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Title:
ANTI-KICK FORWARD DEVICE FOR RADIAL ARM SAWS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1992/000159
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A saw includes a mounting arm (24), a carriage (26) mounted on the arm (24) for linear movement in first and second directions along the arms (24), a saw blade (30) mounted on the carriage (26) for rotational movement relative to the carriage (26) about an axis of rotation extending in a direction transverse to the linear direction of travel of the carriage (26), and a motor (32) adapted to rotate the saw blade (30) about the axis of rotation for carrying out a sawing operation. A kick-preventing assembly (36) is provided for limiting the maximum speed at which the carriage (26) may be moved in the first direction to a predetermined speed, the kick-preventing means (36) permitting the carriage (26) to be moved in the first direction at any speed equal to or less than the predetermined speed while preventing the carriage (26) from kicking along the arm (24) in the first direction at a speed greater than the predetermined speed.

Inventors:
MAYFIELD, Alfred, B.
Application Number:
PCT/US1991/004557
Publication Date:
January 09, 1992
Filing Date:
June 26, 1991
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
JOHNSON, Charles KANSTEINER, Beau MAYFIELD, Alfred, B.
International Classes:
B23D45/02; B23D47/08; B23Q5/58; (IPC1-7): B23D47/02; B23Q5/58
Foreign References:
US4590831A1986-05-27
US4870882A1989-10-03
US4620352A1986-11-04
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. In a radial arm saw including a mounting arm, a carriage mounted on the arm for linear movement in first and second directions along the arm, the carriage being adapted to support a saw blade for rotational movement relative to the carriage about an axis of rotation extending in a direction transverse to the linear direction of travel of the carriage, and power means for rotating the saw blade about the axis of rotation for carrying out a sawing operation, the improvement comprising: kick preventing means for limiting the maximum speed at which the carriage may be moved in the first direction along the mounting arm to a predetermined speed, the lackpreventing means permitting the carriage to be moved in the first direction at any speed equal to or less than the predeter mined speed while preventing the carriage from kicking in the first direction at a speed greater than the predetermined speed.
2. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 1, wherein the kickpreventing means includes setting means for adjusting the predeter¬ mined speed at which the carriage may be moved in the first direction along the mounting arm.
3. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 1, wherein the kickpreventing means includes actuating means for enabling the kick preventing means to permit movement of the carriage in the first direction along the arm at a speed slower than the predetermined speed is desired, and locking means for preventing movement of the carriage in the first direction when the actuating means is not operated.
4. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 1, wherein movement of the carriage in the second direction along the arm is unrestricted by the kickpreventing means.
5. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 1, further comprising deactivation means for deactivating the kickpreventing means in order to permit unrestricted movement of the carriage in both the first and second directions.
6. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 5, wherein the deactivation means includes switch means for switching off the power means whenever the kickpreventing means is deactivated.
7. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 1, wherein the kickpreventing means includes a drive means, an overrunning clutch, and a carriagemovement control assembly mounted on the arm and connected to the carriage, the overrunning clutch having an input shaft connected to the drive means and an output shaft connected to the carriagemovement control assembly and being operable to prevent rotational movement of the output shaft of the clutch in at least one direction at a speed greater than the speed of rotation of the input shaft of the clutch such that the carriagemovement control assembly limits the maximum travel speed of the carriage to the predetermined speed.
8. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 7, wherein the drive means includes a motor.
9. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 7, wherein the drive means includes the power means for rotating the saw blade. 16 .
10. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 9, wherein the power means includes an electric motor having a rotatable output shaft and the drive means includes a gear reduction assembly having an input and an output, means for transmitting rotational movement of the output shaft of the motor to the input of the gear reduction assembly, and means for transmitting rotational movement from the output of the gear reduction assembly to the input shaft of the overrunning clutch.
11. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 10, wherein the gear reduction assembly includes means for varying the gear reduction ratio of the gear reduction assembly.
12. A radial arm saw comprising: a support frame; a mounting arm having a vertical pivot axis and means for mount¬ ing the arm on the frame for pivotal movement about the pivot axis; a carriage mounted on the arm for radial movement along the arm relative to the pivot axis; a saw blade supported on the carriage for rotational movement relative to the carriage; power means for rotating the saw blade; and kickpreventing means for limiting the maximum speed at which the carriage may be moved away from the pivot axis in the radial direction to a predetermined speed, the kickprevent¬ ing means permitting the carriage to be moved radially outward from the pivot axis at any speed equal to or less than the predetermined speed while preventing the carriage from kicking radially outward from the pivot axis at a speed greater than the predetermined speed.
13. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 12, wherein the kickpreventing means includes setting means for adjusting the predeter¬ mined speed at which the carriage may be moved in the first direction along the mounting arm. 18 .
14. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 12, wherein the kickpreventing means includes actuating means for enabling the kick preventing means to permit movement of the carriage in the first direction along the arm at a speed slower than the predetermined speed is desired, and locking means for preventing movement of the carriage in the first direction when the actuating means is not operated.
15. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 12, wherein movement of the carriage in the second direction along the arm is unrestricted by the kickpreventing means.
16. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 12, further comprising deactivation means for deactivating the kickpreventing means in order to permit unrestricted movement of the carriage in both the first and second directions.
17. The radial arm saw as recited in claim 16, wherein the deactivation means includes switch means for switching off the power means whenever the kickpreventing means is deactivated.
18. A kickpreventing assembly for use with a saw including a mounting arm, a carriage mounted on the arm for linear movement in first and second directions along the arm, the carriage being adapted to support a saw blade for rotational movement relative to the carriage about an axis of rotation extending in a direction transverse to the linear direction of travel of the carriage, and power means adapted to rotate the saw blade about the axis of rotation for carrying out a sawing operation, the kickpreventing assembly comprising: speed limiting means for limiting the maximum speed at which the carriage may be moved in the first direction along the mounting arm to a predetermined speed, the speed limiting means permitting the carriage to be moved in the first direction at any speed equal to or less than the predeter¬ mined speed while preventing the carriage from moving in the first direction at a speed greater than the predetermined speed; setting means for allowing adjustment of the predetermined speed at which the carriage may be moved in the first direction along the mounting arm; and movement permitting means for permitting substantially unrestrict¬ ed movement of the carriage in the second direction along the mounting arm.
Description:
ANTI-KICK FORWARD DEVICE FOR RADIAL ARM SAWS

Background of the Invention

1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates generally to radial arm saws and, more particularly, to a kick-preventing assembly for use on such saws to prevent a movable carriage provided on the radial arm of such saws from kicking radially outward toward an operator during a sawing operation. 2. Discussion of the Prior Art

Radial arm saws are commonly used by carpenters and craftsmen to perform a variety of wood working operations. An example of one such type of saw is the Sears/Craftsman 10" Radial Saw, which includes, among other features, a support frame for supporting the apparatus on the floor of a workshop or the like, and a mounting arm having a vertical pivot axis and means for mounting the arm on the frame for pivotal movement about the pivot axis. A carriage is mounted on the arm for radial movement along the arm relative to the pivot axis, and a saw blade is supported on the carriage for rotational movement relative to the carriage such that a power means may be actuated to rotate the saw to carry out a sawing operation. Of course, numerous companies market similar saws, and the problems discussed below are experienced in the use of these other available devices.

By providing a saw having a radial arm for use in supporting the saw blade and carriage, an apparatus results which is extremely versatile. For example, because the carriage is movable along the arm in the radial direction of the pivot axis, and due to the construction of the arm which permits the arm to be pivoted relative to the frame, it is possible to run the saw blade over a work table of the frame at any desired angle relative to the pivot axis. Thus, crosscuts at any desired angle may

-2- be made consistently by simply orienting the arm at the desired angle and moving the carriage in the radial direction of the arm.

Further, by providing for rotational movement of the carriage relative to the arm, the saw blade may be oriented for rotation about an ass extending in a direction parallel to the direction in which the arm extends such that rip sawing is possible. In such applications, wood is passed lengthwise beneath the carriage and saw blade while the blade is rotating such that a lengthwise cut is made without the carriage being moved. A common problem experienced during the use of radial saws in making crosscuts includes the tendency of the carriage of such saws to kick away from the pivot axis of the arm toward an operator when the rotating blade encounters resistance in the material being cut. This kicking action of the carriage is a result of the moment force exerted on the carriage by the rolling action of the blade which occurs when the blade encounters such resistance, and can create serious safety risks to the operator. For example, when the carriage kicks toward the operator during a sawing operation, it is possible that the operator will be unpre¬ pared for such movement and may have their hand in the path of the blade such that injury would result from the unexpected carriage move¬ ment.

Objects and Summary of the Invention

It is an object of the present invention to provide a kick- preventing assembly for use with radial arm saws which will eliminate the above-mentioned problems in existing radial saws and which will permit such saws to be used safely without the risk of unexpected, sudden movements of the saw blade that could, under normal circumstances, cause injury.

In accordance with this object, as well as with other objects which are evident from a review of the present disclosure, one aspect of the invention relates to a radial arm saw including a support frame, a mounting arm having a vertical pivot axis and means for mounting the arm on the frame for pivotal movement about the pivot axis, and a carriage mounted on the arm for radial movement along the arm relative to the pivot axis. A saw blade is supported on the carriage for rotational movement relative to the carriage, and power means are included for rotating the saw blade. Kick-preventing means limiting the maximum speed at which the carriage may be moved away from the pivot axis in the radial direction to a predetermined speed. The kick-preventing means permits the carriage to be moved radially outward from the pivot axis at any speed equal to or less than the predetermined speed while preventing the carriage from kicking radially outward from the pivot axis at a speed greater than the predetermined speed.

By providing this construction of a radial saw, numerous advantageous results are achieved. For example, by limiting the maximum speed of travel of the carriage away from the pivot axis toward the operator, it is possible to protect against sudden kicking movement of the carriage which may be motivated by grabbing of the saw blade in hard wood or the like that is being sawed. By preventing such kicking movement, the carriage handles more smoothly than in saws having no such kick-preventing means, and there exists less of a chance of injury to the operator. Another advantage achieved through the use of a saw constructed in accordance with the invention includes the savings in time resulting from limiting the maximum speed of movement of the carriage away from the pivot axis. During operation of a conventional saw, it is common for the saw blade to stop rotating when the carriage kicks into the

work material by an amount sufficient to cause grabbing of the blade by the work material. When rotation of the blade is stopped, the motor is temporarily overloaded until the blade is withdrawn from the work material and the motor shaft is permitted to return to the full speed of the motor. These temporary overloads of the motor shorten the life of the motor, and repeated grabbing of the saw blade tends to dull the blade, thus reducing the life of the blade as well.

By constructing a saw in accordance with the present invention, it is possible to set the maximum speed of movement of the carriage of the saw such that it is difficult or impossible in any given application for an operator to move the carriage quickly enough to force stoppage of the saw blade. Thus, an operator is able to repeatedly carry out sawing operations without experiencing blade stoppage. Due to this ability, the time used to carry out a number of sawing operations may actually decrease even though the speed of the carriage is limited to a maximum value. Further, by preventing stoppage of the saw blade, the life of both the blade and the saw motor is lengthened.

Brief Description of the Drawing Figures A preferred embodiment of the invention is described in detail below with reference to the attached drawing figures, wherein:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a radial arm saw constructed in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention and including a kick-preventing assembly having a cover; Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the radrøl arm of a saw illustrating various components of the kick-preventing assembly with the cover removed;

Fig.3 is a sectional view of an exemplary over-running clutch for use in the kick-preventing assembly,

Fig. 4 is a side-sectional view of a radial mounting arm of the saw illustrating a carriage of the saw and further aspects of the kick- preventing assembly;

Fig. 5 is a bottom sectional view of a handle assembly which is supported on the carriage and which includes a lever for permitting disengagement of the kick-preventing assembly from the carriage;

Fig. 6 is a schematic view of the lever and an electrical circuit controlled by the lever; and

Fig. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the radial arm of a saw illustrating various modifications to the kick-preventing assembly.

Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiment

A radial arm saw constructed in accordance with the present invention is illustrated in Fig. 1, and includes a support frame 10 having a work table 12 and a set of legs 14 for supporting the work table at a predetermined height above a working area floor. The frame 10 includes an upstanding portion 16 adjacent the work table 12 adapted to receive a mounting arm assembly 18 in such a manner as to permit pivotal movement of the arm assembly relative to the frame. The arm assembly 18 includes a vertical cylindrical portion

20 adapted to extend downward into the upstanding portion 16 of the frame 10 such that relative rotational movement therebetween is prevented and vertical movement of the cylindrical portion 20 is only permitted during intentional adjustment thereof as may be carried out in a conven- tional manner, such as by a rack and pinion arrangement (not shown) operated through a hand crank 22.

A mounting arm 24 of the arm assembly 18 extends radially outward from the cylindrical portion 20 and is fixed to the cylindrical portion against vertical movement thereon. However, the arm 24 is

rotatable relative to the cylindrical portion 20 between any of a plurality of angular positions in order to permit the arm to be disposed above the work table 12 at any desired angle.

As best shown in Fig. 4, a carriage 26 is mounted on the arm 24 and is movable along the arm in a radial direction relative to the cylindrical portion 20. The carriage 26 is supported on the arm 24 by a set of rollers 28 or the like which permit linear movement of the carriage while preventing any significant amount of travel in any direction other than along the arm. Returning to Fig. 1, a saw blade 30 is mounted for rotational movement relative to the carriage 26, and the carriage is also fitted with a saw motor 32 for driving the rotational movement of the blade. Typically, the blade 30 and motor 32 are movable together about a horizontal axis relative to the carriage 26 between a plurality of positions such that the angle of the blade may be adjusted to carry out various beveled crosscuts and rip cuts. In addition, the saw blade 30 and motor 32 may be mounted on a handle assembly 34 that is rotatable relative to the carriage 26 about a vertical axis between a crosscutting position in which the axis of rotation of the blade extends transverse to the length of the arm, and a rip cutting position in which the axis of rotation of the blade extends in a direction parallel to the length of the arm.

The radial arm saw as thus far described reflects those constructions already discussed above and known in the art. Numerous changes and modifications may be made to the basic saw apparatus without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the attached claims.

Also shown in Fig. 1 is a kick-preventing means 36 for limiting the maximum speed at which the carriage 26 may be moved along the arm 24 in the outward radial direction to a predetermined speed. This

kick-preventing means 36 permits the carriage 26 to be moved radially outward from the pivot axis at any speed equal to or less than the predetermined speed while preventing the carriage from kicking radially outward from the pivot axis at a speed greater than the predetermined speed. A cover 38 is provided on the saw to protect against an operator coming into contact with moving parts of the kick-preventing means 36.

Turning to Fig. 2, the kick-preventing means 36 is illustrated as including a drive motor 40 separate from the saw motor 32, a gear box 42 adjacent the drive motor, and an over-running clutch 44 having an input shaft 46 extending between the gear box and the clutch and an output shaft

48 extending between the clutch and a sprocket 50 of a carriage-movement control assembly 52.

Although in the preferred embodiment of the invention the drive motor 40 of the kick-preventing means 36 is separate from the motor 32 used to rotate the saw blade 30, it is possible to use the saw motor 32 to both rotate the saw blade and operate the kick-preventing means, as shown in Fig. 7, and certain advantages are realized from such a construc¬ tion which are discussed further below.

Turning back to Fig. 1, a button or switch 54 is located within easy reach of the operator, preferably on or near a pull-handle 56 provided on the handle assembly 34. This switch 54 activates the motor 40 when pushed to an "ON" position and initiates operation of the kick-preventing means 36. When the switch 54 is released, it moves to an "OFF* position and the motor 40 is turned off. When the kick-preventing means is in this "OFF' mode, the over-running clutch 44 prevents the carriage 26 from being moved in a direction away from the axis of the arm 24 toward the operator while permitting free, unrestricted movement of the carriage in the opposite direction toward the pivot axis of the arm.

The over-running clutch 44 is illustrated in Fig. 3, and is of conventional construction. Preferably, the clutch 44 includes an outer cylindrical member 58 connected to the input shaft 46 and an inner shaft 60 connected to or forming the output shaft 48. The outer member 58 includes a plurality of circumferential slots 62 each including a shallow end and a deep end, and being adapted to each receive a ball 64 and a compression spring 66 therein. The springs 66 normally bias the balls 64 in the clockwise direction, as shown in the figure, such that the balls move toward the shallow ends of the slots 62 forcing the balls against the inner shaft 60.

In this manner, the inner shaft 60 is prevented from rotating in the clockwise direction relative to the outer member 58. However, the inner shaft 60 is not prevented from rotating in the counterclockwise direction relative to the outer member 58 since this movement of the inner shaft moves the balls 64 toward the deep ends of the slots 62 against the bias of the springs 66 such that the balls are removed from holding contact with the inner shaft.

During rotation of the outer member 58 in the clockwise direction, the inner shaft 60 is free to rotate in the clockwise direction at any speed less than the speed of the outer member. If the speed of the inner shaft increases above the speed of the outer member, the balls 64 move toward the shallow ends of the slots 62 and prevent the inner shaft from moving relative to the outer member. The rotational movement of the outer member 58 does not, however, effect the ability of the inner shaft 60 to be rotated in the counterclockwise direction. Thus, by rotating the outer member 58 at a desired speed, the maximum speed of the inner shaft 60, and thereby the output shaft 48, may be controlled.

As shown in Fig. 1, a rheostat 68 or other known regulating device may be provided as a part of the kick-preventing means 36 for

controlling either the speed of the drive motor 40 or the speed at which the motor rotates the input shaft 46 and thus the outer member 58 of the over-running clutch 44. By providing such control of the speed of the outer member 58 of the clutch 44, the maximum speed at which the output shaft 48 is permitted to rotated may be varied.

The carriage-movement control assembly 52 is shown in Fig. 4, and includes a chain 70 or the like extending around the sprocket 50 and around another, similar sprocket 72. The assembly 52 also includes a bracket 74 extending between the chain 70 and the carriage 26 for connecting the chain to the carriage. The sprocket 50 is fixedly attached to the output shaft 48 of the clutch 44 so that the sprocket is free to rotate in the counterclockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 4, while being limited in its ability to rotate in the clockwise direction by the rotational movement of the over-running clutch 44 as discussed above. Thus, the carriage 26 is prevented from moving toward the operator, to the left in Fig. 4, at any speed greater than that permitted by the over-running clutch 44. However, the carriage 26 is free to move away from the operator, or to the right as shown in Fig. 4.

During operation of the saw in crosscutting operations, the carriage 26 is always free for movement in the direction away from the operator toward a retracted position adjacent the cylindrical portion 20 of the arm assembly 18, and this movement of the carriage is not effected by the condition of the switch 54. However, as mentioned, movement of the carriage 26 in the opposite direction toward an operator is prevented completely when the switch 54 is in the "OFF 1 position. Specifically, when the switch 54 is "OFF", the motor 40 is deactivated and no movement is imparted to the outer member 58 of the over-running clutch 44. When the outer member 48 of the clutch 44 is stationary, any movement of the inner shaft 60 in the clockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 3, which is caused by

movement of the carriage 26 is precluded by the action of the balls 64 moving toward the shallow ends of the slots 62 and engaging the inner shaft 60. Because the kick-preventing means 36 locks the carriage 26 against movement toward the operator when the switch is "OFF', it is impossible for the carriage to kick toward an operator should the operator turn on the saw motor 32 without grabbing hold of the carriage.

When a crosscut is to be made, the saw motor 32 is turned on, and the operator grabs hold of the handle 56 and moves the switch 54 to the "ON" position. Thereafter, the motor 40 is energized causing rotation of the outer member 58 of the over-running clutch 44. The speed of rotation of the outer member 58 is established by the gear ratio within the gear box 42 and/or the speed of the motor 40 as modified by the rheostat 68. Further, the speed of the outer member 58 limits the speed at which the output shaft 48 may rotate such that the sprocket 50 is only allowed to rotate in the clockwi direction, as shown in Fig. 4, at a speed less than the speed of the outer member.

If an operator desires to vary the maximum speed at which the carriage 26 is movable away from the pivot axis of the arm 24, it is only necessary to adjust the rheostat 68 to control the resistance in the motor 40 such that the motor operates at a different speed resulting in the outer member 58 being rotated at a corresponding different speed.

Where a saw motor 32a is used as the drive means for the kick-preventing means 36, as shown in Fig. 7, variation of the maximum speed at which the carriage 26 may be moved away from the pivot axis of the arm 24 is automatically carried out in dependence on the speed of rotation of the saw blade 30. Specifically, the motor 32a is provided with an auxiliary output shaft 76 having a pinion gear or the like (not shown) which is connected to a gear box 42a via a rotatable cable 78 extending between the auxiliary shaft and the gear box. The gear box 42 is

preferably one which permits adjustment of the gear reduction ratio between the input speed and the output speed such that it is possible to adjust the speed at which the outer member 58 of the over-running clutch 44 is rotated. By providing this connection between the saw motor 32a and the over-running clutch 44, it is possible to tie the maximum speed at which the carriage 26 may be moved toward the operator to the speed of rotation of the saw blade 30. When the saw blade 30 is grabbed by the work material, the saw motor 32a is also slowed, resulting in a correspond- ing slowing of the rotation of the outer member 58 of the over-running clutch 44. Thus, "slugging" of the saw, which occurs when the blade 30 is grabbed by the work piece, has the effect of slowing the maximum speed at which the carriage 26 is movable toward the operator. This result of employing the saw motor 32a in driving the outer member 58 of the over- running clutch 44 is beneficial since it permits the kick-preventing means to aid in preventing such "slugging" of the saw by slowing movement of the saw blade 30 through the work material as the speed of rotation of the blade is reduced.

A further modification to the above-described embodiment of the invention includes the use of a kick-preventing override assembly for overriding the locking action of the kick-preventing means when the switch is in the "OFF' position. This override assembly is illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, and includes a switch 80 positioned on the carriage 26 at a position adapted to be engaged by a lever 82 when the lever is moved to an "OVERRIDE" position as shown in Fig. 5.

The lever 82 is movable between a first position, shown in a dashed line in Fig. 5, out of contact with the switch 80, and a second position, shown in a solid line in Fig. 6, in contact with the switch. As shown in Fig. 6, the switch 80 is operable to energize a solenoid 84 which

-12- is operable to disengage a clutch 86 which may be provided in line with the over-running clutch 44 between the clutch 44 and the sprocket 50 such that when the clutch 86 is disengaged, the sprocket 50 is free to rotate in either direction without interference from the kick-preventing means 36. In this manner, when it is desired to move the saw blade 30 to a rip cutting position, the lever 82 is moved to the second position as shown in Fig. 5, the switch 80 is moved to the position shown in Fig. 6, the saw motor 32 is de-energized, and the kick-preventing means 36 is separated from the sprocket 50. Thereafter, the carriage 26 may be moved to any desired position in the radial direction of the arm 24 and the handle assembly 34 may be rotated relative to the carriage. During these movements, the saw motor 32 is prevented from being energized in order to prevent any injury that might result from the motor being turned on accidentally. Although the invention has been described with reference to the illustrated preferred embodiment, substitutions may be made and equivalents employed herein without departing from the scope of the invention as recited in the attached claims. For example, it is possible to replace the chain and sprocket of the carriage-movement control assembly with a worm screw rack extending the length of the mounting arm and a bull gear attached to the carriage through an over-running clutch such that the over-running clutch limits the maximum speed of relative movement which can be carried out between the carriage and the arm.

Alternately, the mechanical means may be replaced partially or completely by electronic equivalents which perform substantially the same function to achieve similar results. For example, it is possible to provide a carriage speed sensing circuit on the carriage and/or mounting arm of the saw and to employ a controller for sensing the carriage speed and controlling the maximum speed at which the carriage may be moved before a brake or the like is actuated to slow the carriage travel speed.