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Title:
APPARATUS, SYSTEM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION OVER AN INDOOR-ONLY CHANNEL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/199265
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Some demonstrative embodiments may include apparatus, system and method of communication over an indoor-only channel. For example, an apparatus may include logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to receive a frame from a software-enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP including a soft AP information element (IE) including an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

Inventors:
OUZIELI, Ido (35 Fireberg St, 32 Tel Aviv, Aviv, IL)
OREN, Elad (2 Yohanan Horcanus St, Tel Aviv, Aviv, IL)
ELAD, Yuval (10 Hanesieim st, Petach-Tikva, Petach-Tikva, IL)
D'ANGELO, Wilfrid (1531 Av de Pibonson, Mougins, Mougins, FR)
Application Number:
US2018/026668
Publication Date:
October 17, 2019
Filing Date:
April 09, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
INTEL IP CORPORATION (2200 Mission College Boulevard, Santa Clara, California, 95054, US)
International Classes:
H04W48/08; H04B17/318; H04W48/02; H04W84/12
Foreign References:
US20060029028A12006-02-09
US20050078624A12005-04-14
US20060153132A12006-07-13
US20100091669A12010-04-15
US20080285500A12008-11-20
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SHICHRUR, Naim Avraham (Shichrur & Co, Azrieli Business Center132 Menachem Begin Blvd.,Triangle Towe, 38th Floor 01 Tel Aviv, Aviv, IL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to:

receive a frame from a software-enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

2. The apparatus of claim 1 configured to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

3. The apparatus of claim 1 configured to select not to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, when the STA does not receive any frame from the source AP.

4. The apparatus of claim 1 configured to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met.

5. The apparatus of claim 1 configured to cause the STA to determine a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from the source AP, and to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel based on a comparison between a reference RSSI and the measured RSSI.

6. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame from the soft AP comprises the reference RSSI.

7. The apparatus of claim 1 configured to cause the STA to transmit to the soft AP an association request over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the identifier of the source AP.

8. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the association request comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value to indicate a measured RSSI of the one or more frames from the source AP.

9. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the association request comprises a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from the source AP are communicated.

10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the network identifier comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network.

11. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-10 configured to cause the STA to disconnect from the soft AP, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from the source AP within a predefined time period.

12. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-10, wherein the frame from the soft AP comprises a beacon frame from the soft AP or a probe response from the soft AP.

13. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-10 comprising a radio to communicate over the indoor-only channel.

14. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-10 comprising one or more antennas, a memory and a processor.

15. A product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to:

receive a frame from a software-enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

16. The product of claim 15, wherein the instructions, when executed, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

17. The product of claim 15 or 16, wherein the instructions, when executed, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met.

18. An apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a software enabled Access Point (soft AP) to:

transmit a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access;

receive an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE;

access one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the apparatus configured to allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP.

20. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) field comprising a reference RSSI value.

21. The apparatus of claim 20 configured to cause the soft AP to determine the reference RSSI based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from the source AP.

22. The apparatus of any one of claims 18-21, wherein an RSSI field in the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a measured RSSI value to indicate a measured RSSI at the STA of one or more frames from the source AP, the apparatus configured to allow the soft AP to associate with the STA, based on a comparison between a reference RSSI value and the measured RSSI value.

23. The apparatus of any one of claims 18-21 comprising one or more antennas, a memory and a processor.

24. A product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a software enabled Access Point (soft AP) to:

transmit a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access;

receive an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE;

access one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

25. The product of claim 24, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the instructions, when executed, allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP.

Description:
APPARATUS, SYSTEM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION OVER AN

INDOOR-ONLY CHANNEL

TECHNICAL FIELD

[001] Embodiments described herein generally relate to communication over an indoor-only channel.

BACKGROUND

[002] A wireless communication station (STA) may be configured to communicate over a plurality of wireless communication channels.

[003] One or more channels of the wireless communication channels may include indoor-only channels. The indoor-only channels may be allowed for communication only for indoor use, e.g., due to regulatory requirements.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[004] For simplicity and clarity of illustration, elements shown in the figures have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements may be exaggerated relative to other elements for clarity of presentation. Furthermore, reference numerals may be repeated among the figures to indicate corresponding or analogous elements. The figures are listed below.

[005] Fig. 1 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a system, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[006] Fig. 2 is a schematic illustration of communication ranges of an Access Point (AP) and a wireless communication station (STA) relative to an indoor range limit, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[007] Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of a Daisy-Chain connection between an AP, a soft AP and a STA, which may be implemented in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[008] Fig. 4 is a schematic illustration of communication ranges of an AP, a soft AP and a STA relative to an indoor range limit, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[009] Fig. 5 is a schematic illustration of a soft AP information element (IE), in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0010] Fig. 6 is a schematic illustration of communication ranges of an AP, a soft AP and a STA relative to an indoor range limit, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0011] Fig. 7 is a schematic illustration of communication ranges of an AP, a soft AP and a STA relative to an indoor range limit, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0012] Fig. 8 is a schematic flow-chart illustration of a method of communication over an indoor-only channel, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0013] Fig. 9 is a schematic flow-chart illustration of a method of communication over an indoor-only channel, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. [0014] Fig. 10 is a schematic illustration of a product of manufacture, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0015] In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of some embodiments. However, it will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art that some embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, units and/or circuits have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the discussion.

[0016] Discussions herein utilizing terms such as, for example, “processing”, “computing”,“calculating”,“determining”,“estab lishing”,“analyzing”,“checking”, or the like, may refer to operation(s) and/or process(es) of a computer, a computing platform, a computing system, or other electronic computing device, that manipulate and/or transform data represented as physical (e.g., electronic) quantities within the computer’s registers and/or memories into other data similarly represented as physical quantities within the computer’s registers and/or memories or other information storage medium that may store instructions to perform operations and/or processes.

[0017] The terms“plurality” and“a plurality”, as used herein, include, for example, “multiple” or“two or more”. For example,“a plurality of items” includes two or more items.

[0018] References to “one embodiment”, “an embodiment”, “demonstrative embodiment”, “various embodiments” etc., indicate that the embodiment(s) so described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but not every embodiment necessarily includes the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Further, repeated use of the phrase“in one embodiment” does not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, although it may.

[0019] As used herein, unless otherwise specified the use of the ordinal adjectives “first”,“second”,“third” etc., to describe a common object, merely indicate that different instances of like objects are being referred to, and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking, or in any other manner.

[0020] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with various devices and systems, for example, a User Equipment (UE), a Mobile Device (MD), a wireless station (STA), a Personal Computer (PC), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, a wearable device, a sensor device, an Internet of Things (IoT) device, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a consumer device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a wireless communication station, a wireless communication device, a wireless Access Point (AP), a wired or wireless router, a wired or wireless modem, a video device, an audio device, an audio-video (A/V) device, a wired or wireless network, a wireless area network, a Wireless Video Area Network (WVAN), a Local Area Network (LAN), a Wireless LAN (WLAN), a Personal Area Network (PAN), a Wireless PAN (WPAN), and the like.

[0021] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing IEEE 802.11 standards (including IEEE 802.11- 2016 ( IEEE 802.11-2016, IEEE Standard for Information technology-- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks- -Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, December 7, 2016); and/or IEEE 802.1 lay (P802.11ay Standard for Information Technology- Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems Local and Metropolitan Area Networks— Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications— Amendment: Enhanced Throughput for Operation in License-Exempt Bands Above 45 GHz)) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing WFA Peer-to-Peer (P2P) specifications (WiLi P2P technical specification, version 1.7, July 6, 2016) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing Wireless- Gigabit- Alliance (WGA) specifications (including Wireless Gigabit Alliance, Inc WiGig MAC and PHY Specification Version 1.1, April 2011, Linal specification) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing cellular specifications and/or protocols, e.g., 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, units and/or devices which are part of the above networks, and the like. [0022] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one way and/or two-way radio communication systems, cellular radio-telephone communication systems, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a wireless telephone, a Personal Communication Systems (PCS) device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable Global Positioning System (GPS) device, a device which incorporates a GPS receiver or transceiver or chip, a device which incorporates an RFID element or chip, a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transceiver or device, a Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) transceiver or device, a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) transceiver or device, a device having one or more internal antennas and/or external antennas, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) devices or systems, multi-standard radio devices or systems, a wired or wireless handheld device, e.g., a Smartphone, a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) device, or the like.

[0023] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one or more types of wireless communication signals and/or systems, for example, Radio Frequency (RF), Infra Red (IR), Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), Orthogonal FDM (OFDM), Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), FDM Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM), Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO), Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA), Extended TDMA (E- TDMA), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), extended GPRS, Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), CDMA 2000, single carrier CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, Multi-Carrier Modulation (MDM), Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT), Bluetooth®, Global Positioning System (GPS), Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBee™, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, Fifth Generation (5G), or Sixth Generation (6G) mobile networks, 3GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE), LTE advanced, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), or the like. Other embodiments may be used in various other devices, systems and/or networks.

[0024] The term“wireless device”, as used herein, includes, for example, a device capable of wireless communication, a communication device capable of wireless communication, a communication station capable of wireless communication, a portable or non-portable device capable of wireless communication, or the like. In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless device may be or may include a peripheral that is integrated with a computer, or a peripheral that is attached to a computer. In some demonstrative embodiments, the term“wireless device” may optionally include a wireless service.

[0025] The term“communicating” as used herein with respect to a communication signal includes transmitting the communication signal and/or receiving the communication signal. For example, a communication unit, which is capable of communicating a communication signal, may include a transmitter to transmit the communication signal to at least one other communication unit, and/or a communication receiver to receive the communication signal from at least one other communication unit. The verb communicating may be used to refer to the action of transmitting or the action of receiving. In one example, the phrase“communicating a signal” may refer to the action of transmitting the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of receiving the signal by a second device. In another example, the phrase“communicating a signal” may refer to the action of receiving the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of transmitting the signal by a second device. The communication signal may be transmitted and/or received, for example, in the form of Radio Frequency (RF) communication signals, and/or any other type of signal.

[0026] As used herein, the term "circuitry" may refer to, be part of, or include, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an integrated circuit, an electronic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group), and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), that execute one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may be implemented in, or functions associated with the circuitry may be implemented by, one or more software or firmware modules. In some embodiments, circuitry may include logic, at least partially operable in hardware.

[0027] The term“logic” may refer, for example, to computing logic embedded in circuitry of a computing apparatus and/or computing logic stored in a memory of a computing apparatus. For example, the logic may be accessible by a processor of the computing apparatus to execute the computing logic to perform computing functions and/or operations. In one example, logic may be embedded in various types of memory and/or firmware, e.g., silicon blocks of various chips and/or processors. Logic may be included in, and/or implemented as part of, various circuitry, e.g. radio circuitry, receiver circuitry, control circuitry, transmitter circuitry, transceiver circuitry, processor circuitry, and/or the like. In one example, logic may be embedded in volatile memory and/or non-volatile memory, including random access memory, read only memory, programmable memory, magnetic memory, flash memory, persistent memory, and the like. Logic may be executed by one or more processors using memory, e.g., registers, stuck, buffers, and/or the like, coupled to the one or more processors, e.g., as necessary to execute the logic.

[0028] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a WLAN, e.g., a WiFi network. Other embodiments may be used in conjunction with any other suitable wireless communication network, for example, a wireless area network, a “piconet”, a WPAN, a WVAN and the like.

[0029] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a wireless communication network communicating over a frequency band of 5GHz. However, other embodiments may be implemented utilizing any other suitable wireless communication frequency bands, for example, 2.4GHz, an Extremely High Frequency (EHF) band (the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band), e.g., a frequency band within the frequency band of between 20Ghz and 300GHZ, a WLAN frequency band, a WPAN frequency band, and the like.

[0030] The term“antenna”, as used herein, may include any suitable configuration, structure and/or arrangement of one or more antenna elements, components, units, assemblies and/or arrays. In some embodiments, the antenna may implement transmit and receive functionalities using separate transmit and receive antenna elements. In some embodiments, the antenna may implement transmit and receive functionalities using common and/or integrated transmit/receive elements. The antenna may include, for example, a phased array antenna, a single element antenna, a set of switched beam antennas, and/or the like.

[0031] Some demonstrative embodiments are described herein with respect to WiFi communication. However, other embodiments may be implemented with respect to any other communication scheme, network, standard and/or protocol.

[0032] Reference is now made to Fig. 1, which schematically illustrates a block diagram of a system 100, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. [0033] As shown in Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments system 100 may include a wireless communication network including one or more wireless communication devices, e.g., wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150.

[0034] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include, for example, a UE, an MD, a STA, an AP, a PC, a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, an Ultrabook™ computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, an Internet of Things (IoT) device, a sensor device, a handheld device, a wearable device, a PDA device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device (e.g., combining cellular phone functionalities with PDA device functionalities), a consumer device, a vehicular device, a non- vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a PCS device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable GPS device, a DVB device, a relatively small computing device, a non-desktop computer, a “Carry Small Live Large” (CSLL) device, an Ultra Mobile Device (UMD), an Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC), a Mobile Internet Device (MID), an“Origami” device or computing device, a device that supports Dynamically Composable Computing (DCC), a context-aware device, a video device, an audio device, an A/V device, a Set-Top-Box (STB), a Blu-ray disc (BD) player, a BD recorder, a Digital Video Disc (DVD) player, a High Definition (HD) DVD player, a DVD recorder, a HD DVD recorder, a Personal Video Recorder (PVR), a broadcast HD receiver, a video source, an audio source, a video sink, an audio sink, a stereo tuner, a broadcast radio receiver, a flat panel display, a Personal Media Player (PMP), a digital video camera (DVC), a digital audio player, a speaker, an audio receiver, an audio amplifier, a gaming device, a data source, a data sink, a Digital Still camera (DSC), a media player, a Smartphone, a television, a music player, or the like.

[0035] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of one or more STAs. For example, device 102 may include at least one STA, device 140 may include at least one STA, and/or device 150 may include at least one STA.

[0036] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of one or more WLAN STAs. [0037] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of one or more Wi-Fi STAs.

[0038] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of one or more BT devices.

[0039] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of one or more Neighbor Awareness Networking (NAN) STAs.

[0040] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least one of wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150, e.g., devices 140 and/or 150, may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of an AP STA, and/or one or more of wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150, e.g., device 102, may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of a non-AP STA. In other embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may operate as and/or perform the functionality of any other STA.

[0041] In one example, a station (STA) may include a logical entity that is a singly addressable instance of a medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) interface to the wireless medium (WM). The STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0042] In one example, an AP may include an entity that contains a station (STA), e.g., one STA, and provides access to distribution services, via the wireless medium (WM) for associated STAs. The AP may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0043] In one example, a non-access-point (non-AP) station (STA) may include a STA that is not contained within an AP. The non-AP STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0044] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include, for example, one or more of a processor 191, an input unit 192, an output unit 193, a memory unit 194, and/or a storage unit 195; and/or devices 140 and/or 150 may include, for example, one or more of a processor 181, an input unit 182, an output unit 183, a memory unit 184, and/or a storage unit 185. Devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may optionally include other suitable hardware components and/or software components. In some demonstrative embodiments, some or all of the components of one or more of devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may be enclosed in a common housing or packaging, and may be interconnected or operably associated using one or more wired or wireless links. In other embodiments, components of one or more of devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may be distributed among multiple or separate devices.

[0045] In some demonstrative embodiments, processor 191 and/or processor 181 may include, for example, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), one or more processor cores, a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a multiple-core processor, a microprocessor, a host processor, a controller, a plurality of processors or controllers, a chip, a microchip, one or more circuits, circuitry, a logic unit, an Integrated Circuit (IC), an Application-Specific IC (ASIC), or any other suitable multi-purpose or specific processor or controller. Processor 191 executes instructions, for example, of an Operating System (OS) of device 102 and/or of one or more suitable applications. Processor 181 executes instructions, for example, of an Operating System (OS) of device 140 and/or of one or more suitable applications.

[0046] In some demonstrative embodiments, input unit 192 and/or input unit 182 may include, for example, a keyboard, a keypad, a mouse, a touch-screen, a touch-pad, a track-ball, a stylus, a microphone, or other suitable pointing device or input device. Output unit 193 and/or output unit 183 includes, for example, a monitor, a screen, a touch-screen, a flat panel display, a Light Emitting Diode (LED) display unit, a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) display unit, a plasma display unit, one or more audio speakers or earphones, or other suitable output devices.

[0047] In some demonstrative embodiments, memory unit 194 and/or memory unit 184 includes, for example, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a Read Only Memory (ROM), a Dynamic RAM (DRAM), a Synchronous DRAM (SD-RAM), a flash memory, a volatile memory, a non-volatile memory, a cache memory, a buffer, a short term memory unit, a long term memory unit, or other suitable memory units. Storage unit 195 and/or storage unit 185 includes, for example, a hard disk drive, a floppy disk drive, a Compact Disk (CD) drive, a CD-ROM drive, a DVD drive, or other suitable removable or non-removable storage units. Memory unit 194 and/or storage unit 195, for example, may store data processed by device 102. Memory unit 184 and/or storage unit 185, for example, may store data processed by device 140. [0048] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may be capable of communicating content, data, information and/or signals via a wireless medium (WM) 103. In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless medium 103 may include, for example, a radio channel, a cellular channel, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Channel, an RF channel, a WiFi channel, an IR channel, a Bluetooth (BT) channel, and the like.

[0049] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication medium 103 may include a wireless communication channel over a 2.4 Gigahertz (GHz) frequency band, or a 5GHz frequency band, a millimeterWave (mmWave) frequency band, e.g., a 60GHz frequency band, a Sub-lGHz (S1G) band, and/or any other frequency band.

[0050] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may include one or more radios including circuitry and/or logic to perform wireless communication between devices 102, 150 and/or 140 and/or one or more other wireless communication devices. For example, device 102 may include a radio 114, and/or device 140 may include a radio 144.

[0051] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may include one or more wireless receivers (Rx) including circuitry and/or logic to receive wireless communication signals, RF signals, frames, blocks, transmission streams, packets, messages, data items, and/or data. For example, radio 114 may include at least one receiver 116, and/or radio 144 may include at least one receiver 146.

[0052] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may include one or more wireless transmitters (Tx) including circuitry and/or logic to transmit wireless communication signals, RF signals, frames, blocks, transmission streams, packets, messages, data items, and/or data. For example, radio 114 may include at least one transmitter 118, and/or radio 144 may include at least one transmitter 148.

[0053] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144, transmitters 118 and/or 148, and/or receivers 116 and/or 146 may include circuitry; logic; Radio Frequency (RF) elements, circuitry and/or logic; baseband elements, circuitry and/or logic; modulation elements, circuitry and/or logic; demodulation elements, circuitry and/or logic; amplifiers; analog to digital and/or digital to analog converters; filters; and/or the like. For example, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include or may be implemented as part of a wireless Network Interface Card (NIC), and the like. [0054] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may be configured to communicate over a 2.4GHz band, a 5GHz band, an mmWave band, a S 1G band, and/or any other band.

[0055] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may include, or may be associated with, one or more antennas 107 and/or 147, respectively.

[0056] In one example, device 102 may include a single antenna 107. In another example, device 102 may include two or more antennas 107.

[0057] In one example, device 140 may include a single antenna 147. In another example, device 140 may include two or more antennas 147.

[0058] Antennas 107 and/or 147 may include any type of antennas suitable for transmitting and/or receiving wireless communication signals, blocks, frames, transmission streams, packets, messages and/or data. For example, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include any suitable configuration, structure and/or arrangement of one or more antenna elements, components, units, assemblies and/or arrays. Antennas 107 and/or 147 may include, for example, antennas suitable for directional communication, e.g., using beamforming techniques. For example, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include a phased array antenna, a multiple element antenna, a set of switched beam antennas, and/or the like. In some embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may implement transmit and receive functionalities using separate transmit and receive antenna elements. In some embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may implement transmit and receive functionalities using common and/or integrated transmit/receive elements.

[0059] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a controller 124, and/or device 140 may include a controller 154. Controller 124 may be configured to perform and/or to trigger, cause, instruct and/or control device 102 to perform, one or more communications, to generate and/or communicate one or more messages and/or transmissions, and/or to perform one or more functionalities, operations and/or procedures between devices 102, 140, and/or one or more other devices; and/or controller 154 may be configured to perform, and/or to trigger, cause, instruct and/or control device 140 to perform, one or more communications, to generate and/or communicate one or more messages and/or transmissions, and/or to perform one or more functionalities, operations and/or procedures between devices 102, 140, and/or one or more other devices, e.g., as described below.

[0060] In some demonstrative embodiments, controllers 124 and/or 154 may include, or may be implemented, partially or entirely, by circuitry and/or logic, e.g., one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, memory circuitry and/or logic, Media-Access Control (MAC) circuitry and/or logic, Physical Layer (PHY) circuitry and/or logic, baseband (BB) circuitry and/or logic, a BB processor, a BB memory, Application Processor (AP) circuitry and/or logic, an AP processor, an AP memory, and/or any other circuitry and/or logic, configured to perform the functionality of controllers 124 and/or 154, respectively. Additionally or alternatively, one or more functionalities of controllers 124 and/or 154 may be implemented by logic, which may be executed by a machine and/or one or more processors, e.g., as described below.

[0061] In one example, controller 124 may include circuitry and/or logic, for example, one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, to cause, trigger and/or control a wireless device, e.g., device 102, and/or a wireless station, e.g., a wireless STA implemented by device 102, to perform one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities, e.g., as described herein. In one example, controller 124 may include at least one memory, e.g., coupled to the one or more processors, which may be configured, for example, to store, e.g., at least temporarily, at least some of the information processed by the one or more processors and/or circuitry, and/or which may be configured to store logic to be utilized by the processors and/or circuitry.

[0062] In one example, controller 154 may include circuitry and/or logic, for example, one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, to cause, trigger and/or control a wireless device, e.g., device 140, and/or a wireless station, e.g., a wireless STA implemented by device 140, to perform one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities, e.g., as described herein. In one example, controller 154 may include at least one memory, e.g., coupled to the one or more processors, which may be configured, for example, to store, e.g., at least temporarily, at least some of the information processed by the one or more processors and/or circuitry, and/or which may be configured to store logic to be utilized by the processors and/or circuitry. [0063] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 124 may be implemented as part of one or more elements of radio 114, and/or at least part of the functionality of controller 154 may be implemented as part of one or more elements of radio 144.

[0064] In other embodiments, the functionality of controller 124 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 102, and/or the functionality of controller 154 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 140.

[0065] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a message processor 128 configured to generate, process and/or access one or more messages communicated by device 102.

[0066] In one example, message processor 128 may be configured to generate one or more messages to be transmitted by device 102, and/or message processor 128 may be configured to access and/or to process one or more messages received by device 102, e.g., as described below.

[0067] In one example, message processor 128 may include at least one first component configured to generate a message, for example, in the form of a frame, field, information element and/or protocol data unit, for example, a MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU); at least one second component configured to convert the message into a PHY Protocol Data Unit (PPDU), for example, by processing the message generated by the at least one first component, e.g., by encoding the message, modulating the message and/or performing any other additional or alternative processing of the message; and/or at least one third component configured to cause transmission of the message over a wireless communication medium, e.g., over a wireless communication channel in a wireless communication frequency band, for example, by applying to one or more fields of the PPDU one or more transmit waveforms. In other embodiments, message processor 128 may be configured to perform any other additional or alternative functionality and/or may include any other additional or alternative components to generate and/or process a message to be transmitted.

[0068] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include a message processor 158 configured to generate, process and/or access one or more messages communicated by device 140. [0069] In one example, message processor 158 may be configured to generate one or more messages to be transmitted by device 140, and/or message processor 158 may be configured to access and/or to process one or more messages received by device 140, e.g., as described below.

[0070] In one example, message processor 158 may include at least one first component configured to generate a message, for example, in the form of a frame, field, information element and/or protocol data unit, for example, a MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU); at least one second component configured to convert the message into a PHY Protocol Data Unit (PPDU), for example, by processing the message generated by the at least one first component, e.g., by encoding the message, modulating the message and/or performing any other additional or alternative processing of the message; and/or at least one third component configured to cause transmission of the message over a wireless communication medium, e.g., over a wireless communication channel in a wireless communication frequency band, for example, by applying to one or more fields of the PPDU one or more transmit waveforms. In other embodiments, message processor 158 may be configured to perform any other additional or alternative functionality and/or may include any other additional or alternative components to generate and/or process a message to be transmitted.

[0071] In some demonstrative embodiments, message processors 128 and/or 158 may include, or may be implemented, partially or entirely, by circuitry and/or logic, e.g., one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, memory circuitry and/or logic, Media-Access Control (MAC) circuitry and/or logic, Physical Layer (PHY) circuitry and/or logic, BB circuitry and/or logic, a BB processor, a BB memory, AP circuitry and/or logic, an AP processor, an AP memory, and/or any other circuitry and/or logic, configured to perform the functionality of message processors 128 and/or 158, respectively. Additionally or alternatively, one or more functionalities of message processors 128 and/or 158 may be implemented by logic, which may be executed by a machine and/or one or more processors, e.g., as described below.

[0072] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of radio 114, and/or at least part of the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of radio 144. [0073] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of controller 124, and/or at least part of the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of controller 154.

[0074] In other embodiments, the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 102, and/or the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 140.

[0075] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 124 and/or message processor 128 may be implemented by an integrated circuit, for example, a chip, e.g., a System on Chip (SoC). In one example, the chip or SoC may be configured to perform one or more functionalities of radio 114. For example, the chip or SoC may include one or more elements of controller 124, one or more elements of message processor 128, and/or one or more elements of radio 114. In one example, controller 124, message processor 128, and radio 114 may be implemented as part of the chip or SoC.

[0076] In other embodiments, controller 124, message processor 128 and/or radio 114 may be implemented by one or more additional or alternative elements of device 102.

[0077] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 154 and/or message processor 158 may be implemented by an integrated circuit, for example, a chip, e.g., a SoC. In one example, the chip or SoC may be configured to perform one or more functionalities of radio 144. For example, the chip or SoC may include one or more elements of controller 154, one or more elements of message processor 158, and/or one or more elements of radio 144. In one example, controller 154, message processor 158, and radio 144 may be implemented as part of the chip or SoC.

[0078] In other embodiments, controller 154, message processor 158 and/or radio 144 may be implemented by one or more additional or alternative elements of device 140.

[0079] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may form, or may communicate as part of, a wireless local area network (WLAN). [0080] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may form, or may communicate as part of, a WiFi network.

[0081] In other embodiments, wireless communication devices 102, 140 and/or 150 may form, and/or communicate as part of, any other additional or alternative network.

[0082] In some demonstrative embodiments device 102, device 140 and/or device 150 may be configured to communicate over a plurality of wireless communication channels.

[0083] In some demonstrative embodiments, the plurality of wireless communication channels may include one or more indoor-only channels.

[0084] In some demonstrative embodiments, an indoor-only channel may include a wireless communication channel, which is restricted for indoor use only, e.g., according to one or more regulations and/or standards.

[0085] In some demonstrative embodiments, the indoor-only channel may include a channel in a frequency bandwidth of 5GHz. In other embodiments, the indoor-only channel may include any other channel in any other frequency band, which may be restricted for indoor use only.

[0086] For example, one or more indoor-only channels may be defined in an unlicensed frequency band to be utilized only in an indoor location, e.g., according to Federal Communication Commission (FCC) regulations and/or any other regulations.

[0087] For example, one or more indoor-only channels may be defined in an Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) frequency band operating at a range of channels of 5l50-5250MHz (UNII1).

[0088] In one example, one or more channels on a high-band may be defined as indoor-only channels.

[0089] In other embodiments, the indoor-only channel may include any other channel in any other frequency bands, which may be restricted for indoor use only, e.g., according to any other regulations and/or rules.

[0090] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102, device 150, and/or device 140 may have the knowledge that they are operating on a frequency band and/or a channel that includes an indoor-only channel and/or band. [0091] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 150 may include a source AP (also referred to as Wide Area Network (WAN) AP), which may be configured to provide network access, e.g., to one or more STAs.

[0092] For example, the source AP may include a router, a PC, a server, a Hot-Spot and/or the like.

[0093] In some demonstrative embodiments, AP 150 may be configured to communicate over the one or more indoor-only channels.

[0094] In some demonstrative embodiments, an AP, e.g., AP 150, may be allowed to transmit over an indoor-only channel, for example, only if the AP is located within an indoor location, e.g., a closed environment, inside a house, apartment, and the like.

[0095] In some demonstrative embodiments, a location of a STA, e.g., device 102, may be limited to the indoor location, for example, to allow the STA to transmit over an indoor-only channel, e.g., as described below.

[0096] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STA may be allowed to transmit on an indoor-only channel, for example, only if the STA can receive one or more beacons from the AP, which is located within the indoor location. Therefore, the STA may be allowed to reside within the same indoor location as the AP, or very close to the AP, such that all transmissions on the indoor-only channel from the STA may be limited to the indoor location.

[0097] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STA may be located near an edge of an AP communication range, e.g., a range of beacons from the AP. Therefore, an indoor range limit, e.g., for communications from the STA on the indoor-only channel, may be based on a radius including a sum of the AP communication range and a STA communication range, e.g., as described below.

[0098] Reference is made to Fig. 2, which schematically illustrates communication ranges of an AP 250 and a STA 202 relative to an indoor range limit 220, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0099] In one example, STA 102 (Fig. 1) may be configured to perform one or more operations of STA 202, and/or AP 150 (Fig. 1) may be configured to perform one or more operations of AP 250. [00100] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 2, STA 202 may be located close to an edge 252 of AP communication range 251, e.g., a range of beacons from AP 250.

[00101] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 2, indoor range limit 220 may be based on a sum of AP communication range 251 and STA communication range 212.

[00102] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include, operate as, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, a software Enabled AP (Soft AP).

[00103] In some demonstrative embodiments, soft AP devices may be mobile and may move in and out of an indoor location, for example, compared to a source AP, e.g., AP 150, which may be static and connected to a wired connection, e.g., an Ethernet connection, in the indoor location.

[00104] In some demonstrative embodiments, a soft AP may include a STA, e.g., a non-AP STA, which is associated with an AP, and capable of communicating as an AP with one or more other STAs.

[00105] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP may transmit traffic to and/or receive traffic from the AP, e.g., when acting as a STA.

[00106] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP may transmit traffic to and/or receive traffic from one or more clients, e.g., other STAs that are associated with the soft AP, e.g., when acting as a soft AP.

[00107] In some demonstrative embodiments, a Daisy-Chain connection may include a connection in which the soft AP is associated with an AP as a client STA, and one or more STAs are associated with the soft AP as clients, e.g., as described above.

[00108] In some demonstrative embodiments, a Daisy-Chain connection may be used, for example, when a soft AP is associated with an AP as a client, and a STA, which cannot associate with the AP or which prefers to associate with the soft AP, e.g., due to better connection conditions, associates with the soft AP, e.g., for connectivity. This Daisy-Chain connection may be referred to as a WiFi-Tethering using a Daisy-Chain connection. [00109] In some demonstrative embodiments, the Daisy-Chain connection may be used in one or more scenarios, e.g., as described below.

[00110] In one example, the source AP, e.g., AP 150, may include an Enterprise AP, e.g., a Hospital AP, an Airport AP and the like, to which only STAs, e.g., a first STA, that have credentials, e.g., certificates, can associate with the AP, for example, for network access. According to this example, a user of the first STA may enable the Daisy-Chain connection on the first STA to allow a second STA that does not have the credentials to connect to the network access, e.g., via the first STA.

[00111] In another example, the Daisy-Chain connection may be used in a home environment, e.g., in which a user does not want to expose a password of an AP, but want to allow guests to connect to the Internet, e.g., without changing one or more setting of the AP. According to this example, the user may configure a STA, e.g., a Smartphone, that is associated with the AP, to work as a soft AP with a temporary password, for example, to allow the guests to associate with the soft AP to connect to the Internet, e.g., using the temporary password. Accordingly, the Daisy-Chain connection may allow the guests to connect to the Internet, e.g., without exposing the password of the AP.

[00112] According to these examples, which may are examples of some fundamental soft AP use cases, the STA may hear both the AP and the soft AP. However, the STA may only be able to associate via the soft AP to the network access, e.g., and not directly via the AP, for example, as the STA lacks credentials.

[00113] Reference is made to Fig. 3, which schematically illustrates a Daisy-Chain connection 300, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00114] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 3, Daisy-Chain connection 300 may be formed between a STA 302, a soft AP 340, and an AP 350.

[00115] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 3, Daisy-Chain connection 300 may include a first connection 307 in which the soft AP 340 is associated with the AP 350 as a client STA, and a second connection 309, in which STA 302 is associated with the soft AP 340 as a client.

[00116] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP 340 may reside within the same indoor location as the AP 350, with which it is associated, and all of the transmissions of the soft AP 340 may be limited to the indoor location. [00117] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STA 302 may reside within the same indoor location as the AP 350, and may receive the transmissions of the soft AP 340.

[00118] In some use cases, one or more mobile STAs that are associated with the soft AP 340, e.g., STA 302, may move out of the indoor location, which may lead to a breaking of regulation rules with respect to the indoor only channels, for example, if the Daisy-Chain connection 300 is maintained while the STA moves out of the indoor location range, e.g., as described below.

[00119] Reference is made to Fig. 4, which schematically illustrates communication ranges of an AP 450, a soft AP 440 and a STA 402 in a Daisy-Chain connection 400, which may be in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00120] As shown in Fig. 4, a communication range 442 of the soft AP 440 may be within an indoor range limit 420. However, a communication range 412 of STA 402 may be out of indoor range limit 420, for example, if STA 402 is out of the range of AP 450, and therefore, may lead to a breaking of the regulation rules.

[00121] In some demonstrative embodiments, a soft AP, e.g., soft AP 440, may not be allowed to transmit over an indoor-only channel when using Daisy-Chain connection 400, for example, if it is not assured that Daisy-Chain connection 400 leads to a breaking of the regulation rules.

[00122] In some demonstrative embodiments, usage of an indoor-only channel by a soft AP may be forbidden, for example, by the regulation rules, for example, in order to avoid a situation where communication range 412 of STA 402 is out of indoor range limit 420.

[00123] In some demonstrative embodiments, forbidding the usage over the indoor- only channel in Daisy-Chain connections may forbid valid Daisy-Chain connections, in which the transmissions the soft AP 440 and one or more associated STA are limited to the indoor location.

[00124] In one example, forbidding a soft AP to operate on an indoor-only channel as the AP with which it is associated, may force the soft AP to apply Time-Division multiplexing (TDM) toggling between different channels and/or bands, which may result in non-efficient connection with one or more STAs associated with the soft AP. [00125] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to assure that a Daisy-Chain connection, e.g., between device 102, device 140 and AP 150, may not lead to a breaking of the regulation rules, e.g., as described below.

[00126] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to implement a protocol which may allow transmission over an indoor- only channel for Daisy-Chain connections, e.g., as described below.

[00127] In some demonstrative embodiments, a soft AP, e.g., device 140, may be allowed to operate over an indoor-only channel, for example, using a protocol, which may assure that both device 140 and one or more STAs associated with device 140, e.g., device 102, are within a same indoor range limit, for example, an indoor range limit of source AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00128] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may be allowed to transmit beacons and accept associated STAs, e.g., when operating over an indoor-only channel, for example, only after device 140 is associated with another AP, for example, a source AP, e.g., AP 150, or another soft AP, which indicates that device 140 is within the indoor location, e.g., as described below.

[00129] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may be configured to report an identifier of the AP, e.g., with which device 140 is associated, e.g., as described below.

[00130] In some demonstrative embodiments, a STA, e.g., device 102, may be allowed to associate with a soft AP, e.g., device 140, that operates over an Indoor- only channel, for example, only if the STA, e.g., device 102, receives one or more frames from the AP, e.g., AP 150, with which the soft AP is associated, e.g., as described below.

[00131] In some demonstrative embodiments, the ability of the STA to receive one or more frames from the source AP may indicate that the STA is also located within an Indoor range of the source AP.

[00132] In some demonstrative embodiments, implementing the protocol described herein may allow to remove limitations over indoor-only channels and/or may allow one or more additional use cases, e.g., as described below. [00133] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may be configured to transmit a frame to report an identifier of a source AP with which device 140 is associated, e.g., as described below.

[00134] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to generate and transmit a frame over an indoor-only channel, e.g., as described below.

[00135] In some demonstrative embodiments, the frame may include a soft AP information element (IE) including an identifier of a source AP, e.g., AP 150, to provide network access, e.g., as described below.

[00136] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP IE may be configured to indicate that device 140 is a soft AP, which is connected to a Wide Area Network (WAN) via another AP, e.g., via source AP 150, with which device 140 may be associated as a BSS STA.

[00137] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP IE may include a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of the source AP to provide the network access, e.g., as described below.

[00138] In some demonstrative embodiments, the frame may include a beacon from device 140, e.g., as described below.

[00139] In some demonstrative embodiments, the frame may include a probe response from device 140 to a STA, e.g., device 102. In other embodiments, the frame may include any other type of frame.

[00140] In some demonstrative embodiments, the probe response may be, for example, in response to a probe request from device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00141] In some demonstrative embodiments, a STA, e.g., device 102, may receive the frame from device 140, e.g., as described below.

[00142] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to receive over the indoor-only channel the frame from device 140 including the soft AP IE including the identifier of the source AP, e.g., AP 150, to provide the network access. [00143] In one example, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to receive over the indoor-only channel the beacon frame or the probe response from device 140 including the soft AP IE including the BSSID of AP 150.

[00144] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may be allowed to connect to device 140 over the indoor-only channel, e.g., for the network access, for example, based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00145] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to connect to device 140 over the indoor-only channel, e.g., for the network access, for example, based on reception of one or more frames from AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00146] In some demonstrative embodiment, the one or more frames from source AP 150 may include a beacon frame from device 140 and/or or a probe response from source AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00147] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to connect to device 140, for example, only when the one or more frames from AP 150 are received by device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00148] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to select not to allow device 102 to connect to device 140, for example, when the STA does not receive any frame from AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00149] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to connect to device 140, for example, when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from AP 150 are met, e.g., as described below.

[00150] In some demonstrative embodiments, the one or more criteria may be with respect to a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from AP 150, e.g., as described below. [00151] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP IE in the frame from device 140 may include an RSSI field including a reference RSSI value.

[00152] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to determine the reference RSSI value, for example, based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from AP 150.

[00153] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may transmit the frame including the reference RSSI value in the RSSI field, and/or device 102 may receive the frame from device 140 including the reference RSSI value in the RSSI field.

[00154] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to determine the measured RSSI of the one or more frames from AP 150.

[00155] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to connect to device 140 over the indoor-only channel, for example, based on a comparison between the reference RSSI and the measured RSSI, e.g., as described below.

[00156] In one example, device 102 may associate with device 140, for example, only if device 102 hears probe-response and/or beacons from AP 150, for example, with a same RSSI, e.g., up to 5dB lower, as the probe-response and/or beacons from AP 150 are heard by device 140.

[00157] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may transmit an association request to device 140 to request to associate with device 140, for example, if device 102 is allowed to connect to device 140, e.g., as described below.

[00158] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to transmit to device 140 an association request over the indoor-only channel, e.g., as described below.

[00159] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may be configured to include in the association request one or more types of information, which may indicate to device 140 and/or which may allow device 140, to confirm that device 102 is within the indoor range of source AP 150, e.g., as described below. [00160] In some demonstrative embodiments, the association request may include the identifier of AP 150, for example, the BSSID of AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00161] In some demonstrative embodiments, the association request may include an RSSI value to indicate the measured RSSI of the one or more frames from AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00162] In some demonstrative embodiments, the association request may include a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from AP 150 are communicated, e.g., as described below.

[00163] In some demonstrative embodiments, the network identifier may include a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network, e.g., as described below. In other embodiments, any other network identifier may be used.

[00164] In some demonstrative embodiments, the association request may include the soft AP IE including one or more fields, e.g., as described below.

[00165] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP IE in the association request may include a short SSID field, e.g., including the short-SSID of the wireless network.

[00166] In some demonstrative embodiments, the soft AP IE in the association request may include an RSSI field including a measured RSSI value to indicate the measured RSSI at device 102 of the one or more frames from AP 150.

[00167] In other embodiments, the soft AP IE in the association request may include any other additional and/or alternative fields.

[00168] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may receive the association request from device 102 including the one or more fields, for example, including one or more of the BSSID of AP 150, the measured RSSI of the one or more frames from AP 150, the short-SSID of the wireless network and/or one or more additional or alternative fields and/or information, e.g., as described below.

[00169] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to receive over the indoor-only channel the association request from device 102 including the soft AP IE, e.g., as described below. [00170] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to access the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request from device 102, for example, to determine whether device 102 is within communication range of AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00171] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to associate with device 102, for example, only when device 102 is determined, e.g., based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00172] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to associate with device 102, for example, only when the short SSID field includes a value that identifies the short SSID of the wireless network of AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00173] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to associate with device 102, for example, based on a comparison between the reference RSSI value, e.g., in the frame sent by device 140, and the measured RSSI value, for example, in the association request received from device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00174] In one example, a soft AP, e.g., device 140, may accept association requests from a STA, e.g., device 102, for example, only if the association request includes the soft AP IE including the BSSID of the WAN AP, e.g., AP 150, and a measured RSSI value similar to or in a predefined range of the reference RSSI value, e.g., within up to ±5dBm from the reference RSSI value.

[00175] Reference is made to Fig. 5, which schematically illustrates a soft AP IE 500, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00176] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 5, soft AP IE 500 may include a BSSID field 502, denoted“WAN AP BSSID”, e.g., as described below.

[00177] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 5, soft AP IE 500 may include an RSSI field 504, denoted“WAN AP RSSI”, e.g., as described below. [00178] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 5, soft AP IE 500 may include an optional short-SSID field 506, denoted“WAN AP Short-SSID”, e.g., as described below.

[00179] In some demonstrative embodiments, soft AP IE 500 may include some or all of the fields in Fig. 5 and/or one or more additional or alternative fields.

[00180] In some demonstrative embodiments, soft AP IE 500 may be included as part of a frame from a soft AP. For example, soft AP IE 500 may be included as part of the frame, e.g., a probe response from device 140 (Fig. 1) to device 102 (Fig. 1) and/or a beacon from device 140 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described below.

[00181] In one example, a soft AP, which is active on an indoor-only channel may include soft AP IE 500 in its beacons and/or probe-responses. Soft AP IE 500 may be configured to indicate that the soft AP is connected to network access via a source AP, for example, with which the soft AP may be associated, e.g., as a BSS STA. According to this example, a STA that wishes to associate with the soft AP may be allowed to associate with the soft AP, for example, only if the STA hears beacons and/or probe-responses from the source AP. This criterion may, for example, require a triangle pattern between the source AP, the STA, and the soft AP, as both the STA and the soft AP may be required to receive the beacons and/or probe-response from the source AP, for example, as an indication that both the soft AP and the STA are located within the communication range of the source AP, e.g., as described below with reference to Fig. 6.

[00182] In some demonstrative embodiments, soft AP IE 500 may be included as part of an association request from the STA to the soft AP. For example, soft AP IE 500 may be included as part of the association request from device 102 (Fig. 1) to device 140 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described below.

[00183] In one example, a STA may include soft AP IE 500 in the association request, e.g., when associating with a soft AP, to indicate that the STA hears the source AP with an acceptable RSSI level. For example, the soft AP IE 500 may indicate to the soft AP that the STA is not a legacy STA, and that the STA does not break the regulation rules. [00184] In one example, the AP IE 500 in the association request may have the same structure as the soft AP IE 500 in the frame, with the optional short-SSID field 506, e.g., as described below.

[00185] In some demonstrative embodiments, BSSID field 502 may include the BSSID of a source AP with which the soft AP is associated.

[00186] In one example, when soft AP IE 500 is included as part of the frame from a soft AP in a Daisy Chain connection, BSSID field 502 may include the BSSID of the source AP with which the soft AP is associated.

[00187] In another example, when soft AP IE 500 is included as part of an association request and reported by a STA, e.g., an associating non-AP STA, BSSID field 502 may include the BSSID of the source AP with which the soft AP is associated, e.g., to indicate that the STA hears the source AP.

[00188] In some demonstrative embodiments, a STA may be allowed to associate only with a soft AP that is already associated with a source AP.

[00189] In some demonstrative embodiments, a soft AP may be allowed to operate as a soft AP on an indoor-only channel, for example, only if the soft AP is already actively associated with the source AP on the same indoor-only channel.

[00190] In some demonstrative embodiments, a soft AP, e.g., device 140, may be configured to set BSSID field 502 to be empty, e.g., including a value of zero, for example, to indicate that the soft AP is not associated with a source AP.

[00191] In some demonstrative embodiments, RSSI field 504 may include an RSSI value of one or more beacons from the source AP that are heard by the soft AP, for example, when soft AP IE 500 is included as part of a frame sent by the soft AP,.

[00192] In some demonstrative embodiments, when soft AP IE 500 is included as part of the association request and reported by a STA, e.g., an associating non-AP STA, RSSI field 504 may include an RSSI value of one or more beacons from the source AP that are heard by the STA.

[00193] In some demonstrative embodiments, short-SSID field 506 may not be included, for example, when soft AP IE 500 is reported by the soft AP, e.g., in the frame sent by the soft AP. For example, a length field 501 may be set by the soft AP to indicate the length of soft AP IE 500, which does not include short-SSID field 506. [00194] In some demonstrative embodiments, short-SSID field 506 may be included as part of an association request from the STA to the soft AP. For example, length field 501 may be set by the STA to indicate the length of soft AP IE 500, which does include short-SSID field 506.

[00195] In some demonstrative embodiments, short-SSID field 506 may include the short-SSID of the source AP.

[00196] In some demonstrative embodiments, the short-SSID of the source AP may be determined, for example, based on an SSID of the source AP that may be reported in transmissions, e.g., beacons, from the source AP.

[00197] In some demonstrative embodiments, short-SSID field 506 may serves as an indication that the STA transmitting the soft AP IE 500 is actually able to hear the source AP.

[00198] In one example, short-SSID field 506 may be configured to protect against STAs that may attempt to report soft AP IE 500 even if the STAs do not hear the source AP.

[00199] Reference is made to Fig. 6, which schematically illustrates communication ranges relative to an indoor range limit, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00200] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 6, a Daisy-Chain connection 600 may be formed between a STA 602, a soft AP 640, and a source AP 650. For example, device 102 (Fig. 1) may perform the functionality of, the role of, and/or one or more operations and/or functionalities of STA 602; device 140 (Fig. 1) may perform the functionality of, the role of, and/or one or more operations and/or functionalities of soft AP 640; and/or AP 150 (Fig. 1) may perform the functionality of, the role of, and/or one or more operations and/or functionalities of AP 650.

[00201] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 6, a communication range 652 of the source AP 650 may be within an indoor range limit 620.

[00202] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 6, a triangle pattern 670, in which the soft AP 640 and STA 602 must hear beacons and probe-response from the source AP 650, and STA602 must hear beacons and probe-response from soft AP 640 may be implemented to assure and/or indicate that a communication range 642 of the soft AP 640 and a communication range 612 of the STA 602 may be within the indoor range limit 620.

[00203] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to disconnect from each other, for example, when devices 102 and/or 140 are not in communication range of AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00204] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 to disconnect from device 102, for example, when device 140 disconnects from AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00205] In one example, when device 140 is disconnecting, e.g., as a STA, from AP 150, STA 140 may immediately stop acting as a soft AP and may disassociate with all the STAs, which may be connected as clients to device 140.

[00206] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to disconnect from device 140, for example, based on one or more criteria configured to indicate that device 102 may be out of range of source AP 150, e.g., as described below.

[00207] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 to disconnect from device 140, for example, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from AP 150, e.g., within a predefined time period, e.g., as described below.

[00208] In one example, as long as device 102 is associated with device 140, device 102 may track beacons from AP 150, and may disconnect from device 140, for example, following a predefined umber of missed-beacons events. This example may cover a scenario in which the STA is moving away from the source AP, e.g., towards an outdoor location. According to this example, once device 102 no longer hears valid beacons from AP 150, device 102 will immediately disassociate from device 140. In other embodiments, any other criteria may be implemented for disconnecting device 102 from device 140. [00209] Reference is made to Fig. 7, which schematically illustrates communication ranges relative to an indoor range limit, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00210] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 7, a Daisy-Chain connection 700 may be formed between a STA 702, a soft AP 740, and a source AP 750. For example, device 102 (Fig. 1) may perform the functionality of, the role of, and/or one or more operations and/or functionalities of STA 702; device 140 (Fig. 1) may perform the functionality of, the role of, and/or one or more operations and/or functionalities of soft AP 740; and/or AP 150 (Fig. 1) may perform the functionality of, the role of, and/or one or more operations and/or functionalities of AP 750.

[00211] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 7, a communication range 752 of the source AP 750 may be within an indoor range limit 720.

[00212] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 7, STA 702 may move (705) from a first location to a second location.

[00213] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 7, a communication range 712 of the STA 702 at the second location may not be within the indoor range limit 720.

[00214] In some demonstrative embodiments, when STA 702 is at the second location the triangle pattern 670 (Fig. 6) may no longer exist, e.g., since STA 702 no longer hears beacons and/or probe-response from the source AP 750. This situation may indicate that the communication range 712 of STA 702 is already not within the indoor range limit 720.

[00215] In some demonstrative embodiments, STA 702 may be configured disconnect from the soft AP 740, for example, when the triangle pattern 670 (Fig. 6) is broken, e.g., which indicates that the communication range 712 of STA 702 is already not within the indoor range limit 720.

[00216] Reference is made to Fig. 8, which schematically illustrates a method of communication over an indoor-only channel, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, one or more of the operations of the method of Fig. 8 may be performed by one or more elements of a system, e.g., system 100 (Fig. 1), for example, one or more wireless devices, e.g., device 102 (Fig. 1) and/or device 140 (Fig. 1), a controller, e.g., controller 124 (Fig. 1) and/or controller 154 (Fig. 1), a radio, e.g., radio 114 (Fig. 1) and/or radio 144 (Fig. 1), and/or a message processor, e.g., message processor 128 (Fig. 1) and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1).

[00217] As indicated at block 802, the method may include receiving at a STA a frame from a soft AP over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP including a soft AP IE including an identifier of a source AP to provide network access. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 (Fig. 1) to receive from device 140 (Fig. 1) over the indoor-only channel the frame including the soft AP IE, e.g., soft AP IE 500 (Fig. 5), including the identifier of AP 150 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described above.

[00218] As indicated at block 804, the method may include, based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 102 (Fig. 1) to connect to device 140 (Fig. 1) over the indoor-only channel, for example, based on the reception of the one or more frames from the AP 150 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described above.

[00219] Reference is made to Fig. 9, which schematically illustrates a method of communication over an indoor-only channel, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, one or more of the operations of the method of Fig. 9 may be performed by one or more elements of a system, e.g., system 100 (Fig. 1), for example, one or more wireless devices, e.g., device 102 (Fig. 1) and/or device 140 (Fig. 1), a controller, e.g., controller 124 (Fig. 1) and/or controller 154 (Fig. 1), a radio, e.g., radio 114 (Fig. 1) and/or radio 144 (Fig. 1), and/or a message processor, e.g., message processor 128 (Fig. 1) and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1).

[00220] As indicated at block 902, the method may include transmitting a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame including a soft AP IE including a BSSID field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to transmit over the indoor-only channel the frame including the soft AP IE, e.g., soft AP IE 500 (Fig. 5) including the BSSID field to indicate the BSSID of AP 150 (Fig. 1) to provide the network access, e.g., as described above.

[00221] As indicated at block 904, the method may include receiving an association request from a STA over the indoor-only channel, the association request including the soft AP IE. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to receive from device 102 (Fig. 1) over the indoor-only channel the association request including the soft AP IE, e.g., soft AP IE 500 (Fig. 5), e.g., as described above.

[00222] As indicated at block 906, the method may include accessing one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to access the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, e.g., soft AP IE 500 (Fig. 5), to determine whether 102 (Fig. 1) is within communication range of AP 150 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described above.

[00223] As indicated at block 908, the method may include allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA, for example, only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to allow the wireless communication station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to associate with 102 (Fig. 1) only when 102 (Fig. 1) is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of AP 150 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described above.

[00224] Reference is made to Fig. 10, which schematically illustrates a product of manufacture 1000, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. Product 1000 may include one or more tangible computer-readable (“machine-readable”) non- transitory storage media 1002, which may include computer-executable instructions, e.g., implemented by logic 1004, operable to, when executed by at least one computer processor, enable the at least one computer processor to implement one or more operations at device 102 (Fig. 1), device 140 (Fig. 1), radio 114 (Fig. 1), radio 144 (Fig. 1), transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), transmitter 148 (Fig. 1), receiver 116 (Fig. 1), receiver 146 (Fig. 1), controller 124 (Fig. 1), controller 154 (Fig. 1), message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1), to cause device 102 (Fig. 1), device 140 (Fig. 1), radio 114 (Fig. 1), radio 144 (Fig. 1), transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), transmitter 148 (Fig. 1), receiver 116 (Fig. 1), receiver 146 (Fig. 1), controller 124 (Fig. 1), controller 154 (Fig. 1), message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1) to perform, trigger and/or implement one or more operations and/or functionalities, and/or to perform, trigger and/or implement one or more operations and/or functionalities described with reference to the Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and/or 9, and/or one or more operations described herein. The phrases“non- transitory machine-readable medium” and“computer-readable non-transitory storage media” are directed to include all computer-readable media, with the sole exception being a transitory propagating signal.

[00225] In some demonstrative embodiments, product 1000 and/or machine-readable storage media 1002 may include one or more types of computer-readable storage media capable of storing data, including volatile memory, non-volatile memory, removable or non-removable memory, erasable or non-erasable memory, writeable or re-writeable memory, and the like. For example, machine-readable storage media 802 may include, RAM, DRAM, Double-Data-Rate DRAM (DDR-DRAM), SDRAM, static RAM (SRAM), ROM, programmable ROM (PROM), erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), Compact Disk ROM (CD-ROM), Compact Disk Recordable (CD-R), Compact Disk Rewriteable (CD-RW), flash memory (e.g., NOR or NAND flash memory), content addressable memory (CAM), polymer memory, phase-change memory, ferroelectric memory, silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory, a disk, a floppy disk, a hard drive, an optical disk, a magnetic disk, a card, a magnetic card, an optical card, a tape, a cassette, and the like. The computer-readable storage media may include any suitable media involved with downloading or transferring a computer program from a remote computer to a requesting computer carried by data signals embodied in a carrier wave or other propagation medium through a communication link, e.g., a modem, radio or network connection.

[00226] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 804 may include instructions, data, and/or code, which, if executed by a machine, may cause the machine to perform a method, process and/or operations as described herein. The machine may include, for example, any suitable processing platform, computing platform, computing device, processing device, computing system, processing system, computer, processor, or the like, and may be implemented using any suitable combination of hardware, software, firmware, and the like.

[00227] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 804 may include, or may be implemented as, software, a software module, an application, a program, a subroutine, instructions, an instruction set, computing code, words, values, symbols, and the like. The instructions may include any suitable type of code, such as source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. The instructions may be implemented according to a predefined computer language, manner or syntax, for instructing a processor to perform a certain function. The instructions may be implemented using any suitable high-level, low-level, object- oriented, visual, compiled and/or interpreted programming language, such as C, C++, Java, BASIC, Matlab, Pascal, Visual BASIC, assembly language, machine code, and the like.

EXAMPLES

[00228] The following examples pertain to further embodiments.

[00229] Example 1 includes an apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to receive a frame from a software- enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

[00230] Example 2 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

[00231] Example 3 includes the subject matter of Example 1 or 2, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to select not to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, when the STA does not receive any frame from the source AP. [00232] Example 4 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-3, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met.

[00233] Example 5 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-4, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to determine a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from the source AP, and to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel based on a comparison between a reference RSSI and the measured RSSI.

[00234] Example 6 includes the subject matter of Example 5, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame from the soft AP comprises the reference RSSI.

[00235] Example 7 includes the subject matter of Example 6, and optionally, wherein the reference RSSI comprises a measured RSSI at the soft AP of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00236] Example 8 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-7, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to transmit to the soft AP an association request over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the identifier of the source AP.

[00237] Example 9 includes the subject matter of Example 8, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value to indicate a measured RSSI of the one or more frames from the source AP.

[00238] Example 10 includes the subject matter of Example 8 or 9, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from the source AP are communicated.

[00239] Example 11 includes the subject matter of Example 10, and optionally, wherein the network identifier comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network.

[00240] Example 12 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-11, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to disconnect from the soft AP, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from the source AP within a predefined time period. [00241] Example 13 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-12, and optionally, wherein the identifier of the source AP comprises a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) of the source AP

[00242] Example 14 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-13, and optionally, wherein the frame from the soft AP comprises a beacon frame from the soft AP or a probe response from the soft AP.

[00243] Example 15 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-14, and optionally, wherein the one or more frames from the source AP comprise at least one of a beacon frame from the source AP or a probe response from the source AP.

[00244] Example 16 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-15, and optionally, comprising a radio to communicate over the indoor-only channel.

[00245] Example 17 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-16, and optionally, comprising one or more antennas, a memory and a processor.

[00246] Example 18 includes a system of wireless communication comprising a wireless communication station (STA), the STA comprising one or more antennas; a radio; a memory; a processor; and a controller configured to cause the STA to receive a frame from a software-enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

[00247] Example 19 includes the subject matter of Example 18, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

[00248] Example 20 includes the subject matter of Example 18 or 19, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to select not to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, when the STA does not receive any frame from the source AP.

[00249] Example 21 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-20, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met. [00250] Example 22 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-21, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to determine a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from the source AP, and to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel based on a comparison between a reference RSSI and the measured RSSI.

[00251] Example 23 includes the subject matter of Example 22, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame from the soft AP comprises the reference RSSI.

[00252] Example 24 includes the subject matter of Example 23, and optionally, wherein the reference RSSI comprises a measured RSSI at the soft AP of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00253] Example 25 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-24, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to transmit to the soft AP an association request over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the identifier of the source AP.

[00254] Example 26 includes the subject matter of Example 25, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value to indicate a measured RSSI of the one or more frames from the source AP.

[00255] Example 27 includes the subject matter of Example 25 or 26, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from the source AP are communicated.

[00256] Example 28 includes the subject matter of Example 27, and optionally, wherein the network identifier comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network.

[00257] Example 29 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-28, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to disconnect from the soft AP, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from the source AP within a predefined time period.

[00258] Example 30 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-29, and optionally, wherein the identifier of the source AP comprises a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) of the source AP [00259] Example 31 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-30, and optionally, wherein the frame from the soft AP comprises a beacon frame from the soft AP or a probe response from the soft AP.

[00260] Example 32 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 18-31, and optionally, wherein the one or more frames from the source AP comprise at least one of a beacon frame from the source AP or a probe response from the source AP.

[00261] Example 33 includes a method to be performed at a wireless communication station (STA), the method comprising receiving a frame from a software-enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

[00262] Example 34 includes the subject matter of Example 33, and optionally, comprising allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

[00263] Example 35 includes the subject matter of Example 33 or 34, and optionally, comprising selecting not to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, when the STA does not receive any frame from the source AP.

[00264] Example 36 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-35, and optionally, comprising allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met.

[00265] Example 37 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-36, and optionally, comprising determining a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from the source AP, and allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel based on a comparison between a reference RSSI and the measured RSSI.

[00266] Example 38 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame from the soft AP comprises the reference RSSI. [00267] Example 39 includes the subject matter of Example 38, and optionally, wherein the reference RSSI comprises a measured RSSI at the soft AP of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00268] Example 40 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-39, and optionally, comprising transmitting to the soft AP an association request over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the identifier of the source AP.

[00269] Example 41 includes the subject matter of Example 40, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value to indicate a measured RSSI of the one or more frames from the source AP.

[00270] Example 42 includes the subject matter of Example 40 or 41, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from the source AP are communicated.

[00271] Example 43 includes the subject matter of Example 42, and optionally, wherein the network identifier comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network.

[00272] Example 44 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-43, and optionally, comprising disconnecting from the soft AP, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from the source AP within a predefined time period.

[00273] Example 45 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-44, and optionally, wherein the identifier of the source AP comprises a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) of the source AP

[00274] Example 46 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-45, and optionally, wherein the frame from the soft AP comprises a beacon frame from the soft AP or a probe response from the soft AP.

[00275] Example 47 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-46, and optionally, wherein the one or more frames from the source AP comprise at least one of a beacon frame from the source AP or a probe response from the source AP.

[00276] Example 48 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer- readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to receive a frame from a software- enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access.

[00277] Example 49 includes the subject matter of Example 48, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

[00278] Example 50 includes the subject matter of Example 48 or 49, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the processor to select not to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, when the STA does not receive any frame from the source AP.

[00279] Example 51 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-50, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, allow the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met.

[00280] Example 52 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-51, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to determine a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from the source AP, and to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel based on a comparison between a reference RSSI and the measured RSSI.

[00281] Example 53 includes the subject matter of Example 52, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame from the soft AP comprises the reference RSSI.

[00282] Example 54 includes the subject matter of Example 53, and optionally, wherein the reference RSSI comprises a measured RSSI at the soft AP of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00283] Example 55 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-54, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to transmit to the soft AP an association request over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the identifier of the source AP. [00284] Example 56 includes the subject matter of Example 55, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value to indicate a measured RSSI of the one or more frames from the source AP.

[00285] Example 57 includes the subject matter of Example 55 or 56, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from the source AP are communicated.

[00286] Example 58 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the network identifier comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network.

[00287] Example 59 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-58, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to disconnect from the soft AP, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from the source AP within a predefined time period.

[00288] Example 60 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-59, and optionally, wherein the identifier of the source AP comprises a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) of the source AP

[00289] Example 61 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-60, and optionally, wherein the frame from the soft AP comprises a beacon frame from the soft AP or a probe response from the soft AP.

[00290] Example 62 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 48-61, and optionally, wherein the one or more frames from the source AP comprise at least one of a beacon frame from the source AP or a probe response from the source AP.

[00291] Example 63 includes an apparatus of wireless communication by a wireless communication station (STA), the apparatus comprising means for receiving a frame from a software-enabled Access Point (soft AP) over an indoor-only channel, the frame from the soft AP comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising an identifier of a source AP to provide network access; and means for, based on reception of one or more frames from the source AP, allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel for the network access. [00292] Example 64 includes the subject matter of Example 63, and optionally, comprising means for allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP, only when the one or more frames from the source AP are received by the STA.

[00293] Example 65 includes the subject matter of Example 63 or 64, and optionally, comprising means for selecting not to allow the STA to connect to the soft AP, when the STA does not receive any frame from the source AP.

[00294] Example 66 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-65, and optionally, comprising means for allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP when one or more criteria with respect to the reception of the one or more frames from the source AP are met.

[00295] Example 67 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-66, and optionally, comprising means for determining a measured Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the one or more frames from the source AP, and allowing the STA to connect to the soft AP over the indoor-only channel based on a comparison between a reference RSSI and the measured RSSI.

[00296] Example 68 includes the subject matter of Example 67, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame from the soft AP comprises the reference RSSI.

[00297] Example 69 includes the subject matter of Example 68, and optionally, wherein the reference RSSI comprises a measured RSSI at the soft AP of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00298] Example 70 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-69, and optionally, comprising means for transmitting to the soft AP an association request over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the identifier of the source AP.

[00299] Example 71 includes the subject matter of Example 70, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value to indicate a measured RSSI of the one or more frames from the source AP.

[00300] Example 72 includes the subject matter of Example 70 or 71, and optionally, wherein the association request comprises a network identifier of a wireless network via which the one or more frames from the source AP are communicated. [00301] Example 73 includes the subject matter of Example 72, and optionally, wherein the network identifier comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short-SSID) of the wireless network.

[00302] Example 74 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-73, and optionally, comprising means for disconnecting from the soft AP, when a predefined number of beacons are not received from the source AP within a predefined time period.

[00303] Example 75 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-74, and optionally, wherein the identifier of the source AP comprises a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) of the source AP

[00304] Example 76 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-75, and optionally, wherein the frame from the soft AP comprises a beacon frame from the soft AP or a probe response from the soft AP.

[00305] Example 77 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 63-76, and optionally, wherein the one or more frames from the source AP comprise at least one of a beacon frame from the source AP or a probe response from the source AP.

[00306] Example 78 includes an apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a software enabled Access Point (soft AP) to transmit a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access; receive an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE; access one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

[00307] Example 79 includes the subject matter of Example 78, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the apparatus configured to allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP. [00308] Example 80 includes the subject matter of Example 78 or 79, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) field comprising a reference RSSI value.

[00309] Example 81 includes the subject matter of Example 80, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the soft AP to determine the reference RSSI based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00310] Example 82 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 78-81, and optionally, wherein an RSSI field in the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a measured RSSI value to indicate a measured RSSI at the STA of one or more frames from the source AP, the apparatus configured to allow the soft AP to associate with the STA, based on a comparison between a reference RSSI value and the measured RSSI value.

[00311] Example 83 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 78-82, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the soft AP to disconnect from the STA, when the soft AP disconnects from the source AP.

[00312] Example 84 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 78-83, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a beacon from the soft AP.

[00313] Example 85 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 78-83, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a probe response from the soft AP to the STA, the probe response in response to a probe request from the STA to the soft AP.

[00314] Example 86 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 78-85, and optionally, comprising a radio to communicate over the indoor-only channel.

[00315] Example 87 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 78-86, and optionally, comprising one or more antennas, a memory and a processor.

[00316] Example 88 includes a system of wireless communication comprising a software enabled Access Point (soft AP), the soft AP comprising one or more antennas; a radio; a memory; a processor; and a controller configured to cause the soft AP to transmit a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access; receive an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE; access one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

[00317] Example 89 includes the subject matter of Example 88, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the controller is configured to allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP.

[00318] Example 90 includes the subject matter of Example 88 or 89, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) field comprising a reference RSSI value.

[00319] Example 91 includes the subject matter of Example 90, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the soft AP to determine the reference RSSI based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00320] Example 92 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 88-91, and optionally, wherein an RSSI field in the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a measured RSSI value to indicate a measured RSSI at the STA of one or more frames from the source AP, the controller is configured to allow the soft AP to associate with the STA, based on a comparison between a reference RSSI value and the measured RSSI value.

[00321] Example 93 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 88-92, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the soft AP to disconnect from the STA, when the soft AP disconnects from the source AP.

[00322] Example 94 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 88-93, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a beacon from the soft AP.

[00323] Example 95 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 88-93, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a probe response from the soft AP to the STA, the probe response in response to a probe request from the STA to the soft AP. [00324] Example 96 includes a method to be performed at a software enabled Access Point (soft AP), the method comprising transmitting a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access; receiving an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE; accessing one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

[00325] Example 97 includes the subject matter of Example 96, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the method comprising allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP.

[00326] Example 98 includes the subject matter of Example 96 or 67, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) field comprising a reference RSSI value.

[00327] Example 99 includes the subject matter of Example 98, and optionally, comprising determining the reference RSSI based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00328] Example 100 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 96-99, and optionally, wherein an RSSI field in the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a measured RSSI value to indicate a measured RSSI at the STA of one or more frames from the source AP, the method comprising allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA, based on a comparison between a reference RSSI value and the measured RSSI value.

[00329] Example 101 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 96-100, and optionally, comprising disconnecting from the STA, when the soft AP disconnects from the source AP. [00330] Example 102 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 96-101, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a beacon from the soft AP.

[00331] Example 103 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 96-101, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a probe response from the soft AP to the STA, the probe response in response to a probe request from the STA to the soft AP.

[00332] Example 104 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer- readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a software enabled Access Point (soft AP) to transmit a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access; receive an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE; access one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

[00333] Example 105 includes the subject matter of Example 104, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the instructions, when executed, allow the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP.

[00334] Example 106 includes the subject matter of Example 104 or 105, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) field comprising a reference RSSI value.

[00335] Example 107 includes the subject matter of Example 106, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the soft AP to determine the reference RSSI based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00336] Example 108 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 104-107, and optionally, wherein an RSSI field in the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a measured RSSI value to indicate a measured RSSI at the STA of one or more frames from the source AP, the instructions, when executed, allow the soft AP to associate with the STA, based on a comparison between a reference RSSI value and the measured RSSI value.

[00337] Example 109 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 104-108, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the soft AP to disconnect from the STA, when the soft AP disconnects from the source AP.

[00338] Example 110 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 104-109, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a beacon from the soft AP.

[00339] Example 111 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 104-109, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a probe response from the soft AP to the STA, the probe response in response to a probe request from the STA to the soft AP.

[00340] Example 112 includes an apparatus of wireless communication by a software enabled Access Point (soft AP), the apparatus comprising means for transmitting a frame over an indoor-only channel, the frame comprising a soft AP information element (IE) comprising a Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) field to indicate a BSSID of a source AP to provide network access; means for receiving an association request from a wireless communication station (STA) over the indoor-only channel, the association request comprising the soft AP IE; means for accessing one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request to determine whether the STA is within communication range of the source AP; and means for allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the STA is determined, based on the one or more fields of the soft AP IE in the association request, to be in communication range of the source AP.

[00341] Example 113 includes the subject matter of Example 112, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a Short Service Set Identifier (short SSID) field, the apparatus comprising means for allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA only when the short SSID field comprises a value that identifies a short SSID of a wireless network of the source AP.

[00342] Example 114 includes the subject matter of Example 112 or 113, and optionally, wherein the soft AP IE in the frame comprises a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) field comprising a reference RSSI value. [00343] Example 115 includes the subject matter of Example 114, and optionally, comprising means for determining the reference RSSI based on a measured RSSI of one or more frames from the source AP.

[00344] Example 116 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 112-115, and optionally, wherein an RSSI field in the soft AP IE in the association request comprises a measured RSSI value to indicate a measured RSSI at the STA of one or more frames from the source AP, the apparatus comprising means for allowing the soft AP to associate with the STA, based on a comparison between a reference RSSI value and the measured RSSI value.

[00345] Example 117 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 112-116, and optionally, comprising means for disconnecting from the STA, when the soft AP disconnects from the source AP.

[00346] Example 118 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 112-117, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a beacon from the soft AP.

[00347] Example 119 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 112-117, and optionally, wherein the frame comprises a probe response from the soft AP to the STA, the probe response in response to a probe request from the STA to the soft AP.

[00348] Functions, operations, components and/or features described herein with reference to one or more embodiments, may be combined with, or may be utilized in combination with, one or more other functions, operations, components and/or features described herein with reference to one or more other embodiments, or vice versa.

[00349] While certain features have been illustrated and described herein, many modifications, substitutions, changes, and equivalents may occur to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the disclosure.