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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
AQUATIC VEHICLE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1998/002345
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The aquatic vehicle (10) includes a propulsion force provided by propulsion sources; a center of mass, a center of propulsion and a center of resistance; double blade control surfaces (28, 32), with each control surface being constructed with two blades of equal area and with the blades being mounted rotatively on opposite sides of an axis; the blades are arranged such that the control surfaces transmit the control effects through the center of mass. In one embodiment, the vehicle includes a top component (12) and a bottom component (14). The top component (12) is identical to the bottom component. The vehicle includes a first control for controlling vertical motion; a second control for sideways movement; and a third control for reversing motion of the vehicle.

Inventors:
Cao, Thanh D. (529 East Washington Boulevard #6, Pasadena, CA, 91104, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US1997/011045
Publication Date:
January 22, 1998
Filing Date:
June 25, 1997
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Cao, Thanh D. (529 East Washington Boulevard #6, Pasadena, CA, 91104, US)
International Classes:
B63B1/10; B63B35/00; B63B39/06; B63G8/00; B63H25/00; (IPC1-7): B63B1/00
Other References:
No relevant documents have been disclosed.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Lampert, Gregory S. (Christie, Parker & Hale LLP, Suite 500, 350 West Colorado Boulevard, P.O. Box 706, Pasadena CA, 91109-7068, US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS: 1. A Basic Aquatic Vehicle (BAV), the BAV comprising: 1. a. a center of resistance being defined as the application point of a force, the force being equivalent to all resistance forces on the vehicle; 1. b. propulsion sources being defined as the outlets of the propulsion thrust, such as propellers or jet nozzles; I. c. a center of propulsion being defined as the application point of a force, the force being equivalent to all forces of propulsion on the vehicle; 1. d. means for adjusting the position of propulsion sources 1. b during acceleration so that center of propulsion 1. c moves from the center of mass to center of resistance 1. a during a transition from acceleration to a terminal velocity; 1. e. means for adjusting the position of propulsion sources 1. b during uniform motion so that center of propulsion
1. l. c remains at center of resistance l. a during motion at the terminal velocity;.
2. f. means for adjusting the position of propulsion sources.
3. c during deceleration so that, during a transition from the terminal velocity to deceleration, the force of propulsion varies in the process being the reflection through the center of mass of the time reversal of the process during the transition from acceleration to a terminal velocity.
4. The BAV of claim 1 further comprising double blade control surfaces, the double blade control surfaces being thickened toward the aft edge ; each surface being structured with two blades of equal area; the two blades being mounted rotatively on the opposite sides of an axis.
5. An arrangement of the control surfaces of claim 2 so that the control surfaces transmit control effects through the center of mass of the vehicle; 3. a. wherein two of the control surfaces are left and right lateral boards, and each of the left and right lateral boards has front and rear blades mounted on an axis so that the blades are symmetrical through the midpoint of the axis, and the left and right axes are mounted symmetrically through the center of mass, on left and right frames coupled to the the vehicle structure, on the left and right sides of the vehicle structure, whereby tucking in parallelly to the direction of motion, the axes maintain the lateral boards in the position of retaining the lift at higher speed, and spreading out perpendicularly to the direction of motion, the axes maintain the lateral boards in the position of sustaining the lift at lower speed, and whereby rotating about the axis, the front and rear blades increase or decrease the lift; and 3. b. wherein two of the control surfaces are tail and head boards, and each of the tail and head boards has front and rear blades mounted on an axis so that the blades of the tail board are rotatively mounted on a horizontal axis rearward of the center of mass of the vehicle, and the blades of the head board are rotatively mounted on a horizontal axis frontward of the center of mass of the vehicle, whereby rotating in the same direction, the two boards control ascending and descending without changing the orientation of the vehicle, rotating in the opposite directions, the two boards control the upward and downward orientations of the vehicle, and rotating alternately in opposite directions, the two boards stabilize a backandforth rocking vehicle.
6. A Surface Aquatic Vehicle (SAV), the SAV comprising: 4. a. a top component, the top component moving essentially above a water line; 4. b. a bottom component being smaller than top component 4. a in size and larger than top component 4. a in mass, the bottom component being below the water line; 4. c. a center of resistance having definition 1. a of claim 1 ; 4. d. a connecting structure connecting to component 4. a and bottom component 4. b, the connecting structure including a vertical trunk wherein the axis of the trunk is aligned with the center of mass of top component 4. a and the center of mass of the bottom component 4. b, whereby extending vertically, the structure elevates top component 4. a above the water line, and folding vertically, the structure lowers top component 4. a onto the water; 4. e. a guiding brace coupled to the connecting structure, whereby the propulsion sources are guided to move upanddown between the center of mass and center of resistance 4. c; 4. f. propulsion sources corresponding to l. b of claim 1, the propulsion sources being coupled to guiding brace 4. e and to connecting structure 4. d; 4. g. a center of propulsion having definition 1. c of claim 1; 4. h. left and right lateral boards having description 3. a of claim 3; 4. i. tail and head boards having description 3. b of claim 3; 4. j. three double blade control surfaces having the description of claim 2, the three control surfaces being three rudders; wherein the central rudder has two blades mounted perpendicularly on a horizontal periphery of the means for rotating about the vertical trunk of connecting structure 4. d, the two blades extend frontward and rearward symmetrically through a point above the center of mass of the SAV, the bottom rudder is mounted rotatively below the center of mass of the SAV on a vertical axis, the axis extends below bottom component 26 and the axis is in line with the vertical axis of connecting trunk 4. d, and the rear rudder is mounted rotatively on a vertical axis, the axis is coupled to the axis of the tail board, whereby turning alternately in opposite directions, the rear rudder stabilizes a zigzagging SAV, turning right or left, the rear rudder controls the turning of a SAV, rotating in opposite directions, the central and bottom rudders tilt a SAV in the turning direction to stabilize the SAV from the outward pull of the centrifugal force during turning, and rotating alternately in opposite directions, the central and the bottom rudders stabilize a sidetoside wobbling SAV; 4. k. first control means for controlling the acceleration of a SAV without causing any destabilizing effect on the SAV; 4.1. second control means for controlling the uniform motion of a SAV without causing any destabilizing effect on the SAV; 4. m. third control means for controlling the deceleration of a SAV without causing any destabilizing effect on the SAV; 4. n. fourth control means for controlling the lift on a SAV; 4. o. fifth control means for controlling ascending and descending of a SAV without changing the SAV orientation; 4. p. sixth control means for controlling the upward and downward orientations of a SAV; 4. q. seventh control means for stabilizing a backandforth rocking SAV; 4. r. eight control means for stabilizing a zigzagging SAV; 4. s. ninth control means for controlling turning of a SAV; 4. t. tenth control means for stabilizing a sidetoside wobbling SAV; and 4. u. eleventh control means for releasing the top component from the rest of a SAV to float as a life boat in case of emergency.
7. The SAV of claim 4 wherein first control 4. k for acceleration comprises: connecting structure 4. d, guiding brace 4. e and propulsion sources 4. f whereby the extension of connecting structure 4. d and the downward movement of propulsion sources 4. f along guiding brace 4. e are equivalent to means 1. d of claim 1.
8. The SAV of claim 4 wherein second control 4.1 for uniform motion comprises means I. e of claim 1.
9. The SAV of claim 4 wherein third control 4. m for deceleration comprises: connecting structure 4. d, guiding brace 4. e and propulsion sources 4. f, whereby the folding of connecting structure 4. d and the upward movement of propulsion sources 4. f along guiding brace 4. e are equivalent to means 1. f of claim 1.
10. The SAV of claim 4 wherein fourth control 4. n for lift comprises left and right lateral boards 4. h.
11. The SAV of claim 4 wherein fifth control 4. o for ascending and descending, sixth control 4. p for upward and downward orientation and seventh control 4. q for stabilizing a backandforth rocking SAV comprises tail and head boards 4. i.
12. The SAV of claim 4 wherein eighth control 4. r for stabilizing a zigzagging SAV, ninth control 4. s for turning and tenth control 4. t for stabilizing a sidetoside wobbling SAV comprises: rudders 4. j and means for adjusting unilaterally the power output and/or for adjusting the thrust direction of the propulsion sources to provide a torque about the vertical axis of the central rudder in the turning direction of the SAV.
13. The SAV of claim 4 wherein eleventh control 4. u for releasing the top component for emergency floating comprises means for releasing the top component from the rest of the SAV.
14. An Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV), the USAV comprising: 12. a. a top component, the top component having the shape of a reflection symmetry; 12. b. a bottom component, the bottom component being identical to the top component in mass, size and shape; 12. c. a center of resistance having description 1. a of claim 1, the center of resistance coinciding with the center of mass; 12. d. a connecting structure connecting to component 12. a and bottom component 12. b, the connecting structure including a vertical trunk wherein the axis of the trunk is aligned with the center of mass of top component 12. a and the center of mass of the bottom component 12. b; 12. e. propulsion sources corresponding to propulsion sources 1.2 of claim 1, the propulsion sources being coupled to connecting structure 12. d; 12. f. a center of propulsion having definition 1.3 of claim 1, the center of propulsion coinciding with the center of mass and with center of resistance 12. c ; 12. g. a double blade rudder having two blades, the two blades extending frontward and rearward symmetrically through the center of mass of the vehicle, and the two blades being mounted perpendicularly on a horizontal periphery of the means for rotating about the vertical trunk of connecting structure 12. d, whereby turning the blades right or left, the rudder causes an USAV to slide sideways, and turning the blades alternately in opposite directions, the rudder stabilizes a zigzagging USAV; 12. h. lateral boards including an upper pair of upper left and upper right lateral boards, and a lower pair of lower left and lower right lateral boards wherein each pair has description 3. a of claim 3, and the two pairs are symmetrical to each other through the center of mass of the USAV, and wherein on the upper pair, the spread of the axes is varied to maintain the lift on the USAV at changing speed, while on the lower pair, the angle of the blades is varied to adjust the lift on the USAV; 12. i. tail and head boards having description 3. b of claim 3; 12. j. two flippers mounted bilaterally on the outer sides of the propulsion sources, the flippers extending, between the upper and lower lateral boards, to the right and left of the center of mass, whereby turning unilaterally, the flippers control turning of the USAV, turning alternately in opposite directions, the flippers stabilize a sidetoside wobbling USAV, and turning in the same direction, the flippers provide additional control of lift on the USAV; 12. k. a system of retrievable air bags, the air bags being deployed to provide floatation for the USAV at rest or in slow motion, and being retrievable into storage compartments, the compartments being arranged bilaterally in top component 12. a; 12.1. first control means for controlling the acceleration of an USAV without causing any destabilizing effect on the USAV; 12. m. second control means for controlling the uniform motion of an USAV without causing any destabilizing effect on the USAV; 12. n. third control means for controlling the deceleration of an USAV without causing any destabilizing effect on the USAV; 12. o. fourth control means for reversing the USAV motion along the velocity line without causing any destabilizing effect on the USAV; 12. p. fifth control means for controlling the sideways sliding of an USAV without changing the USAV orientation; 12. q. sixth control means for stabilizing a zigzagging USAV; 12. r. seventh control means for controlling the lift on a USAV; 12. s. eighth control means for controlling ascending and descending of an USAV without changing the USAV orientation; 12. t. ninth control means for controlling the upward and downward orientation of an USAV; 12. u. tenth control means for stabilizing a backandforth rocking USAV; 12. v. eleventh control means for controlling turning of an USAV; 12. w. twelfth control means for stabilizing a sidetoside wobbling USAV; 12. x. thirteenth control means for providing the floatation for an USAV at rest and in slow motion; 12. y. fourteenth control means for controlling an USAV in emergency surfacing; 12. z. a conversion means for converting an Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV) into an AeroSpace Vehicle (ASV).
15. The USAV of claim 12 wherein first control 12.1 for acceleration, second control 12. m for uniform motion, third control 12. n for deceleration and fourth control 12. o for reversing the motion comprises propulsion sources 12. e, whereby, as a consequence of the coincidence of the center of propulsion in 12. f, a forward propulsion thrust accelerates the USAV, a constant propulsion thrust maintains the USAV in uniform motion, a decrease of propulsion thrust, or a backward propulsion thrust decelerates the USAV, and a backward propulsion thrust beyond stopping reverses the USAV motion along the velocity line.
16. The USAV of claim 12 wherein fifth control 12. p for sideways sliding and sixth control 12. q for stabilizing a zigzagging USAV comprises: rudder 12. g and propulsion sources 12. e whereby increasing propulsion thrust on the side of the rotated fore blade of rudder 12. g, propulsion sources 12. e intensify the sideways sliding of the USAV.
17. The USAV of claim 12 wherein seventh control 12. r for lift comprises the upper and lower pairs of lateral boards 12. h.
18. The USAV of claim 12 wherein eighth control 12. s for ascending and descending, ninth control 12. t for upward and downward orientation and tenth control 12. u for stabilizing a backandforth rocking USAV comprises tail and head boards 12. i.
19. The USAV of claim 12 wherein eleventh control 12. v for turning and twelfth control 12. w for stabilizing a sidetoside wobbling USAV comprises: flippers 12j and propulsion sources 12. e whereby increasing propulsion thrust on the side opposite to the side of the rotated flipper of 12. j, propulsion sources 12. e intensify the turning effect on the USAV.
20. The USAV of claim 12 wherein thirteenth control 12. x for floatation comprises: air bag system 12. k and means for deploying and retrieving the air bags.
21. The USAV of claim 12 wherein fourteenth control 12. y for emergency surfacing comprises: air bag system 10.13, means for deploying and retrieving the air bags and means for releasing the top component from the rest of the USAV.
22. The USAV of claim 12 wherein conversion 12. z for converting an Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV) into an AeroSpace Vehicle (ASV) comprises: change of construction materials for ones of lighter weight and higher heat resistance, change of engines from water jet into air jet for maneuvering in the air and rocket for maneuvering in space, change of control surfaces from ones of hydrodynamic form to ones of aerodynamic form, change of the system of retrievable air bags into the system of retrievable landing gears.
23. AMENDED CLAIMS [received by the International Bureau on 2 December 1997 (02.12.97); original claims 120 cancelled; new claims 2140 added; (11 pages)].
24. An aquatic vehicle : the vehicle comprising: 21a. a center of mass, COM. being a point about which torques due to gravitational forces on all parts of said vehicle neutralize one another; said COM being origin of a Cartesian reference frame of following description: 21al. an xaxis comprising: 21 ala. a positive xdirection being a direction of forward motion of said vehicle, 21alb. a negative direction being opposite to the positive xdirection of 21ala, 21 a2. a yaxis comprising: 21a2a. a positive ydirection being a direction from bottom to top of said vehicle, 21 a2b. a negative ydirection being opposite to the positive ydirection of 21 a2a, 21a3. a zaxis comprising: 21a3a. a positive zdirection being a direction from left to right of said vehicle, 21a3b. a negative zdirection being opposite to the positive zdirection of 21 a3a, 21 b. a top component being the vehicle upper half above zxplane of the frame of 21a, 21 c. a bottom component being the vehicle lower half below said zxplane, 21d. a center of resistance, COR, being a point about which torques due to all fluid resistance forces on said vehicle neutralize one another. 21dl. a resistance force R being a sum of fluid resistance forces, R1 on the top component of 21b and R2 on the bottom component of 21c ; the resistance force being R wherein R=R1+R2, 21d2. an application position of the R of 21dl being said COR ; the application position comprising: 21 d2a. a position vector T with reference to the COM of 21 a, 21 d2b. a resistance torque TXR about said COM due to the R of 2ldl ; the TXR being equivalent to the torques about said COM due to said RI and R2, 21e. a center of propulsion, COP, being a point about which torques due to all propulsion forces on said vehicle neutralize one another; the center of propulsion comprising: 21 e 1. propulsion sources coupled to the vehicle; the propulsion sources being outlets of propulsive power, 21e2. a propulsion force P being a sum of propulsion forces resulting from propulsive power output from the propulsion sources of 2 lei, 21e3. an application position of the P of 21e2 being said COP; the application position comprising: 21 e3a. a position vector Q with reference to the COM of 21 a, 21e3b. a propulsion torque QXP about said COM due to the P of 21 e2 ; the propulsion torque being equivalent to all the torques about said COM due to all said propulsion forces from said propulsion sources of 2 lei, 21 f. wherein the propulsion sources of 21 e 1 have an arrangement such that the propulsion force, P of 21e2, is aligned through a vicinity of the center of resistance, COR of 21 d, when propulsive power is evenly distributed through said propulsion sources; the arrangement resulting in a mutual neutralization of the propulsion torque, QXP of 21e3b, and the resistance torque, TXR of 21 d2b, in the form of QXP+TXR=0, when the vehicle is propelled in uniform motion.
25. The aquatic vehicle of claim 21 wherein the top component and the bottom component are identical so that the center of resistance, COR, is localized at the center of mass, COM.
26. An aquatic vehicle; the vehicle comprising: 23a. a center of mass, COM, being a point about which torques due to gravitational forces on all parts of said vehicle neutralize one another; said COM being origin of a Cartesian reference frame of following description: 23al. an xaxis comprising: 23al a. a positive xdirection being a direction of forward motion of said vehicle, 23alb. a negative xdirection being opposite to the positive xdirection of 23al a, 23a2. a yaxis comprising: 23a2a. a positive ydirection being a direction from bottom to top of said vehicle, 23a2b. a negative ydirection being opposite to the positive ydirection of 23a2a, 23a3. a zaxis comprising: 23a3a. a positive zdirection being a direction from left side to right of said vehicle, 23a3b. a negative zdirection being opposite to the positive zdirection of 23a3a, 23b. a top component being the vehicle upper half above zxplane of the frame of 23a, 23c. a bottom component being the vehicle lower half below said zxplane, 23d. a center of resistance, COR, being a point about which torques due to all fluid resistance forces on said vehicle neutralize one another. 23dl. a resistance force R being a sum of fluid resistance forces, RI on the top component of 23b and R2 on the bottom component of 23c; the resistance force being the R of R=R1+R2, 23d2. an application position of the R of 23dl being said COR; the application position comprising: 23d2a. a position vector T with reference to the COM of 23a, 23d2b. a resistance torque TXR about said COM due to the R of 23dl ; the TXR being equivalent to the torques about said COM due to said R1 and R2. 23e. a center of propulsion, COP, being a point about which torques due to all propulsion forces on said vehicle neutralize one another; the center of propulsion comprising: 23el. propulsion sources coupled to the vehicle; the propulsion sources being outlets of propulsive power, 23e2. a propulsion force P being a sum of propulsion forces resulting from propulsive power output from the propulsion sources of 23el, 23e3. an application position of the P of 23e2 being said COP ; the application position comprising: 23e3a. a position vector Q with reference to the COM of 23a, 23e3b. a propulsion torque QXP about said COM due to the P of 23e2; the propulsion torque being equivalent to all the torques about said COM due to all said propulsion forces from said propulsion sources of 23el, 23f. a stability control system comprising: 23fl. means for generating controlling forces, 23f2. a controlling force C being a sum of said controlling forces resulting from the means of 23fl, 23f3. an application position of the C of 23f2 ; the application position comprising: 23f3a. a position vector E with reference to the COM of 23a, 23f3b. a control torque EXC for a neutralization of destabilizing torques including the propulsion torque, QXP of 23d3b, the resistance torque, TXR of 23e2b, and an additional AXN representing the destabilizing torque due to anomalous fluid disturbances; the EXC being the EXC for the neutralization in the form of EXC+QXP+TXR+AXN=0.
27. The aquatic vehicle of claim 23 wherein: 24a. the means of 23fl for generating controlling forces are bilateral installations of double blade control surfaces; the installations comprising: 24al. rotational axes being coupled bilaterally to the vehicle by their proximal end, 24a2. two blades being mounted oppositely on each of the rotational axes of 24al ; the two blades generating resistance forces from fluid flow relative to motion of the vehicle such that torques about said rotational axis due to said resistance forces neutralize each other, 24a3. means for rotating the rotational axes of 24al, 24a4. a neutral position being a position where said resistance forces on said blades having a zero component along the yaxis of 23a2, 24a5. a left system of said double blade control surfaces being installed on the vehicle left side, 24a6. a right system of said double blade control surfaces being installed on the vehicle right side, 24b. the controlling force C of 23f2 is a result from a simultaneous rotation of the double blade control surfaces of 24a5 and 24a6 from the neutral position of 24a4; said controlling force C being a sum of all forces of fluid resistance on the double blade control surfaces of said systems, 24c. the application position of 23f3 is the application position of the controlling force, C of 24b; said application position comprising: 24cl. a position vector E with reference to the COM of 23a, 24c2. a control torque EXC due to said controlling force, C of 24b, and the position vector, E of 24cl.
28. The aquatic vehicle of claim 24 wherein the propulsion sources of 23el have an arrangement such that the propulsion force, P of 23e2, is aligned through a vicinity of the center of resistance, COR of 23d, when propulsive power is evenly distributed through said propulsion sources ; the arrangement resulting in a mutual neutralization of the propulsion torque, QXP of 21 e3b, and the resistance torque, TXR of 21 d2b, in the form of QXP+TXR=0. when the vehicle is propelled in uniform motion.
29. The aquatic vehicle of claim 25 wherein the top component and the bottom component are identical so that the center of resistance, COR, is localized at the center of mass, COM.
30. An aquatic vehicle; the vehicle comprising: 27a. a center of mass, COM, being a point about which torques due to gravitational forces on all parts of said vehicle neutralize one another; said COM being origin of a Cartesian reference frame of following description: 27al. an xaxis comprising: 27ala. a positive xdirection being a direction of forward motion of said vehicle, 27alb. a negative xdirection being opposite to the positive xdirection of 27ala, 27a2. a yaxis comprising : 27a2a. a positive ydirection being a direction from bottom to top of said vehicle, 27a2b. a negative ydirection being opposite to the positive ydirection of 27a2a, 27a3. a zaxis comprising: 27a3a. a positive zdirection being a direction from left to right of said vehicle, 27a3b. a negative zdirection being opposite to the positive zdirection of 27a3a, 27b. a top component being the vehicle upper half above zxplane of the frame of 27a, 27c. a bottom component being the vehicle lower half below said zxplane, 27d. a center of resistance, COR, being a point about which torques due to all fluid resistance forces on said vehicle neutralize one another. 27dl. a resistance force R being a sum of fluid resistance forces, Rl on the top component of 27b and R2 on the bottom component of 27c ; the resistance force being R wherein R=R1+R2, 27d2. an application position of the R of 27dl being said COR; the application position comprising: 27d2a. a position vector T with reference to the COM of 27a, 27d2b. a resistance torque TXR about said COM due to the R of 27dl ; the TXR being equivalent to the torques about said COM due to said R1 and R2, 27e. a center of propulsion, COP, being a point about which torques due to all propulsion forces on said vehicle neutralize one another; the center of propulsion comprising: 27el. propulsion sources coupled to the vehicle; the propulsion sources being outlets of propulsive power, 27e2. a propulsion force P being a sum of propulsion forces resulting from propulsive power output from the propulsion sources of 27el, 27e3. an application position of the P of 27e2 being said COP; the application position comprising: 27e3a. a position vector Q with reference to the COM of 27a, 27e3b. a propulsion torque QXP about said COM due to the P of 27e2; the propulsion torque being equivalent to all the torques about said COM due to all said propulsion forces from said propulsion sources of 27el, 27f. a supporting system comprising: 27fl. means for inducing a buoyancy for the vehicle when it is at rest, 27f2. means for generating supporting forces on the vehicle when it is in motion, 27f3. a supporting force S being a sum of supporting forces resulting from the means of 27f2.
31. An aquatic vehicle being the vehicle of claim 27 wherein: 28a. the means of 27fl for inducing a buoyancy are bilateral installations of floatation systems; the installations of said floatation systems comprising: 28al. a left floatation system being installed on the vehicle left side, 28a2 a right floatation system being installed on the vehicle right side, 28a3. means for deploying a displacement volume out of the floatation systems of 28al and 28a2 to induce said buoyancy for said vehicle when it is at rest and retrieving said displacement volume into said floatation systems to reduce fluid resistance and restore dynamic shape of said vehicle for high speed performance, 28b. the means of 27f2 for generating supporting forces are bilateral installations of lateral boards; the installations of said lateral boards comprising: 28bl. a left system of lateral boards being installed on the vehicle left side, 28b2. a right system of lateral boards being installed on the vehicle right side, 28b3. means for adjusting lateral extension of the boards, 28c. the supporting force, S of 27f3, is a sum of supporting forces resulting from reaction of the lateral boards of 28bl and 28b2 to fluid flow relative to motion of the vehicle; said supporting forces being adjustable by the means of 28b3 to provide balance for different loads on different parts of the vehicle.
32. The aquatic vehicle of claim 28 wherein the propulsion sources of 27el have an arrangement such that the propulsion force, P of 27e2, is aligned through a vicinity of the center of resistance, COR of 27d, when propulsive power is evenly distributed through said propulsion sources; the arrangement resulting in a mutual neutralization of the propulsion torque, QXP of 27e3b, and the resistance torque, TXR of 27d2b, in the form of QXP+TXR=O, when the vehicle is propelled in uniform motion.
33. The aquatic vehicle of claim 29 wherein the top component and the bottom component are identical so that the center of resistance, COR, is localized at the center of mass, COM.
34. The aquatic vehicle of claim 27 further comprising a stability control system; the system comprising: 31 a. means for generating controlling forces, 3 lb. a controlling force C being a sum of said controlling forces resulting from the means of 31 a, 31c. an application position of the C of 31 b ; the application position comprising: 31 c 1. a position vector E with reference to the COM of 27a, 31 c2. a control torque EXC for a neutralization of destabilizing torques including the propulsion torque, QXP of 27d3b, the resistance torque, TXR of 27e2b, and an additional AXN representing the destabilizing torque due to anomalous fluid disturbances; the EXC being the EXC for the neutralization in the form of EXC+QXP+TXR+AXN=O.
35. The aquatic vehicle of claim 31 wherein: 32a. the means of 31 a for generating controlling forces are bilateral installations of double blade control surfaces; the installations comprising: 32al. rotational axes being coupled bilaterally to the vehicle by their proximal end, 32a2. two blades being mounted oppositely on each of the rotational axes of 32al ; the two blades generating resistance forces from fluid flow relative to motion of the vehicle such that torques about said rotational axis due to said resistance forces neutralize each other, 32a3. means for rotating the rotational axes of 32al, 32a4. a neutral position being a position where said resistance forces on said blades having a zero component along the yaxis of 27a2, 32a5. a left system of said double blade control surfaces being installed on the vehicle left side, 32a6. a right system of said double blade control surfaces being installed on the vehicle right side, 32b. the controlling force C of 31 b is a result from a simultaneous rotation of the double blade control surfaces of 32a5 and 32a6 from the neutral position of 32a4; said controlling force C being a sum of all forces of fluid resistance on the double blades control surfaces of said systems, 32c. the application position of 31c is the application position of the controlling force, C of 32b; said application position comprising: 32cl. a position vector E with reference to the COM of 27a, 32c2. a control torque EXC due to said controlling force, C of 32b, and the position vector, E of 32c l.
36. The aquatic vehicle of claim 32 wherein: 33a. the means of 27fl for inducing a buoyancy are bilateral installations of floatation systems; the installations of said floatation systems comprising: 33al. a left floatation system being installed on the vehicle left side, 33a2. a right floatation system being installed on the vehicle right side, 33a3. means for deploying a displacement volume out of the floatation systems of 33al and 33a2 to induce said buoyancy for said vehicle when it is at rest and retrieving said displacement volume into said floatation systems to reduce fluid resistance and restore dynamic shape of said vehicle for high speed performance, 33b. the means of 27f2 for generating the supporting forces are bilateral installations of lateral boards; the installations of said lateral boards comprising: 33bl. a left system of lateral boards being installed on the vehicle left side, 33b2. a right system of lateral boards being installed on the vehicle right side, 33b3. means for adjusting lateral extension of the boards, 33c. the supporting force, S of27f3. is a sum of the supporting forces resulting from reaction of the lateral boards of 33bl and 33b2 to fluid flow relative to motion of the vehicle; said supporting forces being adjustable by the means of 33b3 to provide balance for different loads on different parts of the vehicle.
37. The aquatic vehicle of claim 33 wherein the propulsion sources of 27el have an arrangement such that the propulsion force, P of 27e2, is aligned through a vicinity of the center of resistance, COR of 27d, when propulsive power is evenly distributed through said propulsion sources; the arrangement resulting in a mutual neutralization of the propulsion torque, QXP of 27e3b, and the resistance torque, TXR of 27d2b, in the form of QXP+TXR=0, when the vehicle is propelled in uniform motion.
38. The aquatic vehicle of claim 34 wherein the top component and the bottom component are identical so that the center of resistance, COR, is localized at the center of mass, COM.
39. The vehicle of claim 35 being an AeroSpace Vehicle (ASV) wherein the floatation system is a system of landing gears.
40. The aquatic vehicle of claim 31 wherein: 37a. the top component of 27b includes a distal portion and a top extensor; the top extensor having means for deploying vertically to raise the distal portion above a water line, 37b. the bottom component of 27c includes a distal portion and a bottom extensor; the bottom extensor having means for deploying vertically to adjust a location of the center of resistance, COR, of 27d.
41. The aquatic vehicle of claim 37 wherein: 38a. the means of 27fl for inducing a buoyancy are bilateral installations of floatation systems; the installations of said floatation systems comprising: 38al. a left floatation system being installed on the vehicle left side, 38a2. a right floatation system being installed on the vehicle right side, 38a3. means for deploying a displacement volume out of the floatation systems of 38al and 38a2 to induce said buoyancy for said vehicle when it is at rest and retrieving said displacement volume into said floatation systems to reduce fluid resistance and restore dynamic shape of said vehicle for high speed performance, 38b. the means of 27f2 for generating the supporting forces are bilateral installations of lateral boards; the installations of said lateral boards comprising: 38bl. a left system of lateral boards being installed on the vehicle left side, 38b2. a right system of lateral boards being installed on the vehicle right side, 38b3. means for adjusting lateral extension of the boards, 38c. the supporting force, S of 27f3, is a sum of the supporting forces resulting from reaction of the lateral boards of 38bl and 38b2 to fluid flow relative to motion of the vehicle; said supporting forces being adjustable by the means of 38b3 to provide balance for different loads on different parts of the vehicle.
42. The aquatic vehicle of claim 38 wherein: 39a. the means of 31a for generating controlling forces are bilateral installations of double blade control surfaces; the installations comprising: 39al. rotational axes being coupled bilaterally to the vehicle by their proximal end, 39a2. two blades being mounted oppositely on each of the rotational axes of 39al ; the two blades generating resistance forces from fluid flow relative to motion of the vehicle such that torques about said rotational axis due to said resistance forces neutralize each other, 39a3. means for rotating the rotational axes of 39al, 39a4. a neutral position being a position where said resistance forces on said blades having a zero component along the yaxis of 27a2, 39a5. a left system of said double blade control surfaces being installed on the vehicle left side, 39a6. a right system of said double blade control surfaces being installed on the vehicle right side, 39b. the controlling force C of 31b is a result from a simultaneous rotation of the double blade control surfaces of 39a5 and 39a6 from the neutral position of 39a4; said controlling force C being a sum of all forces of fluid resistance on the double blade control surfaces of said systems, 39c. the application position of 31c is application position of the controlling force, C of 39b; said application position comprising: 39cl. a position vector E with reference to the COM of 27a, 39c2. a control torque EXC due to said controlling force, C of 39b, and the position vector, E of 39c1.
43. The aquatic vehicle of claim 39 wherein the propulsion sources of 27el have an arrangement such that the propulsion force, P of 27e2, is aligned through a vicinity of the center of resistance, COR of 27d, when propulsive power is evenly distributed through said propulsion sources; the arrangement resulting in a mutual neutralization of the propulsion torque, QXP of 27e3b, and the resistance torque, TXR of 27d2b, in the form of QXP+TXR=0, when the vehicle is propelled in uniform motion.
Description:
AQUATIC VEHICLE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the field of aquatic vehicles and more particularly to a novel design for submarines and surface vessels.

Conventional light weight submarines do not have high maneuverability; for instant, they cannot slide sideways, ascend and descend without changing body orientation, and reverse their forward/backward motion along the velocity line.

Besides being propelled and steered from the rear end, conventional light weight submarines have a relatively low Reynold number, and therefore high drag coefficient in comparing to that of heavier submarines. Since the rear end maneuvering and high drag impair their stability at high speed, conventional light weight submarines are limited to low speed operations.

The Navy hydrofoils, running on water jet engines mounted on underwater foils, are unstable vehicle, because their distribution of mass is off-balanced above the water line ; they are therefore difficult to maneuver at high speed.

Fast moving surface vessels, such as jet-skis, power boats, hovercrafts, and the like, suffer the destabilizing effect of surface roughness and surface waves, particularly at high speed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the invention, apparatus and methods are provided for an Aquatic Vehicle.

An Aquatic Vehicle includes a Top Component, a Bottom Component, a Connecting Trunk between the Top and the Bottom Components, propulsion sources, e. g. propellers or jet nozzles, and control surfaces coupled to the connecting trunk.

The control surfaces are designed to have two blades of equal area mounted oppositely on their rotational axis. The control surfaces are structured so that they are thickened from the fore to the aft edge. The control surfaces are arranged so that they transmit their maneuvering effect through the center of mass, COM, of the Vehicle.

Besides COM, other points of consideration relating to the theory of the invention are COP, COR and COR'-COP is the point at which applied the equivalent to the total forces of propulsion on the Vehicle, COR, applied the equivalent to the total forces of resistance and COR', the image of COR reflected through COM.

In the first embodiment, the Aquatic Vehicle is an Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV), or Vehicle 10.

The Top and Bottom Components of Vehicle 10 are identical in mass, size, and shape.

COM of Vehicle 10 is midway between the Top and the Bottom Components. COR coincides with COM. The Propulsion Sources are arranged so that COP also coincides with COM.

Vehicle 10 has: first controls for controlling an USAV in acceleration, second controls for controlling an USAV in uniform motion, third controls for controlling an USAV in deceleration, fourth controls for controlling an USAV in reversing its motion along the velocity line, fifth controls for controlling an USAV in its sliding sideways without changing its body orientation, sixth controls for stabilizing a zigzagging USAV, seventh controls for controlling the lift on an USAV in motion, eight controls for controlling an USAV in ascending and descending without changing its body orientation, ninth controls for controlling the upward and downward orientation of an USAV, tenth controls for stabilizing a back-and-forth rocking USAV, eleventh controls for controlling an USAV in turning, twelve controls for stabilizing a side-to-side wobbling USAV, thirteen controls for providing the floatation for an USAV at rest and in slow motion, fourteenth controls for controlling an USAV in emergency surfacing, and a conversion for converting the USAV into an Aero-Space Vehicle (ASV).

In another embodiment, the Aquatic Vehicle is a Surface Aquatic Vehicle (SAV), or Vehicle 100.

The Top and Bottom Components are not identical. The Propulsion Sources are arranged so that COP travels from COM at the beginning of acceleration to COR at terminal speed, and from COR'at the beginning of deceleration to COM at zero velocity.

Vehicle 100 has: first controls for controlling a SAV in acceleration, second controls for controlling a SAV in uniform motion, third controls for controlling a SAV in deceleration, fourth controls for controlling the lift on a SAV in motion, fifth controls for controlling a SAV in ascending and descending without changing its body orientation, sixth controls for controlling the upward and downward orientation of a SAV, seventh controls for stabilizing a back-and-forth rocking SAV,

eighth controls for stabilizing a zigzagging SAV, ninth controls for controlling a SAV in turning, tenth controls for stabilizing a side-to-side wobbling SAV, eleventh controls for managing a SAV under emergency condition.

Analogous to an airplane riding on its wings through the air, the USAV rides on its Control Boards through water. Because an USAV, as an airplane, does not need the buoyant force to float in motion, it does not carry the excess volume of exchange for floatation, therefore, it is faster, more maneuverable and more versatile than conventional submarines.

Analogous to a dolphin swimming with its trunk standing up, the SAV elevates its passengers above surface roughness and surface waves. The function of its underwater maneuvering parts is equivalent to that of the wheels and tires negotiating with the ground surface to move an automobile trunk through the air.

Many of the attendant features of this invention will be more readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed descriptions and theory considered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which like reference symbols designate like parts throughout the figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 through FIG. 4 are vector diagrams demonstrating the analysis of the First Problem to which the present invention provides two solutions represented by the Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV) and the Surface Aquatic Vehicle (SAV).

FIG. 5 through FIG. 8 are vector diagrams demonstrating the disadvantages with conventional vessels according to the analysis of the First Problem.

FIG. 9 and FIG. 10 are vector diagrams demonstrating the solution which the present invention provides as the USAV to resolve the first problem.

FIG. I 1 and FIG. 12 illustrates general views of an USAV and a SAV prototypes in accordance with the present invention. These general views are to facilitate the recognition of the like parts with like referrence symbols in subsequent detailed drawings from FIG. 15 through FIG. 24.

FIG. 13 illustrates the Second Problem to which the present invention provides a solution namely the double blade control surfaces which are to be applied on the structure defined by the solutions of the USAV and SAV to the First Problem.

FIG. 14 illustrates the solution to the Second Problem in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 15 is a side elevational view of an USAV in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 16 is a sectional elevational view of an USAV in accordance with the present invention along line 16-16 of FIG. 15.

FIG. 17 is a sectional top view of an USAV in accordance with the present invention along line 17-17 of FIG. 16.

FIG. 18 is a sectional bottom view of an USAV in accordance with the present invention along line 18-18 of FIG. 15.

FIG. 19 is another view from the same orientation as FIG. 18 of an USAV in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 20 is a partial view showing one orientation of the Lateral Boards of an USAV in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 21 is a partial view of another orientation of the Lateral Boards of an USAV in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 22 is a side elevation view of a SAV in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 23 is a front elevational view of a SAV in accordance with the present invention along line 23-23 of FIG. 22.

FIG. 24 is a top view of a SAV in accordance with the present invention along line 24-24 of FIG. 22.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The twenty four drawings are numbered in accordance with the order of the three problems discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION; The First is the problem to which this invention represents two solutions that define the application of the propulsion force and the structure of the Aquatic Vehicles.

The Second is the problem to which this invention represents a solution that determines the design of the control surfaces applied on the Aquatic Vehicles.

The Third is the problem to which this invention represents a solution that determines the arrangement of the control surfaces applied on the Aquatic Vehicles.

FIG. 1 through FIG. 4 are vectors diagrams describing an analysis and a theoretical solution to the First Problem.

FIG. 1 defines Center of Mass COM and its location on the Cartesian frame of reference. FIG. 2 defines Center of Resistance COR and its location on the Cartesian frame of reference. FIG. 3 defines Propulsion force P and depicts the reason why its point of application, Center of Propulsion COP, must travel from COM to COR to avoid causing undesirable rolling. FIG. 4 depicts the movement of P from COM to COR during acceleration, and the movement of P from COR', the image of COR reflected through COM, to COM during deceleration; the two processes are each other image resulting from the

reflection through COM of their time reversal.

FIG. 5 through FIG. 8 are vector diagrams describing reasons for the disadvantages with conventional vessels in accordance with the analysis of the first problem.

FIG. 5 depicts the reason why stability control torque CXE is needed when P is, as on conventional vessels, improperly fixed through COM. FIG. 6 shows a submarine moving linearly with its axis of symmetry aligning with the direction of motion along the x-axis; in its linear motion, the submarine does not need CXE, although P is fixed through COM.

FIG. 7 shows the submarine subject to a non-zero resistance torque in its directional change; if CXE does not function adequately in this time at high speed, the submarine may roll out of control. FIG. 8 depicts the maximum need for CXE at terminal speed when P is improperly fixed through COM; the maximum need for CXE makes the operation of conventional vessels inefficient.

FIG. 9 and FIG. 10 depict the simplest solution to the first problem. FIG. 9 shows the location of COM at the midpoint between ml and m2 when ml=m2. FIG. 9 shows the location of COR at the midpoint between ml and m2 when the forces of water resistance on the two Components which are identical in size and in the shape of either a sphere, a prolate spheroid, or an ellipsoid, are equal. Subsequently, COR'also coincides with COM and COR at the midpoint between ml and m2. The coincidence allows COP to be fixed at the point of coincidence which, with the Component identical symmetric shape, is also the center of the point symmetry of the Two Component structure.

FIG. 11 and FIG. 12 illustrate two prototypes of the Aquatic Vehicles in accordance with the present invention, with their control surfaces in neutral position. These illustrations present general views of the invention to facilitate the recognition of the like parts with like referrence symbols in the subsequent detailed drawings of FIG. 15 through FIG. 24.

FIG. 11 shows three views of a proposed prototype of the USAV, rear view 11 A, side view 11B and top view 11C. The actual size of an USAV varies according to market demand. FIG. 12 shows three views of a proposed prototype of the SAV, rear view 12A, side view 12B and top view 12C; each view consists of two structural deployments, folded and extended. The actual size of a SAV varies according to market demand. Like referrence symbols designating like parts are not included in these general views; they are in the standards drawings of FIG. 15 through FIG. 24.

FIG. 13 and FIG. 14 illustrate, respectively, the Second Problem and a solution to the Second Problem.

In FIG. 13, the Second Problem addresses a limitation on the rotatability of control surfaces with the illustration of a common single blade control surface subject to the pressure of fluid flow. FIG. 14 illustrates a solution to the Second Problem as a double blade control

surface in the flow depicted in FIG. 13; the torques due to the fluid flow incident on the two blades in FIG. 14 neutralize each other, and the double blade surface can operate without being impaired by the intense pressure at high speed, and similarly at great depth.

Both Aquatic Vehicles, as illustrated by the two prototypes in FIG. 11 and FIG. 12, have two Components for containment, the Top and the Bottom. But for an USAV, the two Components are identical in mass, size and shape, while for a SAV, they are not identical.

In the following drawings, FIG. 15 through FIG. 24, each Vehicle with its control surfaces and their arrangement are described individually, FIG. 15 through FIG. 21 for Vehicle 10, and FIG. 22 through FIG. 24 for Vehicle 100. With reference to a Cartesian frame to clarify the configuration, the Vehicle velocity is in the x-direction.

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE UNDER SURFACE AQUATIC VEHICLE (USAV) OR VEHICLE 10 Vehicle 10 is a light weight high speed submarine. Referring to the drawings, FIG. 15 through FIG. 21, the structural content of Vehicle 10 includes: 1.1. Top Component 12 with Crews and Passengers 52, and Bottom Component 14 with Engines 50 FIG. 15, a side elevational view of an USAV, shows a side view of Top Component 12 and Bottom Component 14. FIG. 16, a front elevational view of Vehicle 10 along line 2-2 of FIG. 15, shows a sectional front view of Top Component 12 and Bottom Component 14.

Crews and Passengers 52 are normally housed in 12, and Engines 50 are housed in 14, as shown in FIG. 16. In a large Vehicle, however, connecting passages (not shown) can be provided between 12 and 14, and working crews and passengers can also be housed in 14.

1.2. Connecting Trunk 18 FIG. 15 shows a side view, and FIG. 16, a front view of Trunk 18 connecting the two Components. Trunk 18 is cylindrical; its axis is the y-axis.

Through Trunk 18 are the passages for crews and passengers to move to-and-from the two Components on a large USAV.

1.3. The Rudder of Blades 36 and 38, and Rudder Ring 40 FIG. 15 shows the side view of the Rudder of Blades 36 and 38. The two Blades have the shapes of two equal halves of an ellipse split off along its minor axis.

FIG. 16 shows the fore edge of Blade 36 and the front view of Rudder Ring 40.

FIG. 17, a sectional top view along line 7-7 of FIG. 16, shows Rudder Ring 40 mounted rotatively on Trunk 18. As shown, Blade 36 and Blade 38 are mounted on the opposite sides of Ring 40. When Ring 40 rotates, Blade 36 and Blade 38 rotate together as shown by 36' and 3 8' 1.4. Flippers 24 and 26, Propulsion Sources 42,43,44 and 45, and Frame 17 FIG. 15 shows the side views of Flipper 24, Propulsion Source 42 and Frame 17.

FIG. 16 shows an edge of Flipper 24, a surface of Flipper 26, the front views of Propulsion Sources 42,43,44 and 45, and of Frame 17.

The structure and the arrangement of Flippers 24 and 26 are described in THEORY OF THE INVENTION, and their functions, in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

The four Propulsion Sources are arranged symmetrically through COM, in the yz-plane. Each symmetrical pair, 42 and 45 or 43 and 44, is connected to the same drive shaft or jet engine to prevent an accidental unilateral loss of power. The four Propulsion Sources considered here on an USAV are for safety precaution. Under normal application, two would be sufficient. A prototype may need only one. The four propulsion sources are however essential on an ASV-a conversion from the USAV-for its maneuvering in space of no massive medium.

1.5. The Floatation System of Air Bags 70 and 72 FIG. 16 shows a sectional front view of Air Bags 70 and 72 in their compartment inside Top Component 12.

1.6. End Boards 20 and 22 FIG. 15 shows a side view of the two End Boards, Head Board 20 and Tail board 22; as shown, the angle of the two Boards causes the USAV to ascend, if the Vehicle moves to the left, or descend, if the Vehicle moves to the right, without changing its body orientation.

FIG. 18, a view of Vehicle 10 along line 18-18 of FIG. 15, shows the bottom view of Head Board 20. The fore blade of 20 is convex, and its aft blade, concave; their areas are, however, equal. The concave aft blade helps the Board avoid the turbulence tailing the fore blade in the water flow. Tail Board 22 is identical to Head Board 20 in shape and size.

The structure of the Boards represents a solution to the Second Problem and is discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION. The functions of the Boards are discussed in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

1.7. The Lateral Boards-Upper 28 and 32, and Lower 30 and 34-and their respective Mounting Frames of sides 28'and 28"for 28,32'and 32"for 32,30'and 30"for 30,34'and 34"for 34 FIG. 16 shows the front view of the Lateral Boards, the Upper pair of 28 and 32, and the Lower pair of 30 and 34.

FIG. 18 and FIG. 19 show the bottom view of Upper Lateral Boards 28 and 32 ; the axis of 28 is mounted movably the L-Frames of sides 28'and 28", and the axis of 32, on the L-Frame of sides 32'and 32".

Sides 28'and 32'are parallel to the x-axis, while 28"and 32"are perpendicular to the x-axis. Each axis is mounted on a L-Frame by its distal end and its midpoint. On the upper pair of 28 and 32, the two distal ends are movable along parallel sides 28'and 32', while the

two midpoints, along perpendicular sides 28"and 32". To tuck in, the distal ends move away from, while the midpoints move toward the center of mass; by reversing the point movements, the two axes spread out. Similarly, on the lower pair of 30 and 34, the axes are mounted on 30'and 34', the parallel sides, and 30"and 34", the perpendicular sides of their L-Frame.

The structure of the Boards represents a solution to the Second Problem and is discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION. The functions of the Boards are discussed in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SURFACE AQUATIC VEHICLE (SAV) OR VEHICLE 100 Vehicle 100 is a high speed surface vehicle. It carries its passengers in two modes: On water surface as a power boat, but with higher stability and maneuverability, Above water line 184, as shown in FIG. 23, as a hydrofoil, but with higher stability and maneuverability As built for permanent floatation, an SAV has no Air Bags.

Analogous to a dolphin swimming with its body standing up, it does not have underwater Flippers, and has one pair of Lateral Boards; for additional stability, a heavy SAV may need two pairs of Lateral Boards operating in coordination, as the Lateral Boards on an USAV. With its COM underwater, it does not need control surfaces above the water line in ordinary application; to perform at exceedingly high speed, however, over water control surfaces will be provided accordingly. Referring to the drawings, FIG. 22 through FIG. 24, the structural content of Vehicle 100 includes: 2.1. Top Component 112 with Crews and Passengers 180 and Bottom Component 114 with Enclosed Engines FIG. 22, a side elevational view of a SAV, shows a side view of Top Component 112 and Bottom Component 114. FIG. 23, a front elevational view of a SAV along line 23-23 of FIG. 22, shows a sectional frontal view of Top Component 112 and Bottom Component 114.

Crews and Passengers 180 are normally housed in 112, and Engines, in 114, as shown in FIG. 23. In a large Vehicle, however, connecting passages (not shown) can be provided between 112 and 114, and working crews and passengers can also be housed in 114.

2.2. Connecting Frame 116 FIG. 22 shows Frame 116 connecting the two Components. 116 can be adjustable to deploy the Vehicle in a structural configuration variable from folded to extended and vice-versa. The structural deployment varies to mobilize the Propulsion Sources in accordance with the required movement discussed in the First Problem of THEORY OF THE INVENTION.

2. 3. Trunk 118 FIG. 22 shows a side view, and FIG. 23, the front view of Trunk 118 connecting the two Components. Trunk 118 is cylindrical; its axis is the y-axis.

Through 118 are the passages for crews and passengers to move to-and-from the two Components on a large Vehicle.

2.4. The Central Rudder of Blades 136 and 138, and Bottom Rudder 182 FIG. 22 shows a side view of the Central and the Bottom Rudders. Rotating in the same direction, the function of the two Rudders is equivalent to that of the Rudder on Vehicle 10. Rotating in the opposite directions, their function is equivalent to that of the Flippers; for a SAV moving with its structure vertically extended, the two Rudders are more effective than the Flippers in maintaining its vertical stability.

The structure of the Rudders represents a solution to the Second Problem and is discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION. The functions of the Rudders are described in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

2.5. Rear Rudder 160 and Axis 161 FIG. 22 shows a side view of Rear Rudder 160 and its rotational axis 161 ; its top view is in FIG. 24 which is the top view of Vehicle 100 along line 24-24 of FIG. 22.

The function of Rear Rudder 160 is equivalent to that of the Flippers on Vehicle 10 in controlling right/left turning.

The structure of Rudder 160 represents a solution to the Second Problem and is discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION. Its functions are described in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

2.6. Propulsion Sources 142 and 145, and Guiding Brace 19 FIG. 22 shows a side view of Propulsion Source 142. FIG. 23 shows the front view of 142 and 145, and of Guiding Brace 19.

The two Propulsion Sources are arranged symmetrically through COM, in the yz-plane. The pair is connected to the same drive shaft or jet engine to prevent an accidental unilateral loss of power. Functions of the Propulsion Sources are described in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION; primarily, the Propulsion Sources control acceleration, uniform motion and deceleration.

Preferably, the power generators are electric. The batteries are charged by inboard combustion engine if necessary, and by outboard solar panels whenever possible.

Expectedly, the future power supply will be electromagnetic by engine of minimal moving parts.

2.7. End Boards 152 and 154 FIG. 22 shows a side view of the two End Boards, Head Board 154 and Tail Board

152. FIG. 24, shows the top view of Tail Board 152.

The structure of the Boards represents a solution to the Second Problem and is discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION. The functions of the Boards are discussed in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

2.8 The Lateral Boards 128 and 132 FIG. 22 shows the side view of Lateral Board 128. FIG. 23 shows the front views of 128 and 132. FIG. 24 shows the top views of 128 and 132.

A heavier SAV needs a second pair of Lateral Boards so that the Upper and Lower pairs operate in the coordination similar to that of the two pairs of Lateral Boards on an USAV.

The structure of the Boards represents a solution to the Second Problem and is discussed in THEORY OF THE INVENTION. The functions of the Boards are discussed in OPERATION OF THE INVENTION.

THEORY OF THE INVENTION This invention represents two solutions, namely the Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV) or Vehicle 10 and the Surface Aquatic Vehicle (SAV) or Vehicle 100, to the following three interrelated problems of high speed motion through fluids, e. g. water and/or air.

The first and the key problem is to determine the way to apply a given force of propulsion, P, on a vehicle to accelerate and decelerate it without causing any undesirable rolling effect. The solution to this problem defines the application of P and subsequently, the innovated structure of the Aquatic Vehicle to facilitate the application so defined.

Consequently, The second problem is to determine a design for the control surfaces so that they can retain their normal operability through stiff fluid resistance at high speed, and also under intense pressure at great depth, and The third problem is to determine an arrangement for the control surfaces on the innovated structure to optimize maneuvering control.

1. ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST PROBLEM FIG. 1 through FIG. 4 are vector diagrams demonstrating the analysis of the First Problem.

Let COM be the center of mass of a vehicle. With respect to COM, the mass of the vehicle is representable by two point masses, ml and m2, and the vehicle structure, by a system of two Components, the Top and the Bottom, of which ml and m2 are, respectively, the center of mass.

FIG. 1 shows ml and m2 positioned on the y-axis of a Cartesian frame of reference.

For convenience, COM is positioned at the origin. Accordingly, mlLl+m2L2 = 0 or MILI =-m2L2 where LI is the position vector of ml with reference to COM, and L2, of m2.

The symbols in this analysis are non-capital letters for scalar quantities, capital letters for vectors and the cross products, such as PXQ.

The vehicle is now analyzable in terms of a two Component System. To accelerate the System in the x-direction while preventing it from rolling about the z-axis, the propulsion force, P=A, where A is the accelerating force, must be applied at COM, as shown also in FIG. l. However, the propulsion through COM can avoid causing undesirable rolling only at the initial time, and/or in empty space of zero resistance.

In a massive fluid, e. g. water or air, the forces of resistance on the two Components build up with increasing speed in the direction opposite to their velocity.

FIG. 2 shows the resistance forces resulting on the contact surfaces of the two Components, i. e. RI on ml and R2 on m2. The equivalent is R=R1+R2 at COR, where COR is the center of resistance localized between ml and m2 according to: RLXD I =-R2XD2 D1 is the position vector of ml with reference to COR, and D2, of m2.

Because of the growing resistance, R+0 once the vehicle picks up speed; P must thereafter account for the counter-resistance force,-R, besides A, i. e. P=-R+A and P must be applied at COP according to: PXQ =-RXT where Q is the position vector of COP with reference to COM, and T, of COR.

COP is referred to as the center of propulsion-the point at which P is applied to be equivalent to the thrusts generated from the Propulsion Sources.

FIG. 3 shows the application of P=-R+A at COP. The proper location of COP makes P equivalent to A and-R, and now, the vehicle represented by the two Components accelerates through the fluid in the x-direction without suffering any effect of rolling about the z-axis.

As shown in FIG. 4, since R increases with speed, the torque equation requires COP to travel from COM at the beginning of acceleration, when P=A and R=0, to COR at the end of acceleration, when the vehicle reaches its maximum terminal cruising speed while A=0 and P=-R.

Conversely, FIG. 4 also shows the travelling process of COP during deceleration, from COR'to COM, where COR'is the image of COR reflected through COM. At COR', A=0 and

P=R, and at COM, P=-A and R=0.

Geometrically, the travelling process of COP during deceleration is the reflection through COM of the time reversal of its process during acceleration. P=-A, at the end of the deceleration, corresponds to its image, P=A at the beginning of the acceleration. At full stop, P=0 ; the removal of P=-A after deceleration and the introduction of P=A before acceleration are also the image of each other resulting from the reflection through COM of their time reversal.

The required movement of COP to prevent undesirable rolling is a key problem to be resolved for future designs to improve the stabilization and maneuvering control of moving craft through fluids.

Conventional vessels are not built to meet the requirement of COP movement; consequently, they suffer the disadvantages of stability loss and inefficiency, particularly in high speed motion. Some typical disadvantages are now discussed to clarify the need for the solution represented by the two Vehicles of this invention.

2. TYPICAL DISADVANTAGES WITH CONVENTIONAL VESSELS FIG. 5 through FIG. 8 are vector diagrams demonstrating the typical disadvantages with conventional vessels in accordance with the analysis of the First Problem.

A typical disadvantage of stability loss is as follows: Unlike automobile and surface boats, submarines and aircraft travel through the medium which embeds their body totally. Conventionally, these vessels are so structured to have the total force of propulsion, P, align with their COM. The alignment is supposed to enhance maneuverability. However, their maneuverability, particularly that of large size vessels, is eventually impaired by the medium resistance. The impairment is commonly critical in sudden deceleration, e. g. when the propulsive power, or part of it, is accidentally cut off while the vessel is moving at high speed; consequently, a stalling submarine or aircraft may roll out of control. According to the above analysis, the cause of the impairment is understandable as follows.

As shown in FIG. 5, when P is fixed through COM, COP cannot travel as required, and P=-R+A is no longer equivalent to-R and A, therefore RXT causes the vessel to rotate about the z-axis. At high speed, R is large, RXT becomes uncontrollable if the control power of the vessel is inadequate.

Normally, a stability control torque, CXE, is introduced, on the x-axis for instant, to adequately balance RXT, i. e. CXE=-RXT, and retain the system in its translational motion.

CXE generally represents the control torque generated from the vessel maneuvering mechanism. In balancing RXT, CXE compensates for the required movement of COP.

With regard to submarines, the critical function of CXE in stability control is

demonstrated in the following.

Shown in FIG. 6 is a submarine symmetrical about its longitudinal axis. The symmetry allows the submarine to perform quite efficiently in its linear motion along the x-axis, because by the symmetry, R aligns with P through COM and COR. Since R and T are co-linear, RXT=0 and CXE is not necessary.

However, as in FIG. 7, when the submarine exposes its asymmetrical front and rear structures, due to either the uneven mass distribution or the difference in dimensions and shapes, to the relative water flow during a directional change, R and T are no longer in line, and therefore RXT : TO. If the maneuvering mechanism of CXE malfunctions in this time at high speed, the submarine may roll out of control.

Shown in FIG. 8 is another typical disadvantage due to the fixation of P through COM -the inefficiency in high speed operation.

Since R increases with speed, from R=0 at rest to its stiffest of R=-P at terminal cruising velocity, CXE=-RXT varies accordingly from CXE=0 to CXE=PXT, and therefore the vessel requires the most power for stability control to cruise at terminal speed. The control power required to maintain stability in cruising makes the vessel inefficient to operate in a dense medium, such as water, at high speed, when and where R becomes critically stiff.

3. UNDER-SURFACE AQUATIC VEHICLE (USAV OR VEHICLE 10 AS A SOLUTION TO THE FIRST PROBLEM FIG. 9 and FIG. 10 are vector diagrams demonstrating the structural principle of Vehicle 10 in accordance with the analysis of the First Problem.

Vehicle 10 represents the simplest solution to the first problem; it meets the requirement of COP movement by eliminating the movement. Key to the elimination of COP movement, from COM to COR and from COR'to COM, is to have COM, COR and COR' coincide with one another; then, the required travelling distances become zero.

With its Top Components 12 and Bottom Component 14 being identical in mass, size and shape, the midpoint between the two Components is the point where COM, COR and COR'coincide. Following is a formal analysis.

FIG. 9 shows the localization of COM at the midpoint between ml and m2. The reason is as follows.

Because the Component masses are identical, ml=m2, the solution to the equation of COM localization, mlLl=-m2L2, is L1=-L2, therefore COM is the midpoint between ml and m2.

FIG. 10 shows the localization of COR at the midpoint between ml and m2. The reason is as follows.

Because the Components are identical in size and in the symmetric shape of either a

sphere, a prolate spheroid, or an ellipsoid, the resistance forces on the two Components are equal, R1=R2, solution to the equation of COR localization, R1XD1=-R2XD2, is D1=-D2, therefore COR is the midpoint between ml and m2.

REMARK: The two Components are at different depths, therefore they are under different pressures and confront different resistance. For a rather small light weight USAV, however, the depth difference is not sufficient to cause significant resistance difference. Of a large heavy vessel, the Bottom Component would have its size smaller than that of the Top accordingly.

Since COR coincides with COM, its image, COR', by the reflection through COM, also coincides with COM. COP, therefore, no longer has to travel, neither from COM to COR during acceleration, nor from COR'to COM during deceleration. The problem of rolling prevention is thus resolved by fixing COP at the coincidence point-the midpoint between the two identical Components; the identical symmetric shape of the two Components makes the midpoint the center of structural symmetry.

REMARK: Unintentionally, the Aquatic Vehicle turns out to be analogous to the dolphin in various functional aspects. Some explanation by analogy will therefore be helpful in understanding the reason for the structure and parts of this invention.

Commonly, water-crafts propel and steer astern. The dolphin outmaneuvers man-made vessels with its body undulation and the movement of its dorsal fin about the center of its length.

Note that the dolphin tail flukes are observed to move upward as its body is propelled forward. With their softness and flexibility, the upward movement of the flukes cannot explain the power sufficient for the forward propulsion. The actual power must therefore originate mainly from the relative downward movement of the body segment, from the peduncle to the flippers, which centers about the dorsal fin. Besides muscular strength, the relative downward movement, particularly of a large dolphin or a killer-whale, also has the gravitational advantage.

Technically therefore, a mechanical emulation of the dolphin requires a structural modification to bring the maneuvering effect from the ordinary rear end toward the center; in this case, the modification is the innovation of a two component structure.

FIG. 11 illustrates three views of an USAV-rear view 11A, side view 11B and top view 11 C. These views are of a proposed prototype, the actual size of an USAV varies according to market demand.

The structure of two identical components and the application of propulsion force at the center of symmetry provide Vehicle 10 the following advantages: 3.1. The Efficiency in High Speed Performance

Since COR coincides with COM, its position vector, T, with respect to COM is zero, therefore RXT=0, and Vehicle 10 requires no power for CXE in all phases of its motion- accelerating, decelerating or cruising at maximum terminal speed which is conventionally the most demanding phase in terms of stabilizing power.

Furthermore, because Vehicle 10 rides on its lateral boards in water as a fixed wing aircraft on its wings in the air, it does not need the buoyant force to float in motion, and does not carry the excess volume of exchange for floatation. Therefore, its size is compact for the sole purpose of containment need, and water resistance on the compact surface is accordingly minimized. Consequently, the efficiency of the Vehicle is further optimized.

3.2. The Exceptional Maneuverability With the symmetry of two identical Components in the shape of either a sphere, a prolate spheroid, or an ellipsoid, RXT is equal to zero for translation not only in the x-direction, but in all directions, so long as the control effect is transmitted through the center of structural symmetry. Vehicle 10 is therefore capable of the following exceptional maneuverability: 3.2.1. sliding side-to-side without changing its body orientation, 3.2.2. ascending/descending without changing its body orientation, 3.2.3. reversing its forward/backward motion along the velocity line.

3.3. The Stability to Be Powered for High Speed Motion By applying P at the center of symmetry, RXT=0 and the propulsion force, P, on an USAV is not restricted in either magnitude or direction. The USAV can therefore be powered to move at the speed as high as the engine can offer and the structure can sustain.

Note that, being propelled and steered astern, and by the lack of structural symmetry, conventional light weigh submarines are limited to low speed operations.

3.4. The Conversion of an Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV) into an Aero-Space Vehicle (ASV) The advantages of Vehicle 10, as derived from the identical Components and the application of P at the Center of Symmetry, are valid not only for an USAV moving through water but also for vehicles travelling through any medium, such as air and space of no massive resistance.

To convert an USAV into an ASV, the modification includes: a change of construction materials into ones of lighter weight and higher heat resistance, a change of engines, from water jet into air jet for maneuvering in the air, and rocket for maneuvering in space, a change of the control surfaces from ones of hydrodynamic form into ones of

aerodynamic form, a change of the floatation system into a landing system.

4. SURFACE AQUATIC VEHICLE (SAV) OR VEHICLE 100 AS A SOLUTION TO THE FIRST PROBLEM FIG. 12 illustrates three views of a recreational SAV prototype.

Primarily, Vehicle 100 moves with Top Component 112 elevated above the water line, while Bottom Component 114 together with the maneuvering parts retained underwater.

REMARK: The underwater maneuvering parts function analogously to the wheels and tires negotiating with the ground surface to move an automobile trunk through the air. For this reason, the Surface Aquatic Vehicle is also referred to as the Aquar or Aquatic Car.

Because water is denser than air, COR is closer to m2 and below COM. Since the closer COM is to COR, the more feasible it is to structure for the required movement of COP, the Bottom Component is therefore made to be more condensed with mass than the Top to have COM move down toward COR, and its size is reduced to its minimal to have COR move up toward COM.

REMARK: Functionally, the drag coefficient decreases as the Reynold number increases. Since the Reynold number varies as the ratio of the inertia force over the friction force, the larger mass and smaller size provide Bottom Component 114 with a higher Reynold number and therefore, lower drag coefficient. The lower drag reduces water resistance on Bottom Component 114 and increases its stability, and therefore, the over all stability of the SAV. The reduced resistance and increased stability allow the SAV to move at higher speed.

The movement of COP during acceleration, from COM downward to COR, can be accomplished either by moving the Propulsion Sources downward, as shown in FIG. 22, or by increasing the distance between the two Components, as illustrated in FIG. 12, or both.

REMARK: When the Connecting Frame extends, the distance between the two Components increases, ml ascends and rises above the water line while m2 descends underwater, COM remains in the plane of the Lateral Boards, and COP together with COR descend toward m2. The extendable Frame is an interesting solution; its vertical variation provides the SAV the versatility to be operate on deep as well as on shallow water.

FIG. 12 illustrates two views of a SAV with extendable frame-front view 12A, side view 12B and top view 12C. Each view depicts the SAV in two different deployments, folded and extended. These views are of a suggested prototype of a recreational SAV; the actual size of a SAV varies according to market demand.

The required movement of COP during deceleration, from COR'to COM, is accomplished by having the Top Component touch down on water while shutting down the

propulsive power. The power shut-off lowers the Top Component further down into the water; the resistance by water on the Top Component is equivalent to the application of P=R at COR', and the decreasing resistance in deceleration provides the effect equivalent to that of COP movement from COR'to COM, as required for the prevention of undesirable rolling in the deceleration process.

With the proper movement of COP, Vehicle 100 provides the following advantages: 4.1. The Efficiency In High Speed Performance The efficiency of Vehicle 100 results from two factors: the proper position of COP and the reduction of water drag.

Since COP is positioned at COR at the end of acceleration, Vehicle 100 cruises at its maximum terminal speed with no need of power for stability control.

Almost half of the water drag on Vehicle 100 is reduced with its Top Component moving above the water line, and the drag on the Bottom Component is minimized by its small size and large mass. The reduction of drag allows Vehicle 100 to move faster with less propulsive power.

4.2. The Stability To Be Powered For High Speed Motion Moving with its Top Component above the water line and the rest underwater, Vehicle 100 suffers no de-stabilizing effect of surface roughness and surface waves.

Furthermore, the proper movement and position of COP provide Vehicle 100 the maneuverability in high speed motion which conventional vessels cannot attain.

4.3. The Comfort for Passengers Without the surface effects, the ride of passengers in the Top Component is smooth, and with engine noises and vibration remaining with the Bottom Component underwater, it is quiet.

5. THE DOUBLE BLADE CONTROL SURFACES AS A SOLUTION TO THE SECOND PROBLEM FIG. 13 and FIG. 14 illustrate, respectively, the Second Problem and a solution to the Second Problem.

As shown in FIG. 13, a boat rudder or an airplane wing flap, for instant, commonly has only one blade hinged to one side of its axis. The operation of such a control surface becomes severely limited in high speed motion, because the intense pressure of medium flow incident on the only blade impairs its axial rotatability.

FIG. 14 illustrates a solution to restore the axial rotatability-a control surface with two blades of equal areas mounted on the opposite sides of its rotational axis. The torque by fluid pressure on the two equal opposite areas are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction; they neutralize each other. Consequently, a double blade control surface can operate more

freely and efficiently in high speed motion, and also at great depth.

Furthermore, to avoid vibration due to turbulence, the control surface is thickened toward its aft edge, as shown also in FIG. 14.

And since the requirement of equal areas does not include the difference in the shape and the location of the two opposite blades, the control surfaces can be designed differently to meet different needs.

Accordingly, the control surfaces of the Aquatic Vehicles, as depicted in FIG. 15 through 21 of an USAV or Vehicle 10, and in FIG. 22 through FIG. 24 of a SAV or. Vehicle 100, represent different solutions to the Second Problem.

5.1. The End Boards, 20 and 22 on an USAV, having a convex fore blade and a concave aft blade of equal areas. Being concave, the aft blade avoids the turbulence tailing the fore blade.

5.2. The Lateral Boards, 28,32,30, and 34 on an USAV, and 128 and 132 on a SAV, having their opposite blades symmetrical through the midpoint of their rotational axis- the center of the point reflection. The point reflection symmetry of the two blades maintains the resultant control effect of the Lateral Boards through the center of mass of the Vehicle.

5.3. The Flippers, 24 and 26, and the Rudder of Blades 36 and 38 on an USAV, and the Central Rudder of Blades 136 and 138, Bottom Rudder 182 and Rear Rudder 160 of a SAV having their opposite blades symmetrical through their rotational axis-the axis of the line reflection. The line reflection symmetry of the two blades maintains the resultant control effect of the rudders through the center of mass of the Vehicle.

6. ARRANGEMENT FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF MANEUVERING EFFECTS THROUGH COM AS A SOLUTION TO THE THIRD PROBLEM FIG. 11 of a SAV and FIG. 12 of an USAV illustrate configurations of the control surfaces generally in their neutral position. The more detailed descriptions are in FIG. 15 through 21 of an USAV, and FIG. 22 through FIG. 24 of a SAV.

To optimize maneuvering control, the control surfaces are arranged so that their effects do not offset the Vehicle stability-the effects ought to be transmitted through COM. The following are the arrangements of different control surfaces on the two Aquatic Vehicles.

6.1 The Arrangement of The Lateral Boards The Lateral Board axes are symmetrical in pair through the xy-plane, and parallel to the zx-plane. The two Lateral Boards of each pair function in coordination, so that the torques which they generate about the x-axis are equal in magnitude; when the two torques are in the same direction, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM translationally along the y-axis, when the two torques are in opposite directions, their resultant effect is transmitted

through COM rotationally about the x-axis.

6.2. The Arrangement of The End Boards 6.2.1. The two End Board axes on the USAV are parallel to the z-axis. The two End Boards function in coordination, so that the torques which they generate about the z-axis are equal in magnitude; when the two torques are in the same direction, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM translationally along the y-axis, when the two torques are in opposite directions, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM rotationally about the z-axis.

6.2.2. On the SAV, each End Board consists of two portions, and the axes of the two portions are not co-linear. Generally, however, the two End Boards are parallel to the z-axis lengthwise, and the resultant effects of their function are made to be similar to those of the End Boards on an USAV.

6.3. The Arrangement of The Flippers on The USAV On the USAV, the Flipper axes are aligned through COM on the z-axis, and symmetrically through the xy-plane. The two Flippers function in coordination, so that the torques which they generate about the x-axis are equal in magnitude; when the two torques are in the same direction, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM translationally along the y-axis, when the two torques are in opposite directions, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM rotationally about the x-axis.

6.4. The Arrangement of The Central and Bottom Rudders on The SAV Mounted on the y-axis, the Central Rudder is above, and the Bottom Rudder is below COM. The two Rudders function in coordination, so that the torques which they generate about the x-axis are equal in magnitude; when the two torques are in the same direction, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM translationally in the direction of water resistance on the Rudders, when the two torques are in opposite directions, their resultant effect is transmitted through COM rotationally about the x-axis.

6.5. The Arrangement of The Rudder on The USAV Mounted on the y-axis, the center of the Rudder coincides with COM. The Rudder on an USAV transmits its effect through COM translationally in the direction of water resistance on the Rudder.

REMARK: In analogy with the dolphin, the Propulsion Sources correspond to the dolphin body undulation, the Rudder of an USAV, to the dolphin dorsal fin,

the Lateral and End Boards of an Aquatic Vehicle, to the dolphin tail flukes and peduncle, the Flippers of an USAV, to the dolphin pectoral fin.

In motion, a SAV corresponds to a dolphin swimming with its body standing up; less than half of its body is in water, and its flippers are in the air. Analogously, a SAV does not have flippers, also the structure and configuration of its Rudders and End Boards are different from those of an USAV, accordingly.

OPERATION OF THE INVENTION Representing two solutions to the three problems of high speed motion in fluids, the Under Surface Aquatic Vehicle (USAV) or Vehicle 10 and Surface Aquatic Vehicle (SAV) or Vehicle 100 have the stability, the maneuverability and the efficiency to operate in ranges longer and at speeds higher than those of conventional vessels.

1. OPERATION OF THE UNDER SURFACE AQUATIC VEHICLE (USAV) OR VEHICLE 10 Vehicle 10 operates on its ten controls.

1.1. The First Controls for Controlling Acceleration, Uniform Motion, Deceleration and Exceptional Maneuvers Relating to The Adjustment of The Propulsion Sources As shown in FIG. 16, the four Propulsion Sources, 42,43,44 and 45 are arranged symmetrically through COM, in the yz-plane. The symmetric arrangement places the propulsion force at the center of structural symmetry, i. e. the center of mass, and allows the USAV to reverse its motion along the velocity line, to accelerate and decelerate without suffering any de-stabilizing effect, and to maintain its uniform motion with no need for stability control power. Furthermore, by adjusting the thrust unilaterally, either by gear change or nozzle rotation, the Propulsion Sources also control right/left turning and, in coordination with the Flippers, make turning control more effective and responsive, and by increasing the power output unilaterally while turning the Rudder to the same side, the Propulsion Sources transform a sideways slide by the Rudder into a swift translational shift along the z-axis.

Preferably, the power generators are electric. The batteries are charged by inboard combustion engine if necessary, and by outboard solar panels whenever possible.

Expectedly, the future power supply will be electromagnetic by engine of minimal moving parts.

1.2. The Second Controls for Controlling Floatation Indicated in FIG. 16 are the retrievable Air Bag system of 70 and 72 controlling the

USAV floatation. The bags are deployed bilaterally to provide the displacement volume for floatation. The system function is analogous to that of the retrievable landing gear of an airplane, and therefore can be referred to as the surfacing gear. In motion, when an USAV picks up adequate speed and its Lateral Boards generate sufficient lift, the Air Bags are retrieved into their compartment inside Top Component 12 to remove the displacement volume and restore the hydrodynamic form of the USAV for high speed performance.

The USAV rides on its Lateral Boards as an airplane rides on its wings; it does not need to float in motion. For the limited need for floatation at rest and in slow motion, the system of retrievable Air Bags 70 and 72 is sufficient for an USAV-a light weight submarine built for high speed performance.

1. 3. The Third Controls for Controlling Lift FIG. 15 and FIG. 16 depict the two pairs of Lateral Boards, the Upper pair of 28 and 32, and the Lower pair of 30 and 34. The two pairs operate in coordination to control the lift on the USAV.

Analogous to an air plane riding on its wings in the air, an USAV rides on its Lateral Boards in water. A Lateral Board generates lift by two control movements, rotating its double blades about its axis and varying the deployment of its axis.

By rotating about its axis, a Lateral Board angles its blades to the incident flow. The angle is adjusted to generate the lift in accordance with the necessity for the USAV loaded weight.

By spreading its axis, the Lateral Board sustains the lift while the USAV slows down, and by tucking its axis toward the USAV side, it retains the same lift while the USAV speeds up.

Essentially, the Lower pair is preset, and the Upper pair varies to compensate for any imbalance in mass distribution or to rectify the USAV equilibrium from anomalous displacement due to fluid disturbances.

1.4. The Fourth Controls for Controlling The USAV Orientation in Surfacing/Diving Figure 15 depicts an elevational side view of Vehicle 10; it shows End Boards 20 and 22 orientating the USAV in surfacing if it moves toward the left, or in diving if it moves toward the right.

By rotating in the opposite directions, the End Boards transmit their maneuvering effect through COM rotationally about the z-axis and cause the USAV to change its body orientation. The change of body orientation enables the propulsion sources to drive the USAV in its surfacing or diving direction.

1.5. The Fifth Controls for Controlling Ascending/Descending Without Change of

Body Orientation When the End Boards rotate in the same direction, they transmit their maneuvering effect through COM translationally along the y-axis and cause the USAV to ascend or descend without changing its body orientation. To intensify their operational effect, the End Boards coordinate with the Lateral Boards to have the lift vary accordingly.

1.6. The Sixth Controls for Controlling The USAV Orientation in Right/Left Turning Figure 16 depicts a sectional elevational view of Vehicle 10 along line 2-2 of FIG. 15 ; it shows flippers 24 and 26 orientating the USAV in turning counter-clockwise about the y-axis.

By rotating unilaterally, a Flipper interrupts the relative water flow unevenly, and causes the USAV body to rotate and tilt toward its side to compensate for the centrifugal pull.

The change of body orientation enables the propulsion sources to drive the USAV in turning toward the side of the rotating Flipper. To intensify its operational effect, the rotating Flipper coordinates with the propulsion sources to have the power output increase unilaterally on its opposite side.

1.7. The Seventh Controls for Controlling Sliding Sideways Without Change of Body Orientation Figure 15 depicts an elevational side view of Vehicle 10; it shows the Rudder of Blades 36 and 38 in its neutral position.

By its location, a rotation of the Rudder does not cause a directional change, but a sideways slide toward the side of the fore Blade. To intensify its operational effect, the Rudder coordinates with the propulsion sources to have the power output increase unilaterally on the side of the fore Blade accordingly.

1.8. The Eighth Controls for Restoring The Vehicle Equilibrium The equilibrium of a light weight USAV is subject to the offsetting effect of underwater turbulence. Generally, the effect is rotational and corrected by alternating the rotational direction of the control surfaces corresponding to the direction of the effect.

The Lateral Boards correct the side-to-side wobbling about the x-axis on the yz-plane.

The Rudder corrects the right/left zigzagging due to the oscillation of the velocity direction about the y-axis on the zx-plane.

The End Boards correct the back-and-forth rocking about the z-axis on the xy-plane.

1.9. The Ninth Controls for Inducing The Resistance and Stability in Deceleration Since the End Boards, the Rudder and the Flippers can all expose their surface perpendicularly to the direction of motion, either one of them, or any combination of more than one, can induce the resistance to decelerate the USAV.

The additional stability is provided by the Lateral Boards as they spread out to sustain the lift while the USAV is slowing down.

1.10. The Tenth Controls for Controlling Emergency Surfacing Since the End Boards, the Lateral Boards and the Flippers can all generate their maneuvering effect through COM translationally in the upward direction along the y-axis, all of them can provide a lift on the USAV in case of emergency.

For the demand of safety as a first priority, an USAV can be built with its Components of density slightly less than lkg/dm3, so that by themselves, they can float. In case of emergency, the Components can be ejected from the denser parts of the USAV to float by itself as a life boat.

2. OPERATION OF THE AERO-SPACE VEHICLE (ASV) Essentially, operation of an ASV in the air is similar to that of an USAV in water. The similarity is in the controls of acceleration, uniform motion and deceleration, the controls of lift, the controls of orientation in upward/downward motion and in right/left turning, the controls of ascending/descending and of sideways sliding without change of body orientation and the controls for restoring the vehicle equilibrium in motion. The control of an USAV, for floatation at rest and in slow motion on water, corresponds to the control of an ASV resting and taxiing on the ground. In emergency control, the ejection of the top component of an USAV, from the rest of the Vehicle to float as a life boat, corresponds to the ejection of the top component of an ASV from the rest of the Vehicle to parachute to safety.

In space, the control surfaces are inoperable in the absence of medium resistance, operation of an ASV relies on the adjustment of the thrust from the four propulsion sources; the left and right adjustment control the turning of the Vehicle, the upper and lower adjustment control the Vehicle orientation in ascending and descending. Application of the propulsion force at the center of mass also allows the ASV to reverse its motion along the velocity line, to slide sideways, to ascend and to descend without changing its body orientation.

3. OPERATION OF THE SURFACE AQUATIC VEHICLE (SAV) OR VEHICLE 100 Since a SAV is built for permanent floatation and it does not have to surface or dive, its operation is simpler than that of the USAV, and similar to an USAV operation in most aspects.

3.1. The First Controls for Controlling The Elevating Lift Similar to the Lateral Boards of an USAV, Lateral Boards 128 and 132 control the lift on the SAV.

3.2. The Second Controls for Controlling Ascending/Descending Without Change of Body Orientation

Similar to the End Boards of an USAV, End Boards 152 and 154 control the SAV in ascending/descending without changing its body orientation. Also, they coordinate with the Lateral Boards 128 and 132 to intensify the control effect.

Ascending/descending control maintains the Top Component of a SAV above the water line.

3.3. The Third Controls for Controlling The SAV Orientation in Right/Left Turning FIG. 22 depicts an elevational side view of a SAV; it shows Rear Rudder 160, the Central Rudder of BLades 136 and 138 and Bottom Rudder 182 in their neutral position.

In coordination, the three Rudders maneuver the SAV in its right/left turning. The Central Rudder and the Bottom Rudder, rotating together in opposite directions, tilt the Vehicle toward the turning direction to compensate for the centrifugal pull while the Rear Rudder steers the SAV. To intensify its operational effect, the Rudders coordinates with the Propulsion Sources to have the power output increase unilaterally on the opposite side of the aft blade of the Rear Rudder.

3.4. The Fourth Controls for Restoring The Vehicle Equilibrium The equilibrium of a SAV is subject to the offsetting effect of not only underwater turbulence on its Bottom Component, but also air turbulence on its Top Component.

However, since its COM is underwater with the Bottom Component of larger mass, the air effect on the Top Component is negligible normally. Additional control surfaces will be needed on the Top Component to control the effect of air turbulence for performance at higher speed.

Similar to the operation of the control surfaces on the USAV, the Lateral Boards correct the side-to-side wobbling about the x-axis on the yz-plane. the Central and Bottom Rudders, in coordination, correct the right/left zigzagging due to the oscillation of the velocity direction about the y-axis on the zx-plane. the End Boards correct the back-and-forth rocking about the z-axis on the xy-plane.

3.5. The Fifth Controls for Inducing Resistance and Stability in Deceleration A SAV induces resistance and stability for deceleration by lowering its Top Component onto water while reducing its propulsive power. The operation of the Rudders and the End Boards are not applicable on the SAV, because, unlike those of the USAV, the COM, COR and COR'of a SAV do not coincide with one another.