or

-O-, Q 3 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl)

[0074] In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, or Q-C^cycloalkyl, or R 24 is - lλX 3 -Q 3 , L 3 IS a Ci-C 4 alkylene, X 3 is a bond, or -O-, Q 3 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-CUalkyl,

Cpdfluoroalkyl, or C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-G f fluoroalkyl,

C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or

R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, CrCβcycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl

[0075] In some embodiments, R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -

CH(CHj) 2 , C,-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionaUy substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-

C2alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C2alkyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl) In some embodiments, R 23 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-Qfluoroalkyl, Q-Giheteroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-

(optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-QalkyHoptionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-

[0076] In other embodiments, R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -

CH(CH 3 ) 2 , C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionalry substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-CialkyHoptionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl)

[0077] In some embodiments, R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CHs) 2 , C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) In some other embodiments, R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , Q-Cecycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or -Ci-

C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl)

[0078] In some embodiments, each R 26 is independently H, -CN, C r C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl), substituted phenyl) or -C r C 2 alkyl-

(optionally substituted heteroaryl), or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C 2 -

Qoheterocycloalkyl

[0079] In some embodiments, each R 26 is independently H, Ci-C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlSyI, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaiyl, -Q-Qalkyl-

(optionally substituted Q-Qcycloalkyl), -Q-Cialkyl-foptionally substituted phenyl) or -C 1 -

C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaiyl)

[0080] In some embodiments, one R 26 is H and the other R 25 is H, C r C 4 alkyl, Q-Cβcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -C 1 -C 2 BUCyI-

(optaonally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl) In some other embodiments, one R 26 is H and the other R 26 is Ci-Qalkyl, -C,-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -Cj-C 2 alkyl-(optκ>nally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl)

[0081] In one aspect, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , d-dalkyl, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 4 IIuOrOaIkOXy, or d-dheteroalkyl

[0082] In some embodiments, R s is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -

S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -

OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(O)N(R 2 ')* -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHS(O)R 20 , -

NHC(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -Ci-Ciialkyl, -C,-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 4 EIkOXy, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci- dheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 1 ocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -

Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl

[0083] In other embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , C r C 4 alkyl, C 1 -

C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, Ci-Giheteroalkyl

[00841 In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -OH, C 1 -

C 4 alkyl, C 1 -QaIkOXy, or C 1 -C 4 SuOrOaIlCyI

[0085] In some embodiments, each of R 6 and R 7 is H

[0086] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CN, -OH, -d-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -

Qfluoroalkoxy, or Ci-C 4 alkoxy

[0087] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CHj) 2 , -

C(CH 3 ) 3 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 (C 1 -C 4 BUCyI), -SOOMoptionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)-(optιonally substituted phenyl), -C(O)(C r C 4 alkyl), -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , -

CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)NH 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(O)NH-C(CH 3 ) 3 , -

C(O)NH-CH(CH 3 J 2 , -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -

C(0)NH(optionally substituted CrCβcycloalkyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted C 3 -

Cgheterocycloalkyl), -NHC(O)(C 1 -CaIlCyI), -NHC(0)(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -NHC(0)(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(0)(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHS(O) 2 (C 1 -

C 4 alkyl), -NHS(O) 2 (C 3 -QCyClOaIlCyI), -NHS(0) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), -

NHS(O) 2 (OPtIOOaIIy substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , -

NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted benzyl), or an

optionally substituted group selected from cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, iinidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and triazinyl.

[0088] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -

S(=O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OCC=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -

OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 2I ) 2 , -NHC(=O)R 20 , -NHS(=O)R 20 , -

NHQOJNφ 21 ^ , -C t -dalkyl, -C 1 -C 4 BuOrOaIlCyI, C r C 4 alkoxy, C 1 -C 4 SuOrOaIkOXy, or C 1 -

C 4 heteroalkyl.

[0089] In one aspect, R 2 is H. In one aspect, R 3 is H.

[0090] In one aspect, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -OH, -CH 3 , -OCH 3 , -CF 3 , or -OCF 3 .

[0091] In one aspect, R 5 is F, Cl, Br, -OH, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 3 , or -OCF 3 .

[0092] In some embodiments, R 5 is C 3 -C $ cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -

C 10 heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[0093] In some embodiments, R 5 is cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, or an optionally substituted group selected from pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, phenyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and triazinyl.

[0094] In one aspect, described herein is a compound having the structure of Formula (XVII), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof:

Formula (XVII) wherein,

R 4 is H, halogen, -OH, -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-Gfalkoxy, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 - Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -OCH 2 -(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted phenyl), or -OCH 2 -(substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic heteroaryl);

R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 2 °, -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 2I ) 2 , -N(R 21 ):, -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , - NHS(O) 2 R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C,-C 4 alkyl, C,-C 4 fluoroalkyl, C,- C 4 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 4 alkoxy, C r C 4 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R 22 is -C(O)R 24 , -C(O)OR 25 , -C(O)N(R 26 J 2 , -S(O) 2 N(R 26 ), or -S(O) 2 R 25 ;

R 24 is Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-G t heteroalkyl, C 3 -C δ cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloaucyl, -Ci-C 2 aUcyl-(C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -CrQalkyl- (optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -C ! -C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); or R 24 is -L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ;

L 3 is a Ci-C 4 alkylene;

X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -;

Q 3 is -Ci-Qalkyl, -C r C 6 fluoroalkyl an optionally substituted -C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlCyI, an optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-C 2 EUCyI-(C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 -Ci 0 heterocycloalkyl), - Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl), or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); R 25 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH(CH 3 ) 2> C,- dfluoroalkyl, Ci-dheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 CyClOaIlCyI, an optionally substituted C 2 -Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Q- -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted phenyl) or -C!-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl); each R 26 is independently H, -CN, Ci-C 4 alkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 4 heteroalkyl, C 3 - C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted CVCioheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -Ci-Cjalkyl- (C 3 -C,scycloalkyl), -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted C 2 -Cioheterocycloalkyl), - CpC^alkyl-^optionally substituted phenyl) or -Ci-C 2 alkyl-(optionally substituted heteroaryl); or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted Q-Cioheterocycloalkyl;

R 20 is Ci-C 3 alkyl, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, opUonally substituted C 3 - Cgcycloalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -Cgheterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl, and each R 21 is independently selected from H, Ci-Cβalkyl, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted C,-C 8 hcterocycloalkyl [0095] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (XVII) has the following structure

[0096] Any combination of the groups described above for the vanous variables is contemplated herein

[0097] In one aspect are compounds presented m Table 1 through Table 9, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically active metabolites, pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs, and pharmaceutically acceptable solvates thereof, which antagonize DP 2 In one aspect are compounds presented in Table 1 through Table 9 are used to treat patients suffering from one or more PGD 2 - dependent conditions or diseases, including, but not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, chrome obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis, arthritis, allergy, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, aneurysm, stroke, cancer, endotoxic shock, proliferative disorders and inflammatory conditions [0098] In one aspect, compounds of Formula (T), Formula (H), Formula (HI), Formula (HIa), Formula (nib), Formula (HIc), Formula (HId), Formula (TV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VH), Formula (VHI), Formula (DC), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XH), Formula (XIlT), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH), and Formula (XVDI), are antagonists OfDP 2 In specific embodiments, the antagonist OfDP 2 is selective for DP 2 In still further or alternative embodiments such antagonists OfDP 2 also antagonize other related PGD 2 receptors Related PGD 2 receptors include, but are not limited to, DPi and TP In other embodiments, the antagonist OfDP 2 is also an antagonist of DPi In some embodiments, the antagonist OfDP 2 is also an antagonist of TP (thromboxane receptor)

[0099] In other embodiments, presented herein are compounds selected from active metabolites, solvates, pharmaceutically acceptable salts or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs of a compound of any one of Formula (T), Formula (II), Formula (JS), Formula (HIa), Formula (IHb), Formula (HIc), Formula (HId), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VII), Formula (Vπi), Formula (DC), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XII), Formula (XHI), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH) or Formula (XVHI). [00100] In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, e.g. a compound of Formula (I), (H), (Iff), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (WTL), (VHI), (DQ, (X), (XI), (XII), (XHT), (XTV), (XV), (XVT), (XVII), or (XVIH). In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition also includes a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. In one aspect, the pharmaceutical composition is formulated for intravenous injection, oral administration, inhalation, nasal administration, topical administration, ophthalmic administration or otic administration. [00101] In certain aspects, the pharmaceutical composition is a tablet, a pill, a capsule, a liquid, an inhalant, a nasal spray solution, a suppository, a suspension, a gel, a colloid, a dispersion, a suspension, a solution, an emulsion, an ointment, a lotion, eye drop or an ear drop. [00102] In certain aspects, pharmaceutical composition further comprises one or more additional therapeutically active agents selected from 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors, 5- lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, CYSLTRl antagonists, CYSLTR2 antagonists, BLTl antagonists, BLT2 antagonists, thromboxane antagonists, DPI receptor antagonists, DPI receptor agonists, TP receptor agonists, anti-IgE, chemokine receptor antagonists, TLS antibody, hronchodilators, theophylline, leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene formation inhibitors, decongestants, antihistamines, mucolytics, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, anticholinergics, antitussives, analgesics, expectorants, and β-2 agonists. [00103] In one aspect, is the use of a compound described herein in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a PGD 2 -dependent condition or disease in a mammal. [00104] In certain embodiments, presented herein are methods for treating a PGIVdependent condition or disease in a patient comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of an DP2 antagonist having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (HI), (IHa),

(nib), (me), (Hid), (TV), (V), (VI), (vπ), (vm), <τx), (X), (xi), (xii), (xrπ), (xrv), (xv), (xvi),

(XVH), or (XVHT). In certain aspects, provided herein is a method for treating inflammation in a mammal comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound provided herein to the mammal in need.

[00105] In a specific aspect, provided herein is a method for treating asthma in a mammal comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, such as, for example, a compound with the structure of any one of having the structure of any one of

Formula (T), (TT), (IH), (UIa), (IDb), (HIc), QRd), (IV) 1 (V), (VT), (VII), (VUV), (K), (X), (XI), (XII), (XUT), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVII), or (XVm), to the mammal in need [00106] In further or alternative embodiments, the compounds of having the structure of any one of Formula (Q, (U), (UT), (IHa), (IDb), (IIIc), (Did), (IV), (V), (VT), (VU), (VUT), (DC), CX), (XI), (XII), (Xπi), (XTV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XViπ), are included into pharmaceutical compositions or medicaments used for treating a PGD -dependent or PGIVmediated condition or disease in a mammal

[00107] In another aspect, compounds described herein are used to treat or prevent inflammatory conditions Inflammatory conditions include, but are not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, myocardial infarction, and stroke

[00108] In another aspect, compounds described herein are used to treat or prevent immunological disorders In one aspect the immunological disorders include, but are not limited to, allergy or to excessive or inappropriate response to an endogenous or exogenous antigen In certain embodiments, the immunological disorder that is characterized by immune dysregulation that is not accompanied by inflammation

[00109] In another aspect, compounds described herein are used to treat or prevent proliferative disorders In one aspect the proliferative disorders include, but are not limited to, cancer and noncancerous disorders, including, but not limited to, those involving the skin or lymphatic tissues [00110] In additional aspects, such conditions are iatrogenic and increases in, or abnormal localization of, PGD 2 is induced by other therapies or medical or surgical procedures In other embodiments, the PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated condition or disease is caused by surgery [00111] In other aspects, the methods, compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and medicaments descπbed herein are used to prevent the cellular activity OfPGD 2 In other aspects, such methods, compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and medicaments comprise DP 2 antagonists disclosed herein for the treatment of asthma by modulating the activity of enzymes or proteins m a patient wherein such enzymes or proteins are mvolved in the PGD 2 pathway such as, by way of example, DP 2 In yet other aspects, the methods, compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and medicaments descπbed herein are used in combination with other medical treatments or surgical modalities

[00112] Ih one aspect are methods for reducing/antagonizing the PGD 2 activation OfDP 2 in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (TT), (UI), (UTa), (UTb), (IIIc), (IDd),

(IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (viπ), (K), (X), (xn, (XIQ, (xπi), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvπ), or

(XVUT)

[00113] In another aspect are methods for modulating, including reducing and/or antagonizing the activation of DP 2 , directly or indirectly, in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, such as a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (III), (0Ia), (HIb), (IHc), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VI),

(vπ), (ViH), (DC), (X), pa), (xπ), (xnn, (xrv), (xv), (xvi), (xvπ), or (xvπn

[00114] In another aspect, presented herein are methods for modulating, including reducing and/or antagonizing the activity of PGD 2 in a mammal, directly or indirectly, comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (II), (III), (πia), (mb), (HIc), (HId), (EV), (V), (VT), (VII), (VHI), (DC), (X), (XT), (XII), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVIII)

[00115] In another aspect are methods for treating PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (TT), (TTT), (HIa), (HIb), (me), (HId),

(IV), (V), (VT), (VTT), (vm), (DC), (X), (xi), pan, (xπi), (xiv), pcv), (xvi), pevπ), or

(XVHI)

[00116] In another aspect are methods for treating inflammation comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (H), (TTT), (HIa), (HIb), (IHc), (Hid), (TV), (V), (VT), (VH), (VHI), (TX), (X),

(XI), (XS), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI)

[00117] In another aspect are methods for treating immunological abnormalities comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (TT), (IH), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VT), (VH),

(VHI), (IX), (X), (XI), (XH), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVm)

[00118] In another aspect are methods for treating respiratory diseases comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (H), (III), (HIa), (mb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VT), (VH), (VHI), (DQ, (X),

(XT), (XII), (XIH), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI) In a further embodiment of this aspect, the respiratory disease is asthma In a further embodiment of this aspect, the respiratory disease mcludes, but is not limited to, adult respiratory distress syndrome and allergic (extrinsic) asthma, non-allergic (intrinsic) asthma, acute severe asthma, chronic asthma, clinical asthma, nocturnal asthma, allergen-induced asthma, aspinn-sensiuve asthma, exercise-induced asthma, neutrophilic asthma, isocapnic hyperventilation, child-onset asthma, adult-onset asthma, cough-vaπant asthma, occupational asthma, steroid-resistant asthma, seasonal asthma.

[00119] In another aspect are methods for treating respiratory diseases comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound described herein In a further embodiment of this aspect, the respiratory disease is rhinitis In a further embodiment of

this aspect, the respiratory disease includes, but is not limited to, allergic (extrinsic) rhinitis, non- allergic (intrinsic) rhinitis, chronic rhinitis, allergen-induced rhinitis, aspirin-sensitive rhinitis, child-onset rhinitis, adult-onset rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, steroid-resistant rhinitis, seasonal rhinitis, perennial rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, and rhinopolyposis.

[00120] In another aspect are methods for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (III), (HIa), (UIb), (fflc), (HId),

(IV), (V), (VI), (VU), (vπn, (K), (X), (xi), (xπ), (xm), (xiv), (xv), (xvn, (xvii), or

(XVHI). In a further embodiment of this aspect, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes, but is not limited to, chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis and/or airway inflammation and cystic fibrosis.

[00121] In another aspect are methods for preventing increased mucosal secretion and/or edema in a disease or condition comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (H), (HI), (HIa), (HIb), (me), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VHI), (DC), (X), (XI), (XH), (XIII), (XIV), QCV), (XVI), (XVII), or (XVIH).

[00122] In another aspect are methods for treating vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis and its sequelae myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, vasculitis, cardiac arrhythmia, and stroke comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (HI), (HIa), (HIb), (fflc), (HId),

(W), (V), (vn, (VH), (VDI), (K), (X), (xi), pan, pan), pav), pcv), pcvn, pcvn), or

(XVHI).

[00123] In another aspect are methods for treating organ reperfusion injury following organ ischemia and/or endotoxic shock comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H),

(HI), (HIa), (IHb), (HIc), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VT), (VH), (VIII), (K), (X), (XI), PCH), (XHI), (XIV),

(XV), QCVT), PCVH), or PCVIH).

[00124] In another aspect are methods for reducing the constriction of blood vessels in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (JI), (HI), (HIa), (IHb), (HIc), (ffld),

(IV), (V), (VT), (VH), (VHI), (K), PC), PCI), PCH), (XIH), PCIV), (XV), QiVT), PCVII), or

QCVlU).

[00125] In another aspect are methods for lowering or preventing an increase in blood pressure of a mammal comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (H), (III), (HIa), (HIb), (Me), (HId),

(IV), (V), (VI), (vπ), tyro), <jx\ (X), (xn, (xn), pan), (xiv), (xv), (xvn, (XVIQ, or (xvπi)

[00126] In another aspect are methods for preventing eosinophil and/or basophil and/or dendritic cell and/or neutrophil and/or monocyte or TH2 cell recruitment comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (HI), (HIa), (HIb), (IHc), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (Vπi), (DQ, (X),

(XI), (xn), (xπi), (xrv), (xv), (xvi), (xvπ), or (xvπn

[00127] A further aspect are methods for the prevention or treatment of abnormal bone remodeling, loss or gain, including diseases or conditions as, by way of example, osteopenia, osteoporosis, Paget's disease, cancer, trauma, surgery, and other diseases comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (in), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (W), (V), (VI), (VII), (VHI), (DC), (X),

(XO, (xn), pan), (xiv), (xv), (xvn, (xvn), or (xvπn

[00128] In another aspect are methods for preventing ocular inflammation and allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and papillary conjunctivitis comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (1), (II), (HI), (IHa), (HBJ), (HIC), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VHI), (DC), (X),

(XI), (xn), (xπi), (xrv), (xv), (xvn, (xvn), or (xvπi)

[00129] In another aspect are methods for treating CNS disorders comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (HI), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VHI), (DQ, (X), (XI), (XH), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI) CNS disorders include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's or other degenerative disease, stroke, cerebral ischemia, retinal ischemia, post-surgical cognitive dysfunction, migraine, peripheral neuropathy/neuropathic pain, spinal cord injury, cerebral edema and head injury [00130] A further aspect are methods for the treatment of cancer comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (D, (H), (IH), (HIa), (IHb), (HIc), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VHI), (DC), (X), (XI), (XH), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI) The type of cancer includes, but is not limited to, pancreatic cancer and other solid or hematological tumors

[00131] In another aspect are methods for treating endotoxic shock and septic shock comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (HI), (THa), (IHb), (HIc), (HId), (TV), (V), (VT), (VH), (VHI), (DC), (X), (XI), (XH), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI) [00132] In another aspect are methods for treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one

compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (DI), (IHa), (USa), (DIc), (Did),

(IV), (V), (VI), (VTS), (VID), (K), (X), (XI), (XD), (XID), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVD), or

(XVID).

[00133] In another aspect are methods for treating or preventing increased gastrointestinal diseases comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (D), (DI), (IHa), (DIb), (DIc), (Did),

(IV), (V), (VI), (VD), (VIE), (DC), (X), (XI), (XD), (XID), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVII), or

(XVID). Such diseases include, by way of example only, chronic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and gastric motor dysfunction.

[00134] A further aspect are methods for treating kidney diseases comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (IT), (DI), (DIa), (DIb), (Die), (Did), (IV), (V), (VI), (VD), (VID), (IX), (X),

(XT), (XII), (XID), (XTV), (XV), (XVI), (XVD), or (XVDI). Such diseases include, by way of example only, acute tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity, renal ischemia, and reperfusion injury.

[00135] In another aspect are methods for preventing or treating acute or chronic renal insufficiency comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (J), (D), (HI), (DIa), (HIb), (DIc), (HId),

(IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VDI), (K), (X), (XI), (XS), (Xm), (XTV), (XV), (XVT), (XVII), or

(xvπi).

[00136] In another aspect are methods to diminish the inflammatory aspects of acute infections within one or more solid organs or tissues such as the kidney with acute pyelonephritis. [00137] In another aspect are methods for preventing or treating acute or chronic disorders involving recruitment or activation of eosinophils comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (HI), (HIa), (HIb), (DIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VHI), (TX), (X), (XI), (XH), (XIH), (XTV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHT).

[00138] In another aspect are methods for preventing or treating acute or chronic erosive disease or motor dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including selective or non-selective cyclooxygenase -1 or -2 inhibitors) comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (H), (DT), (IDa), (HIb), (HIc), (UId), (TV), (V), (VT), (VII), (VHI), (TX), (X), (XI) 1 (XTT), (XIII), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI).

[00139] A further aspect are methods for the prevention or treatment of rejection or dysfunction in a transplanted organ or tissue comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula Q), (TT), (TTI), (Ilia),

(mb), (me), (iiid), (IV), (V), (vi), (vπ), (viii), (ix), (x), (xn, pan, (xm), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (XVH), or (xvπi).

[00140] In another aspect are methods for treating inflammatory responses of the skin comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (III), (HIa), (IDb), (HIc), (IHd), (IV), (V), (VT), (VII), (Vin), (DC), (X), (XI), (XH), (Xm), (XIV), (XV), (XVD, (XVπ), or (XViπ). Such inflammatory responses of the skin include, by way of example, dermatitis, contact dermatitis, eczema, urticaria, rosacea, and scarring. In another aspect are methods for reducing psoriatic lesions in the skin, joints, or other tissues or organs, comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a first compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (10), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VHI), (IX), (X), (XD, (XH), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVD, (XVH), or (XVHD.

[00141] A further aspect are methods for the treatment of cystitis, including, by way of example only, interstitial cystitis, comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (D, (H), (HD, (HIa), (mb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VD, (VH), (VJB), (K), (X), (XD, (XO), (XHD, (XIV), CXV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHD.

[00142] A further aspect are methods for the treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (D, (ID. (HD, (IHa), (HIb), (IHc), (Hid), (IV), (V), (VD, (VH), (VHD, (IX), CX), (XD. (XH), (XHD, (XIV), (XV), (XVD, (XVID, or (XVffl).

[00143] hi a further aspect are methods to treat hepatorenal syndrome comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (D, (H), (III), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VD, (VID, (VHI), (DC), (X),

(XD, (XiD. (XHD. (xiv). (xv) > (xvi), (XVπ), or (xvrπ).

[00144] In a further aspect are methods to modulate the immune response in a mammal to endogenous or exogenous antigens comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (D, (H), (IH), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (TV), (V), (VD, (VID, (VHD, (DC), (X), (XD, (XH), (XIH), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVIH).

[00145] In a further aspect are methods to treat acute or chronic allergic responses in a mammal to exogenous substances that have been ingested such as foods (e.g., peanuts) or drugs (e.g., penicillin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the like) comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound having the structure of any

one of Formula (T), (II), (in), (IHa), (IHb), (HIc), (UId), (IV), (V), (VT), (VH), (VIH), (K), (X), (XI), (XII), (Xffl), (XIV), (XV), (XVD, (XVπ), or (XVm)

[00146] In another aspect is the use of a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (HI), (HIa), (IHb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VHI), (DC), (X), CXI), (XH), (XIH), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI) in the manufacture of a medicament for treating an inflammatory disease or condition in an animal in which the activity of at least one PGD 2 - associated protein contributes to the pathology and/or symptoms of the disease or condition In one embodiment of this aspect, the PGD 2 pathway protein is CRTH2 In another or further embodiment of this aspect, the inflammatory disease or conditions are respiratory, cardiovascular, or proliferative diseases

[00147] In any of the aforementioned aspects are further embodiments m which (a) the effective amount of the compound is systemically administered to the mammal, and/or (b) the effective amount of the compound is administered orally to the mammal, and/or (c) the effective amount of the compound is intravenously administered to the mammal, and/or (d) the effective amount of the compound administered by inhalation, and/or (e) the effective amount of the compound is administered by nasal administration, or and/or (f) the effective amount of the compound is administered by injection to the mammal, and/or (g) the effective amount of the compound is administered topically (dermal) to the mammal, and/or (h) the effective amount of the compound is administered by ophthalmic administration, and/or (i) the effective amount of the compound is administered rectally to the mammal

[00148] In any of the aforementioned aspects are further embodiments in which the mammal is a human, including embodiments wherein the human has an asthmatic condition or one or more other conditions) selected from the group consisting of allergic (extrinsic) asthma, non-allergic (intrinsic) asthma, acute severe asthma, chrome asthma, clinical asthma, nocturnal asthma, allergen-induced asthma, aspirin-sensitive asthma, exercise-induced asthma, neutrophilic asthma, isocapnic hyperventilation, child-onset asthma, adult-onset asthma, cough-variant asthma, occupational asthma, steroid-resistant asthma, or seasonal asthma, or chrome obstructive pulmonary disease, or pulmonary hypertension or interstitial lung fibrosis In any of the aforementioned aspects are further embodiments in which the mammal is an animal model for pulmonary inflammation, examples of which are provided herein [00149] In any of the aforementioned aspects are further embodiments comprising single administrations of the effective amount of the compound, including further embodiments in which (i) the compound is administered once, (li) the compound is administered to the mammal multiple times over the span of one day, (ui) continually, or (iv) continuously [00150] In any of the aforementioned aspects are further embodiments comprising multiple administrations of the effective amount of the compound, including further embodiments in which

(i) the compound is administered continuously or intermittently as in a a single dose, (11) the time between multiple administrations is every 6 hours, (111) the compound is administered to the mammal every 8 hours In further or alternative embodiments, the method comprises a drug holiday, wherein the administration of the compound is temporarily suspended or the dose of the compound being administered is temporarily reduced, at the end of the drug holiday, dosing of the compound is resumed In one embodiment, the length of the drug holiday varies from 2 days to 1 year

[00151] In any of the aforementioned aspects involving the treatment OfPGD 2 dependent diseases or conditions are further embodiments comprising administering at least one additional agent m addition to the administration of a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II),

(in), (ma), (nib), (me), (md), <w), (V), (vi), (vii), (vm), (ix), (x), (xn, pan, pan), (xiv),

(XV), (XVI), (XVII), or (XVDD In various embodiments, each agent is administered in any order, including simultaneously In certain embodiments, the at least one additional agent is, by way of example only, an anti-inflammatory agent, a different compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (D), (III), (Ola), (DIb), (DIc), (Did), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VIII), (IX), QQ, (XI), (XII), (XIII), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVII), or (XViπ), a DPi receptor antagonist, a TP receptor antagonist, or a different DP 2 receptor antagonist

[00152] In other embodiments, a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (ID), (Ilia), (DIb), (DIc), (DM), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VDI), (K), (X), (XI), (XD), (XID), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVD), or (XVDD is combined with an additional agent that is a respiratory agent, including, but not limited to antihistamines, bronchodilators, long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) (e g , salmeterol), theophylline, IgE modulators (e g , Xolair® and omalizumab), steroids (e g , fluticasone)

[00153] In further or alternative embodiments, the anti-inflammatory agent is, by way of example only, a leukotnene pathway modulator such as a CysLTl receptor antagonists (e g , montelukast), a CysLT2 receptor antagonist, a 5-liρoxygenase inhibitor (e g , zileuton), a 5-hpoxygenase- achvating protein inhibitor (e g , MK-0591 , MK-886, DG-031 (BAY X1005), 3-[3-tert- butylsulfamyl-l-[4-(6-memoxy-pynά^-3-yl)-ben2yl]-5-(pyπdm- 2-ylmethoxy)-l/f-mdol-2-yl]-2,2- dimethyl-propiomc acid, 3-[3-Krt-butylsulfanyl-l -[4-(6-ethoxy-pvπdin-3-yl)-benzyl]-5-(5-methyl- pyπdm-2-ylmethoxy)-l/f-indol-2-yl]-2,2-drmethyl-propionic acid), a LTA 4 hydrolase inhibitor, a LTC 4 synthase inhibitor, a BLTl receptor antagonist or a BLT2 receptor antagonist [00154] In any of the aforementioned aspects involving the treatment of proliferative disorders, including cancer, are further embodiments compπsing administering at least one additional agent, including by way of example only alemtuzumab, arsenic tπoxide, asparaginase (pegylated or non- ), bevacizumab, cetuximab, platinum-based compounds such as cisplatin, cladπbine, daunoπibicin/doxorubicin/idarubicin, lnnotecan, fludarabine, 5-fluorouracil, gemtuzumab,

methotrexate, Pachtaxel™, taxol, temozolonude, thioguanine, or classes of drugs including hormones (an antiestrogen, an antiandrogen, or gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues, interferons such as alpha interferon, nitrogen mustards such as busulfan or melphalan or mechlorethamine, retinoids such as tretinoin, topoisomerase inhibitors such as innotecan or topotecan, tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefimtinib or imatinib, or agents to treat signs or symptoms induced by such therapy including allopunnol, filgrastim, graiusetron/ondansetron/palonosetron, dronabinol

[00155] In any of the aforementioned aspects involving the therapy of an immunogical disorder requiring immunosuppression or involving the therapy of transplanted organs or tissues or cells are further embodiments comprising administering at least one additional agent, including by way of example only azathioprme, a corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, dacluzimab, mycophenolate mofetil, OKT3, rapamycin, tacrolimus, or thymoglobulin

[00156] In any of the aforementioned aspects involving the therapy of interstitial cystitis are further embodiments comprising administering at least one additional agent selected from, e g , dimethylsulfoxide, omalizumab, and pentosan polysulfate

[00157] In any of the aforementioned aspects involving the therapy of disorders of bone are further embodiments comprising administering at least one additional agent such as, by way of example only, minerals, vitamins, bisphosphonates, anabolic steroids, parathyroid hormone or analogs, and cathepsin K inhibitors dronabinol

[00158] In any of the aforementioned aspects involving the prevention or treatment of inflammation are further embodiments comprising' (a) monitoring inflammation in a mammal, (b) measuring bronchoconstnction in a mammal, (c) measuring eosinophil and/or basophil and/or dendritic cell and/or neutrophil and/or monocyte and/or lymphocyte recruitment in a mammal, (d) monitoring mucosal secretion in a mammal, (e) measuring mucosal edema in a mammal

[001591 In any of the aforementioned aspects the PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions include, but are not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, chrome obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis, arthntis, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, aneurysm, stroke, cancer, and endotoxic shock.

[00160] In one aspect, the mammal is a human.

[00161] As used herein R 1 and Ri are interchangeable, R 2 and R 2 are interchangeable, R 3 and R 3 are interchangeable, R 4 and R 4 are interchangeable, R 5 and R 5 are interchangeable, R 6 and Re are interchangeable, R 7 and R 7 are interchangeable, R 8 and R 8 are interchangeable, and so forth for other geneπc moieties

[00162] Other objects, features and advantages of the compounds, methods and compositions described herein will become apparent from the following detailed description It should be

understood, however, that the detailed description and the specific examples, while indicating specific embodiments, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the instant disclosure will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[00163] Prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2 ) is an acidic lipid derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases and PGD 2 synthases. PGD 2 is produced by mast cells, macrophages and T H 2 lymphocytes in response to local tissue damage as well as in response allergic inflammation observed in diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. More specifically, exogenous PGD 2 applied to bronchial airways elicits many responses that are characteristic of acute asthma. [00164] PGD 2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP, also known as DPi) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2, also known as DP 2 ) receptors. DP 2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, and DP 1 receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. DPi antagonists do not inhibit the release of eosinophils when induced by the DP 2 - selective agonists. However, eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens express DPi and DP 2 receptors at similar levels and human peripheral blood expresses both DPi and DP 2 , but the DPi receptor is expressed at lower levels. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils is inhibited by both DP] and DP 2 antagonists. Accordingly, DP], DP 2 and dual DPi/DP 2 antagonists are useful in the treatment of allergic inflammation. [00165] Activation OfDP 2 is associated with chemotaxis and activation of T H 2 lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. In particular, PGD 2 binds to DP 2 and mediates many of its effects through a G,-dependent elevation of intracellular calcium levels and reduction of cyclic AMP. In T H 2 lymphocytes, IL4, IL5 and ILl 3 cytokine production are also stimulated by DP 2 activation. These cytokines have been implicated in numerous biological actions including, by way of example only, immunoglobulin E production, airway response, mucous secretion, and eosinophil recruitment.

[00166] The terms CRTH2 and DP 2 , refer to the same receptor and are used interchangeably herein. Likewise, another common name for DP is DPi, and the two terms are used interchangeably herein. Illustrative Biological Activity

[00167] Prostaglandins (PGs) are recognized physiological lipid acid mediators produced by the release of arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids and converted to prostaglandins by the action of COXi and COX 2 cyclooxygenases and PG synthases. The cyclooxygenases sequentially convert arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxide prostaglandin G 2 (PGG 2 ) and subsequently, prostaglandin H 2 (PGH 2 ). Depending on the tissue, physiological signal, and/or

synthase type, PGH 2 can be converted to numerous different prostaglandins, such as PGE 2 , PGD 2 , PGF 2 O, and PGI 2 as well as thromboxane A 2 , another eicosanoid signaling molecule These mediators then elicit a wide variety of physiological responses including vasoconstriction or dilation, platelet aggregation, calcium transport, pain sensitization, hormone release, inflammatory and immune response, and cellular growth

[00168] Prostaglandin D 2 is a major metabolite produced from the PGH 2 intermediate via hematopoietic PGD 2 synthase or lipocalin PGD 2 synthase In the bram and central nervous system, PGD 2 is produced and thought to function in pain perception and sleep regulation In other tissues, PGD 2 is produced primarily in immunoglobulin E (IgE) activated mast cells and to a lesser extent, in macrophages, dendritic cells, T helper 2 (T H 2) lymphocytes and other leukocytes In the cell, PGD 2 is rapidly metabolized and converted to other downstream effectors including A 12 PGJ 2 , 9αllβPGF 2 , 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGD 2 , and 15-deoxy-δ 1214 PGD 2 [00169] Mast-cell-denved PGD 2 is produced in high concentrations in response to an allergen challenge Studies in preclinical species have observed the following features when PGD 2 is applied to in vivo preparations, or its overproduction is engineered by genetic manipulation

-Vasodilatation leading to erythema (flare) and -potentiation of oedema (wheal)

-Recruitment of eosinophils and TH2 lymphocytes

-Modulation of TH2-cytokme production.

-Bronchoconstnction

[00170] Injection OfPGD 2 mto human skin has been shown to produce a long lasting erythema, to potentiate the effects of other mediators on induration and leukocyte infiltration in human skin and to enhance oedema formation in rat skin It is most likely that these effects OfPGD 2 , like those of other vasodilator prostaglandins, are due to an increased blood flow to the inflamed lesion and are, therefore, most likely to be mediated predominantly by the DP 1 receptor Although these observations make it clear that DF 1 mediates the vascular effects OfPGD 2 , the capacity OfPGD 2 to promote the cellular changes associated with inflammation is not due to an action on DPi [00171] The mam receptors that are activated by PGD 2 or its metabolites and mediate its effects are DP 1 , CRTH2 (or DP 2 ) and TP

[00172] DP 1 (or DP) is a G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane receptor that, upon activation by PGD 2 bmdmg, leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP levels DP 1 is expressed in the bram, bronchial smooth muscle, vascular and airway smooth muscle, dendritic cells, and platelets and induces PGD 2 dependent bronchodilation, vasodilation, platelet aggregation inhibition, and suppression of cytokine production Genetic analysis of DP, function using knock-out mice has shown that mice lacking DP do not develop asthmatic responses in an ovalbumin-mduced asthma model Analysis of selective DP anatgomsts in guinea pig allergic rhinitis models demonstrated dramatic inhibition of early nasal responses, as assessed by sneezing, mucosal plasma exudation

and eosinophil infiltration DP antagonism alleviates allergen-induced plasma exudation in the conjunctiva in a guinea pig allergic conjuctivitis model and antigen-induced esinophil infiltration into the lung in a guinea pig astma model

[00173] Much of the pro-inflammatory activity OfPGD 2 is through interaction with DP 2 (or CRTH 2 ) DP 2 is a G-protein coupled receptor and is typically highly expressed in T H 2 lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils DP 2 activation functions to directly activate and recruit T H 2 lymphocytes and eosinophils Activated TH2 lymphocytes produce and secrete inflammatory cytokines including DL4, IL5, and IL13 Despite binding PGD 2 with a similar affinity as DPi, DP 2 is not structurally related to DPi and signals through a different mechanism- the effects OfDP 2 are mediated through Gi-dependent elevation in intracellular calcium levels and reduction in intracellular levels of cyclic AMP DP 2 activation is important in eosinophil recruitment in response to allergic challenge in such tissues as nasal mucosa, bronchial airways, and skin The application of either PGD 2 or selective DP 2 agonists both exacerbate and enhance allergic responses in lung and skin. DP 2 activation appears to have a crucial role in mediating allergic responses, and thus the use of antagonists of PGD 2 activation of the DP 2 receptor are an attractive approach to treat the inflammatory component of allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis

[00174] TP receptors primarily function to antagonize DP, receptor's effects such as promoting bronchoconstnction, vasoconstriction, and platelet aggregation While TP receptor's mam hgand is thromboxane A 2 , it also binds and is activated by the PGD 2 derivative, 9αl 1 βPGF 2 TP is a Gq- coupled prostanoid receptor that binds thromboxane with high affinity, promoting platelet aggregation and constriction of both vascular and airway smooth muscle PGD 2 activates the TP receptor in human bronchial muscle, probably through the formation of the 11-ketoreductase metabolite 9αl 1 βPGF2 The bronchoconstπctor effects of TP dominate over the bronchodilator effects of DPi in the airways

[00175] DP] and DP 2 have crucial, and complementary, roles in the physiological response of animals to PGD 2 and blockade of either one or both of these receptors is expected to prove beneficial m alleviating allergic diseases or conditions triggered by PGD 2 , such as, but not limited to, allergic rhinitis, asthma, dermatitis, and allergic conjunctivitis Compounds

[00176] Compounds descπbed herein, which include compounds having the structure of any of Formula (I), Formula (H), Formula (III), Formula (HIa), Formula (HIb), Formula (IHc), Formula (Did), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VD), Formula (Vm), Formula (DC), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XII), Formula (Xπi), Formula (XTV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVT), Formula (XVH), and Formula (XVIII), including pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs, and pharmaceutically acceptable solvates thereof,

antagonize DP 2 and are used to treat patients suffering from PGBrdependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, including, but not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, and inflammatory conditions.

100177] In one aspect is a compound having the structure of Formula (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof, pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, and the use of such compounds to antagonize DP 2 and to treat patients suffering from PGD2-dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, including, but not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, and inflammatory conditions:

Formula (I) wherein, each of R A , R B , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7a and R 7b is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, - OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , - CH(R 21 )j, -N(R 2! ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C 1 - Cisalkyl, Ci-Qsfluoroalkyl, Ci-C 5 fluoroalkoxy, Q-Cβalkoxy, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-C 6 alkyl-C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, -Ci- Csalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, -^-Csalkyl-aryi, and -Ci-Qsalkyl-heteroaryl; or each of R A , R B , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7 ' and R 7 " is independently -X 1 -L 1 -Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond, -0-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -; L 1 is a bond or a an optionally substituted C ! -C 6 alkylene; Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)R 20 , -C(O)N(R 2I ) 2) -C(O)NHSO 2 R 20 , a carboxylic acid bioisostere, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl; each R s is each independently selected from H, halogen, C 1 -C 4 BIlCyI, and or both R 8 groups are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a C 3 -C 5 cycloalkyl;

Cy** is a nitrogen-containing heterocycle;

each R 20 is independently selected from d-C 6 alkyl, d-Ofceteroalkyl, -C,-C 6 alkyl-CO 2 H, C 1 - C^fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj- Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 21 is independently selected from H, C 1 -QaIlCyI, -C 1 -C 6 EIlCyI-CO 2 H, d-Cβheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Cjheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl

[00178] In one aspect, descπbed herein is a compound having the structure of Formula (X), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof, pharmaceutical compositions compπsing such compounds, and the use of such compounds to antagonize DP 2 and to treat patients suffering from PGDj-dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, including, but not limited to, asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, and inflammatory conditions

Formula (X) wherein, n= 1, 2, 3 or 4, each of R A , R B , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7a and R 7 * is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, OR 21 , -SR 20 , -Sf=O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(=O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , - CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 2I ) 2 , C 1 - Cδalkyl, Ci-Csfluoroalkyl, d-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, d-C δ alkoxy, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-Cβalkyl-Cs-Qocycloalkyl, -C 1 - Cβalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, -Ci-Qalkyl-aryl, and -d-Cealkyl-heteroaryl, or each of R A , R B , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7a and R n is independently -X^L 1 -Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -,

L 1 is a bond or a an optionally substituted Ci-C 6 alkylene,

Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)R 20 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(MD)NHSO 2 R 20 , a carboxylic acid bioisostere, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 4 alkyl, or both R 8 groups are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a Cj-Cβcycloalkyl,

R 22 is -O(K))R 24 , -C(O)OR 25 , -C(=O)N(R 26 ) 2 , or -S(O) 2 R 25 ,

R 24 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Q-Cefluoroalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C<ølkyl- cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl-aryl or an optionally substituted or

L 3 is a Ci-C 6 alkylene,

X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(=θ)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -,

Q 3 is an optionally substituted -Ci-Qfluoroalkyl an optionally substituted - C ϊ -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 1J aIlCyI-C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Q-C t alkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C βalkyl-aryl, or an optionally substituted -C]-C 6 alkyl-heteroaryl,

R 25 is C,-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Qjheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl- cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C«alkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Q-Cealkyl-aryl or an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-heteroaryl, each R 26 is independently H, -CN, Ci-Csalkyl, Q-Cyiuoroalkyl, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C3-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocyeloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-aryl or an optionally substituted -Ci-Qalkyl-heteroaryl, or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl,

R 20 is Ci-Qalkyl, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 - C 1( >cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted atyl, optionally substituted benzyl or optionally substituted heteroaiyl; and each R 21 is independently selected from H, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroaikyl, d-Qsfluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaiyl; or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl. [00179] In one aspect is a compound having the structure of Formula (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof:

Formula (J) wherein,

Q is tetrazolyl or -C(O)-Q 1 ;

Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN; each R 1 is independently H, halogen, Ci-C 4 alkyl, or Ci-C 4 haloalkyl, or both R 1 groups are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl; each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 2 ', -SR 20 , -S(K))R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R^) 2 , -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(OXJR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C-Qalkyl, C r C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-Csalkoxy, Q-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaiyl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-C 6 alkyl-C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, -Ci-Cβalkyl-aryl, and -Ci-Cβalkyl-heteroaryl; or

each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently -X'-L'-Q 2 , where,

X 1 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(=θ)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -,

L 1 is a bond or a Ci-Cβalkylene;

Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -CX=O)R 20 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -CC=O)NHSO 2 R 20 , an optionally substituted C 3 -C,ocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-Gjalkyl, and Ci-Ghaloalkyl, or both R 8 groups are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a

C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, A is -C(O)-, -C(R 1 V, -S(O) 2 , or -C(=NR 19 )-,

R 19 is H, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or -OR 22 , each R 14 is independently H, Ci-Qalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, or Ci-Grfialoalkyl, B is -O-, -S-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 1 V. each R 16 is independently H, Ci-C 4 alkyl, C i-C^eteroalkyl, or or

R 14 and R 21 are taken together to form a bond if A is -C(R 1 V and B is -NR 21 - provided that R 11 and R 13 are not taken together to form a bond, R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -CN, -C r C 6 alkyl, -Ci-Cβhaloalkyl, -Q-

Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-aryl, an optionally substituted -Cr

Cβalkyl-heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -C r C 6 alk> r l-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted aryl, or R' 0 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted monocyclic heterocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic heterocycle, R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-Cβalkyl, CrCshaloalkyl, and

Ci-C<jheteroalkyl, or

R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond, or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(O)-). each R 20 is independently selected from d-Qalkyl, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, -C-Csalkyl-COjH, C,-

Cβfluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -

Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl,

each R 21 is independently selected from H, Ci-C 6 alkyl, -d-Csalkyl-CX^H, d-Cyieteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 £luoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Csheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalltyl

[00180] For any and all of the embodiments, substituents can be selected from among from a subset of the listed alternatives For example, in some embodiments, Q is -C(O)-Q 1 , - SO 2 NHC(O)R 12 , or tetrazolyl In other embodiments, Q is -CX=O)-Q 1 , or tetrazolyl In other embodiments, Q is selected from -CO 2 H, -CO 2 Me, -CO 2 Et, -C(O)NH 2 , -C(O)NHOH, -

C(O)MI-CN, tetrazolyl, -C(O)-NHSO 2 R 12 , or ^ H H Jj 1 som e other embodiments, Q is selected from -CO 2 H, -CO 2 Me, -CO 2 Et, -C(O)NH 2 , -C(O)-NHSO 2 CH 3 , -C(O)-

NHSO 2 CH 2 CH 3 In other embodiments, Q is -C(O)-Q 1 In yet some other embodiments, Q is

CO 2 H

[00181] In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH 1 -OR 13 , -NHSO 2 R 12 , or -N(R 13 J 2 In other embodiments,

Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , or -NHSO 2 CH 3 In some other embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -

OCH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 3 In yet other embodiments, Q 1 is -OH

[00182] In alternative embodiments, each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, Ci-C 4 alkyl, and

Cι-Cφhaloalkyl, or both R 1 groups taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl or cyclohexyl

[00183] In some embodiments, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, F, C|-C 4 alkyl, and d-Cφhaloalkyl

[00184] In one aspect, each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and C^alkyl, and each R 8 is each independently selected from H, F, and Ci-Qalkyl In some other embodiments, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, F, and -CH 3 In one aspect, each R 8 is H

[00185] In some embodiments, each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and --CH 3 In some embodiments, one R 1 is H and the other R 1 is H or -CH 3

[00186] In some embodiments, Q is -C(O)-Q 1 , where Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -

NH-OH, or -NH-CN

[00187] In some embodiments, each R 1 is H, F, or C 1 -C 4 BJlCyI, and each R 8 is H, F, or -Ci-C 4 alkyl

[00188] In other embodiments, A is -C(O)- or -C(R 14 J 2 -, and B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 16 ) 2 - In some other embodiments, A is -C(O)-, and B is O-

[00189] In one aspect, Q is -C(O)-Q 1 , and the compound of Formula (I) has the structure of

Formula (IT)

(π)

[00190] In some aspects, each R 1 is H, F, or Ci-C 4 alkyl, and each R 8 is H, F, or -Ci-C 4 alkyl In one aspect, each R 1 is H, F, or -^CH 3 In one aspect, each R 8 is H, F, or -CH 3 [00191] In certain embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OR 20 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , or -N(R 21 ) 2 [00192] In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , -SR 20 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, CrQfluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 EIkOXy, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl

[00193] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , - C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(OPR 20 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 SuOrOaIlQrI, d-Cβfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or R 4 is — X'-lZ-Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond, or -O-, L 1 is a bond or a Q-Cβalkylene, Q 2 is - CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)R 20 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl [00194] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -CH(R 21 J 2 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 J 2 , -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 J, - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(OPR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 J 2 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, C-Cefluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, C 1 -QaIkOXy, CrCsheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-Cβalkyl-Cj-Ciocycloalkyl, - Ci-C 6 alkyl-heterocycloalkyl, -d-C 6 alkyl-aryl, and -Ci-C 3 alkyl-heteroaryl, or R 5 is-X'-lλQ 2 , where, X 1 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(OJ-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -, L 1 is a bond or a CrCsalkylene, Q 2 is - CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)R 20 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(O)NHSO 2 R 20 , an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl

[00195] In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , Or-OCH 2 CH 3 .

[00196] In certain embodiments, one R 1 is H and the other R 1 is H or -CH 3 .

[00197] In some embodiments, A is -C(=θ)-.

[00198] In other embodiments, Q 1 is -OH; and each R 8 is H.

[00199] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) or Formula (II) has the structure of Formula

(ID):

Formula (III).

[00200] In some embodiments, R 2 is H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Cβfluoroalkoxy, Ci-Cjalkoxy, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[00201] In some embodiments, each of R 3 , R* and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , C 1 -C J aIlCyI, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 6 QuOrOaIkOXy, C,-C 6 alkoxy, or Ci-Ceheteroalkyl. [00202] In other embodiments, R 6 is H. In some embodiments, R 7 is H. [00203] In some embodiments, R s is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 2 °, - Si=O) 2 K 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 2I ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , Ci-Cβalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 3 fluoroalkoxy, C-Cβalkoxy, Ci- Cϋheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted hcterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-C 6 alkyl- heterocycloalkyl, -Ci-Cβalkyl-phenyl, and -d-Cβalkyl-heteroaryl; or R 5 is-X'-L'-Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond or -O-; L 1 is a Ci-C 6 alkylene; Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , an optionally substituted C 3 - C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[00204] In some other embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 2 ', Ci-Cβalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-Cβalkoxy, Ci -Qjheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; or R 4 is -X 1 -L 1 -Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond, or -O-; L 1 is a Ci-C 6 alkylene; Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -

C(=O)N(R 2I ) 2 , an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an opUonally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl [00205] In alternative embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , i- propyl, -tBu, -CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -SC=O) 2 CH 3 , -S(=θ> 2 (optonally substituted phenyl), -C(=θ)-(optionally substituted phenyl), -CC=O)CH 3 , -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , -CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , - C(=O)NH 2> -CC=O)NH(CH 3 ), -CC=O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH(tBu), -C(=O)NH(iPr), - CC=O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), -CC=O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), - C(=O)NH(optionaUy substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl), -NHC(=O)CH 3 , -NHC(=θ)(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , - NHC(=0)NHCoρtionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted group selected from benzyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrohdinyl, pipeπdinyl, morphohnyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, phenyl, pyndinyl, pyrazuiyl, lmidazolyl, pyrazolyl, l-methylpyrazol-4-yl, lsoxazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, lmidazolyl and isoxazolyl

[00206] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , C 1 - C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 SuOrOaIlCyI, Ci-Cβfluoroalkoxy, C 1 -C 6 BIkOXy, Q-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, -O-Ci-C 4 alkylene-( optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl), -O-Ci-Gjaikylene-Can optionally substituted aryl), or -O-C 1 -C 4 alkylene-(an optionally substituted heteroaryl) [00207] In some embodiments, R 3 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CF 3 [00208] In certain embodiments, R 2 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , -CF 3 , or phenyl [00209] In other embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OOEfe-cyclopropyl, -OCH 2 CO 2 H, OBn, phenyl, l-Methyl-l/7-pyrazol-4-yl, or pyndinyl

[00210] In some other embodiments, R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -Ci- Cβalkyl, -Q-Cyialoalkyl, -Ci-Cyieteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-phenyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-Cmonocyclic heteroaryl), an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl- heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Q-Cβalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted phenyl, R" and R 13 are each independently selected from H, halogen, d-C 6 alkyl, d-Qhaloalkyl, and d-Csheteroalkyl, or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-) [00211] In yet other embodiments, R 10 is -H, -d-Qjalkyl, -C 1 -C 6 IwIOaIlCyI, or -Q-Ceheteroalkyl, R 12 is -H, -Crdalkyl, -Q-QJialoalkyl, -Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, an opUonally substituted -Ci-Gjalkyl- phenyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-CβalkyHmonocyclic heteroaryl), an optionally substituted - Ci-Cβalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -d-Cjalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl, R 11 and R 13 are each independently

selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cβhaloalkyl, and C r cyieteroalkyl; or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-). [00212] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-Qhaloalkyl, -Ci-Qsheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-phenyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(monocyclic heteroaryl), an optionally substituted -Ci-Cjalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Q- Csalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl; R 12 is -H, -Ci-C δ alkyl, -Ci-Cehaloalkyl, or -Ci-Ceheteroalkyl; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cihaloalkyl, and Ci-Cyieteroalkyl; or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-). [00213] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-Cjhaloalkyl, -Ci-Csheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-aryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl- cycloalkyl; or R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -d-C δ haloalkyl, -Ci-Csheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cjalkyl-phenyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Cp C δ alkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cβhaloalkyl, and Ci-Cyieteroalkyl; or R 10 and R 11 are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a carbonyl (-C(=θ)-). [00214] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -d-Cβalkyl, -Ci-Cjhaloalkyl, -Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-phenyl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl).

[00215] In some embodiments, R 10 is -H, -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-Cβhaloalkyl, or -Ci-Cβheteroalkyl. [00216] In some embodiments, R 12 is -H, -Ci-C 6 alkyl, -d-Cftaloalkyl, -Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-phenyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl-(monocyclic heteroaryl), an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, or an optionally substituted phenyl. [00217] In certain embodiments, B is -O-.

100218] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (T), Formula (II), or Formula (IH) has a structure selected from Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI) and Formula (VII):

Formula (VI) Formula (VII).

[00219] In one aspect, described herein is a compound of Formula (IV):

[00220] In one aspect, described herein is a compound of Formula (V):

(V)

[00221] In one aspect, described herein is a compound of Formula (VI):

[00222] In some embodiments, R 11 and R 13 are each H. 100223] In one aspect, described herein is a compound of Formula (VII):

[00224] In one aspect, described herein is a compound with a structure selected from:

Formula (HIa) Formula (IHb),

Formula (Hie) and Formula (iπd).

[00225] In some embodiments, R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle, an optionally substituted monocyclic heterocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic heterocycle; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, Ci- C^haloalkyl, and Ci-Cβheteroalkyl; or R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond. (002261 In some embodiments, R 10 and R 12 are taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocycle, or an optionally substituted bicyclic carbocycle; R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, Ci-Cβalkyl, Q- Cehaloalkyl, and Ci-Qheteroalkyl; or R 11 and R 13 are taken together to form a bond. 100227] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (I) has the structure of Formula (VHI) or Formula (DQ:

Foπnula (VIII) Foπnula (K) wherein:

B is -O-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 1 V; m is O or 1; n is 0 or 1; provided that m-t-n = 1 or 2; y is O, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

R 11 and R 13 are each independently selected from H, C 1 -C 6 BIlCyI, Q-Cehaloalkyl, and C r Qsheteroalkyl,

R 30 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , - OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(O)N(R 21 ^, -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , - NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , C)-C 6 alkyl, C 1 - Cjfluoroalkyl, Ci-Cβfluoroalkoxy, Cj-Cβalkoxy, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic hcteroaryl. In one aspect, compound has the structure

wherein:

R 11 and R" are each H,

R 30 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , - CO 2 R 21 , -N(R 2I ) 2 , -C(O)N(R 21 ),, C,-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Qfluoroalkyl, d-C t fluoroalkoxy, C 1 -QaIkOXy, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[00229] In one aspect, described herein is a compound of Formula (HI), pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutically acceptable solvate, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug thereof :

Formula (HI) wherein, each R 1 is independently H, halogen, or Ci-C4alkyl; each OfR 2 , R 3 , and R 4 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , d-Csalkyl, Ci-Qfluoroalkyl, C 1 -C 6 IlUOrOaIkOXy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C $ heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl;

R 5 is halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -SC=O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , - OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 J 2 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 2 ')* Q-Coalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, C 1 - C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-dsalkyl-Cj-Ciocycloalkyl, -Ci-C 6 alkyl- heterocycloalkyl, -Ci-Cβalkyl-aryl, or -Ci-Qsalkyl-heteroaryl; or each OfR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R s , R 6 , and R 7 is independently -X^-Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -; L 1 is a bond or a Ci-C 6 alkylene;

Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)R 20 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(O)NHSO 2 R 20 , an optionally substituted C 3 -C !0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl;

B is -0-, -NR 21 -, or -C(R 1 V; each R 16 is independently H, Ci-C,alkyl, Ci-GJieteroalkyl, or Ci-G t haloalkyl;

R 10 and R 12 are each independently selected from -H, -CN, -Cj-Qjalkyl, -d-Cehaloalkyl, - Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-aryl, an optionally substituted

-Ci-Csalkyl-heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cjalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocyoloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, and an optionally substituted aryl, each R 20 is independently selected from Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, -Ci-C 6 alkyl-CO 2 H, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 21 is independently selected from H, d-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-C 6 aUcyl-CO 2 H, C 1 - Cjheteroalkyl, C 1 -C 6 IlUOrOaIlSyI, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Cgheterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl

[00230] In some embodiments, R 5 is F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(O)N(R 21 J 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(OpR 20 , Ci-C f ialkyl, C-Cyiuoroalkyl, C r C<ifluoroalkoxy, d-Cβalkoxy, C 1 - Cjheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted CyCiocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-C δ alkyl-Cs-Ciocycloalkyl, -Ci-C 6 alkyl- heterocycloalkyl, -Q-Qjalkyl-aryl, and -Ci-Cjalkyl-heteroaryl, or R s IS-X'-L'-Q 2 , where, X 1 is a bond or -O-, L 1 is a Q-Csalkylene, Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 J 2 , an optionatty substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl

[00231] In some other embodiments, one R 1 is H and the other R 1 is H, or -CH 3 [00232] In some embodiments, each of R 2 and R 3 is independently H, halogen, -OH, Ci-C 6 alkyl, d-Cβfluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, d-Csalkoxy, or Ci-Qheteroalkyl [00233] Lu certain embodiments, R 4 is independently H, halogen, -OH, -OR 21 , Ci-C«alkyl, Ci- C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Cβfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl [002341 In yet other embodiments, B is O-, -NR 21 -, or -CH 2 -

[00235] In some embodiments, R s is F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , l-propyl, -tBu, - CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 CH 3 , -S(0) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(O)- (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(O)CH 3 , -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , -CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)NH 2 , -

C(=O)NH(CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(=O)NH(tBu), -C(=O)NH(iPr), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), ■ C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), -C(=θ)NH(σptionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl), - NHC(O)CH 3 , -NHC(0)(optionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , - NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted group selected from benzyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholiny], phenyl, pyridinyl, pyrazinyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, l-methylpyrazol-4-yl, isoxazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl and isoxazolyl.

[00236] In one aspect, described herein is a compound having the structure of Formula (X), pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutically acceptable solvates, or pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs thereof:

Formula (X) wherein, n= 1, 2, 3 or 4;

Q is tetrazolyl or -C(O)-Q 1 ;

Q 1 is -OH, OR 21 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NH-OH, or -NH-CN; each R 1 is independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 4 alkyl, and Ci-GJialoatkyl; or both R 1 groups taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C 3 - C s cycloalkyl; each of R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , - SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , - CH(R 21 J 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 ^, - 0C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 J 2 , Q-Qalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-Csalkoxy, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-C 3 alkyl-C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, -Ci- Csalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, -Ci-Cβalkyl-aryl, and -Ci-C 6 alkyl-heteroaryl; or each ofR 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently -X'-L'-Q 2 , where,

X 1 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -;

L 1 is a bond or a C r C 4 alkylene,

Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)R 20 , -C(O)N(R 21 ^, -C(O)NHSO 2 R 20 , an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, halogen, Ci-C 4 alkyl, and Ci-Qhaloalkyl, or both R 8 groups are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl,

R 22 is -CC=O)R 24 , -C(=O)OR 25 , -CC=O)N(R 26 )!, -S(O) 2 N(R 26 ) 2 or -S(O) 2 R 25 ,

R 24 is Ci-Cjalkyl, d-Cβfluoroalkyl, d-Ceheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - CiαcycloaUkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -d-Cβalkyl- cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -d-Cβalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -d-Csalkyl-aryl or an optionally substituted -Ci-Qalkyl-heteroaryl, or

L 3 is a Ci-C 6 alkylene,

X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -,

Q 3 is an optionally substituted -d-Cβalkyl, -Ci-Cjfluoroalkyl an optionally substituted - C3-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C δ alkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -C 1 -C 6 alkyl-aryl, or an optionally substituted -C 1 -C 6 alkyl-heteroaryl,

R 25 is C 1 -C 6 BIlCyI, d-Cβfluoroalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 - C I0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -d-C 6 alkyl- cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -CrQalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl-aryl or an optionally substituted -Ci-C 6 alkyl-heteroaryl, each R 26 is independently H, -CN, d-Cβalkyl, d-Csfluoroalkyl, C-Csheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Cκ>cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -d-Qalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -d-Cβalkyl- heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Csalkyl-aryl or an optionally substituted -Ci-C δ alkyl-heteroaryl, or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl,

R 20 is Ci-Cealkyl, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, d-Cfluoroalkyl, optionally substituted C 3 -

Ciocycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted benzyl or optionally substituted heteroaryl, and each R 21 is independently selected from H, d-Qjalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substiUited drCiocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted benzyl, and an optionally substituted heteroaryl, or two R 21 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl [00237J In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OR 21 , -NHSO 2 R 20 , or -N(R 21 ) 2 , each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and Ci-C 4 alkyl, or both R 1 groups taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl or cyclohexyl, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, F, and [00238] In one aspect, n is 1

[00239] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (X) has the structure of Formula (XI)

Formula (XI)

[002401 In some embodiments, Q 1 is -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CaI 3 , or -NHSO 2 CH 3 [00241] In some embodiments, each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and Ci-C 4 alkyl, each R 8 is each independently selected from H, F, and Ci-C 4 alkyl [00242] In some other embodiments, each R 8 is H

[00243] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (X) or Formula (XT) has the structure of Formula (XII)

Formula (XII)

[00244] In some embodiments, each R 1 is independently selected from H, F, and -CH 3 . In some other embodiments, each R 1 is H.

[00245] In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 , and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , -S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -C 1 - C 6 alkyl, C r C 6 fluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, Ci-Qfluoroalkoxy, Ci-C δ alkoxy, Ci-Ceheteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl.

[00246] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 J 2 , C,-C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 SuOrOaIlCyI, an optionally substituted an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, CrQfluoroalkoxy, C 1 - Cβalkoxy, Q-C ό heteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; or R 4 is -X^-h'-Q 1 , where, X 1 is a bond, or -O-; L 1 is a bond or a Ci-C 4 alkylene; Q 2 is - CO 2 R 13 , an optionally substituted C^-Cscycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[00247] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, halogen, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(O)R 20 , -OC(O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 21 , -CH(R 21 ) 2 , -N(R 21 J 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)N(R 21 J 2 , -OC(O)N(R 21 J 2 , -NHC(O)NH(R 21 ), - NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(O)OR 20 , -C(OH)(R 21 ) 2 , -C 1 -QaIkJd, d-Qfluoroalkyl, an optionally substituted Cj-Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, C t -Qfluoroalkoxy, C 1 - Cβalkoxy, Ci-C f jheteroalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-Qalkyl-Ca-Qocycloalkyl, - C 1 -C 6 alkyl-heterocycloalkyl, -d-Qalkyl-aryl, and -Ci-Qalkyl-heteroaryl; or R 5 is independently - X'-V-tf, where, X 1 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -; L 1 is a bond or a C 1 - C^alkylene; Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(O)R 20 , -C(O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -C(OJNHSO 2 R 20 , an optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted aryl, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl. [00248] In one aspect, the compound of Formula (X), Formula (XI), or Formula (XH) has the structure of Formula (XIII), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV) or Formula (XVI):

Formula (XIII), Formula (XIV),

Formula (XV), Formula (XVI).

[00249] In some embodiments, R 24 is d-Csalkyl, Ci-Cjfluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl > an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -Ct-Cβalkyl-phenyl or an optionally substituted -Ci-Qalkyl-heteroaryl; or R 24 is L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ; L 3 is a C-CWkylene; X 3 is a bond, -O-, -S-, -S(=θ>, -S(O) 2 -, or -NR 21 -; Q 3 is an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl, -Ci-C«fluoroalkyl an optionally substituted -C 3 - Cjocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -heterocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted Ci-Qalkyl-C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted C 1 -C δ alkyl-phenyl, or an optionally substituted Ci-C βalkyl-heteroaryl. [00250] In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-Cβalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted - or an optionally substituted -Ci-CβalkyHmonocychc heteroaryl); or R 24 is L 3 - X 3 -Q 3 ; L 3 is a Ci-C β alkylene; X 3 is a bond, or -O-;Q 3 is an optionally substituted C r C 6 alkyl, C 1 - C 6 fluoroalkyl an optionally substituted C 3 -Cjocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted Ci-Cβalkyl-Cr Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl-phenyl, or an optionally substituted Ci-C 6alkyl-(monocychc heteroaryl).

[00251] In some embodiments, R 24 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-Cjfluoroalkyl, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-phenyl; or R 24 is L 3 -X 3 -Q 3 ; L 3 is a C 1 - Cβalkylene; X 3 is a bond, or -O-; Q 3 is an optionally substituted C r C 6 alkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted d-Csalkyl-phenyl

[00252] In some embodiments, R 2S is Q-Cealkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, d-Cβheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ci 0 cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaiyl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cealkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -d-C 6 alkyl-phenyl or an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-heteroaryl.

[00253] In some other embodiments, R 25 is d-C 6 alkyl, d-Cόfluoroalkyl, d-Qfteteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -Ci-Cβalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted - Ci-Cβalkyl-phenyl or an optionally substituted -Ci-CsalkyHmonocyclic heteroaryl). [00254] In yet other embodiments, R 25 is C 1 -QaUCyI, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionally substituted -Ci-Cealkyl-phenyl.

[00255] In some embodiments, each R 26 is independently H, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Cheteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -d-Qalkyl-cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted -d-C 6 alkyl-phenyl or an optionally substituted -Ci-Cjalkyl-heteroaryl; or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl.

[00256] In some embodiments, each R 26 is independently H, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, d-Csfluoroalkyl, d-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, an optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, an optionally substituted -C 1 -Calkyl -phenyl or an optionally substituted -C ι-C 6 alkyl-( monocyclic heteroaryl); or two R 26 groups attached to the same N atom are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl.

[00257] In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -CN, -OH, - OR 21 , C,-C 6 alkyl, Cλalkoxy, d-Cfluoroalkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoioalkoxy, or Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl. [00258] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH, -OR 21 , -SR 20 , -S(=O)R 20 , - S(O) 2 R 20 , -C(^O)R 20 , -OC(=O)R 20 , -CO 2 R 21 , -OCO 2 R 20 , -N(R 21 ) 2 , -NHCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , - OCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -SCH 2 CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -OC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2> -NHC(O)R 20 , -NHC(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , -Ci-Csalkyl, -Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, Ci-Qsalkoxy, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl, an optionally substituted C 3 -Ciocycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl, or an optionally substituted group selected from among -Ci-Cealkyl-CrCiocycloalkyl, -Ci-Csalkyl-heterocycloalkyl, -d-Qalkyl-phenyl, and -d-Cβalkyl-Cmonocyclic heteroaryl).

[00259] In some embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -OH, -OR 21 , -d-Csalkyl, C,- Cβfluoroalkyl, C,-C 6 fluoroalkoxy, d-Cjalkoxy, Ci-Cβheteroalkyl; or R 4 is -X^L'-Q 2 , where, X 2 is

-O-; L 1 is a C r C 4 alkylene; Q 2 is -CO 2 R 21 , -C(=O)R 20 , -C(=O)N(R 21 ) 2 , optionally substituted C 3 - Cβcycloalkyl, an optionally substituted phenyl, or an optionaUy substituted monocyclic heteroaryl. [00260] In some embodiments, each of R 2 , R 3 , R 6 and R 7 is independently H, halogen, -OH, Cr Cβalkyl, Ci-Cβalfcoxy, or Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl.

[00261] In some embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -OH -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , i-propyl, - tBu, -CF 3 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 3 , -OCF 3 , -S(O) 2 CH 3 , -S(=θ) 2 (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(O)- (optionally substituted phenyl), -C(O)CH 3 , -CO 2 H, -CO 2 CH 3 , -CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)NH 2 , - C(O)NH(CH 3 ), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), -C(O)NH(tBu), -C(O)NH(iPr), -C(O)NH(CH 2 CF 3 ), - C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 ), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), -C(0)NH(optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl), -C(=O)NH(optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl), - NHC(O)CH 3 , -NHC(OXoptionally substituted phenyl), -NHC(O)NH 2 , - NHC(0)NH(optionally substituted phenyl), or an optionally substituted group selected from benzyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, moφholinyl, piperazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, phenyl, pyridinyl, pyrazinyl, unidazolyl, pyrazolyl, l-methylpyrazol-4-yl, isoxazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl and isoxazolyl.

[00262] In alternative embodiments, R 4 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CN, -OH, -Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 fluoroalkyl, d-Qfluoroalkoxy, d-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-Csheteroalkyl, -O-C,-C 4 alkylene-CO 2 R 21 , -O-Ci-C,alkylene- C(=O)N(R 2 ') 2 , -O-C]-C 4 alkylene-( optionally substituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl), -O-C r C 4 alkylene-(an optionally substituted aryl), or -O-Ci-C 4 alkylene-(an optionally substituted heteroaryl). [00263] In some other embodiments, R 5 is H, F, Cl, Br, -CH 3 , -CF 3 , -C(O)NH(CH 2 CH 3 ), - NHC(O)(CH 2 CH 3 ), -SO 2 CH 3 , phenyl, 4-fluoroρhenyl, 2-methoxyphenyl, 3-niethoxyphenyl, 4- methoxyphenyl, pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridin-4-yl, 5-amino-pyrazin-2-yl, pyrazol-1-yl, IH- pyrazol-4-yl, l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl, 3-methyl-3H-imidazol-4-yl, or 2-methyl-3H-imidazol-4- yi.

[00264] In some embodiments, each of R 6 and R 7 is H. [00265] In one aspect is a compound of Formula (XIH):

[00266] In one aspect is a compound of Formula (XTV):

Formula (XIV). [00267] In one aspect is a compound of Formula (XV):

[00268] In one aspect is a compound of Formula (XVI):

Formula (XVI).

[002691 In one aspect, the variables of Formula (I), (ITl, (ID), (DIa), (HIb), (IHc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VHI), (IX), (X), (XI), (XH), (Xm) 1 (XIV), (XV), (XVT), (XVII), and (XVIII) are as described in Tables 1 through 9.

[002701 Any combination of the groups described above for the various variables is contemplated herein.

[00271] Ih one aspect, compounds of Formula (I), Formula (II), Formula (HI), Formula (HIa), Formula (HIb), Formula (HIc), Formula (HId), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VII), Formula (VIII), Formula (IX), Formula (X), Formula (XT), Formula (XII), Formula (XHI), Formula (XIV). Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH), and Formula (XVm) include,

but are not limited to, those described in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7, Table 8 and Table 9 Table 1:

[00272] Compounds in Table 1 are named

[e-Methoxy^'^-oxo-oxazohdin-S-ylmethyO^'-tπfluoromethyl- biphenyl-S-yy-acetic acid (Compound 1-1), [4-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-oxazolidui-3-ylmethyl)-4'-tnfluoromethy l-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 1-2), [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazo]idin-3- ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-3), [4'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4- methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 1-4), [6,4- Dimethoxy^'^S.SRJ^-methyl^-oxo-S-phenyl-oxazolidin-S-yhnethy y-biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 1-5), [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidm-3-ylmethyl)-4 '-

tafluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 1-6), [4-Fluoro-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2- oxo-S-phenyl-oxazolidin-S-ylmethyO-^-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl -S-ylj-acetic acid (Compound 1- T), [^Methoxy-^^S.SR^methyW-oxo-S-phenyl-oxazolidm-S-ylmethy^^'- tπfluoromeihyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-8), [6-Fluoro-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazohdin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-aceti c acid (Compound 1-9), [6- Methoxy^'^S.SRJ^-methyl-l-oxo-S-phenyl-oxazolidin-S-ylmethy^ ^'-tπfluoromethyl- biphβnyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-10), [6-Methoxy-2'-((4R,5S)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazohdm-S-ylmethyl^'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yLI-acetic acid (Compound 1-11), 2-[6- Methoxy-2^(4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmet hyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-propionic acid (Compound 1-12), {2'-[(4S,5R)-5-(3,5-Bis-tπfluoromethyl-phenyl)- 4-methyl-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoro methyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 1-13), [6-Ethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-y lmethyl)-4'- tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-14), [6-Cyclopropylmethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)- (Compound 1-15), [6-Carboxymethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazol idm-3- ylmethyO^'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyW-ylj-acetic acid (Compound 1-16), [6-Benzyloxy-2'- ((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4 1 -tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 1-17), [6-(4-Chloro-benzyloxy)-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazolidin-S-ylmethylJ^'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-aceti c acid (Compound 1-18), [2 n - ((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazohdin-3-ylmethyl)-4"-t fluoromethyl- [l,l',2M"]terphenyl-4'-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-19), [2'-((4S > 5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-plienyl- oxazohdin-S-ylmethyy-β-pyπdin-S-yM'-tnfluoromethyl-bipheny l-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 1- 20), [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)- 6-(l-methyl-l/f-pyrazol-4-yl)- 4'-tnfluoiomethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 1-21) Table 2;

[00273] Compounds m Table 2 are named

[6-Methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5κiioxo^phenyl-iπύdazoli< iin-l-ylmethyl)-4'-tnfluciroinethyl- biρhenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 2-1); [2'-(3-Carboxymethyl-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-ρhenyl- imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyI-biphet iyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 2- 2). Table 3:

[00274] Compound in Table 3 is named: tβ-Methoxy^'^-methyl^.S-dihydro-imidazol-l-ylmethylJ^'-trif luoroniethyl-biphenyl-S-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 3-1). Table 4:

[00275] Compounds in Table 4 are named

[2^3-Benzyl-2-oxo-iinidazohdin-l-ylmethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-tπf luoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-1), [6-Methoxy-2'-(3-methyl-2-oxo-iππdazohdin-l-ylmethyl)-4'- tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-2); [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-imidazolidin-l- ylmethyl)-4'-tπfluoromethyl-bφhenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-3), [2'-(3-Benzyl-2-oxo- lmidazolidin-l-ylmethyO-S-chloro^'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S -yy-acetic acid (Compound 4-4), [S-Chloro^MS-methyl-l-oxo-imidazolidm-l-ylmethylH'-tnfluorom ethyl-biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 4-5), [5-Chloro-2'-(2-oxo-imidazolidm-l-ylmethyl)-4'-tnfluoromethy l-biphenyl- 3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-6), [2'-(3-Benzyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-5'-fluoro-6- methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-7), [5'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2'-(3-methyl-2-oxo- imidazohdin-l-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-8), [5'-Fhιoro-6-methoxy-2'-(2- oxo-umdazolidm-l-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 4-9), [2'-(3-Benzyl-2-oxo- imidazolidin-l-ylmethyl)-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-ac etic acid (Compound 4-10), [2'-(3- Methyl-2-oxo-iπndazolidin-l -ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound (Compound 4-12) Table 5:

[00276] Compounds in Table 5 are named

{3-[4-Bromo-2-(2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-ylmetb.yl)-phenyl]-phei iyl}-acetic acid (Compound 5-1), and (3-{4-Bromo-2-[4-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-oxo-pyrrolidm-l-ylmethy l]-phenyl}-phenyl)-acetic acid (Compound 5-2) Table 6:

[00277] Compounds in Table 6 are named

{3-[4-Bromo-2-((R)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3afl-indeno[l,2-d]oxaz ol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-phenyl}- acetic acid (Compound 6-1), {3-[4-Bromo-2-((3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a#-indeno[l,2- rfjoxazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-ρhenyl}-acetic acid (Compound 6-2), {3-[2-((3aS,8aR)-2-Oxo-8,8a- dλydro-SaH-uidenotl^-^oxazol-S-ylrnethyO^-tπfluorornethyl- phenyll-phenylJ-acetic acid (Compound 6-3), {3-[4-Bromo-2-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aff-indeno[l ,2-<Ioxazol-3- ylmemyl)-phenyl]-4-methoxy-phenyl} -acetic acid (Compound 6-4), {3-[4-Bromo-2-((3aS,8aR)-2- oxo-8,8a-dώydro-3//-indeno[l,2-rf]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl ]-4-methoxy-phenyl}-acetic acid (Compound 6-5), {4-Methoxy-3-[2-((3R,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a/f-nideno[l,2 -rf]oxazol-3- ylmethyl)-4-tπfluoromethyl-phenyl]-phenyl} -acetic acid (Compound 6-6), {3-[2-(2-θxo-4,8b- dihydro-3aff-indeno[2, 1 -ώJoxazol-S-ylmethyl^trrfluoromethyl-phenyy-phenyll-acetic acid (Compound 6-7), [6-Methoxy-2'-((S)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a// ' -indeno[l,2-rf]oxazol-3-ylmetliyl)- 4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 6-8), [6-Fluoro-2'-((3aS,8aR)-2-oxo- δ.Sa-dihydro-SaH-mdeiiotl^-rfioxazol-S-ylmethylH'-tπiluoro methyl-biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 6-9), [6-Fluoro-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3ai/-indeno[l,2-d ]oxazol-3- ylmethyl)-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biρhenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 6-10) Table 7:

[00278] Compound in Table 7 is named:

[6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-ben2OOxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoro metliyl-bipheiiyl-3-yl]-acetio acid (Compound 7-1).

Table 8:

[00279] Compounds in Table 8 are named

{2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-metJiyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoiomethyl-bip henyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-1), {I'-KAcetyl-amino^methylj-δ-fluoro^'-tπfluoromethyl-biphen yl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 8-2), 2-{2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-b iphenyl-3-yl}- propiomc acid (Compound 8-3), {2'-[l-(Acetyl-ammo)-ethyl]-6-methoxy-4 l -tπiluoiomethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-4), {2'-[(methoxycarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-5),{2'-[(Benzyloxycarbonyl-ammo)- methyl]-6-fluoro-4'-tnfluoiomethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-6), (2'-{[(2,2^- tnfluoro-acetyl)-amino]-πiethyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoiOmethy l-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-7), {2'-[(Cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tπfl uoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-8), {2'-[(Benzyloxycarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 4'-tπfiuoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-9), 2-{[Acetyl-amino]-methyl}-5'- carboxymethyl-2'-me&oxy-biphenyl-4-caiboxyhc acid (Compound 8-10), (2'-{[(3,5-Dichloro- benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluorometh yl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-11), (2'-{[(2-Chloro-ben2yloxycarbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy- 4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-12), (2'-{[(3,5-Difluoro- benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluorometh yl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-13), (2'-{[(4-fluoro-benzyloxycarbonyl)-amuio]-methyl}-6-methoxy- 4'- tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-14), (2'-{[(4-Chloro-ben2yloxycarbonyl> annno]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-a cetic acid (Compound 8-15), (2 1 - {[(S-C^hloro-benzyloxycarbonylJ-aminol-methylJ-ό-meth.oxy^' -tπfluoiOmethyl-biphenyl-S-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-16), [2'-({[l-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-ethoxycarbonyl]-amino}-metliyl)-6 - methoxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 8-17), (2'-{[(2-phenoxy- propionyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphe nyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-18), (2'-{[(2-methoxy-acetyl>amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tπfl uoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-19), {2'-[3-(2-Bromo-phenyl)-ureidometliyl]-6-methoxy-4 l -

tafluoromethyl-biρhenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-20), (2'-{[(2-phenoxy-acetyl)-ammo]- methyl}-6-methoxy-4Miifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-21), {2'-[(Acetyl- aminoJ-methylJ^'-bromo-ό-methoxy-biphenyl-S-y^-acetic acid (Compound 8-22), {4'- Acetylamino-2'-t(acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-biphenyl-3- yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-23), {I'-KAcetyl-ammoJ-methylJ-δ-methoxy-ψ-pyrazoH-yl-biphenyl- S-ylϊ-acetic acid (Compound 8- 24), {2 l -[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl-bipheny l-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-25), (2'-{[Acetyl-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-bφ henyI-3-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-26), {2'-[(Acetyl-aπuno)-methyl]-6-cyclopropyl-4'-tπ£luorometh yl- biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-27), {2'-[(Acetyl-anuno)-methyl]-6,4'-bis- tafluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-28), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-4- methyl-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biρhenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-29), {4'-Acetylanuno-2'- [(acetyl-aminoJ-methylJ-δ-methoxy-biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid (Compound 8-30), {2'-[(Acetyl- amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-methoxycarbonylamino-biphenyl-3- yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8- 31), {2H(Acetyl-atnmo)-methyl]-4'-methanesulfonylamnio-6-methoxy- bipb.enyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-32), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-4'-methanesulfonyl-6-methoxy-bi henyl-3-yl}- acetic acid (Compound 8-33), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyrrolidin-l-yl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-34), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyrazol- l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-35), {^-[(Acetyl-aminoJ-methyy^'-cyclopropyl-ό- methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-36), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino>methyl]-6-methoxy- [l,r,4',l"]teφhenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-37), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy- 4'-oxazol-2-yl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-38), [2'-[(Acetyl-aπnno)-methyl]-6- methoxy^'-(lff-pyrazol-4-yl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 8-39), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)- methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-pyπdm-2-yl-biρhenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-40), {2 1 - [(Cyclopropoxycarbonyl-aminoVmethyy-β-methoxy^'-tπfluoiome thyl-biphenyl-S-ylj-acetic acid (Compound 8-41), [2'-(3-methyl-ureidomethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biph enyl-3-yl]- acetic acid (Compound 8-42), {2'-[(Cyclopropanecarbonyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-43), {2'-[(Cyclopentanecarbonyl-amino)- methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-44), {2- [(Benzoyl-ammo)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl -3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8- 45), (^-{[(pyndme^-carbonyy-anunoJ-methylJ-β-methoxy^'-tπfluoro methyl-biphenyl-S-yl)- acetic acid (Compound 8-46), (2'-{[(pyrazine-2-carbonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'- tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-47), (2'-{[(l-methyl-lfl-pyrazole-3- carbonyl)-aπuno]-methyl}-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biphe nyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8- 48), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-5'-bromo-6-memoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8- 49), {5'-AcetylanMno-2'-[(acetyl-anuno)-methyl]-6-methoxy-bipheny l-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-50), {2'-[(Acetyl-amnio)-methyl]-6-methoxy-5'-methoxycarbonylanun o-biphenyl-3-

yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-51), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-5 t -methanesulfonylamino-6- methoxy-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-52), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-inethoxy- 5'-pyiτolidin-l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-53), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6- methoxy-5'-pyrazol-l-yl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid (Compound 8-54), {2'-[(Acetyl-amino)- methyl]-3'-methanesulfonyl-6-methoxy-biρhenyl-3-yI}-acetic acid (Compound 8-55), {2 1 - [(Acetyl-amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-bipheny l-3-yl}-difluoro-acetic acid (Compound 8-56), (2'- {[(2-Benzyloxy-acetyl)-ammo]-methyl} -6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-57), [2'-({[2-(4-Chloro-phenoxy)-acetyl]-amino}- methyl)-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 8-58), [2'-(3-Benzyl- 3-ethyl-ureidomethyl)-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl- 3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 8-59), ^'-(S-Benzyl-ureidomethyO-δ-methoxy^'-tπfluoromethyl-biphe nyl-S-yll-acetic acid (Compound 8-60), (^-{[(pyrrolidme-l-carbonylJ-aminoJ-methylJ-ό-methoxy^'-tπ fluoromethyl-biphenyl-S- yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-61),[2X3-Cyano-iu:eidcinethyl)-6-memoxy-4'-tafluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 8-62), (2'-{[(4-Chloro-benzenesulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-6- methoxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid (Compound 8-63), {2'-[(Methanesulfonyl- amino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid (Compound 8-64) Table 9:

Cmpd # R 1 R a R 3 R 4 R 5 R« R 22 Q

9-1 H H H OCH 3 CF, H -C(O)CH 3 -C(O)NHSO 2 CH 3

[00280] Compound in Table 9 is named

λ/-[5'-(2-methanesulfonylamino-2-oxo-etliyl)-2'-metlioxy -4-tπfluoromethyl-biplienyl-2-ylmethyl]- acetamide (Compound 9-1) Synthesis of Compounds

|00281] Compounds described in the pπor section are synthesized using standard synthetic techniques or using methods known in the art in combination with methods descnbed herein In additions, solvents, temperatures and other reaction conditions presented herein may vary [00282] The starting material used for the synthesis of the compounds descnbed herein are synthesized or obtained from commercial sources, such as, but not limited to, Aldπch Chemical Co (Milwaukee, Wis ), or Sigma Chemical Co (St Louis, Mo ) The compounds described herein, and other related compounds having different substiruents are synthesized using known

techniques and materials, including those found in March, ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 4* Ed , (Wiley 1992), Carey and Sundberg, ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 4 th Ed , VoIs A and B (Plenum 2000, 2001), and Green and Wuts, PROTECTIVE GROUPS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS 3 rd Ed , (Wiley 1999) General methods for the preparation of compounds can be modified by the use of appropriate reagents and conditions for the introduction of the vaπous moieties found in the formulae as provided herein [00283] In certain embodiments, compounds described herein are prepared accorduig to Scheme 1

[00284] In one aspect, esters of 3-halophenyl acetic acids of structure I are reacted with a borylating agent using transition metal mediated reaction conditions to form boronate compounds of structure II Benzyl halides of structure m are reacted with heterocycles of structure IV to form benzyl heterocycles of structure V Boronate compounds of structure π are reacted with benzyl heterocycles of structure V under palladium mediated coupling conditions to form biaryl compounds of structure VI The ester group of biaryl compounds of structure VI is then hydrolyzed to form carboxyhc acid compounds of structure VII

[00285] Other metal mediated coupling reactions to form biaryls include, but are not limited to Suzuki reactions, Stille cross couplings, Negishi couplings, Kumada couplings, Ullmann reactions, Hiyama Coupling, and variants thereof (Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Couplmg Reactions, Armin de Meijere (Editor), Francois Diedench (Editor), John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition, 2004, Ozdemir, et al , Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 9791-9798, Ackermann, e/ al, Org Lett , 2006, 8, 3457-3460, Blakey,

etal, J Am Chem Soc , 2003, 125, 6046-6047, Dai, etal Org Lett , 2004, 6, 221-224, Yoshikai, etal, J Am Chem Soc , 2005, 127, 17978-17979, Tang, etal, J Org Chem , 2006, 71, 2167-2169, Murata, etal, Synthesis, 2001, 2231-2233)

[00286] In certain embodiments, compounds described herein are prepared according to Scheme 2 Scheme 2:

[00287] In one aspect, esters of 3-halophenyl acetic acids of structure 2-1 are reacted with a borylaling agent using transition metal mediated reaction conditions to form boronate compounds of structure 2-π Boronate compounds of structure 2-11 are reacted with protected 2- halobenzylamines of structure 2-111 under palladium mediated coupling conditions to form biaryl compounds of structure 2-IV Biaryl compounds of structure 2-IV are reacted with tπfluoracetic acid to provide benzyl amines of structure 2-VI Benzyl amines of strucutre 2-VI are then reacted with acid chlorides of structure 2-VII to form amides of structure 2- VIU. The ester group of amides of structure 2-Vm is then hydrolyzed to form carboxylic acid compounds of structure 2- IX

[00288] In some embodiments, benzyl amines of structure 2-VI are reacted with, but not limited to, a carboxyhc acid and coupling reagent such as EDC, DCC, BOP, HATU or the like, or a carboxylic acid activated ester or an acid halide, alkylchloroformate, arylchloroformate, benzylchloroformate, alkylisocyanate, benzylisocyanate, arylisocyanate, alkylsulfonyl chloride, aiylsulfonyl chloπde, heteroarylsulfonyl chloride, or the like in dichloromethane, dichloroethane, tetrahydrofuran, dimethoxyethane or the hke in the presence of a hindered base such as

triethylaπnne, dϋsopropylethylamine, N-methylmorphohne, pyridine or the like, to afford compounds described herein.

[00289] Carbamates of structure 2-XI are prepared as outlined in Scheme 3-

Scheme 3:

[00290] Reaction of benzyl amines of structure 2-VI with chloro formates of structure 2-X provide carbamates, which after hydrolysis of the ester moiety, provide carbamates of structure 2-XI. Methods for the preparation of carbamates are known, such as described herein or in reference texts such as, but not limited to, Greene, T.W. and Wuts, P.G.M "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 3rd Edition, p 549, New York: Wiley, 1999 In one aspect, alkylamines (benzyl amines of structure 2-VI) are treated with phosgene or a phosgene equivalent, such as, for example, tπchloromethyl chloroformate or carbonyldiimidazole, to yield an intemediate, which is then treated with a hydroxy containing compound R 2S -OH to provide carbamates of structure 2-XI. [00291] The synthesis of sulfonamides of structure 2-XIII is depicted in Scheme 4- Scheme 4:

[00292] Reaction of benzyl amines of structure 2-VI with sulfonyl chlorides of structure 2-XII provides sulfonamides that are then treated with NaOH to provide sulfonamides of structure 2- xm

[00293] The synthesis of ureas of structure 2-XIV is depicted in Scheme 5: Scheme 5:

[00294] Reaction of benzylamines of structure 2-IV with isocyanates or carbamoyl chlorides provides ureas of structure 2-XIV after hydrolysis of the ester group. Common methods for the synthesis of isocyanates include the Curtius rearrangement of acyl azides and the Lossen rearrangement of hydroxamic acids.

[0029S] In cases where R 5 is a halide or other leaving group (such as, but not limited to -OTfJ, metal mediated coupling reactions are used to introduce other groups at R ! , such as, but not limited to aryl groups, heteroaryl groups, heterocycloalkyls, and the like. Metal mediated coupling reactions include, but are not limited to Suzuki reactions, Stille cross couplings, Negishi couplings, Kumada couplings, Ullmann reactions, Hiyama Coupling, and variants thereof (Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions, Armin de Meijere (Editor), Francois Diederich (Editor), John Wiley & Sons; 2nd edition, 2004; Ozdemir, et al, Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 9791-9798; Ackeπnann, et al, Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 3457-3460; Blakey, etal, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 6046-6047, Dai, et al, Org. Lett., 2004, 6, 221-224; Yoshikai, etal, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2005, 127, 17978-17979; Tang, etal, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 2167-2169; Murata, etal., Synthesis, 2001, 2231-2233). Formation of Covalent Linkages bv Reaction of an Electrophile with a Nncleophile [00296] In certain embodiments, the compounds described herein are modified using various electrophiles or nucleophiles to form new functional groups or substituents. Table I entitled "Examples of Covalent Linkages and Precursors Thereof lists selected, non-limiting examples of covalent linkages and precursor functional groups that are used to prepare the modified compounds. Precursor functional groups are shown as electrophilic groups and nucleophilic groups. Table I: Examnles of Covalent Linkages and Precursors Thereof

Use of Protecting Groups

[00297] In the reactions described, it is necessary in certain embodiments to protect reactive functional groups, for example hydroxy, amnio, lmuio, thio or carboxy groups, where these are desired m the final product, to avoid their unwanted participation in the reactions Protecting groups are used to block some or all reachve moieties and prevent such groups from participating rn chemical reactions until the protective group is removed In one embodiment, each protective group is removable by a different means A detailed description of protecting groups and techniques applicable to the creation of protecting groups and their removal are described m Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3rd Ed , John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1999, and Kocienski, Protective Groups, Thieme Verlag, New York, NY, 1994, which are incorporated herein by reference for such disclosure Further Forms of Compounds

[00298] In certain embodiments, compounds described herein are prepared as a pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt (which is a type of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt) by reacting the free base form of the compound with a pharmaceutically acceptable inorganic or organic acid, including, but not limited to, inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitnc acid, phosphonc acid metaphosphonc acid, and the like, and organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, hexanoic acid, cyclopentanepropionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, fumanc acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, tartaric acid, tπfluoroacetic acid, citnc acid, benzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, arylsulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, 1,2- ethanedisulfonic acid, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfomc acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4-methylbicyclo-[222]oct-2-ene-l-carboxylic acid, glucoheptonic acid, 4,4'-methylenebis- (3-hydroxy-2-ene-l -carboxyhc acid), 3-phenylpropionic acid, tπmethylacetic acid, tertiary butylacetic acid, lauryl sulfuπc acid, gluconic acid, glutamic acid, hydroxynaphthoic acid, salicylic acid, stearic acid, and muconic acid

[00299] By "pharmaceutically acceptable," as used herein, refers to a material, such as a earner or diluent, which does not abrogate the biological activity or properties of the compound, and is relatively nontoxic, i e , the material may be administered to an individual without causing undesirable biological effects or interacting in a deleterious manner with any of the components of the composition in which it is contained

[00300] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to a formulation of a compound that does not cause significant irritation to an organism to which it is administered and does not abrogate the biological activity and properties of the compound In some embodiments, pharmaceutically acceptable salts are obtained by reacting a compound described herein with acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, mtπc acid, phosphonc acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfomc acid, salicylic acid and the like Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are also obtained by reading a compound described herein with a base to form a salt such as an ammonium salt, an alkali metal salt, such as a sodium or a potassium salt, an alkaline earth metal salt, such as a calcium or a magnesium salt, a salt of organic bases such as dicyclohexylamine, iV-methyl-D-glucamine, tns(hydroxymethyl)rnethylarnine, and salts with amino acids such as argimne. lysine, and the like

[00301] In other embodiments, compounds described herein are prepared as a pharmaceutically acceptable salts by reacting the free acid form of the compound with a pharmaceutically acceptable inorganic or organic base, including, but not limited to organic bases such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, tnethanolamine, tromethamine, N-methylglucamine, and the like, or with an inorganic base such as aluminum hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and the like

[00302] It should be understood that a reference to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt includes the solvent addition forms or crystal forms thereof, particularly solvates or polymorphs Solvates contain either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometπc amounts of a solvent, and are optionally formed during the process of crystallization with pharmaceutically acceptable solvents such as water, ethanol, and the like Hydrates are formed when the solvent is water, or alcoholates are formed when the solvent is alcohol Solvates of compounds described herein are conveniently prepared or formed during the processes descπbed herein By way of example only, hydrates of compounds descπbed herein are conveniently prepared by recrystalhzation from an aqueous/organic solvent mixture, usmg organic solvents including, but not limited to, dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, ethanol, or methanol In addition, the compounds provided herein can exist in unsolvated as well as solvated forms Li general, the solvaled forms are considered equivalent to the unsolvated forms for the purposes of the compounds and methods provided herein [00303] In yet other embodiments, the compounds descnbed herein are prepared m various forms, including but not limited to, amorphous forms, milled forms and nano-particulate forms In addition, compounds descnbed herein include crystalline forms, also known as polymorphs Polymorphs include the different crystal packing arrangements of the same elemental composition of a compound Polymorphs usually have different X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectra, melting points, density, hardness, crystal shape, optical and electrical properties, stability, and solubility Various factors such as the recrystalhzation solvent, rate of crystallization, and storage temperature may cause a single crystal form to dominate

[00304] In some embodiments, compounds descπbed herein are prepared as prodrugs A "prodrug" refers to an agent that is converted into the parent drug in vtvo Prodrugs are often useful because, in some situations, they are easier to administer than the parent drug They are, for instance, be bioavailable by oral administration whereas the parent is not The prodrug may also have improved solubility in pharmaceutical compositions over the parent drug An example, without limitation, of a prodrug would be a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (π), (III), (HIa),

(nib), (me), (Hid), (IV), (v), (VD, (vii), (vm), (ix), (x), (xi), (xπ), (xπn, pαv), (xv), (xvn,

(XVH), or (XVHI), which is administered as an ester (the "prodrug") to facilitate transmittal across a cell membrane where water solubility is detrimental to mobility but which then is metabolically hydrolyzed to the carboxylic acid, the active entity, once inside the cell where water-solubility is beneficial A further example of a prodrug might be a short peptide (polyaminoacid) bonded to an acid group where the peptide is metabolized to reveal the active moiety [00305] Prodrugs are generally drug precursors that, following administration to a subject and subsequent absorption, are converted to an active, or a more active species via some process, such as conversion by a metabolic pathway Some prodrugs have a chemical group present on the prodrug that renders it less active and/or confers solubility or some other property to the drug

Once the chemical group has been cleaved and/or modified from the prodrug the active drug is generated. Prodrugs are often useful because, in some situations, they are easier to administer than the parent drug. In certain embodiments, the prodrug of a compound described herein is bioavailable by oral administration whereas the parent is not. Furthermore, in some embodiments, the prodrug of a compound described herein has improved solubility in pharmaceutical compositions over the parent drug.

[00306] In other embodiments, prodrugs are designed as reversible drug derivatives, for use as modifiers to enhance drug transport to site-specific tissues. In specific embodiments, the design of prodrugs to date is to increase the effective water solubility of the therapeutic compound for targeting to regions where water is the principal solvent. (Fedorak et al, Am. J. Physiol., 269:G21Q-218 (1995); McLoeά etal, Gastroenterol, 106:405-413 (1994); Hochhaus et al., Biomed. Chrom., 6:283-286 (1992); J. LarsenandH. Bundgaard, Int. J. Pharmaceutics, 37, 87 (1987); J. Larsen et al, Int. J. Pharmaceutics, 47, 103 (1988); Sinkula et al, J. Pharm. Sd., 64:181-210 (1975); T. Higuchi and V. Stella, Prodrugs as Novel Delivery Systems, Vol. 14 of the A.C.S. Symposium Series; and Edward B. Roche, Bioreversible Carriers in Drug Design, American Pharmaceutical Association and Pergamon Press, 1987).

[00307] By way of example only, in one aspect appropriate prodrugs are prepared by reacting a non-derivatized compound described herein with a suitable carbamylating agent, such as, but not limited to, 1,1-acyloxyalkylcarbanochloridate, para-nitrophenyl carbonate, or the like. (Saulnier et al, (1994), Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol. 4, p. 1985). Prodrug forms of the herein described compounds, wherein the prodrug is metabolized in vivo to produce a derivative as set forth herein are included within the scope of the claims. Indeed, some of the herein-described compounds are a prodrug for another derivative or active compound.

[00308] In some embodiments, sites on the aromatic ring portion of compounds described herein are susceptible to various metabolic reactions Therefore incorporation of appropriate substituents on the aromatic ring structures will reduce, minimize or eliminate this metabolic pathway. In specific embodiments, the appropriate substituent to decrease or eliminate the susceptibility of the aromatic ring to metabolic reactions is, by way of example only, a halogen, or an alkyl group. [00309] In another embodiment, the compounds described herein are labeled isotopically (e.g. with a radioisotope) or by another other means, including, but not limited to, the use of chromophores or fluorescent moieties, bioluminescent labels, or chemiluminescent labels. [00310] In yet another embodiment, the compounds described herein possess one or more stereocenters and each center exists independently in either the R or S configuration. The compounds presented herein include all diastereomeric, enantiomeric, and epimeric forms as well as the appropriate mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments, compounds described herein are prepared as their individual stereoisomers. In certain embodiments, compounds described herein

are prepared as their individual stereoisomers by reacting a racemic mixture of the compound with an optically active resolving agent to form a pair of diastereoisomenc compounds, separating the diastereomers and recovering the optically pure enantiomers In some embodiments, resolution of enantiomers is earned out using covaleπt diastereomenc derivatives of the compounds descnbed herein In other embodiments, dissociable complexes are utilized (e g , crystalline diastereomenc salts) Diastereomers have distinct physical properties (e g , melting points, boiling points, solubilities, reactivity, etc ) and are, in specific embodiments, separated by taking advantage of these dissimilarities In these embodiments, the diastereomers are separated by chiral chromatography or by separation/resolution techniques based upon differences m solubility The optically pure enantiomer is then recovered, along with the resolving agent, by any practical means that does not result in racemization Jean Jacques, Andre Collet, Samuel H Wilen, "Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions", John Wiley and Sons, Inc , 1981

[00311) Additionally, in certain embodiments, the compounds provided herein exist as geometric isomers The compounds and methods provided herein include all cis, trans, syii, anti, entgegen (E), and zusammen (Z) isomers as well as the appropriate mixtures thereof In some embodiments, the compounds descnbed herein exist as tautomers All tautomers are intended to be within the scope of the molecular formulas descnbed herein In additional embodiments of the compounds and methods provided herein, mixtures of enantiomers and/or diastereoisomers, resulting from a single preparative step, combination, or lnterconversion are envisioned Certain Chemical Terminology

[00312] Unless otherwise stated, the following terms used in this application, including the specification and claims, have the definitions given below It must be noted that, as used m the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise Unless otherwise indicated, conventional methods of mass spectroscopy, NMR, HPLC, protein chemistry, biochemistry, recombinant DNA techniques and pharmacology are employed In this application, the use of "or" or "and" means "and/or" unless stated otherwise Furthermore, use of the term "including" as well as other forms, such as "include", "includes," and "included," is not limiting

[00313] An "alkoxy" group refers to a (alkyl)θ- group, where alkyl is as defined herein [00314] An "alkyl" group refers to an aliphatic hydrocarbon group The alkyl moiety is optionally a "saturated alkyl" group, which means that it does not contain any units of unsaturation (e g carbon-carbon double bonds or carbon-carbon tnple bonds) The alkyl moiety is also optionally an "unsaturated alkyl" moiety, which means that it contains at least one unit of unsaturation The alkyl moiety, whether saturated or unsaturated, may be branched, straight chain, or cyclic The point of attachment of an alkyl is at a carbon atom that is not part of a nng

[00315] The "alkyl" moiety may have 1 to 10 carbon atoms (whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as "1 to 10" refers to each integer in the given range, e g , "\ to 10 carbon atoms" means that the alkyl group may consist of 1 carbon atom, 2 carbon atoms, 3 carbon atoms, etc , up to and including 10 carbon atoms, although the present definition also covers the occurrence of the term "alkyl" where no numerical range is designated) The alkyl group of the compounds described herein may be designated as "Ci-C 4 alkyl" or similar designations By way of example only, "C 1 -C 4 alkyl" indicates that there are one to four carbon atoms m the alkyl chain. In one aspect, the alkyl chain is selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, iso- propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, and t-butyl Typical alkyl groups include, but are in no way limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, tertiary butyl, pentyl, hexyl, allyl, vinyl, propenyl, butenyl, but-2-enyl, but-3-enyl, cyclopropylmethyl, cyclobutylmethyl, cyclopentylmethyl, cyclohexylmethyl, and the like In one aspect, an alkyl is a Ci-C 6 alkyl [00316] The term "alkylamine" refers to the -N(alkyl) x H y group, where x and y are selected from the group x=l, y=l and x=2, y=0 In some embodiments, when x=2 and y=0, the alkyl groups taken together with the ntrogen atom to which they are attached form a cyclic πng system. [00317] An "amide" is a chemical moiety with formula -C(O)NHR or -NHC(=O)R, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl (bonded through a πng carbon) and heteroalicyclic (bonded through a πng carbon) An amide may be an amino acid or a peptide molecule attached to a compound described herein thereby forming a prodrug Any amine, or carboxyl side chain on the compounds described herein is optionally amidified, as desired See, e g , Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3" 1 Ed , John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1999, is incorporated herein by reference for such disclosure [00318] The term "aromatic" refers to a planar πng having a delocalized π-electron system containing 4n+2 π electrons, where n is an integer Aromatic rings can be formed from five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or more than ten atoms Aromatics are optionally substituted The term "aromatic" includes both carbocyclic aryl ("aryl", e g , phenyl) and heterocyclic aryl (or "heteroaryl" or "heteroaromatic") groups (e g , pyndine) The term includes monocyclic or fused- nng polycyclic (1 e , rings which share adjacent pairs of carbon atoms) groups [00319] The term "carbocychc" refers to a πng or πng system where the atoms forming the backbone of the πng are all carbon atoms The term thus distinguishes carbocyclic from heterocyclic rings in which the ring backbone contains at least one atom which is different from carbon Carbocycles include C 3 -Ciocarbocycles Carbocycles include monocyclic carbocycles and bicychc carbocycles Monocyclic carbocycles include C 3 -C 8 carbocycles Bicyclic carbocycles include CrCiocarbocycles

[00320] As used herein, the term "aryl" refers to an aromatic πng wherein each of the atoms forming the πng is a carbon atom. Aryl nngs are formed by five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or

more than ten carbon atoms. In one aspect, and aryl is a C 6 -Cioaryl. Aryl groups are optionally substituted. Examples of aryl groups include, but are not limited to phenyl, and naphthalenyl. In one aspect, aryl is phenyl. Depending on the structure, an aryl group can be a monoradicai or a diradical (i.e., an arylene group).

[00321] The term "carboxylic acid bioisostere" refers to a functional group or moiety that exhibits similar physical and/or chemical properties as a carboxylic acid moiety. A carboxylic acid bioisostere has similar biological properties to that of a carboxylic acid group. A compound with a carboxylic acid moiety can have the carboxylic acid moiety exchanged with a carboxylic acid bioisostere and have similar physical and/or biological properties when compared to the carboxylic acid-containing compound. For example, in one embodiment, a carboxylic acid bioisostere would ionize at physiological pH to roughly the same extent as a carboxylic acid group. Examples of bioisoteres of a carboxylic acid include, but are not limited to, and the like.

[00322] The term "cycloalkyl" refers to a monocyclic or polycyclic aliphatic, non-aromatic radical, wherein each of the atoms forming the ring (i.e. skeletal atom.) is a carbon atom. Cycloalkyls may be saturated, or partially unsaturated. Cycloalkyls may be fused with an aromatic ring, and the point of attachment is at a carbon that is not an aromatic ring carbon atom. Cycloalkyl groups include groups having from 3 to 10 ring atoms. Illustrative examples of cycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, the following moieties:

and the like. In some embodiments, cycloalkyl groups are selected from among cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl. In some embodiments, bicyclic cycloalkyl groups are

selected from among indanyl, indenyl, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalenyl Cycloalkyl groups may be substituted or unsubstituted Depending on the structure, a cycloalkyl group can be a monoradical or a diradical Diradical cycloalkyls, also known as cycloalkylene group, include but are not limited to, cyclopropan-l,l-diyl, cyclobutan-l,l-diyl, cyclopentan-l,l-diyl, cyclohexan- 1,1-diyl, cycloheptan-l,l-diyl, and the hke

[00323] The term "ester" refers to a chemical moiety with formula -COOR, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl (bonded through a πng carbon) and heteroalicyclic (bonded through a πng carbon) Any hydroxy, or carboxyl side chain on the compounds described herein is estenfied, if desired Examples of procedures and specific groups to make such esters are found in sources such as Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3" 1 Ed , John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1999

[00324] The term "halo" or, alternatively, "halogen" or "nahde" means fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo

[0032S] The term "haloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by one or more halide atoms In one aspect, a haloalkyl is a Ci-Qhaloalkyl [00326] The term "fluoroalkyl" refers to a alkyl in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by a fluorine atom. In one aspect, a fiuoralkyl is a C^-Qfiuoroalkyl Examples of fluoroalkyls include, -CF 3 , -CHF 2 , -CH 2 F, -CH 2 CF 3 and -CF 2 CF 3

[00327] The term "heteroalkyl" refers to an alkyl group in which one or more skeletal atoms of the alkyl are selected from an atom other than carbon, e g , oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus or combinations thereof In one aspect, heteroalkyl refers to an alkyl group in which one of the skeletal atoms of the alkyl is oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur In another aspect, heteroalkyl refers to an alkyl group in which one of the skeletal atoms of the alkyl is oxygen In one aspect, a heteroalkyl is a Ci-C 6 heteroalkyl

[00328] The term "heterocycle" refers to heteroaromatic and heteroalicyclic groups containing one to four heteroatoms each selected from O, S and N, wherein each heterocyclic group has from 4 to 10 atoms in its πng system, and with the proviso that the πng of said group does not contain two adjacent O or S atoms Non-aromatic heterocyclic groups mclude groups having only 3 atoms m their nng system, but aromatic heterocyclic groups must have at least 5 atoms in their πng system. The heterocyclic groups include benzo-fiised πng systems An example of a 3-membered heterocyclic group is aziπdinyl An example of a 4-membered heterocyclic group is azetidinyl An example of a 5-membered heterocyclic group is thiazolyl An example of a 6-membered heterocyclic group is pyπdyl, and an example of a 10-membered heterocyclic group is qumolmyl Monocyclic heterocycles include 3 to 6 atoms m its πng system. Bicychc heterocycles include 8 to I Q atoms in its πng system. Examples of non-aromatic heterocyclic groups are pyrrolidmyl, tetrahydrofiiranyl, dihydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, oxazolidinonyl, tetiahydropyranyl,

dihydropyranyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, piperidino, morpholino, thiomorpholino, thioxanyl, piperazinyl, aziridinyl, azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, homopiperidinyl, oxepanyl, thiβpanyl, oxazepinyl, diazepinyl, thiazepinyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, 2-pyrrolinyl, 3-pyrrolinyl, indolinyl, 2H-pyranyl ( 4H-pyranyl, dioxanyl, 1,3-dioxolanyl, pyrazolinyl, dithianyl, dithiolanyl, dihydropyranyl, dihydrothienyl, dihydrofuranyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, 3- azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, 3H-indolyl and quinolizinyl. Examples of aromatic heterocyclic groups are pyridinyl, imidazolyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, pyrazinyl, tetrazolyl, fiiryl, thienyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, oxazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyrrolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, cinnolinyl, indazolyl, indolizinyl, phthalazinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, isoindolyl, pteridinyl, purinyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, furazanyl, benzofurazanyl, benzothiophenyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoxazolyl, quinazolinyl, quinoxalinyl, naphthyridinyl, and furopyridinyl. The foregoing groups, as derived from the groups listed above, may be C-attached or //-attached where such is possible. For instance, a group derived from pyrrole may be pyrrol-1-yl (JV-attached) or pyrrol-3-yl (C-attached). Further, a group derived from imidazole may be imidazol-1-yl or imidazol-3-yl (both Af-attached) or imidazol-2-yl, imidazol-4-yl or imidazol-5-yl (all C-attached). The heterocyclic groups include benzo-fused ring systems. Non-aromatic heterocycles may ber substituted with one or two oxo (=O) moieties, such as pyrrolidin-2-one.

[00329] The terms "heteroaryl" or, alternatively, "heteroaromatic" refers to an aromatic group that includes one or more ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Illustrative examples of heteroaryl groups include the following moieties:

O. . O.Q N . -O.O ^-^ . an a d ι t h he α like. M An N iV-contai .ni.ng

"heteroaromatic" or "heteroaryl" moiety refers to an aromatic group in which at least one of the skeletal atoms of the ring is a nitrogen atom. In one aspect, the heteroaryl is a Ci-Cioheteroaryl. In another aspect, the heteroaryl is a QrCDheteroaryl. hi some cases, the heteroaryl includes at least one N atom in the ring. In one aspect, monocyclic heteroaryl is a Ci-Csheteroaryl. In one aspect, bicyclic heteroaryl is a C 5 -Cioheteroaryl.

[00330] A "heterocycloalkyl" or "heteroalicyclic" group refers to a cycloalkyl group that includes at least one heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. The radicals may be fused with an aryl or heteroaryl. Illustrative examples of heterocycloalkyl groups, also referred to as non- aromatic heterocycles, include:

I αn som>e embo .d σiments£, the hete .roocyctfloalkyl i σs selec?ted fr°om , o oxazotlidinon.y ol, pyrrrolidinyl, . tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, piperazinyl, and indolinyl. The term heteroalicyclic also includes all ring forms of the carbohydrates, including but not limited to the monosaccharides, the disaccharides and the oligosaccharides. In one aspect, a heterocycloalkyl is a C 2 -

Cioheterocycloalkyl. In another aspect, a heterocycloalkyl is a C 4 -Cioheterocycloalkyl.

[00331] The term "bond" or "single bond" refers to a chemical bond between two atoms, or two moieties when the atoms joined by the bond are considered to be part of larger substructure.

[00332] A "cyano" group refers to a -CN group.

[00333] The term "membered ring" includes any cyclic structure. The term "membered" is meant to denote the number of skeletal atoms that constitute the ring. Thus, for example, cyclohexyl, pyridinyl, pyranyl and thiopyranyl are 6-membered rings and cyclopentyl, pyrrolyl, furanyl, and thiophenyl are 5-membered rings.

[00334] The term "moiety" refers to a specific segment or functional group of a molecule.

Chemical moieties are often recognized chemical entities embedded in or appended to a molecule.

[00335] A "sulfonyl" group refers to a -S(O) 2 -.

[00336] The term "acyclic" refers to a moiety wherein the point of attachment of the moiety to the rest of the molecule is at an atom that is not part of a ring. Non-limiting examples of acyclic groups include alkyl, haloalkyls, heteroalkyl, alkoxy, benzyl, and the like.

[00337] The term "cyclic" refers to a moiety wherein, the point of attachment to the rest of the molecule is at an atom that is part of a ring Non-hmiting examples of cyclic groups include cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and the like

[00338] The term "optionally substituted" or "substituted" means that the referenced group may be substituted with one or more additional group(s) individually and independently selected from alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroakcychc, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, alkylthio, arylthio, alkylsulfoxide, arylsulfoxide, alkylsulfone, arylsulfone, cyano, halo, carbonyl, thiocarbonyl, mtro, haloalkyl, fluoroalkyl, and amino, including mono- and di-substituted amino groups, and the protected derivatives thereof By way of example an optional substituents include hahde, -CN, - NO 2 , or LjR s , wherein each L 1 is independently selected from a bond, -O-, -C(O)-, -C(O)O-, -S-, -S(=θ)-, -S(O) 2 -, -NH-, -NHC(=0>, -C(O)NH-, S(O) 2 NH-, -NHS(O) 2 , OC(O)NH-, - NHC(O)O-, -(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), or -(C 2 -C 6 alkenyl), and each R, is independently selected from H, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocycloalkyl In one aspect, substituted groups are substituted with one or more substituents selected from halogen, -OH, -OC]- Gjalkyl, Q-C 4 BIlCyI, Ci-Qheteroalkyl, Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl and In yet another aspect, substituted groups are substituted with one or more substituents selected from F, Cl, Br, - OH, -OCH 3 , -CH 3 , and -CF 3 In yet other embodiments, substituted groups are substituted with one or more substituents selected from F, Cl, and Br In one aspect, substituted groups are substituted with one, two, or three of the preceding groups In one aspect, substituted groups are substituted with one of the preceding groups The protecting groups that form the protective derivatives of the above substituents include those found in sources such as Greene and Wuts, above

[00339] In certain embodiments, the compounds presented herein possess one or more stereocenters and each center independently exists in either the R or S configuration The compounds presented herein include all diastereomenc, enantiomeric, and epimenc forms as well as the appropπate mixtures thereof Stereoisomers are obtained, if desired, by methods such as, the separation of stereoisomers by chiral chromatographic columns [00340] The methods and formulations described herein include the use of JV-oxides (if appropriate), crystalline forms (also known as polymorphs), or pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds having the structure of compounds described herein, as well as active metabolites of these compounds having the same type of activity In some situations, compounds exist as tautomers All tautomers are included within the scope ofthe compounds presented herein In specific embodiments, the compounds described herein exist in solvated forms with pharmaceutically acceptable solvents such as water, ethanol, and the like In other embodiments, the compounds descπbed herein exist in unsolvated form

Certain Pharmaceutical and Medical Terminology

[00341] The term "acceptable" with respect to a formulation, composition or ingredient, as used herein, means having no persistent detrimental effect on the general health of the subject being treated

[00342] The term "modulate," as used herein, means to interact with a target either directly or indirectly so as to alter the activity of the target, including, by way of example only, to enhance the activity of the target, to inhibit the activity of the target, to limit the activity of the target, or to extend the activity of the target

[00343] The term "modulator," as used herein, refers to a molecule that interacts with a target either directly or indirectly The interactions include, but are not limited to, the interactions of an agonist, partial agonist, an inverse agonist and antagonist In one embodiment, a modulator is an antagonist

[00344] The term "agonist," as used herein, refers to a molecule such as a compound, a drug, an enzyme activator or a hormone modulator that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell An agonist mimics the action of an endogenous ligand (such as prostaglandin, hormone or neurotransmitter) that binds to the same receptor

[0034S] The term "antagonist," as used herein, refers to a molecule such as a compound, which diminishes, inhibits, or prevents the action of another molecule or the activity of a receptor site

Antagonists include, but are not limited to, competitive antagonists, non-competitive antagonists, uncompetitive antagonists, partial agonists and inverse agonists

[00346] Competitive antagonists reversibly bmd to receptors at the same binding site (active site) as the endogenous ligand or agonist, but without activating the receptor

[00347] Non-competitive antagonists (also known as allosteπc antagonists) bind to a distinctly separate binding site from the agonist, exerting their action to that receptor via the other binding site Non-competitive antagonists do not compete with agonists for binding The bound antagonists result in a decreased affinity of an agonist for that receptor, or alternatively prevent conformational changes in the receptor required for receptor activation after the agonist binds

[00348] Uncompetitive antagonists differ from non-competitive antagonists in that they require receptor activation by an agonist before they can bind to a separate allosteric binding site

[00349] Partial agonists are defined as drugs which, at a given receptor, might differ m the amplitude of the functional response that they elicit after maximal receptor occupancy Although they are agonists, partial agonists can act as a competitive antagonist if co-administered with a full agonist, as it competes with the full agonist for receptor occupancy and producing a net decrease in the receptor activation observed with the full agonist alone

[00350] An inverse agonist can have effects similar to an antagonist, but causes a distinct set of downstream biological responses Constitutively active receptors which exhibit intrinsic or basal

activity can have inverse agonists, which not only block the effects of binding agonists like a classical antagonist, but inhibit the basal activity of the receptor.

[00351] The term "PGD 2 -dependent", as used herein, refers to conditions or disorders that would not occur, or would not occur to the same extent, in the absence OfPGD 2 .

[00352] The term "PGD 2 -mediated", as used herein, refers to refers to conditions or disorders that might occur in the absence of PGD 2 but can occur in the presence OfPGD 2 .

[00353] The term "asthma" as used herein refers to any disorder of the lungs characterized by variations in pulmonary gas flow associated with airway constriction of whatever cause (intrinsic, extrinsic, or both; allergic or non-allergic). The term asthma may be used with one or more adjectives to indicate cause.

[00354] The term "rhinitis" as used herein refers to any disorder of the nose in which there is inflammation of the mucous lining of the nose by whatever cause (intrinsic, extrinsic or both; allergic or non-allergic).

[00355] The term "bone disease,' as used herein, refers to a disease or condition of the bone, including, but not limited to, inapproriate bone remodeling, loss or gain, osteopenia, osteomalacia, oεteofibrosis, and Paget's disease.

[00356] The term "cardiovascular disease," as used herein refers to diseases affecting the heart or blood vessels or both, including but not limited to: arrhythmia (atrial or ventricular or both); atherosclerosis and its sequelae; angina; cardiac rhythm disturbances; myocardial ischemia; myocardial infarction; cardiac or vascular aneurysm; vasculitis, stroke; peripheral obstructive arteriopathy of a limb, an organ, or a tissue; reperfusion injury following ischemia of the brain, heart or other organ or tissuejendotoxic, surgical, or traumaticshock; hypertension, valvular heart disease, heart failure, abnormal blood pressure; shock; vasoconstriction (including that associated with migraines); vascular abnormality, inflammation, insufficiency limited to a single organ or tissue..

[00357] The term "cancer," as used herein refers to an abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread). The types of cancer include, but is not limited to, solid tumors (such as those of the bladder, bowel, brain, breast, endometrium, heart, kidney, lung,lymhatic tissue (lymphoma), ovary, pancreas or other endocrine organ (thyroid), prostate, skin (melanoma) or hematological tumors (such as the leukemias).

[00358] The term "carrier," as used herein, refers to relatively nontoxic chemical compounds or agents that facilitate the incorporation of a compound into cells or tissues.

[00359] The terms "co-administration" or the like, as used herein, are meant to encompass administration of the selected therapeutic agents to a single patient, and are intended to include treatment regimens in which the agents are administered by the same or different route of administration or at the same or different time.

[00360] The term "dermatological disorder," as used herein refers to a skin disorder Such dermatological disorders include, but are not limited to, proliferative or inflammatory disorders of the skin such as, atopic dermatitis, bullous disorders, collagenoses, contact dermatitis eczema, Kawasaki Disease, rosacea, Sjogren-Larsso Syndrome, urticaria

[00361] The term "diluent" refers to chemical compounds that are used to dilute the compound of mterest pnor to delivery Diluents can also be used to stabilize compounds because they can provide a more stable environment Salts dissolved in buffered solutions (which also can provide pH control or maintenance) are utilized as diluents m the art, including, but not limited to a phosphate buffered saline solution.

[00362] The terms "effective amount" or "therapeutically effective amount," as used herein, refer to a sufficient amount of an agent or a compound being administered which will relieve to some extent one or more of the symptoms of the disease or condition being treated The result can be reduction and/or alleviation of the signs, symptoms, or causes of a disease, or any other desired alteration of a biological system For example, an "effective amount" for therapeutic uses is the amount of the composition comprising a compound as disclosed herein required to provide a clinically significant decrease in disease symptoms An appropπate "effective" amount in any individual case is determined using techniques, such as a dose escalation study [00363] The terms "enhance" or "enhancing," as used herein, means to increase or prolong either in potency or duration a desired effect Thus, m regard to enhancing the effect of therapeutic agents, the term "enhancing" refers to the ability to increase or prolong, either in potency or duration, the effect of other therapeutic agents on a system. An "enhancing-effective amount," as used herein, refers to an amount adequate to enhance the effect of another therapeutic agent in a desired system

[00364] The terms "fibrosis" or "fibrosing disorder," as used herein, refers to conditions that follow acute or chrome inflammation and are associated with the abnormal accumulation of cells and/or collagen and include but are not limited to fibrosis of individual organs or tissues such as the heart, kidney, joints, lung, or skin, and includes such disorders as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

[00365] The term "iatrogenic" means a PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 -mediated condition, disorder, or disease created or worsened by medical or surgical therapy

[00366] The term "inflammatory disorders" refers to those diseases or conditions that are characterized by one or more of the signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function (temporary or permanent) Inflammation takes many forms and includes, but is not limited to, inflammation that is one or more of the following acute, adhesive, atrophic, catarrhal, chronic, cirrhotic, diffuse, disseminated, exudative, fibrinous, fibrosing, focal, granulomatous, hyperplastic, hypertrophic, interstitial, metastatic, necrotic, obhterative, parenchymatous, plasbc, productive,

proliferous, pseudomembranous, purulent, sclerosing, seroplastic, serous, simple, specific, subacute, suppurative, toxic, traumatic, and/or ulcerative Inflammatory disorders further include, without being limited to those affecting the blood vessels (polyarteritis, temporal arteritis), joints (arthritis crystalline, osteo-, psoriatic, reactive, rheumatoid, Reiter's), gastrointestinal tract (colitis), skin (dermatitis), or multiple organs and tissues (systemic lupus erythematosus) [00367] The term "immunological disorders" refers to those diseases or conditions that are characterized by inappropriate or deleterious response to an endogenous or exogenous antigen that result in cellular dysfunction or destruction and consequently dysfunction or destruction of an organ or tissue and which may or may not be accompanied by signs or symptoms of inflammation [00368] The terms "kit" and "article of manufacture" are used as synonyms [00369] A "metabolite" of a compound disclosed herein is a derivative of that compound that is formed when the compound is metabolized The term "active metabolite" refers to a biologically active derivative of a compound that is formed when the compound is metabolized The term "metabolized," as used herein, refers to the sum of the processes (including, but not limited to, hydrolysis reactions and reactions catalyzed by enzymes) by which a particular substance is changed by an organism. Thus, enzymes may produce specific structural alterations to a compound. For example, cytochrome P450 catalyzes a variety of oxidative and reductive reactions while undine diphosphate glucuronyltransferases catalyze the transfer of an activated glucuromc- acid molecule to aromatic alcohols, aliphatic alcohols, carboxyhc acids, amines and free sulphydryl groups Metabolites of the compounds disclosed herein are optionally identified either by administration of compounds to a host and analysis of tissue samples from the host, or by incubation of compounds with hepatic cells m vitro and analysis of the resulting compounds [00370] The terms "neurogenerative disease" or "nervous system disorder," as used herein, refers to conditions that alter the structure or function of the brain, spinal cord or peripheral nervous system, including but not limited to Alzheimer's Disease, cerebral edema, cerebral ischemia, multiple sclerosis, neuropathies, Parkinson's Disease, those found after blunt or surgical trauma (including post-surgical cognitive dysfunction and spinal cord or brain stem injury), as well as the neurological aspects of disorders such as degenerative disk disease and sciatica The acronym "CNS" refers to disorders of the central nervous system, i e , bram and spinal cord [00371] The terms "ocular disease" or "ophthalmic disease," as used herein, refer to diseases which affect the eye or eyes and potentially the surrounding tissues as well Ocular or ophthalmic diseases include, but are not limited to, conjunctivitis, retinitis, sclentis, uveitis, allergic conjuctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, papillary conjunctivitis

[00372] The term "interstitial cystitis" refers to a disorder characterized by lower abdominal discomfort, frequent and sometimes painful urination that is not caused by anatomical abnormahtes, infection, toxins, trauma or tumors

[00373) The term "pharmaceutical combination" as used herein, means a product that results from the mixing or combining of more than one active ingredient and includes both fixed and non-fixed combinations of the active ingredients. The term "fixed combination" means that the active ingredients, e.g. a compound described herein, such as a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (TI), (TO), (DIa), (mb), (Hie), (Did), (IV), (V), (VI), (VlI), (VIII), (DC), (X), (XI), (XTt), (Xm), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVII), or (XVm), and a co-agent, are both administered to a patient simultaneously in the form of a single entity or dosage. The term "non-fixed combination" means that the active ingredients, e.g. a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (DI), (HIa), (Tub), (IEc), (Hid), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VIII), (DC), (X), (XI), (XII), (XUT), (XTV), (XV), (XVT), (XVH), or (XVπi), and a co-agent, are administered to a patient as separate entities either simultaneously, concurrently or sequentially with no specific intervening time limits, wherein such administration provides effective levels of the two compounds in the body of the patient. The latter also applies to cocktail therapy, e.g. the administration of three or more active ingredients.

[00374] The term "pharmaceutical composition" refers to a mixture of a compound described herein, such as a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (TTT), (ITIa), (fflb),

(me), (irid), (TV), (V), (VI), (VTI), (VγH), (DC), (X), (xi), (Xπ), (XIII), (xrv), pcv), (xvi),

(XVII), or (XVITT), with, other chemical components, such as carriers, stabilizers, diluents, dispersing agents, suspending agents, thickening agents, and/or excipients. The pharmaceutical composition facilitates administration of the compound to an organism. Multiple techniques of administering a compound exist in the art including, but not limited to: intravenous, oral, aerosol, parenteral, ophthalmic, pulmonary and topical administration.

[00375] The term "respiratory disease," as used herein, refers to diseases affecting the organs that are involved in breathing, such as the nose, throat, larynx, eustachian tubes, trachea, bronchi, lungs, related muscles (e.g., diaphram and intercostals) and nerves. Respiratory diseases include, but are not limited to, asthma, adult respiratory distress syndrome and allergic (extrinsic) asthma, non-allergic (intrinsic) asthma, acute severe asthma, chronic asthma, clinical asthma, nocturnal asthma, allergen-induced asthma, aspirin-sensitive asthma, exercise-induced asthma, neutrophilic asthma, isocapnic hyperventilation, child-onset asthma, adult-onset asthma, cough-variant asthma, occupational asthma, steroid-resistant asthma, seasonal asthma, seasonal allergic rhinitis, perennial allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis or emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis and/or airway inflammation and cystic fibrosis, and hypoxia.

[00376] The term "subject" or "patient" encompasses mammals and non-mammals. Examples of mammals include, but are not limited to, any member of the Mammalian class: humans, non- human primates such as chimpanzees, and other apes and monkey species; farm animals such as

cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine, domestic animals such as rabbits, dogs, and cats, laboratory animals including rodents, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs, and the like In one embodiment of the methods and compositions provided herein, the mammal is a human. [00377] The terms "treat," "treating" or "treatment," as used herein, include alleviating, abating or ameliorating a disease or condition symptoms, preventing additional symptoms, ameliorating or preventing the underlying causes of symptoms, inhibiting the disease or condition, e g , arresting the development of the disease or condition, relieving the disease or condition, causing regression of the disease or condition, relieving a condition caused by the disease or condition, or stopping the symptoms of the disease or condition either prophylactically and/or therapeutically Routes of Administration

[00378] Suitable routes of administration include, but are not limited to, oral, intravenous, rectal, aerosol, parenteral, ophthalmic, pulmonary, transmucosal, transdermal, vaginal, otic, nasal, and topical administration In addition, by way of example only, parenteral delivery includes intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramedullary injections, as well as intrathecal, direct intraventricular, intraperitoneal, lntralymphatic, and intranasal injections [00379] In certain embodiments, a compound as described herein is administered in a local rather than systemic manner, for example, via injection of the compound directly into an organ, often m a depot preparation or sustained release formulation hi specific embodiments, long actmg formulations are administered by implantation (for example subcutaneously or intramuscularly) or by intramuscular injection Furthermore, in other embodiments, the drug is delivered m a targeted drug delivery system, for example, in a liposome coated with organ-specific antibody In such embodiments, the liposomes are targeted to and taken up selectively by the organ In yet other embodiments, the compound as described herein is provided in the form of a rapid release formulation, in the form of an extended release formulation, or in the form of an intermediate release formulation. In yet other embodiments, the compound described herein is administered topically

Pharmaceutical Composition/Formulation

[00380] In some embodiments, the compounds described herein are formulated into pharmaceutical compositions In specific embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions are formulated in a conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable earners comprising excipients and auxiliaries which facilitate processing of the active compounds into preparations which can be used pharmaceutically Proper formulation is dependent upon the route of administration chosen Any pharmaceutically acceptable techniques, earners, and excipients are used as suitable to formulate the pharmaceutical compositions descnbed herein Remington The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Nineteenth Ed (Easton, Pa Mack Publishing Company, 1995), Hoover, John E , Remington 's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co , Easton,

Pennsylvania 1975; Liberman, H.A. and Lachman, L., Eds., Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Marcel Decker, New York, N. Y., 1980; and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, Seventh Ed. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkinsl999).

[00381] Provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound described herein, such as a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (ITl, (III), (HIa), (111b),

(me), (πid), (IV), (V), (VI), (YS), (vπn, (K), po, (xn, (xπ), pan), pav), (xv), pevη,

(XVπ), or PCVIII), and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluents), excipient(s), or carrier(s). In certain embodiments, the compounds described are administered as pharmaceutical compositions in which compounds having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (HI), (DIa), (HIb), (IIIc),

(iπd), (IV), (V), (VI), (viη, (vm), (K), (X), (xn, pan, pan), pav), (xv), pcvi), (xvπ), or

(XVHI), are mixed with other active ingredients, as in combination therapy. Encompassed herein are all combinations of actives set forth in the combination therapies section below and throughout this disclosure. In specific embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions include one or more compounds having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (JS), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId),

(IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (vπn, (K), (X), (XX), pen), pan), (xrv), pcv), P∑vn, (xvπ), or (xvπi).

[00382] A pharmaceutical composition, as used herein, refers to a mixture of a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (S), (S), (IH), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (IHd), (JV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VHI), (K), (X), (XI), (Xπ), (XIH), (XIV), (XV), PCVI), PCVIO, or (XVSS), with other chemical components, such as carriers, stabilizers, diluents, dispersing agents, suspending agents, thickening agents, and/or excipients. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition facilitates administration of the compound to an organism. In some embodiments, practicing the methods of treatment or use provided herein, therapeutically effective amounts of compounds having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (IH), (IHa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VS), (VSS), (K), (X), pθ), (XH), (XIH), (XIV), (XV), (XVT), (XVH), or (XVHT), provided herein are administered in a pharmaceutical composition to a mammal having a disease or condition to be treated. In specific embodiments, the mammal is a human. In certain embodiments, therapeutically effective amounts vary depending on the severity of the disease, the age and relative health of the subject, the potency of the compound used and other factors. The compounds described herein are used singly or in combination with one or more therapeutic agents as components of mixtures. [00383] In one embodiment, one or more compounds having the structure of any one of Formula (J), (JS), (SS), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VS), (VSI), (VUS), (K), (X). (XD. (XTI), (XHI), (XTV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVHI) are formulated in an aqueous solution. In specific embodiments, the aqueous solution is selected from, by way of example only, a physiologically compatible buffer, such as Hank's solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological saline buffer. In other embodiments, one or more compounds is/are formulated for transmucosal administration. In

specific embodiments, transmucosal formulations include penetrants that are appropriate to the barrier to be permeated In still other embodiments wherein the compounds described herein are formulated for other parenteral injections, appropriate formulations include aqueous or nonaqueous solutions In specific embodiments, such solutions include physiologically compatible buffers and/or excipients

[00384) In another embodiment, compounds descπbed herein are formulated for oral administration. Compounds descπbed herein are formulated by combining the active compounds with, e g , pharmaceutically acceptable earners, diluents and/or excipients (i e pharmaceutically inactive ingredients) In various embodiments, the compounds descnbed herein are formulated in oral dosage forms that include, by way of example only, tablets, powders, pills, dragees, capsules, liquids, gels, syrups, elixirs, slurries, suspensions and the like

[00385] In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical preparations for oral use are obtained by mixing one or more solid excipient with one or more of the compounds descnbed herein, optionally grinding the resulting mixture, and processing the mixture of granules, after adding suitable auxiliaries, if desired, to obtain tablets or dragee cores Suitable excipients are, in particular, fillers such as sugars, including lactose, sucrose, mannitol, or sorbitol, cellulose preparations such as for example, maize starch, wheat starch, nee starch, potato starch, gelatin, gum tragacanth, methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyhnethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, or others such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP or povidone) or calcium phosphate In specific embodiments, disintegrating agents are optionally added Disintegrating agents include, by way of example only, cross-linked croscarmellose sodium, polyvinylpyrrolidone, agar, or algimc acid or a salt thereof such as sodium alginate [00386] In one embodiment, dosage forms, such as dragee cores and tablets, are provided with one or more suitable coating In specific embodiments, concentrated sugar solutions are used for coating the dosage form The sugar solutions, optionally contain additional components, such as by way of example only, gum arable, talc, polyvinylpyrrolidone, carbopol gel, polyethylene glycol, and/or titanium dioxide, lacquer solutions, and suitable organic solvents or solvent mixtures Dyestuffs and/or pigments are also optionally added to the coatings for identification purposes Additionally, the dyestuffs and/or pigments are optionally utilized to characterize different combinations of active compound doses

[00387] In certain embodiments, therapeutically effective amounts of at least one of the compounds descnbed herein are formulated mto other oral dosage forms Oral dosage forms include push-fit capsules made of gelatm, as well as soft, sealed capsules made of gelatin and a plasUcizer, such as glycerol or sorbitol In specific embodiments, push-fit capsules contain the active ingredients in admixture with one or more filler Fillers include, by way of example only, lactose, binders such as starches, and/or lubricants such as talc or magnesium stearate and,

optionally, stabilizers In other embodiments, soft capsules, contain one or more active compound that is dissolved or suspended in a suitable liquid Suitable liquids include, by way of example only, one or more fatty oil, liquid paraffin, or liquid polyethylene glycol In addition, stabilizers are optionally added

[00388] In other embodiments, therapeutically effective amounts of at least one of the compounds described herein are formulated for buccal or sublingual administration Formulations suitable for buccal or sublingual administration include, by way of example only, tablets, lozenges, or gels In still other embodiments, the compounds described herein are formulated for parental injection, including formulations suitable for bolus injection or continuous infusion In specific embodiments, formulations for injection are presented in unit dosage form (e g , in ampoules) or in multi-dose containers Preservatives are, optionally, added to the injection formulations In still other embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is formulated in a form suitable for parenteral injection as a sterile suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles Solutions for subcutaneous injection are also formulated with compounds described herein Parenteral injection formulations optionally contain foπnulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents In specific embodiments, pharmaceutical formulations for parenteral administration include aqueous solutions of the active compounds in water-soluble form In additional embodiments, suspensions of the active compounds are prepared as appropπate oily injection suspensions Suitable lipophilic solvents or vehicles for use in the pharmaceutical compositions described herein include, by way of example only, fatty oils such as sesame oil, or synthetic fatty acid esters, such as ethyl oleate or triglycerides, or liposomes In certain specific embodiments, aqueous injection suspensions contain substances which increase the viscosity of the suspension, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sorbitol, or dextran Optionally, the suspension contains suitable stabilizers or agents which increase the solubility of the compounds to allow for the preparation of highly concentrated solutions Alternatively, m other embodiments, the active ingredient is in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e g , sterile pyrogen-free water, before use

[00389] In stall other embodiments, the compounds described herein are administered topically The compounds described herein are formulated into a variety of topically administrate compositions, such as solutions, suspensions, lotions, gels, pastes, medicated sticks, balms, creams or ointments Such pharmaceutical compositions optionally contain solubilizers, stabilizers, tonicity enhancing agents, buffers and preservatives

[00390] In yet other embodiments, the compounds descnbed herein are formulated for transdermal administration. In specific embodiments, transdermal formulations employ transdermal delivery devices and transdermal delivery patches and can be lipophilic emulsions or buffered, aqueous solutions, dissolved and/or dispersed in a polymer or an adhesive In various embodiments, such

patches are constructed for continuous, pulsatile, or on demand delivery of pharmaceutical agents. In additional embodiments, the transdermal delivery of the compounds described herein is accomplished by means of iontophoretic patches and the like. In certain embodiments, transdermal patches provide controlled delivery of the compounds described herein. In specific embodiments, the rate of absorption is slowed by using rate-controlling membranes or by trapping the compound within a polymer matrix or gel. In alternative embodiments, absorption enhancers are used to increase absorption. Absorption enhancers or carriers include absorbable pharmaceutically acceptable solvents that assist passage through the skin. For example, in one embodiment, transdermal devices are in the form of a bandage comprising a backing member, a reservoir containing the compound optionally with carriers, optionally a rate controlling barrier to deliver the compound to the skin of the host at a controlled and predetermined rate over a prolonged period of time, and means to secure the device to the skin.

[00391] In other embodiments, the compounds described herein are formulated for administration by inhalation. Various forms suitable for administration by inhalation include, but are not limited to, aerosols, mists or powders. Pharmaceutical compositions are conveniently delivered in the form of an aerosol spray presentation from pressurized packs or a nebuliser, with the use of a suitable propellant (e.g., dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide or other suitable gas). In specific embodiments, the dosage unit of a pressurized aerosol is determined by providing a valve to deliver a metered amount. In certain embodiments, capsules and cartridges of, such as, by way of example only, gelatin for use in an inhaler or insufflator are formulated containing a powder mix of the compound and a suitable powder base such as lactose or starch.

[00392] In still other embodiments, the compounds described herein are formulated in rectal compositions such as enemas, rectal gels, rectal foams, rectal aerosols, suppositories, jelly suppositories, or retention enemas, containing conventional suppository bases such as cocoa butter or other glycerides, as well as synthetic polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, PEG, and the like. In suppository forms of the compositions, a low-melting wax such as, but not limited to, a mixture of fatty acid glycerides, optionally in combination with cocoa butter is first melted. [00393] In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions are formulated in any conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers comprising excipients and auxiliaries which facilitate processing of the active compounds into preparations which can be used pharmaceutically. Proper formulation is dependent upon the route of administration chosen. Any pharmaceutically acceptable techniques, carriers, and excipients is optionally used as suitable and as understood in the art. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound described herein are manufactured in a conventional manner, such as, by way of example only, by means of

conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making, levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping or compression processes

[00394] Pharmaceutical compositions include at least one pharmaceutically acceptable earner, diluent or excipient (i e pharmaceutically inactive ingredients) and at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (IK), (HIa), (mb), (DIc), (HId), (W), (V), (VT), (VII), (VHT), (DC), (X), (XI), (XII), (XHI), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVH), or (XVIH), descnbed herein as an active ingredient The active ingredient is in free-acid or free-base form, or in a pharmaceutically acceptable salt form In addition, the methods and pharmaceutical compositions descnbed herein include the use of TV-oxides, crystalline forms (also known as polymorphs), as well as active metabolites of these compounds having the same type of activity All tautomers of the compounds descnbed herein are included within the scope of the compounds presented herein. Additionally, the compounds descnbed herein encompass unsolvated as well as solvated forms with pharmaceutically acceptable solvents such as water, ethanol, and the like The solvated forms of the compounds presented herein are also considered to be disclosed herein In addition, the pharmaceutical compositions optionally include other medicinal or pharmaceutical agents, earners, adjuvants, such as preserving, stabilizing, wetting or emulsifying agents, solution promoters, salts for regulating the osmotic pressure, buffers, and/or other therapeutically valuable substances [00395] Methods for the preparation of compositions comprising the compounds descnbed herein include formulating the compounds with one or more inert, pharmaceutically acceptable excipients or earners to form a solid, semi-solid or liquid Solid compositions include, but are not limited to, powders, tablets, dispersible granules, capsules, cachets, and suppositories Liquid compositions include solutions in which a compound is dissolved, emulsions comprising a compound, or a solution containing liposomes, micelles, or nanoparticles comprising a compound as disclosed herein. Semi-solid compositions include, but are not limited to, gels, suspensions and creams The form of the pharmaceutical compositions descnbed herein include liquid solutions or suspensions, solid forms suitable for solution or suspension m a liquid pπor to use, or as emulsions These compositions also optionally contain minor amounts of nontoxic, auxiliary substances, such as wetting or emulsifying agents, pH buffering agents, and so forth

[00396) In some embodiments, pharmaceutical composition comprising at least one compound descnbed herein illustratively takes the form of a liquid where the agents are present in solution, m suspension or both. Typically when the composition is administered as a solution or suspension a first portion of the agent is present in solution and a second portion of the agent is present in particulate form, in suspension in a liquid matrix Ih some embodiments, a liquid composition includes a gel formulation In other embodiments, the liquid composition is aqueous [00397] In certain embodiments, aqueous suspensions include one or more polymers as suspending agents Useful polymers include water-soluble polymers such as cellulosic polymers, e g ,

hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and water-insoluble polymers such as cross-linked carboxyl- containing polymers. Certain pharmaceutical compositions described herein comprise a mucoadhesive polymer, selected for example from carboxymethylcellulose, carbomer (acrylic acid polymer), poly(methylmethacrylate), polyacrylamide, polycarbophil, acrylic acid/butyl acrylate copolymer, sodium alginate and dextran.

[00398] Pharmaceutical compositions also, optionally, include solύbilizing agents to aid in the solubility of the compound described herein. The term "solubilizing agent" generally includes agents that result in formation of a micellar solution or a true solution of the agent. Certain acceptable nonionic surfactants, for example polysorbate 80, are useful as solubilizing agents, as can ophthaknically acceptable glycols, polyglycols, e.g., polyethylene glycol 400, and glycol ethers.

[00399) Furthermore, useful pharmaceutical compositions optionally include one or more pH adjusting agents or buffering agents, including acids such as acetic, boric, citric, lactic, phosphoric and hydrochloric acids; bases such as sodium hydroxide, sodium phosphate, sodium borate, sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium lactate and tris-hydroxymethylaminomethane; and buffers such as citrate/dextrose, sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. Such acids, bases and buffers are included in an amount required to maintain pH of the composition in an acceptable range.

[00400] Additionally, useful compositions also, optionally, include one or more salts in an amount required to bring osmolality of the composition into an acceptable range. Such salts include those having sodium, potassium or ammonium cations and chloride, citrate, ascorbate, borate, phosphate, bicarbonate, sulfate, thiosulfate or bisulfite anions; suitable salts include sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium thiosulfate, sodium bisulfite and ammonium sulfate. [00401] Other useful pharmaceutical compositions optionally include one or more preservatives to inhibit microbial activity. Suitable preservatives include mercury-containing substances such as merfen and thiomersal; stabilized chlorine dioxide; and quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetylpyridinium chloride. [00402] Still other useful compositions include one or more surfactants to enhance physical stability or for other purposes. Suitable nonionic surfactants include polyoxyethylene fatty acid glycerides and vegetable oils, e.g., polyoxyethylene (60) hydrogenated castor oil; and polyoxyethylene alkylethers and alkylphenyl ethers, e.g., octoxynol 10, octoxynol 40. [00403] Still other useful compositions include one or more antioxidants to enhance chemical stability where required. Suitable antioxidants include, by way of example only, ascorbic acid and sodium metabisuLSte.

[00404] In certain embodiments, aqueous suspension compositions are packaged in single-dose non-reclosable containers Alternatively, multiple-dose reclosable containers are used, in which case it is typical to include a preservative in the composition

[00405] In alternative embodiments, other delivery systems for hydrophobic pharmaceutical compounds are employed Liposomes and emulsions are examples of delivery vehicles or earners useful herein In certain embodiments, organic solvents such as JV-methylpyrrolidone are also employed In additional embodiments, the compounds descnbed herein are delivered using a sustained-release system, such as semipermeable matrices of solid hydrophobic polymers containing the therapeutic agent Various sustained-release materials are useful herein In some embodiments, sustained-release capsules release the compounds for a few weeks up to over 100 days Depending on the chemical nature and the biological stability of the therapeutic reagent, additional strategies for protein stabilization are employed

[00406] In certain embodiments, the formulations descnbed herein comprise one or more antioxidants, metal chelating agents, thiol containing compounds and/or other general stabilizing agents Examples of such stabilizing agents, include, but are not limited to (a) about 05% to about 2% w/v glycerol, (b) about 0 1% to about 1% w/v methionine, (c) about 0 1% to about 2% w/v monothioglycerol, (d) about 1 mM to about 10 mM EDTA, (e) about 001% to about 2% w/v ascorbic acid, (f) 0003% to about 002% w/v polysorbate 80, (g) 0001% to about 005% w/v polysorbate 20, (h) argimne, (i) heparin, 0) dextran sulfate, (k) cyclodextπns, (1) pentosan polysulfate and other hepannoids, (m) divalent cations such as magnesium and zinc, or (n) combinations thereof

Methods of Dosing and Treatment Regimens

[00407] In one embodiment, the compound of any one of Formula (I), Formula (II), Formula (QI), Formula (IHa), Formula (HIb), Formula (IIIc), Formula (md), Formula (JV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VII), Formula (VIH), Formula (DC), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XH), Formula (XIII), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH), or Formula (XVHI), are used m the preparation of medicaments for the treatment of PGDj-dependent or PGD 2 -mediated diseases or conditions In addition, a method for treating any of the diseases or conditions descnbed herein m a subject in need of such treatment, involves administration of pharmaceutical compositions containing at least one compound of any one of Formula (I), Formula (D), Formula (HI), Formula (HIa), Formula (HIb), Formula (IHc), Formula (HId), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VH), Formula (VOt), Formula (DQ, Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XH), Formula (XIH), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH), or Formula (XVHI), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutically active metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, in therapeutically effective amounts to said subject

[00408] In certain embodiments, the compositions containing the compound(s) described herein are administered for prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments In certain therapeutic applications, the compositions are administered to a patient already suffering from a disease or condition, in an amount sufficient to cure or at least partially arrest the symptoms of the disease or condition Amounts effective for this use depend on the seventy and course of the disease or condition, previous therapy, the patient's health status, weight, and response to the drugs, and the judgment of the treating physician. Therapeutically effective amounts are optionally determined by methods including, but not limited to, a dose escalation clinical trial

[00409] In prophylactic applications, compositions containing the compounds described herein are administered to a patient susceptible to or otherwise at risk of a particular disease, disorder or condition. Such an amount is defined to be a "prophylactically effective amount or dose " In this use, the precise amounts also depend on the patient's state of health, weight, and the like When used in a patient, effective amounts for this use will depend on the seventy and course of the disease, disorder or condition, previous therapy, the patient's health status and response to the drugs, and the judgment of the treating physician

[00410] In certain embodiments wherein the patient's condition does not improve, upon the doctor's discretion the administration of the compounds are administered chronically, that is, for an extended period of time, including throughout the duration of the patient's life in order to ameliorate or otherwise control or limit the symptoms of the patient's disease or condition [00411] In certain embodiments wherein a patient's status does improve, administration of the compounds are given continuously, or, alternatively, the dose of drug being administered is temporarily reduced or temporarily suspended for a certain length of tune (i e , a "drag holiday") In specific embodiments, the length of the drug holiday is between 2 days and 1 year, including by way of example only, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 10 days, 12 days, 15 days, 20 days, 28 days, 35 days, 50 days, 70 days, 100 days, 120 days, 150 days, 180 days, 200 days, 250 days, 280 days, 300 days, 320 days, 350 days, and 365 days The dose reduction during a drug holiday is, by way of example only, by 10%-100%, including by way of example only 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, and 100%

[00412] Once improvement of the patient's conditions has occurred, a maintenance dose is administered if necessary Subsequently, in specific embodiments, the dosage or the frequency of administration, or both, is reduced, as a function of the symptoms, to a level at which the unproved disease, disorder or condition is retained Ih certain embodiments, however, the patient requires intermittent treatment on a long-term basis upon any recurrence of symptoms [00413] The amount of a given agent that corresponds to such an amount vanes depending upon factors such as the particular compound, disease condition and its seventy, the identity (e g ,

weight) of the subject or host in need of treatment, but can nevertheless be determined according to the particular circumstances surrounding the case, including, e g , the specific agent being administered, the route of administration, the condition being treated, and the subject or host being treated In general, however, doses employed for adult human treatment are typically m the range of 002-5000 mg per day, 1-1500 mg per day, or 1-500 mgper day In one embodiment, the desired dose is conveniently presented in a single dose or in divided doses administered simultaneously (or over a short period of tune) or at appropπate intervals, for example as two, three, four or more sub-doses per day

[00414] In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition described herein is in unit dosage forms suitable for single administration of precise dosages In unit dosage form, the formulation is divided into unit doses containing appropriate quantities of one or more compound In specific embodiments, the unit dosage is in the form of a package containing discrete quantities of the formulation Non-limiting examples are packaged tablets or capsules, and powders in vials or ampoules Aqueous suspension compositions are optionally packaged in single-dose non-re- closeable containers Alternatively, multiple-dose re-closeable containers are used, in which case it is typical to include a preservative in the composition By way of example only, formulations for parenteral injection are, in some embodiments, presented m unit dosage form, which include, but are not limited to ampoules, or in multi-dose containers, with an added preservative [00415] In one embodiment, the daily dosages appropπate for the compound descnbed herein are from about 001 to about 10 mg/kg per body weight In specific embodiments, an indicated daily dosage in a large mammal, including, but not limited to, humans, is in the range from about 05 mg to about 1000 mg, conveniently administered in divided doses, including, but not limited to, up to four times a day or m extended release form In certain embodiments, suitable unit dosage forms for oral administration comprise from about 1 to 500 mg active ingredient In other embodiments, the daily dosage or the amount of active m the dosage form are lower or higher than the ranges indicated herem, based on a number of variables in regard to an individual treatment regime In various embodiments, the daily and unit dosages are altered depending on a number of variables including, but not limited to, the activity of the compound used, the disease or condition to be treated, the mode of administration, the requirements of the individual subject, the severity of the disease or condition being treated, and the judgment of the practitioner

[00416] Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of such therapeutic regimens are determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell cultures or experimental animals, including, but not limited to, the determination of the LDs 0 (the dose lethal to 50% of the population) and the ED 30 (the dose therapeutically effective m 50% of the population) The dose ratio between the toxic and therapeutic effects is the therapeutic mdex and it is expressed as the ratio between LD 50 and ED 50 In certain embodiments, the data obtained from cell culture assays and animal studies are used in

formulating the therapeutically effective daily dosage range and/or the therapeutically effective unit dosage amount for use in mammals, including humans. In some embodiments, the daily dosage amount of the compounds described herein lies within a range of circulating concentrations that include the ED 50 with minimal toxicity. In certain embodiments, the daily dosage range and/or the unit dosage amount varies within this range depending upon the dosage form employed and the route of administration utilized.

Use OfDP 2 Antagonists to Prevent and/or Treat PGD 2 -Dependent or PGD 2 Mediated Diseases or Conditions

100417) The therapy of PG^-dependent or PGD 2 -mcdiated diseases or conditions is designed to modulate the activity OfDP 2 , DPi and/or TP. Such modulation includes, in some embodiments, antagonizing DP 2 activity. In other embodiments, such modulation includes antagonizing DP 2 and DP]. For example, in one embodiment, a DP 2 antgonist is administered in order to decrease signal transduction initiated by PGD 2 within the individual. Compounds described herein are used to prevent and/or treat PGD 2 -Dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions. Compounds described herein include a compound having the structure of any of one Formula (I), Formula (II), Formula (IH), Formula (HIa), Formula (HIb), Formula (SJIc), Formula (HId), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VII), Formula (Vffl), Formula (IX), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XII), Formula (XIH), Formula (XIV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH), or Formula (XVHI).

[00418] In accordance with one aspect, compositions and methods described herein include compositions and methods for treating, preventing, reversing, halting or slowing the progression of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions once it becomes clinically evident, or treating the symptoms associated with or related to PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions, by administering to the subject a compound described herein or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof, hi certain embodiments, the subject already has a PGD 2 - dependent or PGD 2 mediated disease or condition at the time of administration, or is at risk of developing a PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated disease or condition.

[00419] In certain aspects, the activity OfDP 2 in a mammal is directly or indirectly modulated by the administration of (at least once) an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof, to a mammal. Such modulation includes, but is not limited to, reducing and/or inhibiting the activity OfDP 2 . In additional aspects, the activity OfPGD 2 in a mammal is directly or indirectly modulated, including reducing and/or inhibiting, by the administration of (at least once) an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof, to a mammal. Such modulation includes, but is not limited to, reducing and/or inhibiting the activity OfDP 2 .

[00420] In one embodiment, prevention and/or treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions comprises administering to a mammal at least once a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof In some embodiments, there is provided a method of treating PGD 2 - dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions that include, but are not limited to, bone diseases and disorders, cardiovascular diseases and disorders, inflammatory diseases and disorders, immunological diseases or disorders, dermatological diseases and disorders, ocular diseases and disorders, cancer and other proliferative diseases and disorders, respiratory diseases and disorder, and non-cancerous disorders

[00421] By way of example only, included m the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for treating respiratory diseases comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof By way of example, m some embodiments, the respiratory disease is asthma Other respiratory diseases include, but are not limited to, adult respiratory distress syndrome and allergic (extrinsic) asthma, non-allergic (intrinsic) asthma, acute severe asthma, chronic asthma, clinical asthma, nocturnal asthma, allergen-induced asthma, aspiπn-sensitive asthma, exercise- induced asthma, neutrophilic asthma, isocapnic hyperventilation, child-onset asthma, adult-onset asthma, cough-vanant asthma, occupational asthma, steroid-resistant asthma, seasonal asthma, allergic rhinitis, vascular responses, endotoxin shock, fibrogenesis, pulmonary fibrosis, allergic diseases, chronic inflammation, and adult respiratory distress syndrome [00422] By way of example only, included in such treatment methods are methods for preventing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof In addition, chrome obstructive pulmonary disease includes, but is not limited to, chrome bronchitis or emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung fibrosis and/or airway inflammation and cystic fibrosis

[00423] By way of example only, included in such treatment methods are methods for preventing mcreased mucosal secretion and/or edema in a disease or condition comprising administering to the mammal at least once an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof

[00424] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for preventing or treating vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis and its sequelae myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, vasculitis and stroke comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof

[00425] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for reducing cardiac reperfusion injury following myocardial ischemia and/or endotoxic shock comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof. [00426] By way of example only, mcluded m the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for reducing the constriction of blood vessels in a mammal comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof.

[00427] By way of example only, mcluded m the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for lowering or preventing an increase in blood pressure of a mammal comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof.

[00428] By way of example only, mcluded in the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for preventing or treating eosinophil and/or basophil and/or dendritic cell and/or neutrophil and/or monocyte and/or T-cell recruitment comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof.

[00429] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for the prevention or treatment of abnormal bone remodeling, loss or gain, including diseases or conditions as, by way of example, osteopenia, osteoporosis, Paget's disease, cancer and other diseases comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound described herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof [00430] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descπbed herein are methods for preventing ocular inflammation and allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and papillary conjunctivitis composing administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descπbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof

[00431] By way of example only, mcluded m the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for preventing otitis, otitis media comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descπbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof.

[00432] By way of example only, included m the prevention/treatment methods described herein are methods for preventing CNS disorders comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descπbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof. CJNS disorders include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, cerebral ischemia, retinal ischemia, post-surgical cognitive

dysfunction, migraine, peripheral neuropathy/neuropathic pain, spinal cord injury, cerebral edema and head injury

[00433] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descπbed herein are methods for the treatment of cancer composing administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descπbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof The type of cancer includes, but is not limited to, pancreatic cancer and other solid or hematological tumors

[00434] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descπbed herein are methods for preventing or reducing the chances of endotoxic shock and septic shock comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descπbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof [00435] By way of example only, included m the prevention/treatment methods descπbed herein methods for preventing, treating or alleviating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof

[00436] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for preventing increased, reducing the incidences of or treating gastrointestinal diseases comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof Such gastrointestinal diseases include, by way of example only, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colitis and Crohn's disease

[00437] By way of example only, included m the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for the reduction or treatment of inflammation and/or preventing, reducing the incidences of or treating acute or chrome transplant rejection (including any vascular abnormality associated with acute or chronic rejection) or preventing or treating tumors or accelerating the healing of wounds compnsmg administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof [00438] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for the prevention or treatment of rejection or dysfunction m a transplanted organ or tissue comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof [00439] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for treating inflammatory responses of the skin compnsmg administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof Such inflammatory responses of the skin include, by way of example, psoriasis, dermatitis, contact dermatitis, eczema, urticaria, rosacea, wound healing and

scarring In another aspect are methods for reducing psoriatic lesions in the skin, joints, or other tissues or organs, comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof [00440] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for the treatment of cystitis, including, e g .interstitial cystitis, comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof

[00441] By way of example only, included in the prevention/treatment methods descnbed herein are methods for the treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever comprising administering at least once to the mammal an effective amount of at least one compound descnbed herein, or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof Combination Treatments

[00442] In certain instances, it is appropriate to administer at least one compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (H), (IH), (UIa), (IHb), (Hie), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (Vm), (K), (X), (XI), (Xπ), (Xm), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVπ), or (XVIII), m combination with another therapeutic agent By way of example only, if one of the side effects experienced by a patient upon receiving one of the compounds herein is inflammation, then it is optionally appropnate to administer an antiinflammatory agent in combination with the initial therapeutic agent Or, in one embodiment, the therapeutic effectiveness of one of the compounds descnbed herein is enhanced by administration of an adjuvant (i e , by itself the adjuvant may have minimal therapeutic benefit, but m combination with another therapeutic agent, the overall therapeutic benefit to the patient is enhanced) Or, in some embodiments, the benefit of expenenced by a patient is increased by administering one of the compounds descnbed herein with another therapeutic agent (which also includes a therapeutic regimen) that also has therapeutic benefit In one specific embodiment, the therapeutic benefit of treating asthma by administering at least one of the compounds descnbed herein is increased by also providing the patient with other therapeutic agents or therapies for asthma In any case, regardless of the disease, disorder or condition being treated, the overall benefit expenenced by the patient is simply additive of the two therapeutic agents or the patient experiences a synergistic benefit

[00443] In certain embodiments, different therapeutically-effective dosages of the compounds disclosed herein will be utilized in formulating pharmaceutical composition and/or m treatment regimens when the compounds disclosed herein are administered m combination with one or more additional agent, such as an additional therapeutically effective drug, an adjuvant or the like Therapeutically-effective dosages of drugs and other agents for use in combination treatment regimens can be determined by means similar to those set forth hereinabove for the actives themselves Furthermore, the methods of prevention/treatment descnbed herein encompasses the

use of metronomic dosing, i e , providing more frequent, lower doses in order to minimize toxic side effects In some embodiments, a combination treatment regimen encompasses treatment regimens m which administration of a DP 2 antagonist descπbed herein is initiated pπor to, during, or after treatment with a second agent described above, and continues until any time during treatment with the second agent or after termination of treatment with the second agent It also mcludes treatments m which a DP 2 antagonist descπbed herein and the second agent being used m combination are administered simultaneously or at different tunes and/or at decreasing or increasing intervals during the treatment peπod Combination treatment further mcludes periodic treatments that start and stop at various times to assist with the clinical management of the patient For example, in one embodiment, a DP 2 antagonist described herein in the combination treatment is administered weekly at the onset of treatment, decreasing to biweekly, and decreasing further as appropriate

[00444] Compositions and methods for combination therapy are provided herein In accordance with one aspect, the pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein are used to treat PGD 2 - dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions In accordance with another aspect, the pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein are used to treat respiratory diseases (e g , asthma), where treatment with a DP 2 antagonist is indicated and to induce bronchodilation in a subject In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein are used to treat airways or nasal inflammation diseases such as asthma and rhinitis

[004451 In one embodiment, pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein are used to treat a subject suffering from a vascular inflammation-driven disorder In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein are used to treat skin inflammation diseases such as atopic dermatitis

[00446] In certain embodiments, combination therapies described herein are used as part of a specific treatment regimen intended to provide a beneficial effect from the co-action of a DP 2 descπbed herein and a concurrent treatment It is understood that the dosage regimen to treat, prevent, or ameliorate the conditions) for which relief is sought, is modified in accordance with a variety of factors These factors mclude the type of respiratory disorder and the type of bronchoconstπction or inflammation from which the subject suffers, as well as the age, weight, sex, diet, and medical condition of the subject Thus, m some instances, the dosage regimen actually employed vanes and, in some embodiments, deviates from the dosage regimens set forth herein

[00447] For combination therapies descnbed herein, dosages of the co-administered compounds vary depending on the type of co-drug employed, on the specific drug employed, on the disease or condition being treated and so forth In additional embodiments, when co-admimstered with one or more biologically active agents, the compound provided herein is administered either

simultaneously with the biologically active agent(s), or sequentially If administered sequentially, the attending physician decides on the appropriate sequence coadministering protein in combination with the biologically active agent(s)

[00448] In combination therapies, the multiple therapeutic agents (one of which is one of the compounds described herein) are administered in any order or even simultaneously If administration is simultaneous, the multiple therapeutic agents are, by way of example only, provided in a single, unified form, or in multiple forms (e g , as a single pill or as two separate pills) In one embodiment, one of the therapeutic agents is given in multiple doses, and in another, two (or more if present) are given as multiple doses In some embodiments of non-simultaneous administration, the timing between the multiple doses vary from more than zero weeks to less than four weeks In addition, the combination methods, compositions and formulations are not to be limited to the use of only two agents, the use of multiple therapeutic combinations is also envisioned

[00449] In additional embodiments, the compounds described herein are used in combination with procedures that provide additional or synergistic benefit to the patient By way of example only, patients are expected to find therapeutic and/or prophylactic benefit in the methods described herein, wherein pharmaceutical composition including a compound having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (IT), (IH), (DIa), (UIb), (fflc), (IHd), (TV), (V), (VT), (VII), (VIII), (K), (X), (XI), (XS), (XIII), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVπ), or (XVJS), and/or combinations with other therapeutics are combined with genetic testing to determine whether that individual is a earner of a mutant gene that is known to be correlated with certain diseases or conditions

[00450] The compounds descnbed herein and combination therapies are administered before, during or after the occurrence of a disease or condition, and the tuning of administering the composition containing a compound varies Thus, m one embodiment, the compounds descnbed herein are used as a prophylactic and are administered continuously to subjects with a propensity to develop conditions or diseases m order to prevent the occurrence of the disease or condition In another embodiment, the compounds and compositions are administered to a subject during or as soon as possible after the onset of the symptoms The administration of the compounds are initiated within the first 48 hours of the onset of the symptoms, preferably within the first 48 hours of the onset of the symptoms, more preferably within the first 6 hours of the onset of the symptoms, and most preferably within 3 hours of the onset of the symptoms The initial administration is accomplished via any practical route, such as, for example, by intravenous injection, a bolus injection, infusion over 5 minutes to about 5 hours, a pill, a capsule, transdermal patch, buccal delivery, and the like, or combination thereof In specific embodiments, a compound descnbed herein is administered as soon as is practicable after the onset of a disease or condition is detected or suspected, and for a length of tune necessary for the treatment of the disease, such as,

for example, from about 1 month to about 3 months In some embodiments, the length required for effective treatment vanes, and the treatment length is adjusted to suit the specific needs of each subject For example, in specific embodiments, a compound described herein or a formulation containing the compound is administered for at least 2 weeks, about 1 month to about 5 years, or from about 1 month to about 3 years

[00451] By way of example, therapies which combine compounds having the structure of any one of Formula (I), (II), (DI), (ma), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (IV), (V), (VI), (VH), (VIII), (DC), (X), (XI), (XH), (Xm), (XIV), (XV), (XVI), (XVπ), or (XVrH), with inhibitors OfPGD 2 synthesis or PGD 2 receptor antagonists, either acting at the same or other pomts m the PGD 2 synthesis pathway, are encompassed herein for treating PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions In addition, by way of example, encompassed herein are therapies that combine compounds having the structure of any one of Formula (T), (H), (TTT), (HIa), (HIb), (HIc), (HId), (TV), (V), (VT), (VII), (VHT), (DC), (X), (XI), (Xn), (XIH), (XTV), (XV), (XVT), QCVTT), or (XVIII), with inhibitors of inflammation for treating PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated diseases or conditions Anti-Inflammatory Agents

[00452] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases include administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments descnbed herein in combination with an antiinflammatory agent including, but not limited to, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drags (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids (glucocorticoids) Antiinflammatory agents include, but are not limited to arthrotec, mesalamine, auralglan, sulfasalazine, daypro, etodolac, ponstan, and solumedrol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids, and leukotnene pathway modulators (e g montelukast, zitueton)

[00453] By way of example only, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pulmonary eosinophils and airway hyperresponsiveness m patients with asthma, PGD 2 is released from mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils PGD 2 is involved m contraction of airway smooth muscle, an increase m vascular permeability and mucus secretions, and has been reported to attract and activate inflammatory cells m the airways of asthmatics Thus, in another embodiment descnbed herein, the methods for treatment of respiratory diseases include administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments descnbed herein in combination with an anti-inflammatory agent

[00454] NSATOs include, but are not limited to aspiπn, salicylic acid, gentisic acid, choline magnesium salicylate, choline salicylate, choline magnesium salicylate, cholme salicylate, magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate, diflunisal, carprofen, fenoprofen, fenoprot'en calcium, flurobiprofen, lbuprofen, ketoprofen, nabutone, ketolorac, ketorolac tromethamine, naproxen, oxaprozm, diclofenac, etodolac, lndomethacm, sulindac, tolmetin, meclofenamate, meclofenamate

sodium, mefenamic acid, piroxicam, meloxicam, COX-2 specific inhibitors (such as, but not limited to, celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, parecoxib, etoricoxib, lumiracoxib, CS-502, JTE-522, L-745,337 aπdNS398).

[00455J Corticosteroids, include, but are not limited to: betamethasone (Celestone), prednisone (Deltasone), alclometasone, aldosterone, amcinonide, beclometasone, betamethasone, budesonide, ciclesonide, clobetasol, clobetasone, clocortoloαe, cloprednol, cortisone, cortivazol, deflazacort, deoxycorticosterone, desonide, desoximetasone, desoxycortone, dexamethasone, diflorasone, diflucortolone, difluprednate, fluclorolone, fludrocortisone, fludroxycortide, flumetasone, flunisolide, fluocinolone acetonide, fluocinonide, fluocortin, fluocortolone, fluorometholonc, fluperolone, fluprednidene, fluticasone, foπnocortal, halcinonide, halometasone, hydrocortisone/cortisol, hydrocortisone aceponate, hydrocortisone buteprate, hydrocortisone butyrate, loteprednol, medrysone, meprednisone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone aceponate, mometasone furoate, paramethasone, prednicarbate, prednisone/prednisolone, rimexolone, tixocortol, triamcinolone, and ulobetasol.

[00456] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or POD 2 mediated conditions or diseases include administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination in combination with NSAIDs and NO-donors or NSAIDs and proton-pump inhibitors. PGD 2 Receptor Antagonists

[00457] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or POD 2 mediated conditions or diseases includes administering to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with other PGD 2 receptor antagonists including, but are not limited to, DP 1 receptor antagonists and TP receptor antagonists. In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of POD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases includes administered to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with a DPi receptor antagonist. DP 1 receptor antagonists include, but are not limited to, BWA868C (Sharif et al, Br. J. Pharmacol, 2000 Nov;131(6): 1025-38), MK-0524 (Sturino etal, J. Med. Chem., 2007, 50, 794-806 and Cheng et al, PNAS, 2006 Apr 25;103(17):6682-7.) and S-5751 (Arimura etal, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2001 Aug; 298(2):411-9). For some patients, the most appropriate formulation or method of use of such combination treatments depends on the type OfPGD 2 - dependent or PGD 2 mediated disorder, the time period in which the DP 2 antagonist acts to treat the disorder and/or the time period in which the DP 1 receptor antagonist acts to prevent DP 1 receptor activity. By way of example only, some embodiments described herein provide for such combination treatments that are used for treating a patient suffering from respiratory disorders such as asthma and rhinitis.

[00458] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGBz-dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases includes administering to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with a TP receptor antagonist. TP receptor antagonists include, but are not limited to, Ramatroban ("Bayer™"), GR32191 (Beasley et al, J. Appl. Physiol, 1989 Apr;66(4):1685-93), ICI192605 (Boersma et al, Br. J, Pharmacol, 1999 Dec;128(7):1505-12) and derivatives or analogs thereof. Such combinations are optionally used to treat PGD2-dependent or PGD2 mediated disorders, including respiratory disorders.

[00459] In one embodiment, the co-administration of a DP 2 receptor antagonist with a DPi receptor antagonist or a TP receptor antagonist has therapeutic benefit over and above the benefit derived from the administration of a either a DP 2 antagonist, DPi antagonist or a TP antagonist alone. In the case that substantial inhibition of PGD 2 activity has undesired effects, partial inhibition of this pathway through the amelioration of the effects of the proinflammatory agonists combined with the block of the DPi receptor, TP receptor and/or DP 2 receptor affords, in some embodiments, substantial therapeutic benefits, particularly for respiratory diseases. Other Combination Therapies

[00460] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as proliferative disorders, including cancer, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected, by way of example only, alemtuzumab, arsenic trioxide, asparaginase (pegylated or non-), bevacizumab, cetuximab, platinum-based compounds such as cisplatin, cladribine, daunorubicin/doxorubicin/idarubicin, irinotecan, fludarabine, 5-fluorouracil, gemtuzumab, methotrexate, Paclitaxel™, taxol, temozolomide, thioguanine, or classes of drugs including hormones (an anbestrogen, an antiandrogen, or gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues, interferons such as alpha interferon, nitrogen mustards such as busulfan or melphalan or mechlorethamine, retinoids such as tretinoin, topoisomerase inhibitors such as irinotecan or topotecan, tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefinitinib or imatinib, or agents to treat signs or symptoms induced by such therapy including allopurinol, filgrastim, granisetron/ondansetron/palonosetron, dronabinol. [00461] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependeπt or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of transplanted organs or tissues or cells, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected from, by way of example only, azathioprine, a corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, dacluzimab, mycophenolate mofetil, OKT3, rapamycin, tacrolimus.thymoglobulin.

[00462] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as atherosclerosis, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected, by way of example only, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e g , statins in their lactonized or dihydroxy open acid forms and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof, including but not limited to lovastahn, simvastatin, dihydroxy open-acid simvastatin, particularly the ammonium or calcium salts thereof, pravastatin, particularly the sodium salt thereof, fhivastatin, particularly the sodium salt thereof, atorvastatin, particularly the calcium salt thereof, nisvastatin, also referred to as NK-104, rosuvastatin), agents that have both hpid-alteπng effects and other pharmaceutical activities, HMG-CoA synthase inhibitors, cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, for example JTT-705 and CP529, 414, squalene epoxidase inhibitors, squalene synthetase inhibitors (also known as squalene synthase inhibitors), acyl- coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors including selective inhibitors of ACAT-I or ACAT-2 as well as dual inhibitors of ACAT-I and-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors, probucol, niacin, bile acid sequestrants, LDL (low density lipoprotein) receptor inducers, platelet aggregation inhibitors, for example glycoprotein πb/IIIa fibrinogen receptor antagonists and aspirin, human peroxisome prohferator activated receptor gamma (PP ARγ) agonists, including the compounds commonly referred to as ghtazones, for example troglitazone, pioglitazone and rosightazone and including those compounds included within the structural class known as thiazohdinediones as well as those PP ARγ agonists outside the thiazolidinedione structural class, PP ARa agonists such as clofibrate, fenofibrate including microaized fenofibrate, and gemfibrozil , PPAR dual α/γ agonists such as 5-[(2, 4-dioxo-5- thiazolidinyl)methyl]-2-methoxy-N-[[4-(tπfluoromethyl)pheny l]methyl]-benzamide, known as KRP-297, vitamin B6 (also known as pyπdoxine) and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof such as the HCI salt, vitamin B12 (also known as cyanocobalamin), folic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof such as the sodium salt and the methylglucamine salt, anti-oxidant vitamins such as vitamin C and E and beta carotene, beta-blockers, angiotensin π antagonists such as losartan, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as enalapπl and captopπl , calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine and diluazam, endothehan antagonists, agents that enhance ABCl gene expression, FXR and LXR Hgands including both inhibitors and agonists, bisphosphonate compounds such as alendronate sodium, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors such as rofecoxib and celecoxib

[00463] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGDr-dependent or PGD2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of stroke, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments descπbed herein in

combination with at least one additional agent selected from, by way of example only, COX-2 inhibitors, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, such as N-{3-(annnomethyl)benzyl) acetamidine, Rho kinase inhibitors, such as fasudil, angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonists, including candesartan, losartan, lrbesartan, eprosartan, telmisartan and valsartan, glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors, sodium or calcium channel blockers, including crobenetine, p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, including SKB 239063, thromboxane AX- synthetase inhibitors, including lsbogrel, ozagrel, ndogrel and dazoxiben, statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors), including lovastatin, simvastatin, dihydroxy open-acid simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, msvastatm, and rosuvastatin, neuroprotectants, including free radical scavengers, calcium channel blockers, excitatory amnio acid antagonists, growth factors, antioxidants, such as edaravone, vitamin C, TROLOX™, citicolme and minicychne, and reactive astrocyte inhibitors, such as (2R)-2- propyloctanoic acid, beta andrenergic blockers, such as propranolol, nadolol, timolol, pindolol, labctalol, metoprolol, atenolol, esmolol and acebutolol, NMDA receptor antagonists, including memantine, NR2B antagonists, such as traxoprodil, 5-HTlA agonists, receptor platelet fibrinogen receptor antagonists, including tirofiban and lamifiban, thrombin inhibitors, antithrombotics, such as argatroban, antihypertensive agents, such as enalapnl, vasodilators, such as cyclandelate, nocicepϋn antagonists, DPIV antagonists, CETP inhibitors. GABA 5 inverse agonists, and selective androgen receptor modulators

[00464] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of pulmonary fibrosis, composes administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected from, by way of example only, anti- inflammatory agents, such as corticosteroids, azathiopπne or cyclophosphamide [00465] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of interstitial cystitis, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected from, by way of example only, dimethylsulfoxide, omalizumab, and pentosan polysulfate

100466] In another embodiment described herein, methods for treatment of PGD 2 -dependent or PGDj mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of disorders of bone, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected from the, by way of example only, minerals, vitamins, bisphosphonates, anabolic steroids, parathyroid hormone or analogs, and oathepsin K inhibitors

[00467] In yet another embodiment descnbed herein, methods for treating PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of respiratory disorders (e g , asthma,

COPD and rhinitis), comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, σr medicaments described herein in combination with at least one respiratory agent Respiratory agents include, but are not limited to, bronchodilators (e g , sympathomimetic agents and xanthine derivatives), leukotnene receptor antagonists, leukotπene formation inhibitors, leukotnene modulators, nasal decongestants, respiratory enzymes, lung surfactants, antihistamines (e g , Mepyramme (pynlamine), Antazohne, Diphenhydramine, Carbinoxamine, Doxylamine, Clemastine, Dunenhydπnate, Phemramine, Chlorphenamme (cMorphemramme), Dexchlorphemramme, Brompheniramine, Tnprolidme, cetinzine, Cychzine, ChJorcychzine, Hydroxyzme, Meclizine, loratadme, desloratidine, Promethazme, Alimemazme (tnmeprazine), Cyproheptadine, Azatadine, Ketotifen, Acπvastine, Astemizole, Cetiπzme, Mizolastme, Terfenadme, Azelastrne, Levocabastme, Olopatadine, Levocetmzine, Fexofenadme), mucolytics, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, anticholinergics, antitussives, analgesics, expectorants, albuterol, ephedπne, epinephrine, fomoterol, metaproterenol, terbutalme, budesomde, ciclesomde, dexamethasone, flunisolide, fluticasone propionate, triamcinolone acetomde, ipratropium bromide, pseudoephedπne, theophylline, montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast, tomelukast, ambnsentan, bosentan, enrasentan, sitaxsentan, tezosentan, lloprost, treprostinil, pirfemdone, FLAP inhibitors, FLAP modulators, 5-LO inhibitors, BLTl receptor antagonists and BLT2 receptor antagonists [00468] In a specific embodiment described herein, methods for treating PGDj-dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of asthma and/or COPD, comprises administration to a patient antiinflammatory agents In certain embodiments, methods for treating PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of asthma and/or COPD, comprise administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments descnbed herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected from, but not limited to, epinephrine, isoproterenol, orciprenaline, bronchodilators, glucocorticoids, leukotnene modifiers, mast-cell stabilizers, xanthines, anticholinergics, β-2 agonists, FLAP inhibitors, FLAP modulators or 5-LO inhibitors β-2 agonists include, but are not limited to, short- acting β-2 agomsts (e g , salbutamol (albuterol), levalbuterol, terbutalme, pirbuterol, procaterol, metaproterenol, fenoterol and bitolterol mesylate) and long-actmg β-2 agomsts (e g , salmeterol, formoterol, bambuterol and clenbuterol) FLAP inhibitors and/or FLAP modulators include, but are not limited to, 3-[3-tert-butylsulfanyl-l-[4-(6-methoxy-pyridin-3-yl)-benzyl ]-5-(pyπdm-2- ylmethoxy)-lH-indol-2-yl]-2^-dimethyl-propionic acid, 3-[3-tert-butylsulfanyl-l-[4-(6-ethoxy- pyπdin-3-yl)-benzyl]-5-(5-methyl-pyπdin-2-yhnethoxy)-l/i-m dol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propionic acid, MK-886, MK-0591, DG-031 (BAY-xlOO5) and compounds found m US 2QC7/0225285, US 2007/0219206, US 2007/0173508, US 2007/0123522 and US 2007/0105866 (each of which are hereby incorporated by reference) Glucocorticoids include, but are not limited to, beclometasone, budesomde, ciclesomde, fluticasone and mometasone Anticholinergics include, but are not limited

to, ipratropium and tiotropium. Mast cell stabilizers include, but are not limited to, cromoglicate and nedocromil. Xanthines include, but are not limited to, amminophylline, theobromine and theophylline. Leukotriene antagonists include, but are not limited to, montelukast, tomelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast. 5-LO inhibitors include, but are not limited to, zileuton, VIA-2291 (ABT761), MK.-0633, CJ-13,610 (PF-4191834), AZ-4407 and ZD-2138 and compounds found in US 2007/0149579, WO2007/016784.

[00469] In another specific embodiment described herein, methods for treating PGE> 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, such as the therapy of rhinitis, comprises administration to a patient compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, or medicaments described herein in combination with at least one additional agent selected from, by way of example only, antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists, corticosteroids and decongestants. Leukotriene antagonists include, but are not limited to, montelukast, tomelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast. 100470] In another aspect, methods for treating PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated conditions or diseases, iclude administering a DP 2 antagonist described herein in combination with other agents to treat respiratory diseases or conditions. Therapeutic agents used in the treatment of respiratory conditions and disorders, such as, but not limited to asthma, include: glucocorticoids, such as, ciclesonide, beclomethasone, budesonide, flunisolide, fluticasone, mometasone, and triamcinolone; leukotriene modifiers, such as, montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast, and zileuton; mast cell stabilizers, such as, cromoglicate (cromolyn), and nedocromil; antimuscarinics/anticholinergics, such as, ipratropium, oxitropium, and tiotropium; methylxanthines, such as, theophylline and aminophylline; antihistamine, such as, mepyramine (pyrilamine), antazoline, diphenhydramine, carbinoxamine, doxylamine. clemastine, dimenhydrinate, pheniramine, chlorphenamine (chlorpheniramine), dexchlorphenamine, brompheniramine, triprolidine, cyclizine, chlorcyclizine, hydroxyzine, meclizine, promethazine, alimemazine (trimeprazine), cyproheptadine, azatadine, ketotifen, acrivastine, astemizole, cetirizine, loratadine, mizolastine, terfenadinc, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine; omalizumab, an IgE blocker; beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists, such as: short acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists, such as, salbutamol (albuterol), levalbuterol, terbutaline, pirbuterol, procaterol, metaproterenol, fenoterol, bitolterol mesylate; and long-acting beta2- adrenergic receptor agonists, such as, salmcterol, formoterol, bambuterol. [00471] In one aspect, DP 2 anatogonists described herein are admistered in combination with one or more agents used to treat used to treat asthma, including, but not limited to: combination inhalers (fluticasone and salmeterol oral inhalation (e.g. Advair)); inhaled Beta-2 agonists (albuterol inhaler; albuterol nebulizer solution; formoterol; isoproterenol oral inhalation; levalbuterol; metaproterenol inhalation; pirbuterol acetate oral inhalation; salmeterol aerosol inhalation; salmeterol powder inhalation; terbutaline inhaler); inhaled corticosteroids

(beclomethasone oral inhalation, budesomde inhalation solution, budesomde inhaler, flunisol ide oral inhalation, fluticasone inhalation aerosol, fluticasone powder for oral inhalation, mometasone inhalation powder, triamcinolone oral inhalation), leukotπene modifiers (montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast, tomelukast, zileuton), mast cell stabilizers (cromolyn inhaler; nedocromil oral inhalation), monoclonal antibodies (omalizumab), oral Beta-2 agonists (albuterol oral syrup, albuterol oral tablets, metaproterenol, terbutaline), bronchodilator (aminophylline, oxtriphylline, theophylline)

[00472] In one aspect, DP 2 anatogomsts described herein are admistered in combination with one or more agents used to treat allergy, including, but not limited to antihistamine and decongestant combinations (cetinzme and pseudoephedπne, desloratadine and pseudoephedπne ER, fexofenadine and pseudoephedπne, loratadine and pseudoephedπne), antihistamines (azelastine nasal spray, brompheniramine, brompheniramine oral suspension, carbmoxamine, cetiπzinc, chlorpheniramine, clemastine, desloratadine, dexchlorphenrrainme ER, dexchlorpheniramrne oral syrup, diphenhydramine oral, fexofenadine, loratadine, promethazine), decongestants (pseudoephedπne), leukotπene modifiers (montelukast, montelukast granules), nasal anticholinergics (ipratropium), nasal corticosteroids (beclomethasone nasal inhalation, budesomde nasal inhaler, flunisolide nasal inhalation, fluticasone nasal inhalation, mometasone nasal spray, triamcinolone nasal inhalation, triamcinolone nasal spray), nasal decongestants (phenylephrine), nasal mast cell stabilizers (cromolyn nasal spray)

[00473] In one aspect, DP 2 anatogomsts described herein are admistered in combination with one or more agents used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including, but not limited to anticholinergics - ipratropium bromide oral inhalation), combination Inhalers (albuterol and ipratropium (e g Combivent, DuoNeb), fluticasone and salmeterol oral inhalation (e g Advair)), corticosteroids (dexamethasone tablets, fludrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone tablets, methylpredmsolone, prednisolone liquid, prednisone oral, triamcinolone oral), inhaled Beta-2 Agomsts (albuterol inhaler, albuterol nebulizer solution, formoterol, isoproterenol oral inhalation, levalbuterol, metaproterenol inhalation, pirbuterol acetate oral inhalation, salmeterol aerosol inhalation, salmeterol powder inhalation, terbutahne inhaler), inhaled Corticosteroids (beclomethasone oral inhalation, budesomde inhalation solution, budesomde inhaler, flunisolide oral inhalation, fluticasone inhalation aerosol, fluticasone powder for oral inhalation, triamcinolone oral inhalation), mukolytics (guaifenesin), oral Beta-2 agomsts (albuterol oral syrup, albuterol oral tablets, metaproterenol, terbutaline), bronchodilator (aminophylline, oxtnphylhne, theophylline)

[00474] In one embodiment, DP 2 anatogomsts described herein are administered to a patient in combination with inhaled corticosteroids

[00475] In one embodiment, DP 2 anatogonists described herein are administered to a patient in combination with beta2-adrencrgic receptor agonists. In one embodiment, DP 2 anatogonists described herein are administered to a patient in combination with short acting beta2 -adrenergic receptor agonists. In one embodiment, DP 2 anatogonists described herein are administered to a patient in combination with long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists. [00476] As discussed herein, the administration of compounds described herein is designed to anatagonize the activity OfDP 2 . For example, in specific embodiments, the administration of a DP 2 inhibitor decreases signal transduction initiated by PGD 2 within the individual [00477] Thus, in accordance with one aspect, methods described herein include the diagnosis or determination of whether or not a patient is suffering from a PGD 2 -dependent or PGD 2 mediated disease or condition by administering to the subject a compound of any of Formula (I), Formula (H), Formula (HI), Formula (HIa), Formula (IHb), Formula (Etc), Formula (HId), Formula (IV), Formula (V), Formula (VI), Formula (VH), Formula (VIH), Formula (K), Formula (X), Formula (XI), Formula (XH), Formula (XHI), Formula (XTV), Formula (XV), Formula (XVI), Formula (XVH), or Formula (XVIB), or pharmaceutical composition or medicament thereof, and determining whether or not the patient responds to the treatment. Kite/Articles of Manufacture

[00478] For use in the therapeutic applications described herein, kits and articles of manufacture are also described herein. Such kits can comprise a carrier, package, or container that is compartmentalized to receive one or more containers such as vials, tubes, and the like, each of the containers) comprising one of the separate elements to be used in a method described herein. Suitable containers include, for example, bottles, vials, syringes, and test tubes. The containers are formed from any acceptable material including, e.g., glass or plastic. [00479] For example, the containers) can comprise one or more compounds described herein, optionally in a composition or in combination with another agent as disclosed herein. The container(s) optionally have a sterile access port (for example the container can be an intravenous solution bag or a vial having a stopper pierceable by a hypodermic injection needle). Such kits optionally composing a compound with an identifying description or label or instructions relating to its use in the methods described herein.

[00480] A kit will typically comprise one or more additional containers, each with one or more of various materials (such as reagents, optionally in concentrated form, and/or devices) desirable from a commercial and user standpoint for use of a compound described herein. Non-limiting examples of such materials include, but not limited to, buffers, diluents, filters, needles, syringes; carrier, package, container, vial and/or tube labels listing contents and/or instructions for use, and package inserts with instructions for use. A set of instructions will also typically be included.

[00481] A label can be on or associated with the container A label can be on a container when letters, numbers or other characters forming the label are attached, molded or etched into the container itself, a label can be associated with a container when it is present within a receptacle or earner that also holds the container, e g , as a package insert A label can be used to indicate that the contents are to be used for a specific therapeutic application The label can also indicate directions for use of the contents, such as in the methods descnbed herein

EXAMPLES

[00482] These examples are provided for illustrative purposes only and not to limit the scope of the claims provided herein. In the following representative examples, M+H (or M+23) refers to mass spectrometry data that was obtained, where M represents the molecular ion peak. Example 1: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-oxazoUdin-3-ylmethylH'-trifluoromcthyl- biphenyl-3-yl|-acetic add (Compound 1-1) Step 1: (3-Bromo-4-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester

[00483] To S-bromo^-methoxyphenylacetic acid (5 226g, 21 3mmol) in MeOH (52mL) was added thionyl chloride (3 ImL, 426mmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between CH 2 Cl 2 and IN aqueous NaOH The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the combined organic layers were washed with H 2 O, dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound

Step 2: [4-Methoxy-3-<4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l AϊldioxaboroIan-Z-yO-phenyll-acetic add methyl ester

[00484] (3-Bromo-4-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester (5 Ig, 19 7mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (6537g, 25 όmmol), and potassium acetate (5 081g, 59 lmmol) were combined in DMF (10OmL) under N 2 The mixture was purged with N 2 for 1 5 hours, and then (l,l'-bis(diphenylρhosphino)ferrocene)dichloiopalladium (II) (0 805g, 098mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred overnight at 85 0 C Analytical LCMS indicated that starting material was still present after 15 hours, so additional (l,r-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene)dichloroρalladium (II) (0 808g, 098mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred overnight at 85°C No starting material was seen by analytical LCMS after 21 hours, so the reaction was cooled to room temperature and concentrated The residue was partitioned between EtO Ac and H 2 O and filtered

through Celite The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with bπne, dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound.

Step 3: 3-(2-Bromo-5-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-oxazolidui-2-one

[00485] To 2-oxazohdone (0 11Og, 1 26mmol) m DMF (4mL) was added sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 0 056g, 1 39mmol), and the mixture was stirred at 0°C for 10 minutes 2-Bromo-5- (tnfluoromethyl)benzyl bromide (042Og, 1 26mmol) was added, and the reaction was starred at O 0 C for 1 hour The mixture was diluted with EtOAc and H2O, and the aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtO Ac The combined organic layers were washed with bπne, dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated, and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound

Step 4: Iδ-Methoxy-Z'^-oxo-oxazoHdin-S-ylmethyO^'-triflπoromethyl- biphenyl-S-ylJ-acetic acid methyl ester

[00486] 3-(2-Bromo-5-tπfluoromethyl-benzyl)-oxazolidm-2-one (0234g, 071mmol), [4-methoxy- 3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-ace tic acid methyl ester (0 18Ig, 0 59mmol), and potassium carbonate (0209g, 1 48mmol) were combined in DME (2 5mL) and H 2 O (1 2mL) and purged with N 2 for 30 minutes Tetratas(tπphenylphosphme)palladium (0) (0069g, 006mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred at 90 0 C for 4 hours After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and H 2 O The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound

Step 5: [o-Methoxy-l'-Cl-oxo-oxazolidin-S-ylmethylj^'-trifluoromethy l-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid

[00487] To tδ-methoxy^^-oxo-oxa∞hdinO-ylmethylH'-tπfluoromethyl-bip henyl-S-yy-acettc acid methyl ester (0.117g, 0.28mmol) iα THF (1.2mL) and MeOH (0.9mL) was added IN aqueous NaOH (06ImL), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and aqueous HCl. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated. The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound. M+H is 410. Example 2: Synthesis of [4-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-oxazoGdin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethy l- biphenyl-3-yll-acetic add (Compound 1-2)

Step 1: (5-Bronio-2-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester

[00488] To S-bromo-a-methoxyphenylacetic acid (0.90Og, 3.7mmol) in MeOH (2OmL) was added hydrogen chloride (4N m 1,4-dioxane; 4mL), and the reaction was stirred at 80°C for 6 hours. The mixture was then concentrated to dryness to give the title compound

Step 2: [2-Methoxy-5-(4,4^,5-tetramethy^[l^,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phe nyl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00489] (5-Bromo-2-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester (0.9g, 3.5mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron(1.3g, 5.2mmol), potassium acetate (1 Og, 10.4mmol), and (1,1'- bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene)dichloropalladium (II) (0.284g, 0.35mmol) were combined in DMF (1OmL), and the mixture was purged with N 2 for 10 minutes. The reaction was stirred at 8O 0 C for 3 hours, until no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS. After cooling to room

temperature, the mixture was worked-up with EtOAc and bnne and purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 3: ['t-Methoxy-l'^-oxo-oxazolidin-S-ylmethylH'-triflnoromethyl- biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid methyl ester

[00490] 3-(2-Bromo-5-tπfluoromethyl-benzyl)-oxazolidin-2-one (0085g, 026mmol), [2-methoxy-

5-(4,4 > 5,5-tetramethyl-[1.3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-ρhenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester (0 12Og,

0 39mmol), potassium carbonate (Q 09 Ig, 0 66mmol), and tetralαs(tπphenylphosphine)palladium

(0) (003Og, 003mmol) were combined in DME H 2 O (2 1, 1OmL), and the mixture was purged with N 2 The reaction was stored at 90°C for 3 hours, until no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was worked-up with EtO Ac and brine and purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 4: [4-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluorometh yl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00491] To ^-methoxy^'^-oxo-oxazolidin-S-ylmethylH'-tπfluoromethyl-bip henyl-S-yy-acetic acid methyl ester (0 06Og, 1 42mmol) in 1,4-dioxane H 2 O (2 1, 2mL) was added lithium hydroxide (14mmol), and the reaction was stared overnight at room temperature The pH was adjusted to pH6 with 10% aqueous HCl, and the mixture was extracted with EtO Ac The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound M+H is 410

Example 3: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ybnethyl>biphenyl-3-ylI-acetic acid (Compouad 1-3)

Step 1: (4S,5R)-3-(2-Bromo-beiizyl)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-o ne

[00492] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 3, using the following starting materials: 2-bromobenzyl bromide and (4S,5R)-(-)-4-bethyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone.

Step 2: |6-Methoxy-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxa2θUdin-3-y lmethyl)-biphenyl-3- yl]-acetlc acid methyl ester

[00493] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (4S,5R)-3-(2-bromo-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-on e and [4- methoxy-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester.

Step 3: [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S^R)-4-mcthyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-y Imethyl)-biphenyl-3- ylj-acetic acid

[00494] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material: [6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 432.

Example 4: Synthesis of [4'-Flπoro-6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyϊ-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-4)

Step 1: (4S,5R)-3-(2-Bromo-S-fluoro-benz>l)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-oxa zolidiiι-2-one

[00495] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 3, using the following starting materials 2-bromo-5-fluorobenzyl bromide and (4S,5R)-(-)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2- oxazohdinone

Step 2: [4'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-metIiyl-2-oxo-5-phcnyl-ox azolidin-3-ylmethy])- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic add methyl ester

[00496] Prepared according to the procedure described m Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials (4S,5R)-3-(2-bromo-5-fluoro-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-oxazol idin-2-one and ^methoxy-S^^.S.S-tetramethyl-Cl.S^Jdioxaborolan^-yy-phβnyy- acetic acid methyl ester

Step 3: [4'-F!uoro-6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-mcthyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxa zolidin-3-ylmethyl)- biphenyl-3-yll-acetic acid

[00497] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material [4'-fluoro-6-me&oxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazokdin-3- ylmethyl)-brohenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester M+H is 450

Example 5: Synthesis of (6,4'-Dimethoxy-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyI-oxazoUdin -3- ylmethyI)-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-5)

Step 1: (4S,SR)-3-(2-Bromo-5-niethoxy-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-oxaz olidin-2-one [00498] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 3, using the following starting materials: 2-bromo-5-methoxybenzyl bromide and (4S,5RM-M-methyl-5-phenyl-2- oxazolidinone.

Step 2: |6,4'-Dimethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolid iiι-3-ylinethyl)- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic add methyl ester

[00499] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (4S,5R)-3-(2-bromo-5-methoxy-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-oxazo lidin-2-one and μ-methoxy-S^^.S.S-tetramethyl-Il.S^dioxaborolan^-y^-phenyy- acetic acid methyl ester.

Step 3: |6,4'-Dimethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-inethyl-2-oxo-S-phenyl-oxazoli diii-3-ylmethyl)- biphenyl-3-yI]-acefic add

[00500] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material: [6,4 I -dimethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-ρhenyl-oxazolidin-3 -ylmethyl)- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 462.

Example 6: Synthesis of [2'-((4S,5R)-4-MethyI-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidiii-3-}lmethy]) -4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yIJ-acetic add (Compound 1-6)

Step 1: (3-Bromo-phenyI)-acetic acid methyl ester

[00501] To 3-bromophenylacetic acid (5.027g, 23.4mmol) in MeOH (5OmL) was added thionyl chloride (3.4mL, 46.8mmol), and the reaction was stirred at 65 0 C for 5 hours. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between CH 2 Cl 2 and saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 . IN Aqueous NaOH was added to adjust the pH to basic, and the aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The combined organic layers were washed with H 2 O, dried over MgSO^ filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound.

Step 2: |3-(4,4,5,5-TettamethyHl,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-pheiiyl]-ace tic acid methyl ester [00502] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 2, Step 2, using the following starting materials: (3-bromo-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester and bis(pinacolato)diboron.

Step 3: (4S,5R)-3-(2-Bromo-5-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-4-inethyl-5-phe nyI-oxazolidin-2-one

[00503] To (4S,5R)-(-)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone (0.386g, 2.13mmol) in THF (7mL) at - 78°C under N 2 was added n-butyllithium (2.5M in hexanes; 0.94mL, 2.35mmol), and the mixture was stirred at -78 0 C for 30 minutes. 2-Bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl bromide (0.678g, 2.13mmol) was added, and the reaction was warmed to room temperature and stirred overnight. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel and partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound.

Step 4: [2'-((4S^R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4 '-triflυoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yI]-acetic add methyl ester

[00504] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (4S,5R)-3-(2-bromo-5-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-ρhe nyl-oxazolidin-2- one and [3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-ac etic acid methyl ester.

Step 5: |2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)- 4'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl|-acetic add

[00505] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1 , Step 5, using the following starting material: [2'-((4S,5R)-4-raethyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxa2olidin-3-ylmethyl) -4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 470.

Example 7: Synthesis of |4-Fluoro-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- yhnethyI)-4'-trifluorometiiyl-bφhenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-7)

Step l: (4S,SR)-4-Methyl-5-phenyl-3-[2-(4,4^,5-tetramethyl-[l,3 v 2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-5- trifluoromethyl-benzyl]-oxazolidin-2-onc

[00506] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 2, Step 2, using the following starting materials: ^S.S^-S^-bromo-S-trifluoromethyl-benzyl^-methyl-S-phenyl-oxa zolidin^- one and bis(pinacolato)diboron.

Step 2: |4-Flπoro-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methy]-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmetliyl)-4'- trifluoromethyI-biphenyl-3-yl]-aceric acid

[0OS07] (4S,5R)-4-Methyl-5-phenyl-3-[2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3^]di oxaborolan-2-yl)-5- trifluoromethyl-benzyl]-oxazolidin-2-one (0.08Og, 0.17mmol), S-bromo^-fluorophenylacetic acid (0.06Ig, 0.2όmmol), potassium carbonate (0.084g, O.όlmmol), and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0) (0.02Ig, 0.02mmol) were combined in DME:H 2 O (2:1; 3mL), and the mixture was purged with N 2 for 5 minutes. The reaction was stirred under N 2 at 90°C overnight. After work-up with EtOAc and brine, the crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-5% MeOH in CH 2 Cl 2 ) to give the title compound. M+H is 488. Example 8: Synthesis of [4-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyi-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidiii-3 - ylmethyl)-4'-tiϊf]uorθmethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-8)

Step 1: [4-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyI-2-oxo-5-phcnyl-oxazoUdin-3-y lmethylM'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00508] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 7, Step 2, using the following starting materials: (4S,5R)-4-melhyl-5-phenyl-3-[2-(4 > 4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-

5-trifluoromethyl-benzyl]-oxazolidin-2-one and S-bromo^-methoxyphenylacetic acid. M+H is

500.

Example 9: Synthesis of [6-Fluoro-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethy]-biphenyl-3-yll-acetic acid (Compound 1-9)

Step 1: [6-Fluoro-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-ox8zolidiii-3-y lmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-jll-acetic acid

[00509] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 7, Step 2, using the following starting materials (4S,5R)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-3-[2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2]d ioxaborolan-2-yl)-

5-tnfluoromethyl-benzyl]-oxazohdin-2-one and 3-bromo-4-fluorophenylacetic acid M+H is 488

Example 10: Synthesis of [6-Metlioxy-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyϊ-2-oxo-5-phciiyl-oxazolidiii -3- ylmethyl)-4'-triflιioromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-10)

Step l: [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazoUdin-3-y Imethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyI-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00510] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials (4S,5R)-3-(2-bromo-5-tnfluoromethyl-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-ρhen yl-oxazohdin-2- one and μ-methoxy-S^λS.S-tetramethyl-Il.S^dioxaborolan^-yO-phenyll -acetic acid methyl

Step 2: [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-inethyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3 -ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl|-acetk acid

[00511] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material [6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2oxo-5-phenyl-oxazobdin-3-yl methyl)-4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid methyl ester M+H is 500

Example 11: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-((4R,5S)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoFoinetliyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-11)

Step 1: (4R,5S)-3-(2-Bronio-5-triflαoromethyl-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-ph enyl-oxazoiidin-2-one

[00512] Prepared according to the procedure descπbed in Example 6, Step 3, using the following starting materials 2-bromo-5-(tπfluoromethyl)benzyl bromide and (4R,5S)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2- oxazohdinone

Step 2: |6-Methoxy-2'-((4R,5S)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00513] Prepared according to the procedure descπbed in Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials (4R,5S)-3-(2-bromo-5-tπfluoromethyl-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phen yl-oxazolidin-2-

one and [4-methoxy-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2](iioxaborolan-2-yl) -phenyl]-acetio acid methyl ester

Step 3: [6-Methoxy-2'-((4R,5S)-4-methy]-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yll-acetic acid

[00514] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step S, using the following starting material [6-methoxy-2'-((4R,5S)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-ρhenyl-oxazo]idin-3 -ylmethyl)-4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester M+H is 500

Example 12: Synthesis of 2-[6-Methoxy-2H(4S,5R>4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin- 3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-ylJ-propionic acid (Compound 1-12)

Step 1: (3-Bromo-4-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester

[00515] A solution of 3-bromo-4-methoxyphenylacetie acid (4 Ig, 167mmol) and concentrated hydrogen chloride (2 drops) in EtOH (10OmL) were stirred at 8O 0 C for 3 days After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was concentrated to dryness to give the title compound

Step 2: |4-Methoxy-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyHl,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-ph enyl]-acetic add ethyl ester

[00516] A suspension of (3-bromo-4-methoxy-ρhenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (4 6g, 169mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (47Ig, 18 6mmol), and potassium acetate (497g, 507mmol) in 1 ,4- dioxane (10OmL) was purged with N 2 for 15 minutes (1,1 -

Bis(diphenylphosρhino)ferrocene)dichloropalladium (II) (1 37g, 0 lmmol) was added, and the mixture was purged with N 2 for an additional 5 minutes The reaction was stirred overnight at 85 0 C, and then partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with bπne, dried over

MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 3: 2-I4-Methox>-3-(4,4,5^ acid ethyl ester

[005171 To [4-methoxy-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)- phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester (0 10Og, 031mmol) and iodomethane (004mL, 0 63mmol) m THF (5mL) at -78°C was added sodium hexamethyldisilazane (IM in THF, C 63mL, 0 63mmol) The reaction was warmed to room temperature and stirred under N 2 for 1 hour, and then quenched with H 2 O and partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound

Stcp 4: 2-|6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin- 3-ylmethyl)-4'- tritluoromethyl-bipheαyl-3-yl]-propionic acid ethyl ester

[00518] (4S,5R)-3-(2-Bromo-5-tπfluoromethyl-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phen yl-oxazohdin-2-one (0096g, 023mmol), 2-[4-methoxy-3-(4 ) 4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]- propiomc acid ethyl ester (0094g, 028mmol), and potassium carbonate (0 O98g, 0 70mmol) were combined in DME H 2 O (2 1, 3mL), and the mixture was purged with N 2 for 15 minutes Tetralαs(tπphenylphospnine)palladium (0) (0 023g, 002mmol) was added, and the mixture was purged with N 2 for an additional 10 minutes The reaction was shrred overnight at 85°C, and then partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were dπed over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 5: 2-[6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5RH-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'- triflnoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-propionic acid

[00519] To 2-[6-methoxy-2'-((4S > 5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'- ttifluorometliyl-biρhenyl-3-yl]-propionic acid ethyl ester (0.05g, 0.09mmol) in MeOH (2mL) was added lithium hydroxide (IN; ImL, l.Ommol), and the reaction was stirred at 65°C for 3 hours. The crude material was purified by preparative HPLC to give the title compound. M+H is 514. Example 13: Synthesis of {2'-[(4S,5R)-5-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-4-methyl-2-o xo- oxazolidin-3-ylmethyll-6-methoxy^'-trifluoromrthyl-biphenyl- 3-yl}-acetic add (Compound 1-13) Step 1: [(S^l-tMethoxy-methyl-carbamoyO-ethyll-carbamic acid benzyl ester

[00S20] N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanine (6.5g, 28.5mmol), N.O-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (3.4g, 36.2mmol), and N-hydroxybenzotriazole (4.8g, 34.8mmol) were dissolved in THF (32mL) and cooled to 0 0 C under N 2 . Diisopropylethylamine {12.3mL, 71.3mmol) was slowly added, maintaining the temperature below 25°C. l-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (7.Og, 36.2mmol) was then added slowly, maintaining the temperature at 15-25"C. The slurry was stirred overnight at room temperature, and then cooled to O 0 C. IN Aqueous HCl (36mL) was added slowly, and the mixture was warmed to room temperature and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with 10% aqueous HCl, saturated aqueous NaHCθ 3 , and brine, and then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound.

Step 2: [(S)-2-(3,5-Bis-trinuororaethyl-phenyl)-l-methyl-2-oxo-ethyl ]-c*rbamic acid benzyl ester

[00521] [(SJ-l-OVIethoxy-methyl-carbamoyO-ethyll-carbaπuc acid benzyl ester (5g, 18 8mmol) and 3,5-bis(tnfluoromethyl)bromobenzene (404mL, 23 Smmol) were dissolved in THF (2OmL) The solution was degassed with N 2 for 5 minutes, and then cooled to 0°C Isopropylmagnesium chloride (2M in THF, 23 5mL, 469mmol) was added slowly, and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours Once no starting material was seen by analytical tic, the mixture was cooled to 0 0 C IN Aqueous HCl (5UmL) was added, and the organic layer was separated and washed with brine After concentrating, the crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 3: [(S>2-(3,5-Bis-trifluoroinethyI-pkenyI)-2-hydroxy-l-ιnet hy^ethyl]-carbftmic acid benzyl ester

[00522] Tπfluoroacetic acid (1 ImL) was cooled to -5°C [(S)-2-(3,5-Bis-tπfluoromethyl-phenyl)- l-rnethyl-2-oxo-ethyl]-carbamic acid benzyl ester (5g, 11 9mmol) was added slowly, followed by dimethylphenylsilane (22mL, 143mmol), and the mixture was stirred for 4 hours Once no starting material was seen by analytical tic, the mixture was cooled to 0°C and treated with 50% aqueous KOH (12mL), followed by THF (16mL) After stirring at room temperature for 5 hours, only starting material was seen by analytical tic, and so the soluton was diluted with EtOAc and brine The organic layer was separated and concentrated, and the crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 4: (4S^R>5-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-4-inethyl-oxazol idin-2-one benzyl ester (11 9mmol) was added 75N aqueous KOH THF MeOH (1 4 2, 6OmL), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 3 hours Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was diluted with EtOAc and bπne, and the organic layer was separated and purified by sihca gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 5: (4S,5R)-5-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(2-bromo-5-tri uoromethyl-benzyl)-4- niethyl-oxazolidin-2-one

[00524] To (4S,5R)-5-(3,5-bis-tπfluoromethyl-phenyl)-4-methyl-oxazohdi n-2-one (0246g,

0 79mmol) in THF (1OmL) at room temperature was added sodium hexamethyldisilazane (IM in

THF, 1 02mL, 1 02mmol), and the reaction was stirred for 15 minutes 2-Bromo-5-

(tnfluoromethyl)benzyl bromide (025Og, 0 79mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred overnight at room temperature The mixture was worked-up with EtOAc and H 2 O, and the crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 6: {2'-[(4S,5R)-5-(3,5-Bis-trinuoromethyl-phenyl)-4-methyl-2-ox o-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester

[00525] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 2, Step 3, using the following starting materials [6- (4S,5R)-5-(3,5-bis-tπfluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(2-bromo-5-tπf luoromethyl- benzyl)-4-methyl-oxazohdin-2-one and [4~methoxy-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[l ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2- yl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester

Step 7: {2'-[(4S,5R)-5-(3,5-Bis-trifluororaethyl-pheny])-4-methyl-2- oxo-oxazolidin-3- ylniethyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-aceti c acid

[00526] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 2, Step 4, using the following starting material: [6-{2'-[(4S,5R)-5-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-4-methyl- 2-oxo-oxazolidin-3- ylmeώyl]-6-mrthoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 636. Example 14: Synthesis of [6-Ethoxy-2'-<(4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oio-5-phenyl-oxazolidiii- 3- ylmethyl)-4'-rrifliioromethyl-biphenyl-3-y]]-acetic acid (Compound 1-14)

Step 1: [6-Methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmcth>1)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid ethyl ester

[00527] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 12, Step 4, using the following starting materials: [6- (4S,5R)-3-(2-bromo-5-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-4-methyl-5-phen yl- oxazolidin^-one and H-methoxy-S^^.S.S-tetramethyKl.S.ϊldioxaborolan^-yy-phenyll -acetic acid ethyl ester.

Step 2: |6-Hydrox>-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidii i-3-ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyi-bipheny]-3-yl]-acetic acid

100528) A solution of [6-methoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)- 4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid ethyl ester (074Og, 1 41mmol) in hydrogen bromide (3mL) and acetic acid (3mL) was stirred at 100°C overnight The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O, and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound

Step 3: [6-Ethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-& gt;1mcthyl)-4'- trifluorαmethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid ethyl ester

[00529] To a suspension of [6-hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'-tπfluoromethyl-biρhenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (0 085g, 0 18mmol) and cesium carbonate (0 171 g, 053mmol) in MeCN was added iodoethane (003mL, 0 35mmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O, and the aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound

Step 4: [6-Ethoxy-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-pheny]-oxazoUdin-3-ylm ethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyI-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00530] To [6-ethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazohdin-3-yl methyl)-4'- tnfluoromethyl-biρhenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid ethyl ester (0 18mmol) in MeOH (3mL) was added aqueous lithium hydroxide (IN, ImL), and the reaction was stirred overnight at 70°C. After acidification with IN aqueous HCl, the aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc

The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated, and the crude material was purified by preparative HPLC to give the desired product M+H is 514 Example 15: Synthesis of |6-Cyclopropylmethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazoHdta-3-ylmethyIM'-ti1fluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid (Compound 1-15)

Step l: [6-Cyclopropylmethoxy-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxa zolidin-3-ylmethyl)- 4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic add cyclopropylmethyl ester

[00531] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 3, usmg the following starting materials [6-hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazohdin-3-y lmethyl)-4'- tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid and (bromomethyl)cyclopropane

Step 2: [6-Cyclopropylmethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyI-ox azolidin-3-ylmethyl>-

4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00532J Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 4, using the following starting material [ό-cyclopropyhnethoxy-Z-^S.SKJ^-methyl-σ-oxo-S-plienyl-oxa zolidin-S- ylmethyl)-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid cyclopropylmethyl ester M+H is 540

Example 16: Synthesis of [6-Carboxymethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazoIidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'-triflnoromethyi-biphenyl-3-yI]-ace tic acid (Compound 1-16)

Step l: [6-Cysnomethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-inethyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazoHd iii-3-ylmethyl)-4'- triflnoromethyI-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid cyanomethyl ester

[00533] Prepared according to the procedure descnbed in Example 14, Step 3, using the following starting materials [6-hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidm-3-y lmethyl)-4'- tαfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid and bromoacetonitnle

Step 2: [6-Carboxymethoxy-2'-((4S r SR)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmetliyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid

[00534] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 4, using the following starting material [6-cyanomethoxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolid in-3-ylmethyl)-

4'-tπfluoroinethyl-bipheiiyl-3-yl]-acetic acid cyanomethyl ester M+H is 544

Example 17: Synthesis of [6-BenzyIoxy-2'-((4S,5RH-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidm-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-17)

Step 1: [6-Benzylosy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazoUdi ] i-3-y ] methyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yll-acetic acid benzyl ester

[00535] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 3, using the following starting materials [6-hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidm-3-y lmethyl)-4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid and benzyl bromide

Step 2: [6-Benzyloxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazoUdlii- 3-yImethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyI-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00536] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 4, using the following starting material [6-benzyloxy-2 l -((4S, 5 R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid benzyl ester M+H is 576

Example 18: Synthesis of [6-(4-Chloτo-benzyloxy)-2'-((4S^R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-plienyI - oxazoUdm-3-ylmetbylM'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic add (Compound 1-18)

Step l: [6-(4-Chloro-beDzyloxy)-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-S-phenyl- oxazoUdiJi-3-yImethyl)- 4'-triflπoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid 4-chloro-benzyl ester

[00537] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 3, using the following starting materials t6-hydroxy-2 l -((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-yknethyl>4 '- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid and 4-chlorobenzyl bromide

Step 2: [6-(4-Chloro-benzyloxy)-2'-((4S5^4-raethyl-2-oxo-5-pheuyl-ox azolidiii-3-ylmethy[)- 4'-triiluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00538] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 14, Step 4, using the following starting material: [6-(4-chloro-benzyloxy)-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl- oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid 4-chloro-benzyl ester. M+H is 610. Example 19: Synthesis of [2"-<(4S£R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethy l)-4"- trifluoromethyl-[l,r;2',1"]terphenyl-4'-yl]-aceric add (Compound 1-19)

Step 1: [6-Hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazo ] idin-3-ylmetfayI)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester

(00539] To [6-hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (0.5g, 1.Ommol) in MeOH (2OmL) was added hydrogen chloride (4N in 1 ,4-dioxane; 2mL), and the reaction was heated to 8O 0 C for 2 hours. The mixture was then concentrated and worked-up with EtOAc and saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 to give the title compound.

Step 2: [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyI-oxazolidiD-3-ylmethyl)- 6- trifluoromethanesulfonyloxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biplienyl-3-y ]]-acetic add methyl ester

[00540] To [6-hydroxy-2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3- ylmethyl)-4'- tπfluoroinethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester (05g, 1.Ommol) in DMF (1OmL) was added cesium carbonate (0.652g, 2.0mmol) and N-phenyl-bis(tafluoromethanesulfoniimde) (0.393g, l.lmmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature under N 2 for 1 hour Once no starting material was seen by analytical tic, the mixture was worked-up with EtOAc and H 2 O, and the crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound.

Step 3: [2"-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazoUdrii-3-ylmethyl)- 4"-trinuoromethyl- [l,l';2',l"]terphenyl-4'-yl]-acetic acid

[00541] [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidm-3-yhnethyl)-6 - tπfluoromethanesulfonyloxy^'-tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll -acetic acid methyl ester (0.10Og, 0.16mmol), phenylboronic acid (0.029g, 0.24mmol), potassium carbonate (0.055g, 0.40mmol), and tetralαs(tπphenylphosρhme)palladium (0) (0018g, 002mtnol) were combined in DME (2mL) and H 2 O ( 1 mL), and the mixture was purged with N 2 for 10 minutes The reaction was stirred at 9O 0 C for 5 hours, until no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS The pH was adjusted to pH 7 with saturated aqueous NH 4 CI, and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound. M+H is 546 Example 20: Synthesis of [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)- 6- pyridin-3-yl-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 1-20)

Step l: [2'-((4S,5R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-pheiiyl-oxazoUdiii-3-ylinethyI )-6-pyήdin-3-yl-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00542] Prepared according to the procedure descnbed in Example 19, Step 3, using the following starting materials [ 2 '-(( 4 S,5RH-methyl-2-oxo-5-ρhenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)-6- tπfluoromethanesulfoayloxy-4'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid methyl ester and 3- pyπdineboromc acid M+H is 547

Example 21: Synthesis of |2'-((4S^R)-4-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazoUdln-3-ylmethyl)-6- (l- methyl-ie-pyrazol-4-y])-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-ac etic acid (Compound 1-21)

Step 1: [I'-^S^RH-MethyH-oxo-S-phenyl-oxazolidin-S-ylmethyl^β-Cl-me thyl-l//- pyrazol-4-yl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00543] Prepared according to the procedure descnbed in Example 14, Step 4, using the following starting materials' [2'-((4S,5R)-4-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-oxazolidin-3-ylmethyl)- 6- tπfluoromethanesulfonyloxy-^'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-ylJ -acetic acid methyl ester and 1- methylpyrazole-4-boronic acid pinacol ester M+H is 550

Example 22: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazoUαin-l- ylmethyl)-4'-triflnoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetlc acid (Compound 2-1)

Step 1: (2'-Hydrox ) τncthyi-«κmethoxy-4 t -trifluoromethyl-biphcnyl-3-yl)-acetic acid methyl ester

[00544] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 4, using the following starting materials. [4<nethoxy-3-(4,4,5 > 54etramethyl-[l,3,2]ώoxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester and 2-bromo-5-(tnfluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol.

Step 2: [6-Methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazolidin-l-yl methyI)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00545] To (2'-hydioxymethyl-6-methoxy-4 l -tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acetic acid methyl ester (0 158g, 044mmol), 5-methyl-5-ρhenylhydantoin (0.102g, 0.53mmol), and tnphenylphosphine (0.14Ig, 0 53mmol) in THF (3mL) was added dnsopropyl azodicarboxylate (0 ImL, 0 53mmol), and the reaction was stirred overnight at room temperature. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound

Step 3: |6-Methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazoUdin-l-ylm ethjl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00546] Prepared according to the procedure descnbed in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material: [6-methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazohdin-l -ylmethyl)-4'- tπfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester M+H is 513

Example 23: Synthesis of [2H3-Carboxymethyl-4-methyI-2,5-dloxo-4-phenyl-imidazolidiii -l- ylmethyl)-6-inethoxy-4'-trifluoromethy]-bipheiiyl-3-yl]-acet ic acid (Compound 2-2)

Step 1 : [6-Methoxy-2'-(3-methoxycarbonylmethyl-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4- phenyl-imidazolidin- l-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-y]l-acetlc acid methyl ester

[00547] To [6-methoxy-2'-(4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-ρheiiyl-imidazolidin-l- ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acβtic acid methyl ester (0.087g, O.lδmmol) in DMF (0.9mL) was added sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil; 0.013g, 0.20mmol), followed by methyl bromoacetate (0.02mL, 0.18mmol), and the reaction was stirred for 40 minutes. The mixture was worked-up with H 2 O, CH 2 Cl 2 , and IN aqueous HCl, and then purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound.

Step 2: [2'-(3-Carboxymethyl-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4-phenyl-imidazoUdin -l-ylmethy])-6- methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yI|-acctic acid

[00548] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material: [6-methoxy-2'-(3-methoxycarbonyhnethyl-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-4- phenyl- imidazolidin-1 -ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl] -acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 571. Example 24: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-methyl-4,5-dihydro-inύdazol-l-ylmethyl)-4' - trifliioromcthyl-biphenyl-3-yll-acetic acid (Compound 3-1)

Step 1: (2'-Bromomethyl-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyI-3-yl)- acetic add methyl ester

[00549] To (I'-hydroxymethyl-o-methoxy^'-tnfluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yO-a cetic acid methyl ester (1 66g, 4 68mmol) in DME (17mL) was added phosphorus tπbromide (0 66mL, 7 03mmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 3 hours The mixture was cooled to 0°C and quenched with aqueous NaHCO 3 and CH 2 Cl 2 The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated. The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography to give the title compound

Step 2: [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-methyM,5-dihydro-imidazol-l-yImethyl)-4'-tr ifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yIl -acetic add methyl ester

[00550] To (2'-bromomemyl-6-methoxy-4'-tnfluoromemyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-ace tic acid methyl ester (007Og, 0 17mmol) and 2-methyl-2-imidazohne (0017g, 0 18mmol) in DMF (ImL) at O 0 C was added sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 0011 g, 0 18mmol), and the reaction was stirred for 2 hours After work-up with EtOAc, H 2 O, and citnc acid, the combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound

Step 3: [6-Methox}-2'-(2-methyl-4,5-dihydro-imidazol-l-ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromcthyl- biphenyl-3-yl|-acctic add

[00551] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1, Step 5, using the following starting material [6-methoxy-2'-(2-methyl-4,5-dihydro-imidazol-l -ylmethyl)-4'-tπfluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester M+H is 407

Example 25: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-((3aR^aS)-2-oxo-8^a-diliydro-3a£r-inde]io[l,2 -

</|oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-triHuoromethvl-biplιenyl-3-yl]- acetic add (Compound 6-6)

Step I: (3-Bromo-4-mcthox>-phenyI)-acetic add methyl ester

[00552] To (3-bromo-4-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid (5.226g, 21.32mmol) in MeOH (52mL) was added thionyl chloride (3.ImL, 42.65mmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was concentrated and then diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and aqueous IN NaOH. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the combined organic layers were washed with H 2 O, dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound.

Step 2: [φ-Mettaoxy-^^^S-tetramethyl-Il^^JdlosaboroIaii-l-yl^phenyq -acetic acid methyl ester

[00553] (3-Bromo-4-methoxy-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester (5.1g, 19.68mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (6.54g, 25.59mmol), and potassium acetate (5.8Og, 59.05mmol) were combined in DMF (10OmL) under N 2 . The solution was purged with N 2 , and then (1,1'- bis(diphenylphospnino)ferrocene)-dichloropalladium(II) (0.805g, 0.98mmol) was added and the reaction was heated to 85 0 C overnight. Starting material was still observed after 16 hours, so additional (l,l l -bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene)-dichloropalladium(II) (O.808g, 0.98mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred at 85 0 C overnight. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and concentrated. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc and H 2 O and filtered through Celite. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound.

Step 3: (Z'-Fonnyl-o-methoxy-^-trifluoromethyl-biphenyM-y^acetic acid methyl ester [00554] 2-Bromo-5-trifluoromethyl-benzaldehyde(4.152g, 16.41mmol), [4-methoxy-3-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester (4.988g, 16.41mmol), and potassium carbonate (5.67g, 41.03mmol) were combined in DME (4OmL) and H 2 O (2OmL) under N 2 . The mixture was purged with N 2 , and then tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (1.9g, 1.64mmol) was added, and the reaction was heated to 9O 0 C for 10 hours. Once no starting material was seen by analytical LCMS, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and H 2 O. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the combined

organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-1 Q0% EtO Ac in hexanes) to give the title compound.

Step4: {2'-[((lR,2S>-2-Hydroxy-indaii-l-ylami]io)-methyl]-6-meth αxy-4'-triflnoroinethyl- biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester

[00555] (2'-Foπnyl-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acet ic acid methyl ester (0.153g, 0.43mmol), (lR,2S)-(+)-cis-l-amino-2-indanol (0.065g, 0.43mmol), sodium cyanoborohydride (0.041g, 0.65mmol), and acetic acid (3 drops) were combined in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.5mL), and the reaction was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. The mixture was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 , and the aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound.

Stcp 5: |6-Methoxy-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-diliydro-3aff-indenoll,2 -rf]ox»zol-3-ylmethyl)- 4'-trifluoromethy]-bipheny]-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00556] To {2'-[((lR^S)-2-hydroxy-indan-l-ylamino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4' -trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid methyl ester (0.178g, 0.37mmol) in toluene (3mL) was added triethylamine (0.18mL, 1.29mmol), and the mixture was cooled to O 0 C. Phosgene (1.9M in toluene; 0.23mL, 0.44mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred for 20 miniutes at 0 0 C. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc, H 2 O, and brine, and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated, and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound.

Step 6: [6-Methoxy-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3ai7-indeno[l,2- </]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)- 4'-trifluorome«hyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

(0055η To [6-methoxy-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aff-indeno[l,2- rf]oxazol-3-ylmethyl)- ψ-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-S-yll-acetic acid methyl ester (0.09Ig, 0.18mmol) in THF (0.9mL) and MeOH (0.7mL) was added IN aqueous NaOH (0.4SmL), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The mixture was acidified with IN aqueous HCl and extracted with CH 2 CI 2 . The combined organic layers were washed with H 2 O, dried over MgSQ), filtered, and concentrated to give the title compound. M+H is 498.

Example 26: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-((S)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a//-iπdeno[l,2-</ loxazol-3- ylmethy])-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yI]-acetic acid (Compound 6-8)

Step l: {2'-[((lS^R)-2-πydroxy-indan-l-ylamino)-inethyl]-6-methoxy- 4 I -trifluoroniethyl- biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester

[00558] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (2'-foπnyl-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-acet ic acid methyl ester and (lS,2R)-(-)-cis-l-amino-2-indanol.

Step 2: [6-Methoxy-2'-((S)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a£r-indeno[l r Z-<qoxazol-3-yhnethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00559] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 5, using the following starting materials: {2'-[((lS,2R)-2-fydroxy-indan-l-ylamino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4 '- trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid methyl ester and phosgene (1.9M in toluene).

Step 3: [β-Methoxy-Z'-røaS^aR^Z-oxo-β^a-dihydro-Saø-indeiiotl^fl oxazol-S-ylinethyt)-

4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yil-acetic acid

[00560] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 6, using the following starting material: [6-methoxy-2'-((S)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aH-indeno[l ,2-i/|oxazol-3-y]methyl)-4 1 - trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 498.

Example 27: Synthesis of [6-f1uoro-2'-((3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a-7-indeno[l,2-

^oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoroniethyl-bipheiiyl-3-yl]-acet ic acid (Compound 6-9)

Step 1: (3-Bromo-4-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic add methyl ester

[00561] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 1 , using the following starting material: (3-bromo-4-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid.

Step 2: [4-Fluoro-3-(4,4^^-tetramethyl-[l r 3^]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester

[00562] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 2, using the following starting materials: (3-bromo-4-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester and bis(pinacolato)diboron.

Step 3: (6-Fluoro-2'-formyl-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphcnyl-3-yl)-acetic add methyl ester [00563] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 3, using the following starting materials: 2-bromo-5-trifluoromethyl-benzaldehyde and [4-fluoro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- [l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester; the isolated product was further purified by preparative HPLC.

Step 4: {6-Fluoro-2'-[((lS^R>2-hydroxy-indan-l-ylamino)-methyl]-4 '-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester

[00564] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (6-fluoro-2'-formyl-4'-trifliioromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-aceti c acid methyl ester and (lS^R)-(-)-cis-l-amino-2-indanol.

Step 5: [6-Fluoro-2X(3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a#-indeno[l,2-^oxa zol-3-ylmethyl)-4'- trifluoromethyl-biphenyi-3-yl] -acetic acid methyl ester

[00565] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 5, using the following starting materials: {6-fiuoro-2'-[((lS,2R)-2-hydroxy-indan-l-ylamino)-metliyl]-4 '-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid methyl ester and phosgene (1.9M in toluene).

Step 6: [6-Fluoro-2'-((3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8^a-dihydro-3aff-indeao[l,2-(/ |oxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'- trifliioromethyl-biphenyl-3-yll -acetic acid

[00566] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 6, using the following starting material: [6-fluoro-2X(3aS,8aR)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3_jy-indeno[l,2-< ;3r]oxazol-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 486. Example 28: Synthesis of [6-Fluoro-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aJf-indeno|l,2- ι/|oxazol-3-yhnethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-ace tic acid (Compound 6-10)

Step l: {6-Fluoro-2 1 -[((lR,2S)-2-hydroiy-indan-l-j1amiDθ)-methyl]-4'-trifluorom ethyl- biphenyl-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester

[00567] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (6-fluoro-2'-foπnyl-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-aceti c acid methyl ester and (lR,2S)-(+)-cis-l-amino-2-indanol.

Step 2: |6-Fluoro-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aiϊ-indeno[l ) 2-</loxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'- trifliioromethyl-biphenykJ-yll-acetic acid methyl ester

[00568] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 5, using the following starting materials: {6-fluoro-2'-[((lR,2S)-2-hydroxy-indan-l -ylaminoj-methyll^'-trifluoromethyl- biphenyl-3-yl} -acetic acid methyl ester and phosgene (1.9M in toluene).

Step 3: [6-Fluoro-2'-{(3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3aff-indeno[l,2-( /]oxazol-3-ylniethyl)-4'- trrfluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid

[00569] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 6, using the following starting material: [6-fluoro-2'-((3aR,8aS)-2-oxo-8,8a-dihydro-3a//-indeno[l,2-( /]oxazol-3- ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester. M+H is 486.

Example 29: Synthesis of [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-benzooxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromet hyl- biphenyl-3-yl]-acetic acid (Compound 7-1)

Step l: {2'-[(2-Hydroxy-phenyIamino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluorom cthyl-biphenyl-3-yl}- acetic acid methyl ester

[00570] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 4, using the following starting materials: (2'-formyl-6-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-biphenyl-3-yl)-aceti c acid methyl ester and 2-aminophenol.

Step 2: [6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-benzooxazol-3-ylmethyl)-4'-trifluoromet hyl-bipheny)-3-y]]- acetic acid methyl ester

[00571] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 5, using the following starting materials: {2'-[(2-hydroxy-phenylamino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-4'-trifluorom ethyl-biρhenyl- 3-yl} -acetic acid methyl ester and phosgene (1.9M in toluene).

Step 3: |6-Methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-benzooxazol-3-ybmethyl)-4'-tritluoromct hyl-biphenyl-3-yl]- acetic acid

[00572] Prepared according to the procedure described in Example 25, Step 6, using the following starting material: [6-methoxy-2'-(2-oxo-benzooxazol-3-ylmetb.yl)-4'-trifluorome thyl-biρhenyl-3- yl]-acetic acid methyl ester; the isolated product was further purified by preparative HPLC. M+H is 458.

Example 30: CRTH2 Assays

Example 30a: DP^CRTH2 binding assay

[00573] The ability of a compound to bind to the human DP 2 receptor is assessed via a radioligand binding assay using [ 3 H]PGD 2 HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant human DP 2 are resuspended in 10 mM Hepes, 74 containing 1 mM DTT, lysed and centπfiiged at 75,000 xg to pellet the membranes The membranes are resuspended in 10 mM Hepes, 74 containing 1 mM DTT and 10% glycerol to approximately 5 mg protem/ml Membranes (2-10 μg protein/well) are incubated in 96-well plates with 1 nM [ 3 H]PGD 2 and test compound in Assay Buffer {50 mM Hepes, 10 mM MnCl 2 , 1 mM EDTA, plus or minus 02% human serum albumin, pH 74) for 60 minutes at room temperature The reactions are terminated by rapid filtration through Whatman GF/C glass fibre filter plates The filter plates were pre-soaked in 0 33% polythylemmine for 30 minutes at room temperature then washed in Wash Buffer (50 mM Hepes, 05 M NaCl pH 74) prior to harvesting After harvesting, the filter plates are washed 3 times with 1 ml cold Wash Buffer then dried Scintillant is then added to the plates and the radioactivity retained on the filters is determined on a Packard TopCount (Perkin Elmer) Specific binding is determined as total radioactive binding ramus non-specific binding m the presence of 10 μM PGD 2 IC 50 S were determined using GraphPad pπsm analysis of drug titration curves Compounds tested had an IC 50 of less than 100 micromolar in this assay Example 30b: GTPγS Binding Assay

[00574] The ability of a compound to inhibit binding of GTP to DP 2 is assessed via a membrane GTPγS assay CHO cells stably expressing the recombinant human CRTH2 receptor are resuspended in 10 mM Hepes, 74 containing 1 mM DTT, lysed and centπfuged at 75,000 xg to pellet the membranes The membranes are resuspended in 10 mM Hepes, 74 containing 1 mM DTT and 10% glycerol Membranes (-12 5 μg per well) are incubated in 96-well plates with 005 nM [ 3S S]-GTPγS, 80 nM PGD 2 , 5 μM GDP, and test compound in Assay Buffer (50 mM Hepes, pH 74, 100 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgCl 2 and 02% human serum albumin) for 60 minutes at 30°C The reactions are terminated by rapid filtration through Whatman GF/B glass fibre filter plates The filter plates are washed 3 times with 1 ml cold Assay Buffer and dried Scintillant is then added to the plates and the radioactivity retained on the filters is determined on a Packard TopCount (Perkrn Elmer) Specific binding is determined as total radioactive binding minus nonspecific binding m the absence of the hgand (80 nM PGD 2 ) IC 50 S were determined using Graphpad pπsm analysis of drug titration curves Example 30c: Eosinophil Shape Change Assay

[00575] The ability of a compound to inhibit PGD 2 -mduced eosinophil shape change is assessed via a flow cytometric assay Blood was drawn from consenting human volunteers into citrate containing vacutainer tubes and red blood cells sedimented by the addition of 1/3 volume 3% Dextran T-500 The dextran-sedimented plasma was layered over an equal volume of Histopaque- 1077 (Sigma) and centπfuged at 400 x g for 30 minutes at room temperature The cell pellet

containing granulocytes and red blood cells was washed once in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and then the red blood cells lysed by incubating in water for 30 seconds The granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils) were washed twice in GAFS/BSA buffer (PBS containing 0 9 mM CaCl 2 , 0 5 mM MgCk, 10 mM Hepes, 74, 10 mM glucose and 0 1% BSA) and then resuspended m GAFS buffer to 5 x lθ' cells/ml and incubated at 37°C for 30 minutes The cells were then washed in GAFS/BSA buffer and resuspended in GAFS/HSA buffer (PBS containing 0 9 mM CaCl 2 , 0 5 mM MgCl 2 , 10 mM Hepes, 74, 10 mM glucose and 02% human serum albumin) to 5 x 10 6 cells/ml A 40 μl aliquot of cells was mixed with 40 μl test compound in GAFS/HSA buffer and incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes 20 μl OfPGD 2 m GAFS/HSA buffer was added for a final concentration of 50 nM PGD 2 and the reaction incubated at 37"C for 5 minutes before termination of the reaction by the addition of ice-cold 1 4 diluted Cytofix (Becton Dickinson) The reactions were kept on ice and analyzed on a FACSCalibur (Becton Dickinson) within 2 hours Eosinophils were gated on the basis of autofluorescence m the FL2 channel and shape change on 500 eosinophils was assayed by forward scatter and side scatter analysis The specific change m shape induced by PGD 2 was calculated as the difference between the percentage of high forward scatter eosinophils in the presence and absence OfPGD 2 IC 5(J s were determined using Graphpad prism analysis of drug titration curves Example 3Od: DPi binding assay

[00576] The ability of a compound to bind to the human DPI receptor was evaluated via a radioligand membrane binding assay using the DPi selective synthetic hgand [ 3 H]BW A868C Packed human platelets (Biological Specialty Corporation), were resuspended in 6 volumes of Hepes/HBSS buffer (10 mM Hepes, 1 mM DTT in Hanks Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS)), lysed and centrifuged at 75,000 xg to pellet the membranes Membranes were resuspended in Hepes/HBSS buffer to approximately 12 mg protein/ml Membranes (20 μg protein/well) are incubated in 96-well plates with 2 nM [ 3 H]BWA868C and test compound in Assay Buffer (50 mM Hepes, 10 mM MnCl 2 , 1 mM EDTA, plus or minus 02% human serum albumin, pH 74) for 60 minutes at room temperature The reactions are terminated by rapid filtration through Whatman GF/C glass fibre filter plates The filter plates were pre-soaked in 0 33% polethylenimine for 30 minutes at room temperature then washed m Wash Buffer (50 mM Hepes, 0 5 M NaCl pH 74) prior to harvesting After harvesting, the filter plates are washed 3 times with 1 ml cold Wash Buffer then dried Scmtillant is then added to the plates and the radioactivity retained on the filters is determined on a Packard TopCount (Perkin Elmer) Specific binding is determined as total radioactive binding minus non-specific binding in the presence of 10 μM B W A868C IC 50 S were determined usmg GraphPad prism analysis of drug titration curves In vivo assays Example 31: Mouse Allergic Rhinitis Model

[00577] The compounds ability to inhibit allergen-induced sneezing and nasal rubbing is assessed using a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Methods were adapted from those detailed in Nakaya, M., et a!.. 2006. Noninvasive system for evaluating allergen-induced nasal hypersensitivity in murine allergic rhinitis. Laboratory Investigation, 86:917-926. Female BALB/c mice (20-25g) are immunized by an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 2 μg ovalbumin (OVA) completed with alum in a volume 0.2 ml on days 0 and 14. Seven days later (day 21) mice are challenged intranasally with 20 μl of a lOmg/ml solution of OVA. The challenge period occurs daily from days 21 to day 25. Mice (5-7/group) are randomly assigned to receive either compound or vehicle and are treated by oral gavage 1-2 hour prior to each OVA challenge. The number of sneezes and nasal rubs are counted by an independent blind observe during a period of 8 minutes immediately following OVA challenge on days 21, 23 and 25. A significant increase in allergen-induced sneezing and nasal rubbing occurs over the 5-day challenge period. Inhibition of this effect by select compounds is determined statistically using Graphpad prism.

Example 32: Guinea Pig I\-DKPGD2-induced peripheral blood leukocyte influx [00578] The compound's ability to inhibit leukocyte migration in vivo was assessed using intravenous injection of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin D2 (DK-PGD2). Methods were adapted from those detailed Shichijo et al., 2003, Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells activation in vivo increases blood leukocyte counts and its blockade abrogates 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin D2-induced eosinophilia in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 307:518-525. Male Hartley guinea pigs were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) on day 0 by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 1 ml of a 100 μg/ml solution in Imject Alum. They were then used in the DK-PGD2 procedure between days 14 and 21. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either vehicle (0.5% methyl cellulose, 4 ml/kg, oral (PO)) or one of three to four doses of test compound. Two hours or eighteen hours after dosing, animals were anesthetized with ketamine and challenged with DK-PGD2 (1 mg/kg, IV). Thirty minutes after IV administration, blood was collected via the marginal ear vein into EDTA tubes for cell analysis. 10 μl blood was lysed in 190 μl water followed by a further 20-fold dilution in PBS. A 10 μl fraction was mixed with equal parts trypan blue and loaded on a hemocytometer. Cells were visualized at a magnification of 4OX using a LabPro light microscope and totals counted and recorded. Cells are expressed as total cells x 10 8 per ml of blood. Inhibition of this effect by select compounds is determined statistically using Graphpad prism. [00S79] The compounds that were tested in Tables 1 through 9 had IC 50 values below 100 μM in the nDP2 (CRTH2) binding assay. Table 10. Representative Biological Data

A= less thanO 3 μM, B = greater than 0 3 μM but less than 1 μM, C= greater than l μM

Example 33: Clinical Trials in Humans

Study 1: Clinical Trial Evaluating Effect of Compound on ex vivo PGD2-induced blood eosinophil shape change

[00580] In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study of DP2 antagonist compound in healthy volunteers the inhibition of ex vivo PGD2-induced blood eosinophil shape change is determined to show proof of biochemical mechanism of DP2 receptor antagonism. Eight subjects (6 active, 2 placebo) per dose level are used Fre dose blood is drawn and challenged with PGD2 to determine baseline shape change as described above in Example 30 At varying tunes after dosing blood is drawn for both pharmacokinetic analyses of drug concentration in blood, and also for PGD2 challenge and eosinophil shape change determination The extent of receptor blockage is determined from the relationship between drug blood concentration and percentage inhibition of eosinophil shape change

Study 2: Clinical Trial Evaluating Effect of Compound on Allergen-induced Nasal symptoms and inflammatory and allergic biomarkers

[00581] Ia this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of DP2 antagonist compound in individuals with allergic rhinitis the inhibition of nasal symptoms and allergic biomarkers is

determined following nasal challenge with appropriate allergen Fifteen subjects (10 active, 5 placebo) are used Subjects are dosed for 7 days with either placebo or an amount of DP 2 antagonist compound that results in complete DP2 receptor block in an ex vivo POD2-induced blood eosinophil shape change pharmacodynamic study as described above On day 7 subjects undergo nasal allergen challenge (2 hours post-dose) and early allergic response (025-1 Ohr) and late allergic response (4-24hr) are evaluated as an increase from baseline for treated vs placebo In addition changes in inflammatory cell differentials, TH2 cytokines and other inflammatory markers are determined as increase from baseline for treated vs placebo

DP 2 Antagonist Compound Assay

[00582] The plasma concentrations of DP2 antagonist compound are determined by gas chromatography, giving a detection limit of 1 ng-ml-1 (Ritter W Determination of BAY u 3405, a novel thromboxane antagonist, m plasma and urine by HPLC and GC In Reid E, Wilson ID, eds

Bioanalytical Approaches for Drugs, Including Anti-asthmatics and Metabolites Methodological

Surveys m Biochemistry and Analysis, 1992, 22 211-216)

Example 34a: Parenteral Composition

[00583] To prepare a parenteral pharmaceutical composition suitable for administration by injection, 100 mg of a water-soluble salt of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is dissolved in

DMSO and then mixed with 10 mL of 0 9% steπle saline The mixture is incorporated into a dosage unit form suitable for administration by injection

Example 34b: Oral Composition

[00584] To prepare a pharmaceutical composition for oral delivery, 100 mg of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is mixed with 750 mg of starch The mixture is incorporated into an oral dosage unit for, such as a hard gelatin capsule, which is suitable for oral administration

Example 34c: Sublingual (Hard Lozenge) Composition

[00585] To prepare a pharmaceutical composition for buccal delivery, such as a hard lozenge, mix

100 mg of a compound of a DP 2 antagonist descnbed herein with 420 mg of powdered sugar mixed, with 1 6 mL of light corn syrup, 2 4 mL distilled water, and 042 mL mint extract The mixture is gently blended and poured into a mold to form a lozenge suitable for buccal administration.

Example 34d: Fast-Disintegrating Sublingual Tablet

[00586] A ftist-disintegrating subungual tablet is prepared by mixing 48 5% by weigh of a DP 2 antagonist descnbed herein, 44 5% by weight of microcrystalline cellulose (KG-802), 5% by weight of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (50 μm), and 2% by weight of magnesium stearate Tablets are prepared by direct compression (AAPS PharmSciTech 2006,7(2) E41) The total weight of the compressed tablets is maintained at 150 mg The formulation is prepared by mixing the amount of a DP 2 antagonist descnbed herein with the total quantity of microcrystalline

cellulose (MCC) and two-thirds of the quantity of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-

HPC) by using a three dimensional manual mixer (lnversina ®, Bioengineering AG, Switzerland) for 4.5 minutes. All of the magnesium stearate (MS) and the remaining one-third of the quantity of

L-HPC are added 30 seconds before the end of mixing.

Example 34e: Inhalation Composition

[00587] To prepare a pharmaceutical composition for inhalation delivery, 20 mg of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is mixed with 50 mg of anhydrous citric acid and 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The mixture is incorporated into an inhalation delivery unit, such as a nebulizer, which is suitable for inhalation administration.

Example 34f: Rectal Gel Composition

[00588] To prepare a pharmaceutical composition for rectal delivery, 100 mg of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is mixed with 2.5 g of methylcelluose (1500 mPa), 100 mg of methylparapen, 5 g of glycerin and 100 mL of purified water. The resulting gel mixture is then incorporated into rectal delivery units, such as syringes, which are suitable for rectal administration.

Example 34g: Topical Gel Composition

[00589] To prepare a pharmaceutical topical gel composition, 100 mg of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is mixed with 1.75 g of hydroxypropyl celluose, 10 mL of propylene glycol, 10 mL of isopropyl myristate and 100 mL of purified alcohol USP. The resulting gel mixture is then incorporated into containers, such as tubes, which are suitable for topicl administration.

Example 34h: Ophthalmic Solution Composition

[00590] To prepare a pharmaceutical opthalmic solution composition, 100 mg of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is mixed with 0.9 g of NaCl in 100 mL of purified water and filterd using a 0.2 micron filter. The resulting isotonic solution is then incorporated into ophthalmic delivery units, such as eye drop containers, which are suitable for ophthalmic administration.

Example 34i: Nasal spray solution

[00591] To prepare a pharmaceutical nasal spray solution, 10 g of a DP 2 antagonist described herein is mixed with 30 mL of a 0.05M phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.4). The solution is placed in a nasal administrator designed to deliver 100 μl of spray for each application.

[00592] The examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and various modifications or changes suggested to persons skilled in the art are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application and scope of the appended claims.