PAPASOULIOTIS, George D. (135 Laconia Circle, North Andover, MA, 01845, US)
MAYNARD, Helen L. (291 Haverhill Street, North Reading, MA, 01864, US)
PAPASOULIOTIS, George D. (135 Laconia Circle, North Andover, MA, 01845, US)
What is claimed is:
1. A method of monitoring the delamination of a film from a target comprising: projecting light at said target; measuring the reflectivity of said target; comparing said measured reflectivity to an expected reflectivity; and determining presence of delamination of said film from said target based on said comparison.
2. The method of claim 1 , wherein said projected light comprises a piuraiity of wavelengths.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein said measuring and comparing steps are performed for a piuraiity of wavelengths.
4. The method of claim 1 , wherein said comparing step comprising detecting an increase or decrease in amplitude at one or more frequencies.
5. The method of claim 1 , further comprising repeating said projecting, measuring, comparing and determining a plurality of times.
6. The method of claim 1 , further comprising implanting ions into said target prior to said projecting and measuring steps.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein said target is subjected to an anneal process during said projecting, measuring, comparing and determining steps.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein said annea! process is terminated in response to said determining step.
9. The method of claim 1 , further comprising implanting ions into said target during said projecting, measuring, comparing and determining steps.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein said implanting step is terminated in response to said determining step.
11. The method of claim 1 , wherein said target is selected from the group consisting of a semiconductor wafer, semiconductor manufacturing equipment, a platen, and a wall within a semiconductor manufacturing chamber.
12. The method of claim 1 , further comprising scanning the light in at least one direction.
13. A method of creating a thin film from a substrate, comprising: implanting ions selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and helium into said substrate; annealing said substrate after implanting ions;
projecting light at said substrate; measuring the reflectivity of said substrate; comparing said measured reflectivity to an expected reflectivity; and terminating said annealing process based on said comparison.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein said annealing step is performed in a chamber having a window, and a light source and a detector are located outside said chamber, and wherein said light is projected through said window.
15. The method of claim 13 wherein said projecting, measuring, and comparing steps are performing continuously in situ during said annealing process.
16. The method of claim 13, wherein said steps are performed using a test environment and the elapsed time prior to said termination of said anneal process is determined, and further comprising repeating said implanting and annealing steps wherein said annealing step is terminated based on said determination of elapsed time.
17. An apparatus for processing a substrate, comprising: a chamber within which said substrate is processed, said chamber comprising at least one window through which light can pass; a substrate processor for processing said substrate; a light source to project light through said window at a surface of said substrate; and a detector to receive light reflected from said substrate, wherein said substrate processor is in communication with said detector and adapted to terminate said processing based on an output from said detector.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said substrate processor comprises an annealer and said processing comprises annealing said substrate.
19. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said substrate processor comprises an ion generator for generating ions and said processing comprises implanting ions in said substrate.
20. A method for processing a substrate, the method comprising: performing a first process on the substrate; directing radiation toward the substrate; receiving radiation reflected from the substrate; and detecting the endpoint of the first process based upon the radiation reflected from the substrate.
21. The method of claim 20, further comprising performing a second process on the substrate, wherein the second process is performed after detecting the endpoint of the first process.
22. The method of claim 21 , wherein the first process comprises implanting ions to generate at least one gas bubble between two portions of the substrate and wherein the second process comprises separating the two portions of the substrate.
AN APPARATUS FOR DETECTING FILM
PELAMINATION AND A METHOD THEREOF
The present disclosure is related to an apparatus and a method for detecting and controlling deiamination of a film.
Ion implantation is used to perform a variety of functions. One such function is the doping of a semiconductor material, such as a wafer, to change its electrical properties. The goal of this process is to create a region within the substrate that has a polarity that may be different from the surrounding area. This process is used to develop integrated circuits, used in electronic components such as processors, memories, and other devices. In this embodiment, techniques such as, but not limited to, CVD, PECVD, plasma immersion and beamline implantation, may be used to introduce ions to the substrate.
More recently, interest has grown in using ion implantation to cleave a thin film of material from a bulk substrate. There are several methods of performing a cleave process, such as one referred to as "SmartCuf . This process is used for many applications, including the preparation of siϋcon-on-insulator (SOI). Briefly, a semiconductor substrate, such as a wafer, receives a surface treatment to oxide the surface. This creates an insulating layer around the substrate. An ion implantation of hydrogen and/or helium is then applied to the substrate. In some embodiments, the substrate is then flipped and bonded to a handle substrate. This handle substrate may be silicon, quartz or some other suitable material. The implanted hydrogen or helium ions tend to cause bubbles while the substrate is being annealed. These bubbles may aggregate to form a layer within the substrate. The depth of this layer is dependent on the concentration and energy of the hydrogen ions, as well as the anneal time. This iayer weakens the substrate at that position, allowing it to be cleaved. This cleaved interface is then smoothed, using techniques such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). The resulting film and handle substrate is then suitable for use in a SOI process. The remainder of the original semiconductor wafer can be reused to create another thin film.
In addition to the SOI process, cleaving processes are also gaining interest for other applications, such as a method of fabricating solar ceils. As with SOI, these thin fiims are susceptible to strain, which can deform or destroy the film. Accordingly, it may be desirable to detect and monitor the delamination process. Furthermore, in addition to monitoring the delamination process, it would be beneficial to control the thin film delamination process. Additionally, it would be desirable if these techniques were used to determine delamination of other surfaces, such as chamber walls and equipment.
The problems in the prior art are overcome by the method and apparatus described herein. An interferometer is used to detect the onset and progression of thin film delamination. By projecting one or more wavelengths at a surface, and measuring the reflectance of these projected wavelengths, it is possible to monitor the progression of the delamination process. Testing has shown that different stages of the delamination process produce different reflectance graphs. This information can be used to establish implantation parameters, or can be used as an in situ monitor.
The same techniques used to detect delamination of a thin film from a semiconductor substrate can be used for other applications. For example, in certain systems, such as a CVD reactor, a film of material may be deposited on the walls of the chamber. This film is not deleterious until it begins separating from the wall. The techniques described herein can be used to monitor this separation, and determine when preventative maintenance may be performed on the chamber.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
For a better understanding of the present disclosure, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which are incorporated herein by reference and in which:
FIG. 1 is an embodiment of an ion implanter;
FIG. 2 shows the steps used in a traditional SOl process;
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing the operation of an interferometer;
FIG. 4 illustrates two embodiments for determining reflectivity;
FIG. 5 shows the reflectivity of substrates implanted with different doses of ions;
FIG. 6 shows the reflectivity of substrates implanted with different doses of ions and the corresponding atomic field microscope pictures;
FIG. 7 shows two different incident angles which may be used;
FIG. 8 shows an embodiment in which the walls of a reactor are monitored; and
FIG. 9 shows a front and top view of a wafer and its associated holder.
In the present disclosure, several embodiments of an apparatus and a method for detecting film deiamination are introduced. For illustrative purpose, the present disclosure may be made in context to systems for manufacturing and/or processing thin films. However, those in the art will recognize that the present disclosure need not be so limited. Indeed, the present disclosure is applicable for detecting deiamination of a thin film where such a deiamination is desired or undesired. Accordingly, the present disclosure may also be applicable for systems for detecting deiamination of the film from a bulk material caused by wear and tear.
Among systems for manufacturing and/or processing thin films, the present disclosure will focus on a beam-line ion implantation system for a purpose of clarity. However, those in the art will recognize that the present disclosure may also be applicable to other types of systems for manufacturing and/or processing thin films. For example, the present disclosure may be applicable to a plasma based system including a plasma immersion ion implantation system. In addition, the present disclosure may also be applicable to optica! based thin film processing system.
In the present disclosure, the thin film may be conducting, semiconducting, or insulating material. For example, the thin film may be Aluminum (Al) thin film, silicon (Si) thin film, Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) thin film, Germanium (Ge) thin film, diamond thin film, organic or polymeric thin film. The thin film may be transparent to at least a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Meanwhile, the substrate may also be conducting, semiconducting, or insulating material. The ions disclosed in present disclosure may be atomic or molecular ions. Further, although the present disclosure may focus of system based on ions, the present disclosure may also be applicable to other particle based systems such neutral particle based system and photon based system. As such, the thin film, substrate, nor particles in the present disclosure need be limited to a particular type of film, substrate, nor particles.
FIG. 1 illustrates an apparatus for manufacturing a thin film. The cleaving process, unlike conventional ion implantation processes, does not form or deposit the film on the substrate. Instead, the cleaving process cuts or separates the film from a bulk substrate. Among other tools, a beam-line ion implanter 100 may be used to perform the cleaving process. A block diagram of a conventional ion implanter 200 is shown in FIG. 1. The conventional ion implanter may include an ion source 102 for generating ions. The ion implanter 100 may also comprise a series of beam-line components through which ion beam 106 passes. Examples of the beam- line components may include extraction electrodes 104, a magnetic mass analyzer 108, a plurality of lenses 110, and a beam parallelizer 112. The ion implanter 100 may also include a platen 116 supporting the wafer 114 to be implanted. The wafer 114, meanwhile, may be moved in one or more dimensions (e.g., translate, rotate, and tilt) by a component, sometimes referred to as a "roplat" (not shown).
During implantation, the ions of desired species, such as hydrogen and helium ions, are generated and extracted from the ion source 102. Thereafter, extracted ions 106 travel in a beam-like state along the beam-line components and implanted to the wafer 114. Much like a series of optical lenses that manipulate a light beam, the beam-line components manipulate the ion beam 106. The ion beam 106 manipulated by the beam-line components is directed.
As described above, one application that uses a cleaving process is the creation of SOI substrates. As illustrated in FIG. 2a, ions such as protons or hydrogen and/or helium ions 106 directed toward the wafer 114 are implanted at a predetermined depth. In some embodiments, the wafer 114 has been treated so as to create an insulation layer 121 on the top surface. This may be achieved by oxidizing the top surface. The implanted ions coalesce to form an intermediate hydrogen layer 114b, between upper layer or thin film 114a and lower layer 114c or bulk of the wafer 114, and the film 114a may be delaminated or separated from the bulk 114c.
As shown in FIG. 2b, to form a thin silicon-on-insu!ator (SOI) film, a substrate 120, such as silicon, quartz or polyethylene terephthalate (PET), may be affixed to the film 114a and the film and the substrate 120 may be delaminated or separated from the bulk 114c. After separation, a thin SOI film may result. As seen in FlG. 2b, the cleaving process results in a uneven or jagged edge.
Typically, the resulting SOI wafer contains a substrate 120, and a thin film layer 114a, often with an insulating layer 121 separating these two substrates. The SOI wafer then undergoes a polishing step, such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) to smooth the top surface. The resulting wafer is shown in FlG. 2c. The remainder of the unused wafer 114c may be used in a subsequent cleaving process. During implantation of ions 106 and formation of the intermediate layer 114b, the upper layer 114a may be under a strain. The film 114a may also experience strain as the film 114a is deiaminated from the bulk 114c. As the film 114a is relatively thin, excessive strain may cause deformation or even catastrophic failure of the film 114a. lnterferometry is a technique whereby light is incident on a sample, and the reflected intensity is monitored. Figure 3 illustrates a diagram of this measurement technique in which a light is incident on a sample (at an angie) and the reflected intensity is monitored. The light can also be incident at a normal angie. The percentage of the incident light that is reflected, the reflectivity, is a function of the thickness of the film and its optical properties. As suggested by the equation shown in Figure 3, the reflected intensity is a function of the incident light intensity, the wavelength and incident of that incident light, the thickness of the film, and the optical properties of the film and the underlying substrate.
Reflectivity is a measure of the amplitude of the reflected light as a function of the incident light. Thus, a reflectivity value of 0.5 indicates that the reflected wave has an intensity that is 50% of the incident wave.
Figure 4 shows the two ways to monitor the reflectivity of the sample. In Figure 4a, the reflectivity of a substrate as a function of wavelength may be monitored by passing the broadband light source through a monochromator. The resulting waveform shows the reflectivity of the sample as a function of wavelength or frequency. As shown in Figure 4b, a single wavelength may be chosen, and the single wavelength may be monitored for change in reflectivity as a function of time. In the present disclosure, the wavelength is not limited to a single wavelength. Instead, a multi-wavelength optical beam may be used to detect a thin film delamination. In some embodiments, a multtwave length measurement may be used, as this technique may provide more information. In other embodiments, the single wavelength implementation may be used, as it may be simpler to implement, as the
detector used in single wavelength measure may be a photodetector. The choice of which technique to use is dependent on the application, and the present disclosure is not limited to a specific embodiment. in the cleaving process, ionized particles, such as hydrogen or helium, may be implanted. During subsequent thermal processing, these particles may diffuse from lattice site of the substrate and into voids/pockets formed by during the implant process. As the particles gather in such pockets/voids, the particles may form bubbles. If the internal pressure exerted by the pockets/voids exceeds the coherent strength of substrate, then the film may delaminate. In the present disclosure, this delamination process can be detected by thin film reflectance, as shown in Figure 5.
In Figure 5, the top row shows the thin film reflectance curves for increasing implanted dose. The terms reflectance and reflectivity are used interchangeable throughout this disclosure, and both are defined to be a measure of the reflected light intensity in comparison to the incident light intensity. The particles used for the implantation may be a mixture of particles containing a substantial portion of helium and/or hydrogen. The substrates have all been anneaied at 600° C for 5 minutes. As the dose of the particles increases from 4e14/cm 2 to 4e16/cm 2 , the reflectance shows a strong fringe, indicating creation of a free surface within the substrate lattice from which the reflection is quite strong. Beyond this dose, the amplitude of the fringe decreases indicating loss of coherence between the film and substrate and presence of deiamination. The term fringe is used to indicate a change in the reflectivity at one or more wavelengths.
The creation of bubbles within the substrate, as seen in the graph labeled 4e16, shows an unexpected large decrease in reflectivity at about 570 nm, and an increase in reflectivity at about 730 nm. This may be explained by the interaction of the incident wave with the substrate. As the substrate begins to bubble, there is strong interference from the internal surface (i.e. the bottom surface of the bubble). Due to the characteristics of the bubble, the light reflected from the internal surface may be highly coherent. This high degree of coherence results in large increases and decreases in reflectivity, depending on the relationship between the thickness of the film and the phase of the reflected light. As the film deiaminates, the ievel of coherence decreases, due to the uneven gap between the film and the underlying substrate. This decreased coherence reduces the amplitude of both the downward and upward spikes. However, the delaminated film (i.e. the two rightmost graphs) still
demonstrates a different profile than the substrate prior to delamination (i.e. the four leftmost graphs). These differences allow an operator to monitor the progression of the delamination process.
The three stages of delamination shown in Figure 5 (no bubbles, bubbles forming, film delaminated) were confirmed using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Figure 6 shows 4 representative reflectance graphs from Figure 5. For each of these graphs, the corresponding AFM picture is shown directly below it. Note that, for the two leftmost graphs, the refiectance shows no unusual behavior, and specifically shows a general decrease in reflectance as the wavelength increases. The minimum reflectance appears to be about 0.35. The corresponding AFMs for these graphs show no bubbles have formed yet, thus the reflectance is almost exclusively from the top surface. The third graph shows the greatest amplitude variation, with a large decrease in amplitude at 570 nm and an increase in amplitude at 730 nm. The AFM graph beiow shows the presence of large surface bubbles, which are the cause of this effect. Finally, the rightmost graph shows a film that has been deiaminated. In contrast to the first two graphs, this graph shows an increase in reflectivity between the wavelengths of roughly 450 nm to about 730 nm. Again, the AFM picture appears below the graph and shows that the film has delaminated.
To monitor the delamination of a wafer, a light source using a wavelength (or range of wavelengths) that may be substantially transparent to the substrate may be chosen. Based on the graphs shown in FIG. 5, if a single frequency source is used, light at a wavelength of 530 nm may be used to determine when delamination has occurred. For a multiwavelength light source, much of the infrared band would be applicable if the substrate of interest is silicon. This transparency is desirable as there should be at least some penetration into the bulk of the substrate by the light. In the present disclosure it may be desirable for the thin film to be thin enough to allow some transmission of the light. For example, it may be desirable for approximately 10% of incident light to be transmitted.
As illustrated in FIG. 7A, the light should be incident on the substrate and at least a portion of the incident light should be reflected from the substrate 130. In this Figure, Ij represents the incident intensity and IR, the reflected intensity. The left- hand portion of the diagram shows the setup for normal or near-normal incidence. The optical beam may reflect from several interfaces - including the backside of the wafer and the internally separating interface. If the other reflections obscure the
signal of interest, then an interferometer that strikes the substrate at an angle may be implemented. In this way, a reflected optical beam that is not of interest may be separated out (by confining the detector area to sample only the reflection of interest).
As an example, F!G. 7B shows a light wave incident on a substrate 130 at an angle. In this example, light may be reflected from the top surface (l R i), the bottom surface (I R3 ), and the internal surface of interest (IR2). If the magnitude of l R i or I R3 is too great, the changes in IR2 may not be easily detected. By projecting the light at an angle at the substrate, three distinct reflection paths are created. In such an instance, the detector 135 may be located in the path of IR 2 . By locating this detector in the path of l R2l such that it cannot detect reflected light l R i or I R3 , the accuracy of the detector 135 may be improved.
As stated above, the graphs shown in Figures 5 and 6 were created by using different concentrations of implanted material, with a constant anneal time. However, the method described herein can be used in other applications. For example, in one embodiment, a predetermined concentration of ions, such as hydrogen and helium ions, can be implanted in the substrate. The substrate is then subjected to an anneal process. As the substrate is heated, it will undergo the various steps shown in Figure 5, namely, after some time, bubbles will begin to form. Later, the thin film will deiaminate.
A beam of light, as described above, can be directed toward the substrate while it is being annealed. As the substrate is being annealed, the hydrogen and helium ions diffuse in the substrate, forming bubbles. As described above, these bubbles can be detected. Thus, by placing a light source and detector within the anneal chamber, it is possible to determine when the film has delaminated, based on the changes in the reflectivity or reflectance graph. Upon detection of this condition, the annealing process can be terminated. Alternatively, the interferometer may be placed outside the anneal chamber, using a transparent window to project light into the chamber.
In another embodiment, the substrate is not annealed. Rather, ions are implanted into the substrate continuously, until the substrate begins to bubble as described above. A light source and detector are located so as to be incident on the substrate during the implant process. Once the film has delaminated, based on changes to its reflectance graph, the ion implantation process is terminated.
Thus, the method described herein can be used to determine and control either ion implantation time or anneal time. The present method can be used in situ to determine the appropriate time required to achieve the desired level of delamination. The location of the light source and the detector is dependent upon the portion of the process that is to be monitored and controlled. For example, the manufacturing process may include a predetermined dose of particles be implanted into a substrate. The substrate is then annealed, where an interferometer is able to observe changes in the reflectance graph. Upon determination by the interferometer that the top film has delaminated, a controller, in communication with the interferometer may terminate the anneal cycle.
In another embodiment, the method used above is not used in situ, but rather is used to determine the appropriate standardized process parameters. For example, a test environment may be created where the light source and detector are located so as to be incident on the substrate. As described above, the interferometer may monitor the substrate at a number of steps in the process, including but not limited to the implantation step or the anneal step. One or more tests are performed using this interferometer and the time required to achieve the desired degree of delamination is determined. Using the data collected during the test process, a standard process can be established, such that the light source and detector need not be used during normal operation. In other words, it may be determined that for a given dose, test data suggests that an anneal time of 5 minutes results in the proper amount of film delamination. In this case, the standard process can be established wherein the anneal time is set to 5 minutes.
The present method is not limited to detection of delamination of a semiconductor wafer. As an example of a second implementation, present disclosure may be applicable to a surface where detection of film delamination is desired.
Film delamination is a common problem in reactors in which deposition is present, including etch, deposition and some implanters (e.g. PLAD). A light source 205 may output a light beam toward the reactor wall 208 and monitor the reflectance for evidence of delamination. FIG. 8 shows a reactor chamber 200, having a window 210 through which light can pass. The light is reflected off the opposite wall 208 and back through the window 210. The light source 205 and detector 207 may both be located outside the chamber 200, such that they operate through the window 210.
If a chamber wail 208 delaminates, there may be thin-fiim interference between the top and bottom surfaces of the film wall, which may cause a change in the reflectance or reflectivity. This change could be an increase or decrease in intensity, depending on the optical characteristics of the film and the wavelength(s) being used, as described above. When the system detects delamination, this may indicate that maintenance or in situ clean may be performed.
Currently, cleaning of chamber wails is done as part of the preventative maintenance (PM). Typically, a PM cycle is recommended based on the number of cycles, or the number of elapsed hours since the last cleaning. In order to insure that flaking films do not contaminate the chamber, it is customary that the PM cycle will be performed more frequently than necessary. By incorporating a method of detecting the delamination of film from a chamber wail, the frequency of PM can be decreased, as it is now possible to determine exactly when the chamber wall will begin to delaminate.
This method can be used for any solid that tends to accumulate gaseous species, including apparatus within the reactor chamber. In addition to monitoring film on the chamber walls, the present method can be used to monitor film buildup and delamination on the associated equipment, such as the platen 116, and other components of the ion beam line, such as the magnet 112. Porous materials, such as graphite, may be less susceptible to bubbling as the gas may be able to diffuse to the surface and out into the chamber environment, but they have their own challenges with suppressing particle formation. Figure 9A shows a front view of the wafer 114 in a semiconductor process. Note that the platen 116 extends beyond the edge of the wafer 114, and is therefore exposed to the ion beam. As a result, film may develop on the exposed portion of the platen 116. Figure 9B shows a top view of the platen 116 and the attached wafer 114. To monitor the surface of the platen 116, a light source 140 may be aimed and focused at the fixture, as shown in Figure 9B. As described above, the choice of wavelength would depend on the materia! used for the platen. Preferably, the light should be of a frequency that is transparent to the material of the platen. Thus, if the platen is silicon, a wavelength (or range of wavelengths) in the visible and/or IR bands may be applicable. If the platen is metal or a semi-metal, such as graphite, a suitable wavelength may best be determined empiricaily. Alternatively, if the platen is made of an insulator such as quartz or a
ceramic, then there are typically some suitable bands of transparency, which can be determined by referring to the optical properties of these materials. The reflected beam IR would then be sensed by the detector, so that its reflectance graph can be generated and monitored. The monitoring of the reflected beam may have to be synchronized with the motion of the platen.
As noted earlier, the present disclosure is not limited to semiconductor manufacturing/processing system. On the contrary, the present disclosure may be equally applicable to detecting film lamination on a wall where a strip or film of the wall delaminates due to wear and tear.
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