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Title:
ANTI-OXIDANT COMPOSITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/045757
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides an anti-oxidant composition comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

Inventors:
MÅNSSON, Lars (Danisco A/S, Edwin Rahrs Vej 38, Brabrand, DK-8220, DK)
Application Number:
IB2010/054637
Publication Date:
April 21, 2011
Filing Date:
October 13, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DANISCO A/S (Langebrogade 1, Copenhagen K, DK-1001, DK)
MÅNSSON, Lars (Danisco A/S, Edwin Rahrs Vej 38, Brabrand, DK-8220, DK)
International Classes:
A23B5/14; A23L3/3472; A23L3/3499; A23L3/3508
Domestic Patent References:
WO1997032947A11997-09-12
Foreign References:
US6231896B12001-05-15
Other References:
SIZOVA N V ET AL: "Content of antioxidants in plant extracts obtained by supercritical extraction", PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY JOURNAL, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS-CONSULTANTS BUREAU, NE, vol. 40, no. 4, 1 April 2006 (2006-04-01), pages 206 - 210, XP019437033, ISSN: 1573-9031, DOI: DOI:10.1007/S11094-006-0093-8
BENTAYEB K ET AL: "Direct determination of carnosic acid in a new active packaging based on natural extract of rosemary", ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, SPRINGER, BERLIN, DE, vol. 389, no. 6, 16 October 2007 (2007-10-16), pages 1989 - 1996, XP019559837, ISSN: 1618-2650, DOI: DOI:10.1007/S00216-007-1570-Y
LEE K-G ET AL: "DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE EXTRACTS ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS HERBS AND SPICES", JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 50, no. 17, 14 August 2002 (2002-08-14), pages 4947 - 4952, XP009071206, ISSN: 0021-8561, DOI: DOI:10.1021/JF0255681
WANG MINGFU ET AL: "Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.)", JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 51, no. 3, 29 January 2003 (2003-01-29), pages 601 - 608, XP002413656, ISSN: 0021-8561, DOI: DOI:10.1021/JF020792B
WENKERT ET AL., J. ORG. CHEM, vol. 30, 1965, pages 2931
SVEHLÍKOVÁ, V ET AL., PHYTOCHEMISTRY, vol. 35, 2004, pages 2323
LANGSRUD: "50-50 multivariate analysis of variance for collinear responses", THE STATISTICIAN, vol. 51, no. 3, 2002, pages 305 - 317
LANGSRUD Ø: "Fifty-Fifty MANOVA: Multivariate Analysis of Variance for Collinear Responses", PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS IN ACTION 2000, vol. 2, 2000, pages 250 - 264
LET, M. B.; JACOBSEN, C.; MEYER, A.S.: "Effects of fish oil type lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk", EUROPEAN JOUMAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 106, 2004, pages 170 - 182
HARTVIGSEN, K.; LUND, P.; HANSEN, L.F.; HØLMER, G.: "Dynamic headspace of volatiles produced in fish oil enriched mayonnaise during storage", JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 48, 2000, pages 4858 - 4867
THORSEN, M. A.; HILDEBRANDT, K S.: "Quantitative determination of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary extracts: Aspects of accurate quantification", JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A, vol. 995, 2003, pages 119 - 125, XP004424326, DOI: doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00487-4
NYCHAS, G.-J.. E.; SKANDAMIS, P.. N..: "Natural Antimicrobials for the Minimal Processing of Foods", 2003, CRC PRESS, article "Antimicrobials from herbs and spices"
SMID, E.. J..; GORRIS, L.. G.. M..: "Handbook of Food Preservation", 1999, MARCEL DEKKER INC., article "Natural antimicrobials for food preservation"
LOLIGER, J .: "Rancidity in Food", 1989, ELSEVIER APPLIED SCIENCE, article "Natural Antioxidants..", pages: 105 - 124
CUVELIER, M.. OE.; RICHARD, H.; BERSET, C..: "Antioxidative activity and phenolic composition of pilot-plant and commercial extracts of sage and rosemary", JAOCS, vol. 73, 1996, pages 645 - 652, XP000588424, DOI: doi:10.1007/BF02518121
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALCOCK, David (D Young & Co LLP, 120 Holborn, London EC1N 2DY, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 An anti-oxidant composition comprising

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a piant of the Labiatae family,

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum.

2 A composition according to claim 1 wherein the composition comprises

(a) an extract obtained from a plant of the Labiatae family.

3 A composition according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the composition comprises

(b) an extract obtained from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum. 4. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the plant of the Labiatae family is selected from rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, mint, balm, savoury, and thyme

5. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the plant of the Labiatae family is rosemary,

6. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein extract (b) if from a plant of the genus Matricaria. 7 A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein extract (b) is from a plant of the species Matricaria recurtita,

8- A composition according to any one of the preceding claims further comprising

(c) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Cynara family

9, A composition according to claim 8 wherein the composition comprises

(c) an extract obtained from a plant of the Cynara family

10. A composition according to claim 8 or 9 wherein the plant of the Cynara family is selected from Cynara scolymus and Cynara cardunculus. 1 1 A composition according to claim 8 or 9 wherein the plant of the Cynara family is Cynara scoiymus 12, A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family contains phenolic diterpenes in an amount of at least 1wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family 13 A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family contains carnosic acid in an amount of at least 1wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family. 14. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum contains apigenin-7-O-glucoside in an amount of at least 0.1 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

15. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein ratio of

(a) extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family

to

(b) extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

is from 30: 1 to 1 :20.

16. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein (a) the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant Matricaria or Chamaemelum sp.

are present in amounts to provide a synergistic anti-oxidant effect.

17. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein in use the antioxidant inhibits the formation of 2,4-heptadtenal and/or 2,4-decadienal 18 A foodstuff comprising an anti-oxidant composition according to any one of the preceding claims

19. A foodstuff according to claim 18 wherein the foodstuff is selected from mayonnaise, salad dressings, oil-in-water emulsions, margarines, low fat spreads, water- in-oil emulsions, dairy products, cheese spreads, processed cheese, dairy desserts, flavoured milks, cream, fermented milk products, cheese, butter, condensed milk products, ice cream mixes, soya products, pasteurised liquid egg, bakery products, confectionery products, fruit products, foods with fat-based or water-containing fillings, raw meat, cooked meat, raw poultry products, cooked poultry products, raw seafood products, cooked seafood products, ready to eat meals, pasta sauces and pasteurised soups..

20. A foodstuff according to claim 18 wherein the foodstuff is mayonnaise..

21 A process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

22 A process according to claim 21 wherein

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

are mixed with the foodstuff together,

23 A process according to claim 21 wherein

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

are mixed with the foodstuff sequentially.

24. A process according to claim 21 , 22 or 23 wherein the foodstuff is a foodstuff as defined in claims 19 or 20, 25 A process according to any one of claims 21 to 24 characterised by the features of any one of claim 2 to 17. 26. Use of

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff.

27 Use according to claim 26 for synergistically preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff

28. Use according to claim 26 or 27 wherein the foodstuff is a foodstuff as defined in claims 19 or 20.

29. Use according to any one of claims 26 to 28 characterised by the features of any one of claim 2 to 17 30. A kit for preparing a composition as defined in any one of claims 1 to 17, the kit comprising

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

in separate packages or containers; optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use,

31. A composition as substantially hereinbefore described with reference to any one of the Examples,

32. A process as substantially hereinbefore described with reference to any one of the Examples.

33. A use as substantially hereinbefore described with reference to any one of the Examples.

34. A kit as substantially hereinbefore described with reference to any one of the Examples

Description:
COMPOSITION

The present invention relates to a composition that exhibits an anti-oxidant action. Background

Antioxidants are widely used in food products susceptible to oxidative degeneration An antioxidant is defined by the Food and Drug Administration (21CFR 170 3) as "a substance used to preserve food by retarding deterioration, rancidity, or discoloration due to oxidation". There is an increasing need to develop economical, natural and effective food preservative systems to meet the public demand for convenient, natural, safe, healthy, good quality food products with guaranteed shelf life. To this end spices or plant extracts can be used in food as antioxidants and to impart flavour One advantage of such extracts is that they are perceived as natural ingredients when compared to chemical antioxidants such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), butyl hydroxyanisoS (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)

There are large number of antioxidants known based on naturally occurring plant materials It is noted that these materials have varying degrees of efficacy Moreover, the antioxidant levels required to ensure preservation safety may prove uneconomical, or are above levels acceptable due to regulatory and legislation constraints when present in amounts sufficient to offer the required protection.

The present invention alleviates the problems of the prior art

In one aspect the present invention provides an anti-oxidant composition comprising

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family,

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum.

In one aspect the present invention provides a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, In one aspect the present invention provides use of

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff.

In one aspect the present invention provides kit for preparing a composition as defined herein, the kit comprising

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum,

in separate packages or containers; optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use.

Aspects of the invention are defined in the appended claims

The present invention provides a synergistic combination of components for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation in a material, such as foodstuff This combination of components allows lower levels of the antioxidants to be used to provide effective action. This is particularly important in food applications where reduction of dosage is desired for commercial and regulatory reasons.

It will be understood by one skilled in the art that by the term 'antioxidant' it is meant a substance which reduces the amount of oxidation over a given period when compared to the oxidation that would occur in the absence of that substance or it is a meant a material which increase the time required for a given amount of oxidation to occur when compared to the oxidation that would occur in the absence of that substance. Plants of the family Labiatae contain several well known herbs. Extracts from these plants have been shown to have antioxidant and, in some cases, antimicrobial activity (Nychas & Skandamis, 2003, Smid and Gorris, 1999; Loliger, 1989). Such extracts may be essential oils and oleoresins (extracts with essential oil content used in flavours and fragrances) or "deodorised"', extracts that have a high phenolic diterpene content and low level of flavour-inducing compounds Essential oils are extracted by simple steam distillation of the plant material The most effective antioxidant compounds in rosemary and sage are reported to be carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid (Cuve!ier e£ a/. 1996). Carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene {C2 0 H2 6 O 4 ), occurs naturally in leaves of plants of the Labiatae family, particularly rosemary and sage, but also thyme and marjoram. Dried leaves of rosemary or sage contain 1 5 - 2.5% carnosic acid and 0 3 - 0-4% carnosol (US6231896), Carnosol is an oxidative artefact of carnosic acid (Wenkert et at. J Org Chem 30:2931 , 1965) The oxidation takes place in the presence of harvesting in the leaves left to dry in the air and if the leaves are subjected to extraction with solvents. Rosmanol may also be a product of the oxidation of carnosic acid

Of the Labiatae plant family, rosemary and sage have antioxidant activity in foods that is mainly related to phenolic diterpenes such as carnosic acid and carnosol, as well as other phenolic compounds, including phenolic triterpenes such as betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid; and rosmarinic acid The phenolic diterpenes, phenolic triterpenes and rosmarinic acid are distinct from the essential oils and oieoresins that are often used in flavours and fragrances. The high flavour and odour levels of essential oils is not conducive to their use in food.

Of plants of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as chamomile, are also known to have antioxidant activity This is mainly related to flavones such as apigenin-7-O-g!ucoside (A7G) and its derivatives, as well as other flavones

CAS nr 278-74-5

Details of A7G and its derivatives are disclosed by Svehlikova, V er a/ Phytochemistry, 2004, 35, 2323 As for the active antioxidants of Labiatae plant family, the antioxidants from plants of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum are distinct from the essential oils and oieoresins that are often used in flavours and fragrances. The high flavour and odour levels of essential oils is not conducive to their use in food. One skilled in the art would expect a combination of an extract from the Labiatae plant family and an extract from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, to provide a simple additive antioxidant effect However, studies described herein have demonstrated synergistic enhancement of antioxidant activity

For ease of reference, these and further aspects of the present invention are now discussed under appropriate section headings However, the teachings under each section are not necessarily limited to each particular section. PREFERRED ASPECTS

LABIATAE EXTRACT

As discussed herein one extract used in the present invention is obtained from or is obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family

In one aspect the extract used in the present invention is obtained from a plant of the Labiatae family It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that by the term "extract" or "extracts" it is meant any constituent of the plant which may be isolated from the whole plant

In one aspect the extract used in the present invention is obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that an extract obtainable from a plant may be obtained from a plant or may be isolated from the plant, identified and then obtained from an alternative source, for example by chemical synthesis or enzymatic production For example the extract may be produced by a eukaryotic or prokaryotic fermentation, by a process of genetic manipulation The present applicant have recognised that products present in a plant of the Labiatae family may synergistically increase the activity of antioxidant material obtained or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum These products may be obtained from any source and will fall within the scope of the present invention,

The invention comprises use of a combination of an extract from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and antioxidant material obtained or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum (Matricaria recurtita), that together give antioxidant activity in a food system. The extracts responsible for synergy in the present invention preferably refer to extracts of the plant family Labiatae that have been selectively extracted ("deodorised extracts") to increase their phenolic diterpene content (such as camosic acid). These deodorised extracts can be distinguished by their high phenolic diterpene content (for example greater than 3.5 wt.%) and their low level (less than 1 wt%) of flavour-inducing compounds from plant essential oils and oieoresins that are used as flavours or fragrances. Essential oils are typically extracted by simple steam distillation of the plant material

Essential oils comprise the various essential oils in plants having the odour or the flavour of the plant from which they were extracted. The essential oils are typically terpenoids often comprising monoterpenes For example an antioxidant type of rosemary extract, which could be described as selectively extracted or deodorised, contains > 3.5% wt. % phenolic diterpenes but less than 1 wt.% essentia! oils. A non-selective, flavouring extract contains 10-30 wt % essential oils and a phenolic diterpene content of 2- >3.5wt.%. An essential oil is commonly described as the volatile ethereal fraction obtained from a plant or plant part by a physical separation process such as distillation or chromatographic separation Essential oils have also been described as a "group of odorous principles, soluble in alcohol and to a limited extent in water, consisting of a mixtures of esters, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. Essential oils are typically obtained by distilling plants with water, the oil that separates from distillate usually has highly characteristic odors identified with the plant origin The resulting mixture of organic compounds was thought, in the days of alchemists, to be the essence of the plant, hence the term "essential oil" In one preferred aspect the extract is a deodorised extract, Preferably the (deodorised) extract contains from 1 0 to 70 wt.% phenolic diterpenes, preferably 3 5 to 70 wt.% phenolic diterpenes and less than 1 wt % essential oil In one aspect the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family contains phenolic diterpenes in an amount of at least 1wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 95 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a piant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 90 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a piant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 85 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 70 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 50 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 30 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 20 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 15 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 10 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, In one preferred aspect the extract is or comprises a phenolic dtterpene. Preferably the phenolic diterpene is carnosic acid.

In one aspect the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family contains carnosic acid in an amount of at least 1wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 95 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 90 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 85 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 70 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 50 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a piant of the Labiatae family, , such as in an amount of 1 to 40 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family such as in an amount of 1 to 30 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 25 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a piant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 20 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 10 w†% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, such as in an amount of 1 to 5 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family

In one preferred aspect the extract contains flavour-inducing compounds and/or essential oils in an amount of less than 1 wt.% based on the extract !n one preferred aspect the extract contains flavour-inducing compounds and/or essential oils in an amount of less than 1 wt % based on the composition

Typically flavour-inducing compounds and/or essential oils are camphor, verbenone, borneoi and alfa-terpineoL

In one preferred aspect the combined amount of camphor present in the extract is less than 1 wt.% (preferably less than 0 2 wt.%, more preferably less than 0 15wt %, more preferably less than 0.1 wt.%) based on the extract,

In one preferred aspect the combined amount of verbenone present in the extract is less than 1 wt,% (preferably less than 0 2 wt.%, more preferably less than 0.15wt. %, more preferably less than 0 1wt%) based on the extract In one preferred aspect the combined amount of borneoi present in the extract is less than 1 wt % (preferably less than 0.2 wt,%, more preferably less than 0.15wt %, more preferably less than 0 1wt %) based on the extract

In one preferred aspect the combined amount of alfa-terpineoi present In the extract is less than 1 wt.% (preferably less than 0,2 wt.%, more preferably less than 0. 15wt %, more preferably less than 0,1 wt.%) based on the extract.

In one preferred aspect the combined amount of camphor, verbenone, borneoi and aifa- terpineo! present in the extract is less than 1 wt.% (preferably less than 0 2 wt.%, more preferably less than 0 15wt%, more preferably less than 0. 1wt,%) based on the extract

In one preferred aspect the extract contain less than 1 wt % of plant essential oils and/or oleoressns based on the extract. In one preferred aspect the extract contain less than 1 wt.% of plant essential oils and/or oleoresins based on the composition In one preferred aspect the extract contains essential oils in an amount of less than 1 wt.% based on the extract In one preferred aspect the extract contains essential oils in an amount of less than 1 wt.% based on the composition . In one preferred aspect the plant of the Labiatae family is selected from rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, mint, balm, savoury and thyme in one preferred aspect the plant of the Labiatae family is selected from rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, mint, balm, and savoury it will be understood that these name cover all species and varieties of plants known by these names

In one preferred aspect the plant of the Labiatae family is selected from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L ), sage (Salvia officinalis L) oregano (Origanum vulgare L ), marjoram (Origanum marjorana L ), mint (Mentha spp ), balm (Melissa officinalis L ), savoury (Satureia hortensis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L )

In one preferred aspect the plant of the Labiatae family is selected from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L), sage (Salvia officinalis L ), oregano (Origanum vulgare L), marjoram (Origanum marjorana L), mint (Mentha spp ), balm (Melissa officinalis L ), and savoury (Satureia hortensis)

In one preferred aspect the plant of the Labiatae family is selected from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L ), sage (Salvia officinalis L ), marjoram (Origanum marjorana L ), mint (Mentha spp ), balm (Melissa officinalis L), and savoury (Satureia hortensis). !n one preferred aspect the plant of the Labiatae famiiy is rosemary

In a further preferred aspect the phenolic diterpenes, phenolic triterpenes and rosmarinic acid are obtained by chemical synthesis Thus in highly preferred aspects the present invention provides

• an anti-oxidant composition comprising (a) carnosic acid,(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum.

β a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with (a) carnosic acid, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum.

● use of (a) carnosic acid, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff,

● a kit for preparing a composition as defined herein, the kit comprising (a) carnosic acid, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus

Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, in separate packages or containers, optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use

MATRICARIA/CHAMAEMELUM EXTRACT

As discussed herein one extract used in the present invention is obtained from or is obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

Plants of the genus Matricaria and plants of the genus Chamaemelum are commonly referred to as chamomile. The term chamomile may also include plants of the genus Anthemis Thus in one aspect the extract of a plant of the genus Matricaria or a plant of the genus Chamaemelum, may be substituted entirely or in part by a plant of the genus Anthemis, Thus in further aspects, the present invent/on provides

● an anti-oxidant composition comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Anthemis,

● a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Anthemis.

● use of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Anthemis for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff

● a kit for preparing a composition as defined herein, the kit comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Anthemis, in separate packages or containers; optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use In one aspect the extract is obtained from or is obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria In one aspect the extract is obtained from or is obtainable from a plant of the genus Chamaemelum.

In one aspect the extract is a mixture of extract obtained from or is obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria and extract obtained from or is obtainable from a plant of the genus Chamaemelum,

In one aspect the extract used in the present invention is obtained from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, In one aspect the extract is obtained from a plant of the genus Matricaria.

In one aspect the extract is obtained from a plant of the genus Chamaemelum

In one aspect extract (b) is from a plant selected from plants of the species Matricaria recurtita, Ormenis multicauHs, Eriocephalus punctulatus, Chamaemelum nobile (syn Anthemis nobilis), Anthemis arvensis, Anthemis cotula, Anthemis tinctoria and Matricaria discoidea. In one preferred aspect extract (b) is from a plant of the species Matricaria recurtita, In one aspect the extract is a mixture of extract obtained from a plant of the genus Matricaria and extract obtained from a plant of the genus Chamaemelum.

It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that by the term "extract" or "extracts" it is meant any constituent of the plant which may be isolated from the whole plant.

In one aspect the extract used in the present invention is obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that an extract obtainable from a plant may be obtained from a plant or may be isolated from the plant, identified and then obtained from an alternative source, for example by chemical synthesis or enzymatic production. For example the extract may be produced by a eukaryotic or prokaryotic fermentation, by a process of genetic manipulation. The present applicant have recognised that products present in a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum may synergisttcaily increase the activity of antioxidant material obtained or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family These products may be obtained from any source and will fall within the scope of the present invention

The invention comprises use of a combination of an extract from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as chamomile {Matricaria recurtita) and antioxidant material obtained or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, that together give antioxidant activity in a food system.

In one preferred aspect the extract is or comprises a flavone Preferably the flavone is apigenin-7-O-glucoside or a derivative thereof Preferred derivatives of apigenin-7-O- glucoside are apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyl-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6 " - malonyl-glucoside). Thus in one aspect the flavone is selected from apigenin-7-O- giucoside, apigenin-7-0-(6"~ma!onyl-glucoside), apigenin-7-0-{4 " -acetyl-6 " -malonyi- giucoside) and mixtures thereof In one further aspect the flavone is at least apigenin-7- O-glucoside and optionally one or both of apigenin-7-0-(6"-maionyl-giucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4"-acetyl-6 -- -malonyl-glucoside) In further preferred aspects the extract is or comprises

. apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyl~glucoside) and apigenin-7-O-

(4 " -acetyl-6"-malonyl-glucoside), or

. apigenin-7-Oglucoside and apigenin~7-0-(6"-malonykjlucoside), or

. apigenin-7-O-glucostde and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6 -- -malonyl-glucoside); or

. apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyl-g!ucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acety!-6"-malonyl- giucoside), or

. apigenin-7-O-glucoside, or

. apigenin-7-0-(6"-malonyl-glucoside) , or

· apigenin-7-0-{4 -- -acetyl-6"-malonyl-glucoside)

In one aspect the flavone is apigenin-7-O-glucoside.

The structures of apigenin-7-0-(6"-malony!-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0(4"-acetyl-6"~ malonyi-glucoside) are shown below Apige

In one aspect the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Chamaemelum family contains apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-0-(6 " -rnalony!-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6 -' -malonyl-glucoside) in an combined amount of at least 0.1 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of at least 0 2wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of at least 0,5wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0 1 to 20wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.1 to 10wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.1 to 5 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0 2 to 3 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.2 to 2 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.5 to 2 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, It will be understood by one skilled in the art that one or more of apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-0-{6 -- -malonyl-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6"-malonyl-glucoside) may not be present provided the combined total amounts of apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-0-(6 " -maionyl-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6 " -malony!-giucoside) which are present is within the recited range.

In one aspect the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Chamaemelum family contains apigenin-7-O-glucoside in an amount of at least 0.1 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the piant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of at least 0 2wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of at least 0.5wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.1 to 20wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0 1 to 10wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.1 to 5 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0 2 to 3 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.2 to 2 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, such as in an amount of 0.5 to 2 wt% based on the weight of extract obtained from or obtainable from the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

In one preferred aspect the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum is chamomile. It will be understood that these name cover all species and varieties of plants known by these names In one preferred aspect the plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum is a piant of the species Matricaria recurtita. It is noted that this species may also be known as Matricaria chamomilla. In a further preferred aspect the apigenin-7-O-glucoside is obtained by chemical synthesis.

Thus in highly preferred aspects the present invention provides

an anti-oxidant composition comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) a flavone selected from apigenin-7-O- glucoside, derivatives thereof and combinations thereof (wherein the derivatives thereof are preferably selected from apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyi-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4"-acetyl-6 " -malonyl-glucoside)

a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) a fiavone selected from apigenin-7-O-g!ucoside, derivatives thereof and combinations thereof (wherein the derivatives thereof are preferably selected from apigenin~7-0(6 -- -malonyl- glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6 -- -malonyl-glucoside)

use of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) a fiavone selected from apigenin-7-O-glucoside, derivatives thereof and combinations thereof (wherein the derivatives thereof are preferably selected from apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyl-giucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl- 6"-malony!-glucoside)

for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff.

a kit for preparing a composition as defined herein, the kit comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) a fiavone selected from apigenin-7-O-glucoside, derivatives thereof and combinations thereof (wherein the derivatives thereof are preferably selected from apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyl-glucoside) and apigenin-7-0(4 -* -acetyl-6 -- - malonyl-giucoside),

in separate packages or containers; optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use..

an anti-oxidant composition comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) apigenin-7-O-glucoside.

a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) apigenin-7-O-glucoside.. use of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) apigenin-7-O-glucoside for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff,

a kit for preparing a composition as defined herein, the kit comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) apigenin-7-O-glucoside, in separate packages or containers, optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use. 2010/054637

15

COMPOSITION

!t will be understood that the components of the composition utilised in the present invention may be present in any amount to provide an antioxidant effect and in particular

(a) extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family and

(b) extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, are present in amounts to provide a synergistic anti-oxidant effect

In one aspect the ratio of (a) extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, to (b) extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, is from 30:1 to 1:20, such as 30:1 to 1:1, such as 20:1 to 1:20, such as 20:1 to 1:1, such as 15.1 to 1.20, such as 15:1 to 1:1, such as 10:1 to 1:20, such as 10.1 to 1:1, such as 5:1 to 1:20, such as 5:1 to 1:1., such as 1:1 to 1:15 , such as 1:1 to 1.10, such as 1:1 to 1:5, such as 1:1 to 1.2, such as approximately 1:1

In one aspect the ratio of (a) active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, to (b) active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, is from 85:1 to 1:10, such as 85:1 to 1:5, such as 85.1 to 1:2, such as 85:1 to 1:1, such as 85:1 to 2:1, such as 85:1 to 5:1, such as 85:1 to 10:1, such as 85:1 to 15:1, such as 85:1 to 20:1, such as 70:1 to 1:1, such as 60:1 to 1:1, such as 50:1 to 1:1, such as 40.1 to 1.1, such as 30.1 to 1:1, such as 25:1 to 1:1, such as 20:1 to 1:1. In one aspect the ratio of (a) active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, to (b) active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, is from 15:1 to 1:1, such as 10:1 to 1:1, such as 70:1 to 10.1, such as 60:1 to 10:1, such as 50:1 to 10:1, such as 40:1 to 10:1, such as 30:1 to 10:1, such as 25:1 to 15:1. In one aspect the ratio of (a) active antioxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, to (b) active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, is from 15:1 to 1:1, such as 15:1 to 2:1, such as 15:1 to 5:1, such as 15:1 to 10:1, such as 14.1 to 11:1, such as 13:1 to 11:1. In one aspect the ratio of (a) phenolic diterpene, to (b) flavone, is from 85:1 to 1.10, such as 85:1 to 1:5, such as 85:1 to 1.2, such as 85:1 to 1:1, such as 85.1 to 2:1, such as 85:1 to 5:1, such as 85:1 to 10.1, such as 85.1 to 15:1, such as 85:1 to 20:1, such as 70:1 to 1.1, such as 60:1 to 1.1, such as 50:1 to 1:1, such as 40:1 to 1:1, such as 30.1 to 1:1, such as 25.1 to 1:1, such as 20.1 to 1 : 1. In one aspect the ratio of (a) phenolic diterpene, to (b) flavone, is from 15:1 to 1:1, such as 10:1 to 1.1, such as 70: 1 to 10: 1 , such as 60: 1 to 10: 1 , such as 50.1 to 10.1, such as 40: 1 to 10.1, such as 30: 1 to 10: 1 , such as 25: 1 to 15:1 In one aspect the ratio of (a) phenolic diterpene, to (b) flavone, is from 15:1 to 1:1, such as 15:1 to 2:1, such as 15:1 to 5:1, such as 15:1 to 10:1, such as 14:1 to 11:1, such as 13:1 to 11.1...

In one aspect the ratio of (a) carnosic acid, to (b) apigenin-7-O-glucoside, is from 85:1 to 1.10, such as 85:1 to 1.5, such as 85:1 to 1.2, such as 85:1 to 1.1, such as 85:1 to 2:1, such as 85:1 to 5.1, such as 85:1 to 10:1, such as 85:1 to 15:1, such as 85.1 to 20:1, such as 70:1 to 1:1, such as 60:1 to 1.1, such as 50:1 to 1.1, such as 40.1 to 1:1 In one aspect the ratio of (a) carnosic acid, to (b) aptgenin-7-O-glucoside, is from 30.1 to 1:1, such as 25:1 to 1:1, such as 20:1 to 1:1, such as 15:1 to 1:1, such as 10:1 to 1:1, such as 70:1 to 10:1, such as 60:1 to 10:1, such as 50:1 to 10:1, such as 40:1 to 10.1, such as 30:1 to 10:1, such as 25:1 to 15:1. In one aspect the ratio of (a) carnosic acid, to (b) apigenin-7-O-gIucoside, is from 40:1 to 1:1, such as 40,1 to 5:1, such as 40:1 to 101, such as 40.1 to 15:1, such as 40:1 to 20.1, such as 40:1 to 25.1, such as 40:1 to 30:1, such as 35.1 to 30: 1.

APPLICATIONS

The antioxidant composition may be utilised in any application in which inhibition of oxidation is required. As discussed herein, usage in foodstuffs is found to be particularly advantageous. In one aspect the present invention therefore provides

a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a material, the process comprising the step of contacting the material with

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and

(b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

use of

(a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemetum,

for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a material Other possible applications include cosmetics

FOODSTUFF

The composition, process and use of the present invention may prevent and/or inhibit oxidation in any material. However, in view of the problems associated with oxidation of foodstuffs and in view of the particular effectiveness of the present invention in foodstuffs, preferably the composition is a foodstuff or may be added to a foodstuff It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that when the present composition is a foodstuff the essential components of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family and (b) extract from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum must be present in the foodstuff, They may have been provided by one or more means For example they may have been added in the form of a composition containing the extracts The components may have been added to the foodstuff sequentially, in one aspect the composition of the present invention is an antioxidant composition suitable for addition to a foodstuff.

Many foodstuffs may be protected by the present invention Typical foodstuffs are raw meat, cooked meat, raw poultry products, cooked poultry products, raw seafood products, cooked seafood products, ready to eat meals, pasta sauces, pasteurised soups, mayonnaise, salad dressings, oil-in-water emulsions, margarines, low fat spreads, water-in-oil emulsions, dairy products, cheese spreads, processed cheese, dairy desserts, flavoured milks, cream, fermented milk products, cheese, butter, condensed milk products, ice cream mixes, soya products, pasteurised liquid egg, bakery products, confectionery products, fruit products, and foods with fat-based or water-containing fillings. Preferably the foodstuff is mayonnaise.

In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Labiatae in an amount of no greater than SOOOppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 4000ppm, such as no greater than 3000ppm, such as no greater than 2000 ppm, such as no greater than 1000 ppm, such as no greater than 700 ppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 300 ppm such as no greater than 200 ppm, such as no greater than 150 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75 ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as 1 to 150 ppm, such as 1 to 100 ppm, such as 1 to 50 ppm, such as 1 to 40 ppm, such as 10 to 150 ppm, such as 10 to 100 ppm, such as 10 to 50 ppm, such as 20 to 50 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff

In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum in an amount of no greater than SOOOppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 4000ppm, such as no greater than 3000ppm, such as no greater than 2000 ppm, such as no greater than 1000 ppm, such as no greater than 700 ppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 300 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 200 ppm, such as no greater than 150 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75 ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as 1 to 150 ppm, such as 1 to 100 ppm, such as 1 to 50 ppm, such as 1 to 40 ppm, such as 10 to 150 ppm, such as 10 to 100 ppm, such as 10 to 50 ppm, such as 20 to 50 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff.

In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Labiatae in an amount of no greater than lOOOppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 700 ppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 150 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75 ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as 1 to 100 ppm, such as 1 to 75 ppm, such as 1 to 50 ppm, such as 1 to 40 ppm, such as 10 to 100 ppm, such as 10 to 75 ppm, such as 10 to 50 ppm, such as 20 to 50 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide active anti-oxidant ingredient obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum in an amount of no greater than BOOOppm such as no greater than 4000ppm, such as no greater than SOOOppm, such as no greater than 2000ppm such as no greater than l OOOppm,, such as no greater than 700 ppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as no greater than 20 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 15 ppm, such as no greater than 10 ppm, such as no greater than 7 ppm, such as no greater than 5 ppm, such as no greater than 4 ppm, such as 1 to 10 ppm, such as 1 to 7 ppm, such as 1 to 5 ppm, such as 2 to 5 ppm, such as 0.1 to 10 ppm, such as 0 1 to 7 ppm, such as 0. 1 to 5 ppm

In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide phenolic diterpene obtained from or obtainable from a piant of the genus Labiatae in an amount of no greater than l OOOppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 700 ppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 150 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75 ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as 1 to 100 ppm, such as 1 to 75 ppm, such as 1 to 50 ppm, such as 1 to 40 ppm, such as 10 to 100 ppm, such as 10 to 75 ppm, such as 10 to 50 ppm, such as 20 to 50 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff. In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide fiavone obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum in an amount of no greater than SOOOppm such as no greater than 4000ppm, such as no greater than 3Q0Qppm, such as no greater than 2000ppm such as no greater than lOOOppm, such as no greater than 700 ppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as no greater than 20 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 15 ppm, such as no greater than 10 ppm, such as no greater than 7 ppm, such as no greater than 5 ppm, such as no greater than 4 ppm, such as 1 to 10 ppm, such as 1 to 7 ppm, such as 1 to 5 ppm, such as 2 to 5 ppm such as 0, 1 to 10 ppm, such as 0 1 to 7 ppm, such as 0 1 to 5 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff

In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide carnosic acid in an amount of no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 150 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75 ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as 1 to 100 ppm, such as 1 to 75 ppm, such as 1 to 50 ppm, such as 1 to 40 ppm, such as 10 to 100 ppm, such as 10 to 75 ppm, such as 10 to 50 ppm, such as 20 to 50 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff. In one aspect the present composition is dosed in a foodstuff in an amount to provide apigenin-7-O-glucoside in an amount of no greater than 2000ppm such as no greater than l OOOppm, such as no greater than 500 ppm, such as no greater than 400 ppm, such as no greater than 200 ppm, such as no greater than 100 ppm, such as no greater than 75ppm, such as no greater than 50 ppm, such as no greater than 40 ppm, such as no greater than 20 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff, such as no greater than 15 ppm, such as no greater than 10 ppm, such as no greater than 7 ppm, such as no greater than 5 ppm, such as no greater than 4 ppm, such as 1 to 10 ppm, such as 1 to 7 ppm, such as 1 to 5 ppm, such as 2 to 5 ppm such as 0.01 to 10 ppm, such as 0.01 to 7 ppm, such as 0,01 to 5 ppm based on the weight of the foodstuff

ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS

The composition of the present invention or the composition for use in the present invention may contain one or more additional components. However, in some aspects the antioxidant composition of the present invention (suitable for addition to a foodstuff) contains no additional components or contains no additional components that materially affect the properties of the composition. In these aspects the present invention provides ● an anti-oxidant composition consisting essentially of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum. a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with a composition consisting essentially of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum

● use of a composition consisting essentially of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff,

● a kit for preparing a composition as defined herein, the kit consisting essentially of (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Chamaemelum, in separate packages or containers; optionally with instructions for admixture and/or contacting and/or use

In one preferred aspect the composition further comprises (c) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Cynara family. In one preferred aspect the composition further comprises (c) an extract obtained from a plant of the Cynara family. Preferably the plant of the Cynara family is selected from an artichoke. Preferably the plant of the Cynara family is selected from Cynara scolymus and Cynara cardunculus. Preferably the plant of the Cynara family is Cynara scolymus.

In one preferred aspect the composition further comprises a carrier. Preferably the carrier is selected from propylene glycol, rnaStodextrin, sugar, salt, ethanol, water, protein, glycerol, medium chain triglyceride (MCT oil), and vegetable oil

In one preferred aspect the composition further comprises an emulsifier. Preferably the emuisifier is selected from polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters (polysorbates), poiyoxyethy!ene stearate, mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, mono- and diglycerides esters further esterified with a dibasic organic acid selected from acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid or mixtures thereof, lecithin, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, polyglycerol polyricinoleate, sucrose esters of fatty acids, sucroglycerides, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids, sorbitan esters of fatty acids, sodium and calcium salt of stearoyl-2-lactylate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids and ammonium phosphatides. PROCESS

As discussed herein in one aspect the present invention provides a process for preventing and/or inhibiting oxidation of a foodstuff, the process comprising the step of contacting the foodstuff with a composition comprising (a) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and (b) an extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Charnaernelum, in one aspect the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Charnaernelum are added to the foodstuff together.

In one aspect the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the Labiatae family, and the extract obtained from or obtainable from a plant of the genus Matricaria or of the genus Charnaernelum are added to the foodstuff sequentially .

Thus the present invention provides in one aspect an antioxidant composition which may be added to a range of materials such as food systems and in another aspect a combination of two separate products which may added sequentially to materials such as food products.

The present invention will now be described in further detail by way of example only with reference to the accompanying figures in which:-

Figure 1 shows a graph; and

Figure 2 shows a graph.

The present invention will now be described in further detail in the following examples,

EXAMPLES

Two individual mayonnaise trials were conducted in respect of the synergistic interaction between chamomile extract (CE) and a phenolic diterpene based rosemary extract (RE). Determination of secondary oxidation products by gas chromatography-mass- spectroscopy with selecting ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) revealed a synergistic interaction between the CE and RE- As single ingredient, CE was ineffective, but in combination with RE a strong synergism appeared in delaying the development of key secondary oxidation products (2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal)

Plant Extracts Used

Rosemary Ex, was a hydroalcoholic extract from Rosmarinus officinalis L containing min. 70wt% phenolic diterpenes (which includes carnosic acid) and containing 70 wt% carnosic acid. Article no. E070143-70 available from Danisco A/S, Denmark.

Chamomile Extract was a hydroalcoholic extract from Matricaria recutita containing 4.6% f!avones (which includes apigenin-7-O-giucoside, apigenin-7-0-(6 -- -malonyl- glucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4"-acetyl-6 " -malonyl-glucoside)) and containing apigenin- 7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-0-(6 " -malonyl-g1ucoside) and apigenin-7-0-(4 " -acetyl-6 " - malonyl-glucoside) is a combined total of 4Owt%. Article no. E070143-93 available from Danisco A/S, Denmark.

Experimental procedure

Mayonnaise Trial I

The mayonnaises were produced using the recipe in table 1 and procedures outlined below. All ingredients in mayonnaise were of food-grade quality. Samplings were done within 26 days according to the schematised sampling plan in table 2.

Table 1 : Mayonnaise recipes. Gram of ingredients used to produce 8 kg batches

Mayonnaise

Mayonnaise Mayonnaise added 40ppm

Mayonnaise added 40ppm added 40ppm chamomile ex. without Chamomile Rosemary and 40 ppm antioxidants Extract Extract Rosemary Ex.

Ingredient (CTR) (CE) (RE) (CE+RE)

Water 800,00 799,68 799,68 799,36

Canola Oil 6400,00 6400,00 6400,00 6400,00

1 Dissolve sodium chloride, sugar and potassium sorbate in ¾ parts of the water in the funnel of a FrymaKoruma Disho A15 mixer (Romaco FrymaKoruma, Germany), while mixing at 3000 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 500 mbar for 1 minute.

2. Dissolve extracts in mixture of 6g water and 2g ethanol and add the mixture to the water phase.

3. Make a slurry of GRINDSTED® FF 5105 and approx, 30g canola oil, and pump the slurry into the water phase at 3000 rpm in a vacuum (SOOmbars) and continue mixing for 1 minute.

4. Add egg yolk and the rest of the water, while mixing at 3000 rpm and stirring at

60 rpm in a vacuum of 500 mbars and continue mixing for 3 minutes.

5 Emulsify the rest of the canola oil at 3500rpm and continue mixing for 2 minutes.

6. Add vinegar and mustard while mixing at 3500 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 300 mbars for 1 minute

7, Finally, mixing speed was decreased to 2500 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 300 mbar and held for 30 seconds before each batch was filled (temperature 25°C) into food-approved DUMA PEHD plastic containers (150ml) with 120g ± 10g (allowing headspace of approx 10-20%)

*) Samples were stored at -20°C for approx. 1 month before the methanol extraction of vo!atiles and the GC-MS-SiM analysis

Mayonnaise Trial II The mayonnaises were produced using the recipe in table 3 and procedures outlined below. Samplings were done after 1 and 14 days of storage at 20°C in the dark according to the sampling plan in table 4

1 Dissolve sodium chloride, sugar and potassium sorbate in ¾ parts of the water in the funnel of a FrymaKoruma Disho A15 mixer (Romaco FrymaKoruma, Germany), while mixing at 3000 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 500 mbar for 1 minute.

2- Dissolve extracts in mixture of 6g water and 2g ethanol and add the mixture to the water phase,

3. Make a siurry of GR!NDSTED® FF 5105 and approx. 30g canola oil, and pump the slurry into the water phase at 3000 rpm in a vacuum (500mbars) and continue mixing for 1 minute,

4, Add egg yolk and the rest of the water, while mixing at 3000 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 500 mbars and continue mixing for 3 minutes.

5, Emulsify the rest of the canola oil at 3500rpm and continue mixing for 2 minutes, 6- Add vinegar and mustard while mixing at 3500 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 300 mbars for 1 minute,

7- Finally, mixing speed was decreased to 2500 rpm and stirring at 60 rpm in a vacuum of 300 mbar and held for 30 seconds before each batch was filled (temperature 25°C) into food-approved DUMA PEHD plastic containers (150ml) with 120g ± 10g (allowing headspace of approx 10-20%),

*) Samples were stored at -20°C for approx. 4 months before the methanol extraction of volatiles and the GC-MS-SIM analysis. Methods

Determination of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary extract

The antioxidant activity of rosemary extract is primarily related to the content of phenolic diterpenes The content was analysed in duplicates using method based on high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), according to Thorsen & Hitdebrandt (2003).

Determination of peroxide value of canola oil

The peroxide value of canola oil was determined in duplicates by potentiometric titration according to: The American Oil Chemists' Society: Official Methods and Recommended Practices of The AOCS, 5 th Edition, Method: Cd 8-53,

Determination of metals in mayonnaises by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

The content of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn was measured in triplicates by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) using a Varian Vista MPX (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). The analysis of elements was done according to the Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International, 16 th Edition, Methods: 965 09, 977,29, 985,01 , 984,27. Sensory evaluation of mayonnaises

The number of days before rancid off-taste was first noticed until the product was unacceptable was evaluated by a panel of 2 people, Additional observations, e.g. extract notes, acidity, colour issues were further judged Determination of oxidation products in mayonnaises by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) analysis. 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal were determined in triplicates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) analysis using an Agilent 6890N GC/Agilent 5973N MSD system.

To 0,5g (+/- O. lg) of mayonnaise were added 10ml methanol and internal standard (hexyl hexanoaie) corresponding to 10 rng/kg. Then the slurry was shaken for 15min on a shaker at 1000 rpm and placed in freezer overnight. An aliquot of the supernatant methanol phase was subsequently transferred to a GC-injeciion via!

A calibration was performed in the range 0-40 mg/kg by adding a stock solution of 2,4- T.C-heptadienal and 2,4-T,C-decadienal and internal standard directly to methanol in the calculations, the response from the 2,4-Τ,Τ isomers was added to the response from the 2,4-T,C-isomers 1 and a total was reported

Results

Determination of phenolic diterpene content in rosemary extract

The content of carnosol, carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl-carnosic acid were analysed in the rosemary extract by HPLC and results (g/100g) are schematized in table 5. Carnosic acid was the major component of the phenolic diterpenes in the rosemary extract Table 5: Active components in Rosemary Extract

Peroxide value of canola oil

The Canola Oil (COLZAO™ Canola oil, Aarhus Karlsham, Denmark) used in the two trials were kept refrigerated in 190kg sealed drums until the production of the mayonnaise. A sample of the oil was analysed immediately after opening the container and before the production of the mayonnaises. Results were calculated as meq / kg oil as presented in table 6. Table 6: Peroxide values of the Canola Oil used in mayonnaise trial I & II.

Determination of metals in mayonnaises by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

The unprotected control batch was analysed in triplicates for the content of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) Table 7 shows the average values of metals in mg/kg product. The copper content was approx. 7 times higher in mayonnaises produced in trial II than in trial I The raw material responsible for the high copper variation monitored in trial I & II was not identified

Table 7: Triplicate determination of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in ppm (mg/kg mayonnaise) based on ICP-OES.

Oxidative stability, mayonnaise trial I

Determination of oxidation products by gas chromatoqraphv-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring fGC-MS-SiM) analysis.

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oils produces a complex mixture of volatile secondary oxidation products, which cause particularly objectionable off-flavours. 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal have previously been identified as one of the important markers for oxidation in emulsions, such as mayonnaise and milk emulsions (Hartvigsen et al 2000, Let et a/ , 2004).

Average values (mg/kg mayonnaise) of 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal determined in duplicates by GC-MS-SIM are presented in Table 8 and 9 and graphically viewed in Figure 1 & 2. Table 8: Duplicate determination of 2,4-heptadienal (mg/kg mayonnaise) during 26 days of storage at 20°C. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each day and Tukey's test. Batches followed by same letter not significant different using 0.05 levels of significance

Table 9: Duplicate determination of 2,4-decadienal (mg/kg mayonnaise) during 26 days of storage at 20°C. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each day and Tukey's test Batches followed by same letter not significant different using 0 05 levels of significance

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Tukey's test with 0 05 levels of significance was used to compare treatments at each storage day, The overall strongest antioxidant activity was demonstrated for the combined treatment with 40ppm CE + 40 ppm RE, The treatment with RE alone was significant within the first 14 days of storage, where after a prooxidant activity of RE were indicated, but not statistically proven. 2-factor interactions were further studied using 50-50 multivariate analysis of variance (50-50 Wlanova) described by Langsrud (2000, 2002). The dataset consisted of standardised (1/stdev) responses of 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienai for the 4 treatments (CTR, CE, RE, CE+RE) at all sampling days (0, 7, 14, 21 & 26 days) The analysis confirmed a 2-factor interaction between CE and RE on the inhibition of 2,4- heptadienal (p RE .cE<0,001 ) and 2,4-decadienal (P RE . CE<0,01 ). The fact that, chamomile extract interacted synergistically with rosemary extract has not earlier been described in literature, Sensory evaluation

The products were evaluated by a panel of 2 people, rather than a full-scale pane! This small panel was able to identify any obvious Off tastes'. The sensory evaluation confirmed the strong antioxidant activity of the combined mixture of rosemary extract and chamomile (RE+CE) Of further note was the fact, that no off-flavour or discolouration was detected in any of the antioxidant treated batches

Table 10: Sensory evaluation of rancidity, extract notes and colour in mayonnaises stored at 20°C for 26 days.

Determination of surface Lab-colour by tri-stimulus colorimeter

The surface Lab-colour was determined in duplicates after 0 and 26 days of storage using a Minolta Colormeter and the results are presented in Table 1 1. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no treatment (p>0 05) or days effects (p>0 05), which corresponds with the aforementioned sensory observation.

Oxidative stability, mayonnaise trial II

In a complex matrix like a food emulsion system several factors may influence the initiation and progress of lipid autoxidation. The use of gently processing conditions during the emu!sification of the emulsion, depletion of oxygen and metals as well as the use of an oil of a good initial quality are some of the most important factors, which can influence the oxidative deterioration.. The oil used in both trials had a satisfying quality with comparable peroxide values of 0 7meq/kg and 0„9meq/kg, respectively. The copper content in finished products, however, ranged from 0, 1 ppm in trial I to 0,7ppm in trial II, The higher copper content match the monitored faster development of both 2,4- heptadiena! and 2,4-decadienal in trial II than compared to the ones produced in trial I (compare tables 8 & 9 with tables 12 & 13). Determination of oxidation products bv gas chromatographv-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) analysis.

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Tukey's test with 0 05 levels of significance was used to compare treatments at day 1 and day 14 As it was the case in trial I, the combined treatment (CE+RE) was found significant more effective than treatment with RE alone The treatment with CE alone, was prooxidant after 14 days in comparison to CTRJB, but not in comparison to CTR_A

Table 12: Duplicate determination of 2,4-heptadiena! (mg/kg mayonnaise) after 1 and 14 days of storage at 20°C. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each day and Tukey's test Batches followed by same letter not significant different using 0.05 levels of significance.

Table 13: Duplicate determination of 2,4-decadienal (mg/kg mayonnaise) after 1 and 14 days of storage at 20°C. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each day and Tukey's test. Batches followed by same letter not significant different using 0.05 levels of significance.

The 2-factor interactions were again studied using 50-50 multivariate analysis of variance (50-50 Manova) described by Langsrud (2000, 2002). The analysis confirmed a strong 2- factor interaction between CE and RE on the inhibition of 2,4-heptadienal (p RE -cE < 0 ! 001 ) and on the inhibition of 2,4-decadienal (PRE-CE < 0,001 ). Example of a blend composition

Table 14 shows an example of a liquid blend composition of chamomile and rosemary extract dissolved in propylene glycol

Table 14: Blend composition

The blend is used in mayonnaise in amounts of 50-2000 ppm based on the amount of mayonnaise.

Conclusion

We have shown synergistic activity in respect of antioxidant activity when combining chamomile extract (CE) and rosemary extract (RE) to create an efficient multi-component antioxidant blend capable of prolonging the shelf-life of mayonnaise better than rosemary extract alone.

Two individual mayonnaise trials were conducted to demonstrate synergistic interaction of combining CE and RE. Determination of secondary oxidation products by gas chromatography-mass-spectroscopy with selecting ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) revealed a synergistic interaction between the CE and RE. As single ingredient, CE was ineffective, but in combination with RE a strong synergism appeared in delaying the development of 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal..

REFERENCES

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Langsrud 0 (2000), Fifty-Fifty MANOVA: Multivariate Analysis of Variance for Collinear Responses, Proceedings of The Industrial Statistics in Action 2000, vol 2, pp. 250-264 Let, M. B., Jacobsen, C & Meyer, A S. (2004), Effects of fish oil type lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 106, pp 170-182

Hartvigsen, K , Lund, P. , Hansen, LF & H0lmer, G. (2000) . Dynamic headspace of volatiles produced in fish oil enriched mayonnaise during storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, pp 4858-4867

Thorsen, M. A., & Hildebrandt, K S . (2003) . Quantitative determination of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary extracts: Aspects of accurate quantification. Journal of

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Smid, E, . J. . and Gorris, L , G . M. . 1999, . Natural antimicrobials for food preservation In: Handbook of Food Preservation. . Ed: M . S Rahman. . Marcel Dekker lnc .. New York, Loliger, J, . 1989. . Natural Antioxidants. . In: Rancidity in Food, edited by J. . Allen and R . Hamilton. . Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp 105-124

Cuve!ier, M .. 0E., Richard, K, and Berset, C. . 1996 , Antioxidative activity and phenolic composition of pilot-plant and commercial extracts of sage and rosemary. . JAOCS 73: 645-652 All publications mentioned in the above specification are herein incorporated by reference . Various modifications and variations of the described methods and system of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Although the invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood that the invention as claimed should not be unduly limited to such specific embodiments. Indeed, various modifications of the described modes for carrying out the invention which are obvious to those skilled in chemistry, biology, food science or related fields are intended to be within the scope of the following claims