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Title:
ASYMMETRIC CATALYSIS BASED ON CHIRAL PHOSPHOLANES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2000/011008
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Chiral phosphine ligands derived from chiral natural products including D-mannitol and tartaric acid. The ligands contain one or more 5-membered phospholane rings with multiple chiral centers, and provide high stereoselectivity in asymmetric reactions.

Inventors:
Zhang, Xumu (276 Camelot Lane, State College, PA, 16803, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US1999/018932
Publication Date:
March 02, 2000
Filing Date:
August 20, 1999
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE PENN STATE RESEARCH FOUNDATION (304 Old Main, University Park, PA, 16802-7000, US)
International Classes:
C07D213/55; B01J31/22; B01J31/24; C07B53/00; C07B61/00; C07C45/50; C07C51/36; C07C55/02; C07C67/303; C07C69/34; C07C231/12; C07C231/18; C07C233/47; C07F9/6568; C07F9/6571; C07F15/00; C07F15/04; C07F17/02; C07F19/00; (IPC1-7): C07F9/6568; B01J31/24; C07B53/00; C07F9/6571; C07F17/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO1992019630A1
WO1991017998A1
Foreign References:
EP0889048A1
Other References:
H BRUNNER: "Asymmetric Calalyses XXXIII. New optically active phospholanes derived from tartaric acid" JOURNAL OF ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY, XP002077949 cited in the application
BRUNNER H.: "Enantioselective catalysis, 101 Synthesis and coordination properties of (3'S,4'S)-(+)-1,2-bis (3',4'-dimethoxyphospholano)benzene" ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG, TEIL B: ANORGANISCHE CHEMIE, ORGANISCHE CHEMIE., vol. 51, no. 8, - August 1996 (1996-08) pages 1210-1212, XP002124372 VERLAG DER ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG. TUBINGEN., DE ISSN: 0932-0776
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Garrett, Arthur S. (Finnegan, Henderson Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, L.L.P., 1300 I Street, N.W, Washington DC, 20005-3315, US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A compound of formula A, A', B, B', C, C', D, or D', or the corresponding enantiomer: ridge R Bidge R R, R'O"R R10"' RO,... RO,... "R R f'F Ri6 0pic ORi AA' ri Bridge ! Rp Bridge ! R P P P P.,. 0 O''C''/R) R f R d,. J BB' wherein: a) R and W are independently aryl, alkyl, alkyl aryl, aryl alkyl, or chiral oxazolino which may be substituted with carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, or diphenylphosphino groups; b) R'can be H, alkyl, silane, aryl, a water soluble unit, or a linked polymer chain or inorganic support; c) the ring component 0 0 represents a protected diol, a crown ether linkage,OalkylOwherein the alkyl group is linked to a polymer, or O(CH2CH2O) nwherein(CH2CH2O) nwherein n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8 and the methylene groups are optionally substituted by C1C8 alkyl; and d) may be: (CH2) nwhere(CH2) nwhere n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8; (CHZ) nX (CHZ) m wherein n and m are each integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8, and X is O, S, NR°, PR4, AsR', SbR4, divalent aryl, divalent fused aryl, divalent 5membered ring heterocyclic group, or divalent fused heterocyclic group, wherein R4 is aryl, alkyl, substituted aryl, or substituted alkyl; or 1,2divalent phenyl, 2,2'divalent 1,1'biphenyl or 2,2'divalent 1,2'binapthyl or ferrocene, each of which may be substituted with aryl, C1C8 alkyl, F, Cl, Br, I, COOR5, S03R5, P03R 2, OR, SR, NR52, PR 2, AsR'2, or SbR52, wherein: the substitution on 1,2divalent phenyl, the ferrocene or biaryl bridge can be independently halogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, aryl, aryloxy, nitro, amino, vinyl, substituted vinyl, alkynyl, or sulfonic acids; and R5 is hydrogen, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 fluoroalkyl, or C1C8 perfluoroalkyl, aryl; substituted aryl; arylalkyl; ringsubstituted arylalkyl; orCR32 (CR32) qX (CR32) pR'wherein q and p are integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8; R3 is aryl, alkyl, substituted aryl, or substituted alkyl; and X is as defined above.
2. A compound according to claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula A or A', or the corresponding enantiomer.
3. A compound according to claim 2, wherein the compound is of formula A or A', or the corresponding enantiomer, wherein R is methyl, ethyl, or benzyl; R'is hydrogen or benzyl; and is: (CH2) n where n is an integer ranging from 1 to 3; 1,2divalent phenyl, 2,2'divalent 1, l'biphenyl, 2,2'divalent 1,2'binapthyl, or ferrocene, each of which may be substituted with alkyl having 13 carbon atoms or OR', wherein R5 is methyl or ethyl.
4. A compound according to claim 3, selected from L 1, L3L5, L7L8, L10L12, and L18L21:.
5. A compound according to claim 3, of formula 2:.
6. A compound according to claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula B or B', or the corresponding enantiomer.
7. A compound according to claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula B or B', or the corresponding enantiomer, and wherein R is C1C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted by phenyl or OR5, wherein R5 is C 1C2 alkyl, and the ring component O O isOCRaRbO, wherein Ra is hydrogen or C1C4 alkyl and Rb is an alkyl or aryl linker attached to a polymer.
8. A compound according to claim 6, selected from L2, L6, L9, L13L17, and L22L25: ph. Ph pu 0 p p H O Ph \Ph °1ll polymer polymer polymer L14 (B) L15 (B') /\ P P PO H 0 H H polymer polymer L16 (B) Ph < Ph 0 0 H H p Ph Ph. w polymer polymer L17 (B).
9. A compound according to claim 6, of formula 3:.
10. A compound according to claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula C, D, C', or D', or the corresponding enantiomer.
11. A compound according to claim 10, wherein: R is methyl, ethyl, cyclohexyl, or phenyl; R'is hydrogen or benzyl; R2 is oXphenyl wherein X is hydrogen or a carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, diphenylphosphino, or chiral oxazolino group; and the ring component O O isOCRaRbO, wherein Ra and Rb are independently hydrogen or C1C4 alkyl.
12. A compound, according to claim 6, which is selected from structures L26L32, wherein:.
13. A compound according to claim 1, of formula 1:.
14. A compound of the formula E: wherein: R and R9 are aryl, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkyl aryl, or aryl C1C8 alkyl, which may be substituted with carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, or diphenylphosphino; and W is boron, phosphorus, or silicon, or W and RI together form C=O or SO2.
15. A compound according to claim 14, wherein R is C1C4 alkyl and RI is C 1C4 alkyl or phenyl.
16. A catalyst comprising a compound according to claim 1, wherein the compound is in the form of a complex with a transition metal.
17. A catalyst according to claim 16 wherein the transition metal is rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, nickel, or palladium.
18. A catalyst according to claim 17, wherein the compound is in the form of a complex with: Pd2 (DBA) 3, Pd (OAc) 2; [Rh (COD) Cl 2, [Rh (COD) 2 X, Rh (acac) (CO) 2; RuCl2 (COD), Ru (COD) (methylallyl) 2, Ru (Ar) Cl, wherein Ar is an aryl group, unsubstituted or substituted with an alkyl group; Ir (COD) CI 2, Ir (COD) 2 X; or Ni (allyl) X; wherein X is a counterion.
19. A catalyst according to claim 18, wherein X is BF4, C104, SbF6, or CF3SO3.
20. A catalyst according to claim 19, wherein the catalyst comprises Ru.
21. A catalyst according to claim 20, wherein the catalyst comprises Ru (RCOO) 2 (diphosphine), RuX (diphosphine), Ru (methylallyl) 2 (diphosphine), or Ru (aryl group) X2 (diphosphine), and X is a halogen ion.
22. A catalyst for asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones, imines, and olefins, comprising Rh complexes [Rh (COD) C1 2, [Rh (COD) 2 X (X = BF4, Cl04, SbF6, CF, S03, etc.
23. ) ] with 2 or 3:.
24. A process comprising subjecting a substrate to an asymmetric reaction in the presence of a catalyst comprising a chiral ligand according to claim 1, wherein said asymmetric reaction is a hydrogenation, hydride transfer, hydrosilylation, hydroboration, hydrovinylation, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, hydrocarboxylation, allylic alkylation, cyclopropanation, DielsAlder, Aldol, Heck, [m + n] cycloaddition, or Michael addition reaction.
25. A process according to claim 24 comprising asymmetric hydrogenation of a ketone, imine, enamide, or olefin.
26. A process for preparing a compound of formula B, comprising reacting a compound of formula Bx with a phosphine: R R Bridge 0, / O B'B ., o v O'w'R R _ Bx B wherein: the phosphine is H 2p P H 2; a) R is aryl, alkyl, alkyl aryl, or aryl alkyl, which may be substituted with carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, diphenylphosphino, or chiral oxazolino groups; b) the ring component O O represents a protected diol, a crown ether linkage, orOCHlCH2) nOwherein n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8 and the methylene groups are optionally substituted by alkyl or linked to a polymer; and c) may be: (CH2) nwhere(CH2) nwhere n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8; (CH2) nX (CH2) mwherein(CH2) nX (CH2) mwherein n, m are each integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8; or 1,2divalent phenyl, 2,2'divalent 1,1'biphenyl or 2,2'divalent 1,2'binapthyl or ferrocene, each of which may be substituted with aryl or substituted aryl, or alkyl having 18 carbon atoms, heteroatom groups such as F, Cl, Br, I, COOL', S03R5, PO3R52, ORS, SR5, NR52, PR52, AsR52, or SbR52, wherein: the substitution on 1,2divalent phenyl, the ferrocene or biaryl bridge can be independently halogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, aryl, aryloxy, nitro, amino, vinyl, substituted vinyl, akkynyl, or sulfonic acids; and RI is hydrogen, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 fluoroalkyl, or ClC8 perfluoroalkyl, aryl; substituted aryl; arylalkyl; ringsubstituted arylalkyl; orCR32 (CR32) qX (CR32) pR' wherein q and p are integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8; X is O, S, NR4, PR4, AsR4, SbR4, divalent aryl, divalent fused aryl, divalent 5membered ring heterocyclic group, or divalent fused heterocyclic group, wherein R3 and R4 are aryl, alkyl, substituted aryl and substituted alkyl groups.
27. A process according to claim 26, wherein: a) R is C1C4 alkyl; b) the ring component O O represents a protected diol; and c) n ge is unsubstituted or substituted 1,2divalent phenyl.
28. A process according to claim 27, wherein R is methyl or ethyl, the ring component OO isOC (CH3) 2O, and unsubstituted 1,2divalent phenyl.
Description:
Asymmetric Catalysis Based on Chiral Phospholanes BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This application claims priority to U. S. Provisional Application Serial No.

60/097,473, filed on August 21,1998.

Field of the Invention This invention relates to chiral phospholanes derived from natural products, and asymmetric catalysis using these phospholanes.

Description of Related Arts Many chiral phosphine ligands have been explored for practical application in asymmetric catalysis, but few chiral ligands or motifs are efficient for the synthesis of commercially useful chiral molecules in industry.

Among known chiral phosphines, several are made from electron-donating chiral phospholanes. One example is the Brunner phospholane shown below.

Brunner, H., Organometal. Chem. (1987) 328,71. However, poor enantioselectivities were observed.

Brunner phospholane DuPhosTM BPE The ligands DuPhosa and BPE have been used effectively for certain asymmetric hydrogenation reactions. See U. S. Patent Nos. 5,329,015; 5,202,493; and 5,329,015; Burk, M. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1991) 113,8518; Burk, M. J., J. Am Chem. Soc. (1993) 115,10125; Burk, M. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1996) 118,5142.

These ligands, however, are not effective for some other asymmetric reactions.

Moreover, synthesis of these ligands can be difficult, involving a tedious Kolbe reaction. Also, several liquid DuPhosTMBPE ligands are air-sensitive and therefore difficult to handle.

RoPhos XI The chiral phosphine RoPhos and its use in Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation have been reported. Holz, J. et al., A. J. Org. Chem. (1998) 63,8031; EP 0889 048. Chiral phosphine XI has also been reported. Carmichael, D. et al., Chem. Commun. (1999) 261. However, the synthesis is tedious, involving a P stereogenic center.

The inventor has found that it was not possible to make hydroxy analogs of RoPhos using the experimental procedure disclosed in J. Org. Chem. (1998) 63,8031.

A new synthetic route has been developed. Unique properties are associated with hydroxyl phospholanes. An efficient route to these compounds has also been developed by this inventor. Based on this hydroxyl phospholane framework, a polymer chain or a soluble species such as S03-, P032', (CH2CH2O)CH2CH2OH (n = 1,2,3) can be introduced.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One aspect of the invention is a ligand of formula A, A', B, B', C, C', D, or D', or the corresponding enantiomer: Bridge R R Bridge rP Po oR1 C \ h PS uR10 R R'OR1 R O, R R 40RA A' D"C 0' R""pJw pL Pm P$ OR R0 OR AA' r ge R R Bridge "6 O BB' R R' 0, 6 Another aspect of the invention is a compound of the formula E: Another aspect of the invention is a catalyst including one of the compounds A-E above, wherein the compound is in the form of a complex with a transition metal.

Another aspect of the invention is a process for preparing a compound of formula B, by reacting a compound of formula Bx with a phosphine: Bridge R j B"dge ! R U RI BX B 10 \\0 0"'R R :.. BOB BOB Another aspect of the invention is a process that includes subjecting a substrate to an asymmetric reaction in the presence of one of the above-described ligands, wherein said asymmetric reaction is a hydrogenation, hydride transfer, hydrosilylation, hydroboration, hydrovinylation, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, hydrocarboxylation, allylic alkylation, cyclopropanation, Diels-Alder, Aldol, Heck, [m + n] cycloaddition, or Michael addition reaction.

Accordingly, one advantage of the invention is in providing chiral ligands that can be made in large scale from inexpensive natural products such as D-mannitol or tartaric acids. Another advantage is in providing new chiral ligands A'-D'in FIG. 3, in which the relative configuration of the four stereogenic centers around the phospholane differs from A-D.

Yet another advantage is in providing chiral ligands that are solid and/or more air-stable due to added functional groups, and are more easily handled compared to air-sensitive liquids such as DuPhosT/BPE ligands. Yet another advantage is in providing chiral ligands that have functional groups on the phospholanes that can be key stereochemistry-defining groups, such as a hemilabile anchor, a hydrogen bonding source, or a cation binding site through a crown ether. Yet another advantage is in providing chiral ligands that have additional functional groups on the phospholanes with water-soluble properties and a convenient site to link a polymer support.

Yet another advantage of the invention is in providing catalysts for a variety of asymmetric reactions such as hydrogenation, hydride transfer reaction, hydrosilylation, hydroboration, hydrovinylation, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, hydrocarboxylation, allylic alkylation, cyclopropanation, Diels-Alder reaction, Aldol reaction, Heck reaction, Baylis-Hillman reaction and Michael addition can be explored based on these innovative ligand systems.

Yet another advantage of the invention is in providing a variety of methods to make both enantiomers of chiral phosphines. Besides D-mannitol, other chiral pool materials such as D and L-tartaric acids can also be used as suitable starting materials for ligand synthesis. Only one phospholane enantiomer can be conveniently obtained using D-mannitol as the starting material while both phospholane enantiomers can be easily obtained when using D and L-tartaric acids for the ligand synthesis.

Both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description of the invention are exemplary and explanatory only and are not necessarily restrictive of the claimed invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows new chiral ligands A, A', B, B', C, C', D, and D'of the invention.

FIGs. 2A-2F shows the structure of ligand examples LI to L32.

FIGs. 3A-3C illustrate syntheses of ligands LI to L32.

FIGs. 4A4C show syntheses of some chiral 1,4-diols.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The following definitions are used. Other abbreviations well known to persons of skill in the art of asymmetric synthesis are also used in this specification.

% ee: enantiomeric excess, (% S-% R)/ (% S + % R) or (% R-% S)/ (% S + % R) acac: acetylacetonate Bn: benzyl COD: 1,5-cyclooctadiene Cy: cyclohexyl DBA: dibenzylideneacetone HMPA: hexamethylphosphoramide Ipc: isopinocampheyl MOM: methoxymethyl Otf : trifluoromethanesulfonate rt: room temperature TBDMSCL: t-butyldimethylsilyl chloride Im: imidazole The chiral ligands of the present invention may contain alkyl and aryl groups.

By alkyl is meant any straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl group. The number of carbons in the alkyl group is not particularly limited. Preferably, alkyl refers to C1- C20, more preferably C1-C8, even more preferably C1-C4 alkyl groups. Examples of such alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, tert-pentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, and cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, and cyclohexyl, and isomers of heptyl, octyl, and nonyl. Alkyl groups may be substituted without particular restriction, provided that the substituents do not have an adverse effect on the asymmetric reaction, and are inert to the reaction conditions or are thereby converted in a desirable manner.

Examples of such substituents include, but are not limited to, aryl, heterocyclo, alkoxy, halo, haloalkyl, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, nitro, amido, and carboxylic ester groups, and any suitable combination thereof.

By aryl is meant any aromatic or heteroaromatic ring, including such rings fused to other aliphatic, aromatic or heteroaromatic rings. Examples of aromatic rings include, but are not limited to, phenyl, naphthyl, anthryl, fluorenyl, indenyl, and phenanthryl. Heteroaromatic rings may contain one or more heteroatoms, preferably one or more atoms of nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. Examples of heteroaromatic rings include, but are not limited to, pyrrole, pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, indole, furan, and thiophene. Aryl groups may be substituted without particular restriction, provided that the substituents do not have an adverse effect on the asymmetric reaction, and are inert to the reaction conditions or are thereby converted in a desirable manner. Examples of such substituents include, but are not limited to alkyl, aryl, heterocyclo, alkoxy, halo, haloalkyl, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, nitro, amido, and carboxylic ester groups, and any suitable combination thereof.

The optical purity of the ligand is preferably at least about 85% ee, more preferably at least about 90% ee, more preferably at least about 95% ee, even more preferably at least about 98% ee, and even more preferably about 100% ee.

As is well known to a person skilled in the art of asymmetric synthesis, a chiral ligand can exist as two enantiomers of opposite configuration. A person skilled in the art will recognize that for any given asymmetric reaction, each enantiomer will produce products of opposite configuration from the other, but with the same conversion and optical purity. In this specification, ligand and product structures are shown for one enantiomer for convenience. Of course, the disclosure also applies to the corresponding enantiomers of opposite configuration, and a person skilled in the art can select the appropriate enantiomer to achieve the desired product configuration.

FIG. 1 shows several classes of chiral phospholanes (A, B, C, D, and A', B', C', D'). The difference between A, B, C, D, and A', B', C', D'is in the inversion of two chiral centers in the middle of the rings. For each class of ligands, enantiomers are also included, which can be made through different chiral pools. A and A'are chiral bidentate phospholanes with four chiral centers. B and B'are chiral bidentate phospholanes with four chiral centers and linked by a ring in the middle of five membered rings. C, D, C', D'are monophospholanes.

Examples of chiral phospholanes according to the invention include, but are not limited to those shown in FIG. 2. Ligand LI (A) has a benzyl protecting group on the two center hydroxyl groups while ligand L3 has a hydroxyl group. Ligand L2 belongs to class B'with a cyclic ketyl in the center. Ligands LI-LI3 contain bridging groups such as CH, CH2, benzene, ferrocene, biaryl, binaphthyl groups. Ligands L14- L 17 are linked to a polymer backbone. Ligands L18-L21 have water soluble groups.

In ligands L22-L25, an 18-crown-6 group was introduced. Ligands L26-L27 are monophospholanes containing a variety of groups. Ligands L30-L32 have additional groups as substituents of aryls; some will lead to hemilabile ligands.

One embodiment of the invention is a compound of formula A, A', B, B', C, C', D, or D', or the corresponding enantiomer: Bridge R Bd e R P \/ D P OR1 OR _ R R :. Rl RIO A A Au' R P P-P P.,, 0 B B' BB- O wherein: a) R and R2 are aryl, alkyl, alkyl aryl, or aryl alkyl, which may be substituted with carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, diphenylphosphino, or chiral oxazolino groups; b) R'can be H, alkyl, silane, aryl, a water soluble unit, or a linked polymer chain or inorganic support; c) the ring component 0 0 represents a protected diol, a crown ether linkage,-O-alkyl-O-wherein the alkyl group is linked to a polymer, or-O-(CH2CH,- O) n- wherein the methylene groups are optionally substituted by C1-C8 alkyl; and d) may be: -(CH2) n-where(CH2) n-where n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8; -(CH2) nX (CH2) m-wherein(CH2) nX (CH2) m-wherein n and m are each integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8, and X is O, S, NR4, PR, AsR4, SbR4, divalent aryl, divalent fused aryl, divalent 5-membered ring heterocyclic group, or divalent fused heterocyclic group, wherein R4 is hydrogen, aryl, alkyl, substituted aryl or substituted alkyl groups; or 1,2-divalent phenyl, 2,2'-divalent 1,1'biphenyl or 2,2'-divalent 1,2'binapthyl or ferrocene, each of which may be substituted with aryl, C 1-C8 alkyl, F, Cl, Br, I, COOR5, SO3R5, PO3R52, OR5, SR5, NR52, PR52, AsR52, or SbR52, wherein: the substitution on 1,2-divalent phenyl, the ferrocene or biaryl bridge can be independently halogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, aryl, aryloxy, nitro, amino, vinyl, substituted vinyl, alkynyl, or sulfonic acids; and RI is hydrogen, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 fluoroalkyl, or Cl-C8 perfluoroalkyl, aryl; substituted aryl; arylalkyl; ring-substituted arylalkyl; or-CR32 (CR32) qX (CR32) pR' wherein q and p are integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8; R3 is an aryl, alkyl, substituted aryl and substituted alkyl group; and R'and X are as defined above.

The term"water soluble unit"means any functional group imparting water solubility, including, but not limited to, S03, po32-, CH2COO-, a quaternary ammonium group attached via an ester or alkyl linkage such as C=O(CH2)xNAlk3 or (CH2) XNAlk3 where Alk3 represents three alkyl groups that are independently C 1-C4 alkyl and x is 1-4, (CH2CH20) rtCH2CH2OT (n = 1-3) wherein T may be H or CH3, i. e., PEG or MeO-PEG. The counterion for water soluble units bearing a charge include, but are not limited to, metals such as alkali and alkaline earth metals, and halogens and Otf.

When R'is a linked polymer chain, the linker may be any suitable linking unit commonly used to bind catalysts to polymers or support materials, including, but not limited to, a C1-C6 branched or unbranched alkyl chain,-C6H4CH=CH2 for polymerization with styrene or other substituted vinyl monomer,-C=OCH=CH2 for polymerization with an acrylate or other substituted vinyl monomer. The polymer may be any polymer or copolymer, preferably polystyrene or a copolymer of styrene and a substituted vinyl monomer, polyacrylate, PEG or MeO-PEG, or dendritic polymers of polyesters or polyenamides. The preceding also applies to the ring component O O as-O-alkyl-O-wherein the alkyl group is linked to a polymer.

When R'is a linked inorganic support, examples of inorganic supports include, but are not limited to, silica or zeolites. The inorganic support may be linked by any conventional means, including, but not limited to, attaching -C=ONH (CH2) Si (OEt) 3 (where x is 1-4) as linker and binding through this linker to silica via controlled hydrolysis of the Si (OEt) 3 group, where C=ONH may be replaced by any other functional group suitable for connecting the methylene chain of the linker to the phospholane oxygen.

When the ring component O O is a protected diol, a person of skill in the art will recognize that any number of the diol protecting group may be used, e. g., those described in Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 1991, John Wiley & Sons, and MacOmie, Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry, 1975, Plenum Press, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. A suitable diol protecting group may be deprotected under conditions that do not significantly degrade the rest of the molecule. Examples of diol protecting groups include, but are not limited to acetals and ketals.

In one variant, the invention is a compound of formula A or A', or the corresponding enantiomer. Preferably, in the compound of formula A or A', or the corresponding enantiomer, R is methyl, ethyl, or benzyl, R'is hydrogen or benzyl, and Bridge f is- (CH) n- where n is an integer ranging from 1 to 3,1,2-divalent phenyl; 2,2'-divalent 1,1'biphenyl, 2,2'-divalent 1,2'binapthyl, or ferrocene, each of which may be substituted with alkyl having 1-3 carbon atoms; or OR', wherein RI is methyl or ethyl.

Examples of the compound of formula A or A'include, but are not limited to LI, L3-L5, L7-L8, L10-L12, and L18-L21, and the corresponding enantiomers, and the compound of formula 2 below and its enantiomer.

In another variant, the invention is a compound of formula B or B', or the corresponding enantiomer. Preferably, in the compound of formula B or B', or the corresponding enantiomer, R is C 1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted by phenyl or OR5, wherein RI is C1-C2 alkyl, and the ring component O O is-O-CRaRb-O-, wherein Ra is hydrogen or C 1-C4 alkyl and Rb is an alkyl or aryl linker attached to a polymer.

Examples of the compound of formula B or B'include, but are not limited to L2, L6, L9, L13, L14-L17, and L22-L25, and the corresponding enantiomers, and the compound of formula 3 below and its enantiomer: In another variant, the invention is a compound of formula C, D, C', or D', or the corresponding enantiomer. Preferably, in the compound of formula C, D, C', or D', or the corresponding enantiomer, R is methyl, ethyl, or benzyl; R'is hydrogen or benzyl; R2 is o-X-phenyl wherein X is a carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, diphenylphosphino, or chiral oxazolino group; and the ring component O O is-O-CRaRb-O-, wherein Ra and Rb are independently hydrogen or C1-C4 alkyl.

Examples of the compound of formula B or B'include, but are not limited to structures L26-L32, and the corresponding enantiomers, and the compound of formula 1 below and its enantiomer: Another embodiment of the invention is a compound of formula E or the corresponding enantiomer. wherein: R and RI are aryl, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkyl aryl, or aryl C1-C8 alkyl, which may be substituted with carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, diphenylphosphino, or chiral oxazolino groups; and W is boron, phosphorus, or silicon, or W and R9 together form C=O or SO2.

Preferably, in the compound of formula E or the corresponding enantiomer, R is C1-C4 alkyl and R9 is C1-C4 alkyl or phenyl.

Another embodiment of the invention is a catalyst including any of the compounds described in the embodiments above, wherein the compound is in the form of a complex with a transition metal. In principle, any transition metal may be used. Preferably, the transition metal is a Group VIII transition metal. More preferably, the transition metal is rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, nickel, or palladium.

Preferably, the compound is in the form of a complex with Pd2 (DBA) 3, Pd (OAc) 2; [Rh (COD) Cl 2, Rh (COD) 2 X, Rh (acac) (CO) 2; RuCl2 (COD), Ru (COD) (methylallyl) 2, Ru (Ar) Cl2, wherein Ar is an aryl group, unsubstituted or substituted with an alkyl group; Ir (COD) CI 2, Ir (COD) 2 X; or Ni (allyl) X; wherein X is a counterion. The counterion X may generally be any suitable anion for use in asymmetric synthesis. A person of skill in the art can readily determine what such a suitable counterion would be for any particular set of ligands, reaction conditions and substrates. Examples of suitable counterions include, but are not limited to, halogen ions (including Cl-, Ber", and I-), BF4-, C'04-, SbF6-, CF3SO3-, BAr- (wherein Ar is aryl), and Otf (trifluoromethanesulfonate). Preferably, X is BF4, C104, SbF6, or CF3SO3. Preferably, the catalyst comprises Ru (RCOO) 2 (diphosphine), RuX2 (diphosphine), Ru (methylallyl) 2 (diphosphine), or Ru (aryl group) X2 (diphosphine), and X is halogen.

A non-limiting example of the invention is a catalyst for asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones, imines, and olefins, that includes Rh complexes [Rh (COD) C1 2, Rh (COD) 2 X (X = BF4, C104, SbF6, CF3SO3, etc.)] with 2 or 3: Another embodiment of the invention is a process including subjecting a substrate to an asymmetric reaction in the presence of a catalyst comprising a chiral ligand according to claim 1, wherein said asymmetric reaction is a hydrogenation, hydride transfer, hydrosilylation, hydroboration, hydrovinylation, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, hydrocarboxylation, allylic alkylation, cyclopropanation, Diels- Alder, Aldol, Heck, [m + n] cycloaddition, or Michael addition reaction. Preferably, the process includes asymmetric hydrogenation of a ketone, imine, enamide, or olefin.

Another embodiment of the invention is a process for preparing a compound of formula B, comprising reacting a compound of formula Bx with a phosphine: R R Bridge R O", O BX wherein: the phosphine is H2P {~pH2 ; a) R is aryl, alkyl, alkyl aryl, or aryl alkyl, which may be substituted with carboxylic acid, alkoxy, hydroxy, alkylthio, thiol, dialkylamino, diphenylphosphino, or chiral oxazolino groups; b) the ring component O O represents a protected diol, a crown ether linkage, or-O-CH2CH2) n-O-wherein n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8 and the methylene groups are optionally substituted by alkyl or linked to a polymer; and c) may be: - n-where n is an integer ranging from 1 to 8; -(CH2) nX (CH2) m-wherein(CH2) nX (CH2) m-wherein n, m are each integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8; or 1,2-divalent phenyl, 2,2'-divalent 1, l'biphenyl or 2,2'-divalent 1,2'binapthyl or ferrocene, each of which may be substituted with aryl or substituted aryl, or alkyl having 1-8 carbon atoms, heteroatom groups such as F, Cl, Br, I, COOR5, S03R5, PO3R52, OR SR5, NR52, PR52, AsR52, or SbR52, wherein: the substitution on 1,2-divalent phenyl, the ferrocene or biaryl bridge can be independently halogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, aryl, aryloxy, nitro, amino, vinyl, substituted vinyl, akkynyl, or sulfonic acids; and R5 iS hydrogen, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 fluoroalkyl, or C1-C8 perfluoroalkyl, aryl; substituted aryl; arylalkyl; ring-substituted arylalkyl; or-CR32 (CR'2) qX (CR32) pR'wherein q and p are integers, the same or different, ranging from 1 to 8; X is O, S, NR4, PR4, AsR4, SbR4, divalent aryl, divalent fused aryl, divalent 5-membered ring heterocyclic group, or divalent fused heterocyclic group, wherein RI and R4 are aryl, alkyl, substituted aryl and substituted alkyl groups.

Preferably, R is C1-C4 alkyl; the ring component O O represents a protected diol; and is unsubstituted or substituted 1,2-divalent phenyl. More prefarbly, R is methyl or ethyl, the ring component 00 is-O-CCH-O-, and I Bridge I is unsubstituted 1,2-divalent phenyl.

FIGs. 3A-3C show several pathways for the synthesis of compounds shown in FIGs. 2A-2F. The chiral 1,4-diols used in the synthesis of ligands L1-L32 can be derived from D-mannitol and related compounds. A number of these diols have been reported in the literature. The procedure for the synthesis of LI (A), L3 (A) and L8 (A') is outlined in FIGs. 3A-3B; key intermediates L35 and L35'have been reported in the literature (Poitout, L.; Tetrahedron Letter (1994) 35,3293). The epoxide opening step from L35 to L37 in FIG. 3A has also been reported (Nugel, S. et al. J.

Med. Chem. (1996) 39,2136). Formation of cyclic sulfates can be done according Sharpless'procedure (Kim, B. M., Tetrahedron Letters (1989) 30,655). The last step is similar as the synthesis of DuPhosw (Burk, US Patent Nos. 5,329,015; 5,202,493; and 5,329,015; Burk, M. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1991) 113,8518; Burk, M. J., J. Am.

Chem. Soc. (1993) 115,10125; Burk, M. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1996) 118,5142). In the step to form L37, other nucleophiles such as CH3-, Cy can be applied other than Ph-. Intermediate L36 can be obtained easily. In principle, ketyl can be formed from L3 (A) to give class B compounds.

When para-vinyl benzaldehyde is used as the protecting group, polymerization under polystyrene forming conditions should yield compound L 17 (B), shown in FIG.

2C.

Instead of using a benzyl protecting group, 18-crown-6 or water soluble groups can be linked to form compounds such as L19 (A) or L25 (B), as shown in FIGs. 2D and 2E, respectively.

Another epoxide L39 has been studied extensively for the synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors (Ghosh, A. K., Tetrahedron Lett. (1991) 32,5729. and Nugel, S. et al., J. Med. Chem. (1996) 39,2136). Compound L40 is known and conversion of this intermediate to L9 (B) is expected. Finally, intermediate L41 and L38 can be converted to L29 (C) as illustrated in Figure 6.

FIGs. 4A-4C outline some useful synthetic procedures, which was recently disclosed in the literature. Instead of using D-mannitol as the starting material, which can only lead to one enantiomer of the chiral phosphine, preparation of chiral diols from either D or L-tartaric ester can result in formation of either of two enantiomers.

Using these reported procedures (Nugel, S. et al. J. Med. Chem. (1996) 39,2136; Colobert, F. J. Org. Chem. (1998) 63,8918; and Iwasaki, S. Tetrahedron Lett. (1996) 37,885), several chiral 1,4-diols can be obtained, as shown in FIGs. 4A-4C.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are designed to teach those of ordinary skill in the art how to practice the invention.

The following examples are illustrative of the invention and should not be construed as limiting the invention as claimed.

EXAMPLES Synthesisof Phospholane Ligands The hydroxyl phosphine ligands 1,2, and 3 were synthesized successfully in high yield using similar procedures. They are white solids. The synthetic route is exemplified below. a. Acetone, H2SO4, 8 1 %. b. AcOH, H20,40°C, 2.5 h; 78%. c. TsCI, pyridine, 0°C, 4 h. d. LiAlH4, THF; 75% from 7. e. (i) SOC'2, Et3N, CH2Cl2; (ii) Nua104;-90% from 9. f. (i) 1, 2-H2PC"H4PH2, n-BuLi, (ii) n-BuLi, THF, 85%. g. CH30H, H20, CH3S03H, refluxing, 90%.

Compound 10 is a nice colorless crystal and can be recrystallized from ethyl ether and methanol. Compound 2 was used directly after removal of the reaction solvent without any purification. An advantage of this route is that there is no need to run column chromatography for purification. a. K2C03 CH30H, 73%. b. Cul, CH3MgBr, THF, 9S%. c. (i) SOCI2, Et3N, CH2CI2; (ii) NalO4/RuCl3,93% from 12. d. (i) 1, 2-H2PC6H4PH2, n-BuLi, (ii) n-BuLi, THF, 77%. e. CH30H, H20, CH3SOH, refluxing, 90%.

Compound 14 is a colorless crystal and can be recrystallized from ethyl ether and methanol.

Compound 3 was used directly after removal of the reaction solvent without any purification. There is no need to run a column in this synthetic route. Ring opening of 11 with other nucleophiles R2CuLi (R = Ph, Et, iPr etc.) leads to a series of compounds.

The cyclic sulfate 15 was also made from the corresponding alcohol, which was synthesized in the same procedure to make 12.

Ligand 16 can be made in a similar manner using the same procedure as for the synthesis of 2 and 3.

Compound 18 was prepared by stirring 1 and phenylboronic acid in methylene chloride. After removal of the solvent, it was used directly in asymmetric reaction.

Compound 19 was prepared from cyclic sulfate 9. Acid catalytic hydrolysis afforded the hydroxyl phosphine 1 in high yield (>90 %).

Compound 21 was prepared from known cyclic sulfate 20. Several chiral monophospholanes from D-mannitol (e. g., 19,21) are made and many methods cleave the protecting groups to give hydroxyl phospholane 1. The iso-propylene group in 19 was smoothly removed by an acid catalyzed hydrolysis. However, the borane adduct of 21 was just selectively debenzylated when Bic'3 or BF3. Et2O was used as the reagent to give the derivatives bearing one hydroxyl and one benzyl ether group. Hydrogenation of 21 using Pd/C catalyst does not give the desired hydroxyl phospholane product 1. The corresponding phosphine oxide of 21 also gave selectively debenzylated products under mild hydrogenation conditions (10 % Pd (OH) 2/C). The hydrogenation reaction done under high temperature (50 °C) and H2 pressure (40 atm) not only cleaved the benzyl ether but also reduced the phenyl group to a cyclohexyl group.

General Experimental Procedure Unless otherwise indicated, all reactions were carried out under nitrogen. THF and ether were freshly distilled from sodium benzophenone ketyl. Toluene were freshly distilled from sodium. Dichloromethane and hexane were freshly distilled from CaH2. Methanol was distilled from magnesium and CaH2. Reactions were monitored by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. Column chromatography was performed using EM silica gel 60 (230-400 mesh).

'H NMR were recorded on Bruker ACE 200, WP 200, AM 300 and WM 360 spectrometers. Chemical shifts are reported in ppm downfield from tetramethylsilane with the solvent resonance as the internal standard (CDCl3,8 7.26 ppm).'C,'P and 'H NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker AM 300 and WM 360 or Varian 200 or 500 spectrometers with complete proton decoupling. Chemical shifts are reported in ppm downfield from tetramethylsilane with the solvent resonance as the internal standard (CDC13,8 77.0 ppm). Optical rotation was obtained on a Perkin-Elmer 241 polarimeter. MS spectra were recorded on a KRATOS mass spectrometer MS 9/50 for LR-EI and HR-EI. GC analyses were carried out on a Hewlett-Packard 5890 gas chromatograph with a 30-m Supelco ß-DEXTM column. HPLC analyses were carried out on a WatersTM 600 chromatograph with a 25-cm CHIRALCEL OD column.

EXAMPLE 1: Phosphine 19 To a stirred solution of phenylphosphine (0.44 g, 4.0 mmol) in THF (80 mL), n-BuLi (1.6 M n-hexane solution, 2.5 mL, 4.0 mmol) was added dropwise via a syringe at-78 °C. The resulting pale yellow solution was stirred for further 2 h at room temperature. After cooling the mixture to-78 °C, cyclic sulfate 9 (1.01 g, 4.0 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added over 10 min. The resulting yellow solution was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 4 h. After cooling to-78 °C, n-BuLi (1.6 M solution in n-hexane, 2.5 mL, 4.0 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 20 h at room temperature. The color of the reaction mixture changed from orange yellow to red, and then decolorized to colorless. After removal of the solvent under reduced pressure, the residue was dissolved in 40 mL of ethyl ether, and 30 mL of brine was added. The aqueous layer was then washed with 3 x 30 mL ethyl ether. The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to afford a colorless oil. This oil can be further purified by a short silica gel column eluted with hexane/ether (9: 1),'H NMR (CDCl3): 6 7.72-7.27 (m, SH, aromatic), 4.60-4.32 (m, 2H), 2.70-2.51 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 6H), 1.38-1.32 (m, 3H), 0.70-0.52 (m, 3H). 3'P NMR (CDCl3): 8 50.2 ppm.

EXAMPLE 2: Phosphine 1 Phosphine 19 obtained above was dissolved in 50 mL methanol and 2 mL of water. To this solution, 0.05 mL of methanesulfonic acid was added and the resulting mixture was refluxing for 10 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in 50 mL of methylene chloride. 30 mL of aq NaHC03 was added and the two layers were separated. The aqueous layer was washed with 3 x 40 mL of methylene chloride. The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give a white solid, compound 1.

EXAMPLE 3: Phosphine 21 To a stirred solution of phenylphosphine (220.2 g, 2.0 mmol) in THF (50 mL), n-BuLi (1.6 M n-hexane solution, 1.25 mL, 2.0 mmol) was added dropwise via a syringe at-78 °C. Then the resulting yellow solution was stirred for further 2 h at room temperature. After cooling the mixture to-78 °C, cyclic sulfate 20 (0.78g, 2.0 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added over 10 min. The resulting brown solution was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 4 h. After cooling to-78 °C, n-BuLi (1.6 M solution in n-hexane, 1.25 mL, 2.0 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 20 h at room temperature. Then BH3-THF complex (1M solution in THF, 3.0 mL, 3.0 mmol) was added at 0 °C. After stirring overnight, the solvents were removed under reduced pressure. Water (30 mL) was added to the residue and the aqueous solution extracted with CH2CI2 (3 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to afford the crude phospholane- borane as a colorless syrup. Purification was performed by flash chromatography (hexanes/AcOEt = 9: 1) to give the 21-borane adduct as a white solid (767 mg, 92%).

'H NMR (CDCl3): 8 7.87-7.82 (m, 2H, aromatic), 7.31-7.16 (m, 3H, aromatic), 4.56- 4.42 (m, 4H), 4.02-3.90 (m, 2H), 2.78-2.72 (m, 2H), 1.22-1.16 (m, 3H), 0.85-0.79 (m, 3H), 1.23-0 (broad, 3H, BH3).'3C NMR (CDCl3): õ 138.0,137.6,134.5,134.4, 131.1,128.5-126.4,83.7,83.4,72.6,72.3,36.2,35.8,9.2,9.1. 3'P NMR (CDC13): 5 37.1, b, ppm. The 21-borane adduct was dissolved in 20 mL of toluene and 2 equivalent of DABCO was added. The resulting mixture was heated at 50 °C for 8 h. After removal of the solvent, the residue was passed through a plug of silica gel eluted with hexane/ethyl acetate (9: 1) to afford phosphine 21 as a colorless oil. 3'P NMR (CDCl3): 8 3.8 ppm.

EXAMPLE 4: Phosphine 10 To a stirred solution of 1,2-bis (phosphino) benzene (1.24 g, 8.72 mmol) in THF (200 mL), n-BuLi (1.6 M n-hexane solution, 10.9 mL, 17.4 mmol) was added dropwise via a syringe at-78 °C. Then the resulting yellow solution was stirred for further 2 h at room temperature. After cooling the mixture to-78 °C, cyclic sulfate 9 (4. 39 g, 17.4 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added over 10 min. The resulting yellow solution was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 4 h. After cooling to- 78 °C, n-BuLi (1.6 M solution in n-hexane, 11.0 mL, 17.5 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for additional 20 h at room temperature. After removal of the solvent under reduced pressure, the residue was dissolved in 50 mL of ethyl ether, and 50 mL of brine was added. The aqueous layer was then washed with 3 x 40 mL ethyl ether. The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to afford a colorless crystal. This crystal was further recrystallized from ether/methanol.'H NMR (CDCI3): 5 7.38-7.33 (m, 4H, aromatic), 4.46-4.36 (m, 4H), 2.89-2.82 (m, 2H), 2.56-2.51 (m, 2H), 1.47 (s, 6H), 1.42 (s, 6H), 1.33-1.28 (m, 6H), 0.73-0.69 (m, 6H); 13C NMR (CDCl3): 8 140.53,130.59,129.00,117.44,81.41,80.51 (t, Jpc = 6.5 Hz), 27.34,27.30,25.05 (t, Jpc = 10.3 Hz), 24.20,13.74 (t, Jpc = 19.6 Hz), 12.15; 3'P NMR (CDCI3): 5 45.1 ppm. HRMS calcd for C24H3704P2 (MH+) 451.2167; found 451.2164.

EXAMPLE 5: Phosphine 2 Phosphine 10 obtained above was disolved in 100 mL of methanol and 2 mL of water. 0.1 mL of methanesufonic acid was added and the resulting mixturing was refluxing for 10 h. After removal of the solvent the residue was passed through a short plug of silica gel eluted with ethyl acetate/methanol (95: 5) to give compound 2 as a white solid.'H NMR (CD30D): 6 8.42-8.07 (m, 2H, aromatic), 7.72-7.69 (m, 2H, aromatic), 4.24-4.17 (m, 4H), 3.31-3.28 (m, 2H), 3.16-3.13 (m, 2H), 1.37-1.30 (m, 6H), 0.94-0.88 (m, 6H);"C NMR (CD30D): 6 136.6 (t, Jpc = 3.4 Hz), 133.7,133.6, 80.2,80.0,37.3,35.4 (d, Jpc = 10.0 Hz), 11.6 (d, Jpc = 6.5 Hz), 10.8. 3'P NMR (CD30D): 5 11.9 (broad) ppm. HRMS calcd for C, gH29O4P2 (MH+) 371.1541; found 371.1523.

EXAMPLE 6: Phosphines 14 and 3 Phosphine 14 was prepared using the similar procedure for 10 and recrystallized from ethyl ether/methanol as a colorless crystal.'H NMR (CDC13): 8 7.41-7.32 (m, 4H, aromatic), 4.50-4.37 (m, 4H), 2.62-2.61 (m, 2H), 2.22-2.20 (m, 2H), 2.19-2.17 (m, 2H), 1.50-1.44 (m, 2H), 1.47 (s, 6H), 1.32-1.30 (m, 2H), 0.99-0.95 (m, 6H), 0.88-0.86 (m, 2H), 0.79-0.75 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCI3): 6 141.3,131.1, 129.2,117.1,82.3,81.4 (t, =6.1 Hz), 33.0,32.8 (t, =9.6), 27.4,27.3,21.4,21. 1 (t, = 14.2), 14.6,13.1 (t, = 5.1 Hz).; 3'P NMR (CDCI3): 8 34.5 ppm. Catalytic acid hydrolysis give phosphine 3.

EXAMPLE 7: General Procedure for Asymmetric Hvdrogenation To a solution of Rh (COD) 2 X (X = counterion) (5.0 mg, 0.012 mmol) in THF (10 mL) in a glovebox was added chiral ligand (0.15 mL of 0.1 M solution in toluene, 0.015 mmol). After stirring the mixture for 30 min, the dehydroamino acid (1.2 mmol) was added. The hydrogenation was performed at room temperature under hydrogen for 24 h. The reaction mixture was treated with CH2N2, then concentrated in Vacuo. The residue was passed through a short silica gel column to remove the catalyst. The enantiomeric excesses were measured by GC using a Chirasil-VAL III FSOT column. The absolute configuration of products was determined by comparing the observed rotation with the reported value. All reactions went in quantitative yield with no by-products found by GC.

EXAMPLE 8: General Procedure for the Bavlis-Hillman Reaction The mixture of 4-pyridinecarbonaldehyde (1 mmol) and 1 mL of methyl acrylate was degassed three times by a freeze-thaw method, and then the resulting solution was transferred into another Schlenk tube containing 10% catalyst. The solution was stirred at room temperature for some time and the methyl acrylate was removed under vaccm. The residue was purified by a flash chromatograph eluted with hexanes/ethyl acetate (1: 2). The enantiomeric excess was measured by capillary GC.

Asymmetric Bavlis-Hillman reaction Table 1. Catalytic Baylis-Hillman Reaction Run Catalyst Reaction Time Yield (%) % ee 21 70 h 29 2 1 9 h 83 17 3 18 31 h 56 18 The reaction was accelerated significantly when hydroxyl phosphine was used as catalyst. For example, the reaction takes 70 h and gives lower yield (29%) with benzyl protected hydroxyl phospholane 21 as catalyst, while the same reaction proceeds in 9 h and offers high yield (83%) with hydroxyl phospholane 1. This demonstrates the importance of the hydroxyl group in the catalytic system.

Hvdrogenation of Dehydroamino Acids Table 2. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Dehydroamino Acid Derivatives" Run Substrate Ligand % eeb Ligand % ee 1 R = H, R'= H 2 zggc 3 >99 2 R = H, R'= CH3 2 98.3 3 99 3 R = Ph, R'= H 2 zggc 3 99 4 R = Ph, R'= CH3 2 >99 3 >99 5 R = p-F-Ph, R'= H 2 98.5C 3 >99 6 R = p-F-Ph, R'= CH3 2 98.4 3 >99 7 R = p-MeO-Ph, R1 = H 2 98.1c,d 3 99 8 R = p-MeO-Ph, R'= CH3 2 98.3d 3 >99 9 R = 2-thienyl, R'= H 2 zggc 3 >99 10 R = 2-thienyl, R'= CH3 2 >99 3 >99 11 R = m-Br-Ph, R'= H 3 99 12 R = m-Br-Ph, R'= CH3 3 >99 13 R = o-Cl-Ph, R'= H 3 98 14 R = o-Cl-Ph, R'= CH3 3 98 15 R = 2-naphthyl, R'= H 3 >99 16 R = 2-naphthyl, R'= CH3 3 >99 17 R = Ph, R'= H, 3 >99 benzonate 18 R = Ph, R'= CH3, 3, 99 benzonate 'The reaction was carried out at rt under 3 atm (45 psi) of H2 for 12 h in 3 mL of methanol with 100% conversion substrate (0.5 mmol): [Rh (COD) 2 PF6: ligand 4 = 1: 0.01: 0.011]. b. The S absoute configurations were determined by comparing optical rotations with reported values. The % ee was determined by GC using a Chiral-VAL III FSOT column.

'Determined on the corresponding methyl ester. d The % ee was determined by HPLC using a Chiral OJ column.

Catalvtic Asvmmetric Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid Derivatives Table 3. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid Derivatives Run Substrate Ligand % ee Ligand % ee' 1 R = H 2 95. 7 3 >99 2 R = CH3 2 97.5 3 >99 3 R = CH3 3">99 'Determined by GC using a gamma-225 column at 100°C. b Run in 3: 97 MeOH/H20 instead of neat MeOH. Various MeOH/H20 ratios gave comparable results.

Catalvtic Asymmetric Hvdrogenation of Enamides Table 4. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Enamides Run Substrate Ligand % ee 1 Ar=Ph, R=H 3 95.8 Ar = p-MeO-Ph, R = H 95.3 3 Ar = p-F3C-Ph, R = H 3 98.1 4 = p-Cy-Ph, R = H 3 97.7 The foregoing written description relates to various embodiments of the present invention. Numerous changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.