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Title:
AUTOMATIC DISHWAHSING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR USE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2003/097783
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to automatic dishwashing detergent compositions and methods of using compositions comprising halogenated salts, which are Mx,(X02)y and for MXXy wherein X is C1, Br,I, and a component preferably a builder such as phosphate and/or silicate in conjunction with electrolyzed water in automatic dishwashing appliances comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for treating tableware to improve cleaning, sanitizing and stain removal by controlling hardness, corrosion and dispersancy. Compositions which further comprise an enzyme, a thickening agent and a component selected from a builder, chelant, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach scavenging agent, metal protecting agent and mixtures thereof, are also disclosed.

Inventors:
Scheper, William Michael (2393 Picnic Woods Drive, Lawrenceburg, IN, 47025, US)
Price, Kenneth Nathan (265 Compton Road, Cincinnati, OH, 45215, US)
Tremblay, Mario Elmen (7897 Woodglen Drive, West Chester, OH, 45069, US)
Drzewiecki, Paul Joseph (3049 Socialville-Foster Road, Maineville, OH, 45039, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2003/015234
Publication Date:
November 27, 2003
Filing Date:
May 15, 2003
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY (One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH, 45202, US)
International Classes:
A47L15/00; A47L15/42; A61L2/03; C11D1/72; C11D3/02; C11D3/06; C11D3/08; C11D3/20; C11D3/33; C11D3/37; C11D3/386; C11D3/395; C11D3/50; C11D11/00; C11D17/00; C11D17/04; C11D17/06; C11D17/08; D06F35/00; (IPC1-7): C11D3/395; C11D3/02; C11D3/386
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Reed, David T. (The Procter & Gamble Company, 6110 Center Hill Road Cincinnati, OH, 45224, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is Claimed is:
1. An automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, said composition is characterized in that it comprises: (a) a halogenated salt having the formula (M) x (X02) y and/or (M) x (X) y, wherein X is Cl, Br, or I and wherein M is a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt is charge balanced; (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, chelant, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleachscavenging agent, a metalprotecting agent, and mixtures thereof; and (c) an effective amount of an enzyme; and (d) an effective amount of a thickening agent; and (e) optionally, at least one adjunct ingredient; wherein said composition is free of bleach.
2. A composition according to Claim 1, wherein said halogenated salt comprises a salt selected from the group consisting of NaClO2, KClOz"and mixtures thereof, and wherein said halogenated salt is present at a level of greater than about 0.1%, preferably at a level of greater than about 0.5%, most preferably at a level of greater than about 1.0%, by weight of the composition.
3. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said halogenated salt is in a form selected from the group characterized by low water solubility, contained within a medium for controlled release, and combinations thereof.
4. A composition according to Claim 3, wherein said controlled release form of said halogenated salt comprises a form such that once placed inside a dishwashing appliance it provides a controlled release of steady levels of halogen dioxide salts into the wash and/or rinse liquors during operation of an automatic dishwasher over a period of from 1 day to 365 days of regular household and/or commercial use.
5. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said composition is housed in a permeable container such that it is conveniently located inside a typical automatic dishwasher without interfering with said dishwasher's normal usage; wherein said container comprises a material selected from the group consisting of glass, plastic, ceramic, metal, and combinations thereof.
6. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said builder is selected from the group consisting of phosphate, phosphate oligomers or polymers and salts thereof, silicate oligomers or polymers and salts thereof, aluminosilicates, magnesioaluminosiliates, citrate, and mixtures thereof.
7. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said chelant is selected from the group consisting of EDTA, tetraacetyl ethylene diamine (TAED), EDDS, aminophosphonates, aminocarboxylates, carboxylatephosphonates, aluminosilicates, magnesioaluminosiliates, polyfunctionallysubstituted aromatic chelating agents, and mixtures thereof.
8. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said suds suppressor is selected from the group consisting of lowfoaming nonionic surfactants, low foaming nonionic surfactants with a cloud point below about 30°C, alkoxylates or mixed alkoxylates of linear fatty alcohols, alkoxylates or mixed alkoxylates of alkylphenols, block co polymers of ethylene and propylene glycol, C9, nE08cyclohexyl acetal alkyl capped nonionic, CIlEOrnbutyl acetal, C9xllEO82ethylhexyl acetal, C11EO8pyranyl, alcohol alkoxylate, and mixtures thereof.
9. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said perfume is from about 0.01% to about 5%, by weight, a blooming perfume composition, wherein said blooming perfume composition comprises from about 50% to about 99% of blooming perfume ingredients having a boiling point of less than about 260°C and a ClogP of at least about 3, and wherein said blooming perfume composition comprising at least about 5 different blooming perfume ingredients, and from about 0.5% to about 10% of base masking perfume ingredients having a boiling point of more than about 260°C and a ClogP of at least about 3.
10. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said enzyme is selected from the group consisting of amylase, protease, lipase, oxidase, and mixtures thereof.
11. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said wherein said bleachscavenging agent comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of perborate, percarbonate, ascorbic acid or derivatives thereof, carbamate, ammonium, sulfite, bisulfite, aluminum tristearate, sodium silicate, benzotriazole, amines, amino acids, and mixtures thereof.
12. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said composition is present in the form selected from the group consisting of liquid, gel, tablet, powder, watersoluble pouch, and mixtures thereof.
13. A method of treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device that results in improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, said method characterized in that it comprises the steps of : (a) placing tableware in need of treatment in said appliance; (b) providing an automatic dishwashing composition according to any one of the preceding claims during a wash and/or a rinse cycle in said appliance; (c) passing an aqueous electrolytic solution through said electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device to generate at least some electrolyzed water in the wash and/or rinse liquor of said appliance; and (d) contacting said tableware with said electrolyzed water.
14. A method according to Claim 13, wherein after said composition comprising bleach scavenging agent, metalprotecting agent, and mixtures thereof, is provided, no further electrolyzed water comes into contact with said tableware.
15. A method according to any one of Claims 13 through 14, wherein said composition further comprises an electrochemicallyactivated probenefit agent comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of properfume, prooxidant, proreductant, prosurface active agent, proglass care agent, and mixtures thereof, wherein when said electrochemicallyactivated probenefit agent is exposed to at least one electrochemical cell it undergoes oxidation and/or reduction and is thereby converted into an active agent which provides a treatment benefit to tableware upon contact with said tableware, and wherein said benefit is selected from the group consisting of cleaning, aesthetic, disinfecting, stainremoval, dishcare, and combinations thereof.
16. A method according to any one of Claims 13 through 15, wherein said electrolytic device comprises at least one of the features selected from the group consisting of (a) a nonpartitioned electrochemical cell; (b) at least one disposable and/or replaceable electrochemical cell component; (c) a recirculating system allowing for wash and/or rinse liquor to continuously circulate and/or recirculate through said electrolytic device, into the bulk wash or rinse liquor contained in said appliance, and back through said device; (d) an electrochemical cell comprising a cathode of stainless steel, an anode of titanium coated or layered with at least one of the materials selected from the group consisting of platinum, ruthenium, iridium, and oxides, alloys, and mixtures thereof, (e) a gap between the said at least one pair of electrodes having a gap spacing between about 0.1 mm to about 0.5 mm, (f) an operating voltage of said electrolytic device and/or electrochemical cell between about 1.5 and about 220 volts; and combination thereof.
17. A method according to any one of Claims 13 through 16, wherein said composition is used in the wash and/or rinse cycle of said appliance at temperatures below 48 degrees C or 120 degrees F.
18. A composition of matter consisting essentially of the wash and/or rinse liquor of an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, said composition of matter characterized in that it comprises: (a) at least some electrolyzed water comprising halogenated mixed oxidants; (b) a composition comprising a compound selected from the group consisting of a halogenated salt, builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleachscavenging agent, a metalprotecting agent, and mixtures thereof; (c) optionally, a composition comprising a compound selected from the group consisting of an electrolytic composition comprising halogen ions, an electrolytic composition comprising halogenated salts having the formula (M) X (XO2) y and/or (M) X (X) y wherein X is Cl, Br, or I and wherein M is a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt is charge balanced, an electrolysis precursor compound, a halogenated salt with low water solubility, an electrolysis precursor compound contained within a medium for controlled release, and mixtures thereof; and (d) optionally, at least one adjunct ingredient.
19. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, further comprising at least one adjunct ingredient, wherein said adjunct ingredient is selected from the group consisting of nanoparticles, functionalized surface molecules, polymers, surfactants, cosurfactants, metal ions, proteins, dyes, acids, bases, organic solvents, enzymes, enzyme stabilizing systems, chelants, optical brighteners, soil release agents, wetting agents, dispersants, blooming perfumes, colorants, filler salts, hydrotropes, preservatives, antioxidants, germicides, fungicides, color speckles, silvercare, antitarnishing agents, alkalinity sources, solubilizing agents, carriers, electrode maintenance and/or descaling agents, processing aids, pigments, and pH control agents, bleaching agent, bleach activators, bleach catalysts and mixtures thereof.
20. A composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said composition is present in the form selected from the group consisting of liquid, gel, tablet, powder, watersoluble pouch, and mixtures thereof.
Description:
AUTOMATIC DISHWASHING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR USE FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to automatic dishwashing detergent (ADD) compositions and methods of using compositions comprising halogenated salts, phosphate, and/or silicate in conjunction with electrolyzed water in automatic dishwashing appliances comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for treating tableware to improve cleaning, sanitizing and stain removal by controlling hardness, corrosion and dispersancy.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Electrochemical cells for use in automatic dishwashing appliances are designed to operate by making use of the water electrolysis process. Further, when a halogen-containing water (such as, natural water containing sodium chloride or an aqueous solution of sodium chloride) can be subjected to electrolysis, halogenated mixed oxidants are generated in the electrolyzed water.

A problem associated with using an automatic dishwashing appliance containing an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device (hereinafter"cell and/or device") to produce electrolyzed water for cleaning tableware in the absence of a specific ADD composition can be that there can be a potential for serious consumer dissatisfaction with the performance results.

While use of electrolyzed waster alone provides a source of alkalinity and bleaching agent, it nonetheless lacks the ability to control hardness, dispersancy and/or corrosion, and therefore can result in unsatisfactory performance. Though some of the references disclose the use of detergent ingredients in conjunction with electrolyzed water, they are either not related to treating tableware in automatic dishwashing applications and/or do not provide for the control of hardness, dispersancy and/or corrosion required by the present invention.

U. S. Patent No. 5,932, 171 discloses a phosphate can be used in conjunction with electrolyzed water for sterilizing medical instruments in an immersive-type sterilization bath, but does not disclose or suggest the use of phosphate in an ADD composition in conjunction with electrolyzed water to control hardness, dispersancy and/or corrosion. Furthermore, this reference broadly discloses the use of electrolyzed water in conjunction with an"anticorrosive, "but fails to disclose specific anticorrosives (such as silicates, which are some of the most well known anticorrosives) or other"buffer additives." Similarly, U. S. Patent No. 5,250, 160 discloses a phosphate can be used in conjunction with electrolyzed water for sterilizing objects in an immersive-type sterilization bath, but does not disclose or suggest the use of phosphate in an ADD composition for building and/or cleaning purposes, or to control hardness, dispersancy and/or corrosion. Although this reference generally describes the use of electrolyzed water in conjunction with simple phosphates, the function of the phosphate disclosed by the reference can be simply to provide electrolytes to aid in the process of electrolysis.

JP Application No. 10179489A describes the use of detergent in conjunction with electrolyzed water but specifically teaches that the best mode reduces or abolishes the need for a detergent. U. S. Patent No. 4,402, 197 states the use of a detergent that"has a simplified formulation"but provides no details other than it could include an enzyme system. Similarly, the following references do not disclose electrolyzed water in conjunction with an ADD composition to control hardness, dispersancy and/or corrosion. JP Application No. 10057297A describes the use of a detergent but gives no specifics. JP Application No. 10033448A also broadly describes the use of"a detergent"and"an alkaline detergent"but provides no specifics. None of the abovementioned references disclose the benefits of hardness, dispersancy and/or corrosion control when treating tableware with electrolyzed water in conjunction with a specific ADD composition, as disclosed in the present application.

There remains a need to provide a specific ADD composition and a method of using a specific ADD composition in conjunction with electrolyzed water for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance for controlling hardness, corrosion and dispersancy in order to improve cleaning, sanitizing and stain removal performance.

It has now been surprisingly discovered that using electrolyzed water in conjunction with an ADD composition comprising a halogenated salt and a builder, such as phosphate and/or silicate, completes the portfolio of cleaning chemistry that can be necessary for a robust and satisfactory automatic dishwashing end result. The present invention meets this need by providing a unique halogenated mixed oxidant cleaning system. According to this invention, superior tableware cleaning, sanitizing and stain removal can be achieved when alkalinity for bleaching/sanitization can be provided by electrolyzed water, hardness control can be provided by phosphate and anticorrosion benefits are provided by silicates.

Electrolyzed water when combined with a builder, such as a phosphate and/or silicate, in the presence of a halogenated salt, can be particularly effective in removing a wide range of soils, microorganisms, and/or stains from soiled tableware. This combination will also allow ADD compositions to be sold without bleach, a distinct advantage over the prior art, while at the same time providing the cleaning performance of a powdered automatic dishwashing detergent composition that contains both enzyme and bleach. As a result, non-bleach-containing, enzyme- based liquid-gel automatic dishwashing detergent compositions could become a consumer- preferred ADD composition.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In one aspect of the present invention, an automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, said composition is characterized in that it can comprise: (a) a halogenated salt having the formula (M) x (X02) y and/or (M) x (X) y, wherein X is Cl, Br, or I and wherein M is a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt is charge balanced; (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, chelant, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof; (c) an effective amount of an enzyme; (d) an effective amount of a thickening agent; and (e) optionally, at least one adjunct ingredient; wherein said composition is free of bleach In another aspect of the present invention, an automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance can comprise an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition comprising: (a) at least about 0. 1%, by weight of the composition, of a halogenated salt having the formula (M) X (X) y, wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced; and (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal-protecting agent, enzymes, and mixtures thereof; wherein the composition can be optionally free of bleach.

In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid, liquitab, and/or gel automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance can comprise an electrochemical cell for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition comprising: (a) at least about 0. 1%, by weight of the composition, of a halogenated salt having the formula (M) X (X) y, wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced; (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof; and (c) an effective amount of an enzyme; and (d) an effective amount of a thickening agent; wherein the liquid, liquitab, and/or gel composition can be optionally free of bleach.

In another aspect of the present invention, a method of treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance can comprise an electrochemical cell that results in improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the method comprising the steps of : (a) placing tableware in need of treatment in the appliance; (b) providing an automatic dishwashing composition comprising a component selected from the group consisting of a halogenated salt, builder, suds suppressor, perfume, bleach-scavenging agent, metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof, during a wash and/or a rinse cycle in the appliance; (c) passing an aqueous electrolytic solution through the electrochemical cell to generate at least some electrolyzed water in the wash and/or rinse liquor of the appliance; and (d) contacting the tableware with the electrolyzed water.

In another aspect of the present invention, an article of manufacture for an automatic dishwashing appliance can comprise: (a) a package; (b) a replacement product comprising a component selected from electrolytic solution comprising halogen ions, halogenated salts having the formula (M) X (XO2) y and/or (M) X (X) y wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, electrolysis precursor compound, a halogenated salt with low water solubility, a halogenated salt contained within a medium for controlled release, and mixtures thereof; (c) optionally, a porous basket comprising the product for dispensing; and (c) information in association with the package comprising instructions to insert the replacement components and/or the a porous basket in the appliance and/or the electrolytic device.

In yet another aspect of the present invention, an ADD composition of matter consists essentially of the in the wash and/or rinse liquor of an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition of matter comprising: (a) at least some electrolyzed water comprising halogenated mixed oxidants; (b) an ADD composition comprising a compound selected from the group consisting of a halogenated salts, halogenated salt with low water solubility, builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal- protecting agent, and mixtures thereof; (c) optionally, an ADD composition comprising a compound selected from the group consisting of an electrolytic composition comprising halogen ions, an electrolytic composition comprising halogenated salts having the formula (M) x (XOz) y and/or (M) x (X) y wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, an electrolysis precursor compound, a halogenated salt with low water solubility, an electrolysis precursor compound contained within a medium for controlled release, and mixtures thereof; and (d) optionally, at least one adjunct ingredient.

The following description can be provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make and use the invention, and can be provided in the context of a particular application and its requirements. Various modifications to the embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein can be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The present invention can be not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown. Thus, since the following specific embodiments of the present invention are intended only to exemplify, but in no way limit, the operation of the present invention, the present invention can be to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles, features and teachings disclosed herein.

It should be understood that every maximum numerical limitation given throughout this specification will include every lower numerical limitation, as if such lower numerical limitations were expressly written herein. Every minimum numerical limitation given throughout this specification will include every higher numerical limitation, as if such higher numerical limitations were expressly written herein. Every numerical range given throughout this specification will include every narrower numerical range that falls within such broader numerical range, as if such narrower numerical ranges were all expressly written herein.

The various advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art after a study of the foregoing specification and following claims. The following specific embodiments of the present invention are intended to exemplify, but in no way limit, the operation of the present invention. All documents cited are, in relevant part, incorporated herein by reference; the citation of any document can be not to be construed as an admission that it can be prior art with respect to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION ELECTROLYSIS Electrodes An electrode can generally have any shape that can effectively conduct electricity through the aqueous electrolytic solution between itself and another electrode, and can include, but can be not limited to, a planar electrode, an annular electrode, a spring-type electrode, and a porous electrode. The anode and cathode electrodes can be shaped and positioned to provide a substantially uniform gap between a cathode and an anode electrode pair. On the other hand, the anode and the cathode can have different shapes, different dimensions, and can be positioned apart from one another non-uniformly. The important relationship between the anode and the cathode can be for a sufficient flow of current through the anode at an appropriate voltage to promote the conversion of the halogenated salt solution to halogenated bleach species within the cell passage adjacent the anode.

Planar electrodes, such as shown, have a length along the flow path of the solution, and a width oriented transverse to the flow path.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an automatic dishwashing appliance containing a robust cell and/or device. The robust cell being non-partitioned can be less prone to fouling. The robust cell can comprise a cathode of stainless steel and an anode of titanium. The anode can be coated and/or layered with at least one of the materials selected from the group consisting of platinum, ruthenium, iridium, and oxides, alloys, and mixtures thereof.

The cell passage of the robust cell forms a gap between the at least one pair of electrodes having a gap spacing between about 0.1 mm to about 0.5 mm ; and wherein the operating voltage can be between about 3 and about 6 volts.

Electrochemical Cell An electrochemical cell can comprise at least one pair of electrodes ; an anode, and a cathode, defining a cell gap, comprising a cell passage, formed therebetween through which the aqueous electrolytic solution can flow.

Electrolytic Solution The components of the aqueous electrolytic solution can be selected from the group consisting of chloride ions, chlorite ions, water-soluble salts having the formula (M) X (XOz) y and/or (M) x (X) y wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, electrolysis precursor compounds, electrolysis salts with low water solubility, electrolysis precursor compounds contained within a medium or matrix for controlled release, and mixtures thereof.

Preferred electrolytic solutions contain at least some halogen ions, including but not limited to chloride, chlorite, bromide, bromite, iodide, and iodite, and mixtures thereof; preferably chloride ions or chlorite ions. Of course, electrolytic solutions containing higher levels of halogen ions are more efficiently converted into a discharge effluent solution having even larger amounts of the mixed oxidants. This can be due in part because the conductivity of the aqueous electrolytic solution increases with the concentration of halogen ions, thereby enabling a greater current flow across the passage gap between the pair of electrodes under a constant voltage potential. In general, to produce the same amount of mixed oxidants at a fixed power (current and voltage potential), an aqueous electrolytic solution having a higher concentration of halogen ions allows a substantially smaller gap spacing, compared to an aqueous electrolytic solution having lower concentrations of the halogen ions.

Halogenated mixed oxidants The chemistry of the conversion of halogen ions to halogenated mixed oxidants proceeds as electrical energy can be applied between the pair of electrodes and through the aqueous electrolytic solution. Since chloride in common salt can be the most prevalent halogen available, the description of the electrochemical cell chemistry and operation will be described with respect to converting chloride to chlorine, although it should be understood that other halogen ions (halides and/or halites), especially bromide, iodide, chlorite, bromite, and iodite would function and respond similarly to chloride. Similarly, since chlorinated tap water can be a useful electrolytic solution, the description below will describe the use of water having a residual amount of chloride ions, although it should be understood that other electrolytic solutions can be used, preferably those consisting of chloride ions, chlorite ions, water-soluble salts having the formula (M) X (XO2) y and/or (M) X (X) y wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, electrolysis precursor compounds, electrolysis salts with low water solubility, electrolysis precursor compounds contained within a medium or matrix for controlled release, and mixtures thereof.

Water containing residual amounts of chloride ions can be electrolyzed as it passes between the anode (the positively charged electrode of the pair) and the cathode (the negatively charged electrode). Two of the reactions that occur at the anode electrode are set forth below as equations 1 and 2.

2C1-+ C12 + 2e (1) H20 @ 1/202 + 2H++ 2e~ (2) One of the reactions that occurs at the cathode can be set forth as equation 3.

2H20 +2e-+ H2 + 20H- (3) Furthermore, chlorine molecules can be converted to hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions as set forth in equations 4 and 5, respectively.

C12 + H2O EHOC1 + Cl-+ H+ (4) HOC1- OCl'+ ET" (5) The chlorine gas that can be generated dissolves or diffuses into the water to generate free chlorine in the form of hypochlorous acid, hypochlorous acid ions, and hypochlorite ions. It can be believed that other various halogenated mixed oxidants that can form include chlorine dioxide (CI02), other chloro-oxides molecules, oxide molecules including ozone, hydrogen oxide (H202) and free radicals (oxygen singlet, hydroxyl radicals) and ions thereof. Such halogenated mixed oxidants are demonstrated and described in U. S. Patent 3,616, 355 and U. S. Patent 4,761, 208.

These types of halogenated mixed oxidants are very effective biocidal agents, but have very short lifespans, lasting from a fraction of a second to minutes under ordinary, ambient conditions.

Consequently, generating these biocidal agents at the point of use ensures the most effective use of the biocidal species, such as when generating the biocidal agents at specific time intervals throughout the wash and/or rinse cycles of the operation of the appliance and/or continuously without regard to sequencing.

For effective sanitizing treatment of tableware in contact with the aqueous electrolytic solution, the concentration of halogenated mixed oxidants in the electrochemical cell effluent, as measured by the DPD method, can be at least about 0.1 mg per liter (about 0.1 ppm) of electrochemical cell effluent, preferably at least about 0.2 mg per liter (about 0.2 ppm), more preferably at least about 1 mg per liter (about 1 ppm), and most preferably at least about 5 mg per liter (about 5 ppm).

An important consideration can be the productivity of the electrical power of the electrochemical cell. When battery power can be used, it can be important to provide the greatest possible production of halogenated mixed oxidants or mixed-oxidant agents for each watt of power consumed. This ensures long battery life, greater consumer convenience, smaller and more efficient electrochemical cells, and greater consumer value.

The productivity of an electrochemical cell can be expressed by equation I, i1= (CCl) (Q) / (D (V) (I) wherein: il units are micrograms of chlorine per minute, per watt of power used; CC1 can be the concentration of the generated chlorine equivalent, as determined by the DPD Method, in milligrams per liter (mg/1) ; I can be the electric current in amps; Q can be the volumetric flow rate in milliliters per minute (ml/m); and V can be electric potential across the electrochemical cell in volts.

The productivity il of the electroytic device used in accordance with the present invention can be typically greater than 100, and more typically greater than 250. In preferred embodiments of the electrochemical cell, the productivity n can be more than about 500, and more preferably more than about 1000, when the aqueous electrolytic solution has a concentration of halogen ions of more than 0.001% (10 ppm) and less than 0.1%. Preferably, the cell and/or device has the above-described efficiencies when the electric current can be between about 100 milliamps and about 2000 milliamps, with typical current densities of between about 5 milliamps/cm2 and 100 milliamps/cm2 of exposed anode electrode surface, and more preferably between about 10 milliamps and 50 milliamps/cm2. Since the electrical potentials required to convert chloride to chlorine can be about 1.36V, a voltage potential greater than 1.36V across the passage will generate a proportionally greater amount of halogenated mixed oxidants from the chloride ions.

The voltage potential maintained between any pair of anode and cathode electrodes should be generally greater than 1.36V, and generally less than about 12 volts, and can be preferably between about 2. 0V and 6V, and more preferably between about 3V and 4. 5V. For self-powered self-contained devices, batteries are the preferred electrical current sources. To achieve the extended life from a set of batteries, cell and/or device can be preferably designed to draw a total power of 20 watts or less, preferably 5 watts or less, more preferably 2.5 watts or less, and most preferably 1 watt or less, across the electrode pairs of the electrochemical cell.

Generally, the electrochemical cell has a cell gap spacing greater than about 0.05 mm, preferably greater than 0.10 mm, more preferably greater than 0.15 mm, and most preferably greater than about 0.20 mm, and a cell gap spacing less than about 5 mm, preferably less than about 2.0 mm, more preferably less than about 0.80 mm, and most preferably less than about 0.50 mm. The more preferable cell gap spacings are for use with electrolytic solutions that contain a concentration of halide ions of less than about 200 ppm, and a specific conductivity p of greater than about 250 IlS/cm.

The residence time between the inlet and outlet of the anode and cathode pair can be generally less than 10 seconds and preferably can be less than 5 seconds, in more preferred embodiments, between about 0.01 seconds and about 1.5 seconds, and most preferably between 0.05 and about 0.5 seconds. The residence time can be approximated by dividing the total volume of the passage between the anode and cathode pair by the average flow rate of water through the electrochemical cell.

COMPOSITION Electrolyzed water when combined with a specific ADD composition, such as a phosphate and/or silicate in the presence of a halogenated salt, can be particularly effective in removing a wide range of soils, microorganisms, and/or stains from soiled tableware.

(a) Halogenated Salt The present invention can comprise one or more halogenated salts selected from the group consisting of halite salt, halide salt, and mixtures thereof. The level of halogenated salt comprised in the wash and/or rinse liquor can be selected based on the required bleaching or disinfection required by the halogenated mixed oxidants, in addition to the conversion efficiency of the electrochemical cell to convert the halogenated salt to the halogenated mixed oxidants. The level of halogenated salt can be generally from about 1 ppm to about 10,000 ppm. For disinfection of wash and/or rinse liquor, a halogenated salt level can be preferably from about 1 ppm to about 5000 ppm, and more preferably about 10 ppm to about 1000 ppm. The resulting halogenated mixed-oxidant level can be from about 0.1 ppm to about 10,000 ppm, preferably from about 1 ppm to about 200 ppm. For bleaching purposes, a halogenated salt level of from about 100 ppm to about 10,000 ppm can be preferred.

The range of halogenated mixed oxidants conversion that can be achievable in the electrochemical cells of the present invention generally ranges from less than about 1% to about 99%. The level of conversion can be dependent most significantly on the design of the electrochemical cell, herein described, as well as on the electrical current properties used in the electrochemical cell.

In certain circumstances, halogenated salts of calcium and magnesium having a reduced solubility in water, as compared to sodium halogenated salts, control the rate of dissolution of the halogenated salt. The ADD composition can also be formulated with other organic and inorganic materials to control the rate of dissolution of the halogenated salt. Preferred can be a slow dissolving salt particle and/or tablet, to release sufficient halogenated salt to form an effective amount of halogenated precursor product. The release amount of the halogenated salt can be typically between 1 milligram to 10 grams halogenated salt, for each liter of solution passed through the electrochemical cell. The ADD composition can comprise a simple admixture of the halogenated salt with the dissolution control materials, which can be selected from various well- known encapsulating materials, including but not limited to fatty alcohol, fatty acids, and waxes.

The ADD composition of the present invention can comprise a local source of halogenated salt, and a means for delivering the halogenated salt to the wash and/or rinse liquor.

This embodiment can be advantageously used in those situations when the target water to be treated with the electrochemical cell does not contain a sufficient amount, or any, of the halogenated salt. The local source of halogenated salt can be released into a stream of the aqueous solution, which then ultimately passes through the electrochemical cell. The local source of halogenated salt can also be released into at least some of the wash and/or rinse liquor present in the washing basin of the automatic dishwashing appliance, which portion can be then drawn into the electrochemical cell. Preferably, in order to maximize the conversion to halogenated mixed oxidants, and limit the addition of salts to the wash and/or rinse liquor, generally all the local source of halogenated salt passes through the electrochemical cell. The local source of halogenated salt can also supplement any residual levels of halogenated salt already contained in incoming tap water and/or the wash and/or rinse liquor.

The local source of halogen ions can be from an ADD composition and/or rinse aid composition, a concentrated brine solution, a halogenated salt tablet, granule, or pellet in fluid contact with the aqueous electrolytic solution, or in a porous basket hanging on the rack of the automatic dishwashing appliance, or both. A preferred localized source of halogen ions can be a solid form, such as a pill or tablet, of halide salt, such as sodium chloride (common salt) or sodium chlorite. The means for delivering the local source of halogen ions can comprise a salt chamber or a porous basket comprising the halogenated salt, preferably a pill of tablet, through which at least some of the aqueous electrolytic solution will pass, thereby dissolving at least some of the halide salt into the portion of water. The salted portion of water then ultimately passes into the electrochemical cell. The salt chamber or a porous basket can comprise a salt void that can be formed in the body and positioned in fluid communication with the portion of water that will pass through the electrochemical cell.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein the halogenated salt can be in a form selected from the group characterized by low water solubility, contained within a medium for controlled release, and combinations thereof.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein the controlled release form provides a local source of the halogenated salt comprising a form such that once placed inside a dishwashing appliance it provides a controlled release of steady levels of halogen dioxide salts into the wash and/or rinse liquors during operation of an automatic dishwasher over a period of from 1 day to 365 days of regular household and/or commercial use.

(i) Halogen Dioxide Salt-The precursor material from which halogen dioxide can be formed can be referred to as a halogen dioxide salt. The halogen dioxide salt of the present invention having the formula (M) X (XO2) ya wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced. The halogen dioxide salt can comprise two or more salts in various mixtures.

The most preferred halite salt can be sodium chlorite. Sodium chlorite can be not a salt ordinarily found in tap water, well water, and other water sources. Consequently, an amount of the sodium chlorite salt can be added into the wash and/or rinse liquor at a desired concentration generally of at least about 0.1 ppm.

The wash and/or rinse liquor can comprise substantially no chloride (Cl-) or other halide ions, which upon electrolysis can form a mixed oxidant, including hypochlorite. Preferably, electrolyzed discharge effluent can comprise less than about 1.0 ppm, and more preferably less than 0.1 ppm, of chlorine. The wash and/or rinse liquor comprising the sodium chlorite can be provided in a variety of ways.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition comprising sodium chlorite, preferably, a concentrated solution about 2% to about 35% sodium chlorite by weight of the composition in the form of a liquid, liquitab, and/or gel.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to an automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition comprising: (a) a halogen dioxide salt having the formula (M) X (XO2) y, wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced; and (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach- scavenging agent, a metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof; wherein the composition can be optionally free of bleach.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein the halogenated salt can comprise a salt selected from the group consisting of NaC102, KC102, and mixtures thereof. Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein NaClO2, KC102, and mixtures thereof, can be present at a level of greater than about 0.1%, preferably at a level greater than about 0.5%, more preferably at a level of greater than about 1.0% by weight of the composition, and most preferably at a level of greater than about 2%, by weight of the composition.

(ii) Other Halogenated Salts-In substitution of and/or addition to halogen dioxide salt, the present invention can comprise one or more halide salts. The halide salt of the present invention having the formula (M) X (X) y, wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, can be used to enhance the disinfection and bleaching performance of the effluent that can be discharged from the electrochemical cell, or to provide other halogenated mixed oxidants, when preferred, in response to the passing of electrical current through the electrochemical cell.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to an automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition comprising: (a) at least about 0.1%, by weight of the composition, of a halogenated salt having the formula (M) X (X) y, wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced; and (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal-protecting agent, enzymes, and mixtures thereof; wherein the composition can be optionally free of bleach.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition comprising NaCl, KC1, and mixtures thereof, at a level of greater than about 0.1%, preferably at a level greater than about 0.5% by weight of the composition, more preferably at a level of greater than about 1% by weight of the composition. most preferably at a level of greater than about 2%, by weight of the composition.

(b) Builders Detergent builders are included in the compositions herein to assist in controlling mineral hardness and dispersancy. Inorganic as well as organic builders can be used.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein the builder can be selected from the group consisting of phosphate, phosphate oligomers or polymers and salts thereof, silicate oligomers or polymers and salts thereof, aluminosilicates, magnesioaluminosiliates, citrate, and mixtures thereof.

(i) Phosphate Builders-Phosphate detergent builders for use in ADD compositions are well known. They include, but are not limited to, the alkali metal, ammonium and alkanolammonium salts of polyphosphates (exemplified by the tripolyphosphates, pyrophosphates, and glassy polymeric meta-phosphates). Phosphate builder sources are described in detail in Kirk Othmer, 3rd Edition, Vol. 17, pp. 426-472 and in"Advanced Inorganic Chemistry"by Cotton and Wilkinson, pp. 394-400 (John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 1972).

(ii) Silicate Builders-The present automatic dishwashing detergent compositions can further comprise water-soluble silicates. Water-soluble silicates herein are any silicates which are soluble to the extent that they do not adversely affect spotting/filming characteristics of the ADD composition.

Aluminosilicate builders can be used in the present compositions though are not preferred for automatic dishwashing detergents.

(iii) Carbonate Builders-Examples of carbonate builders are the alkaline earth and alkali metal carbonates as disclosed in German Patent Application No. 2,321, 001 published on November 15,1973. Various grades and types of sodium carbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate can be used, certain of which are particularly useful as carriers for other ingredients, especially detersive surfactants.

(iv) Organic Detergent Builders-Organic detergent builders suitable for the purposes of the present invention include, but are not restricted to, a wide variety of polycarboxylate compounds.

(v) Other Useful Builders-Other useful detergency builders include the ether hydroxypolycarboxylates, copolymers of maleic anhydride with ethylene or vinyl methyl ether, 1, 3,5-trihydroxy benzene-2,4, 6-trisulphonic acid, and carboxymethyloxysuccinic acid, the various alkali metal, ammonium and substituted ammonium salts of polyacetic acids such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, as well as polycarboxylates such as mellitic acid, succinic acid, oxydisuccinic acid, polymaleic acid, benzene 1,3, 5-tricarboxylic acid, carboxymethyloxysuccinic acid, and soluble salts thereof.

Citrate builders, e. g. , citric acid and soluble salts thereof (particularly sodium salt), are polycarboxylate builders of particular importance for heavy duty laundry detergent and automatic dishwashing formulations due to their availability from renewable resources and their biodegradability. Citrates can also be used in combination with zeolite, the aforementioned BRITESIL types, and/or layered silicate builders. Oxydisuccinates are also useful in such compositions and combinations.

Where phosphorus-based builders can be used, the various alkali metal phosphates such as the well-mown sodium tripolyphosphates, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium orthophosphate can be used. Phosphonate builders such as ethane-l-hydroxy-l, l-diphosphonate and other known phosphonates (see, for example, U. S. Patents 3,159, 581; 3,213, 030; 3,422, 021; 3,400, 148 and 3,422, 137) can also be used though such materials are more commonly used in a low-level mode as chelants or stabilizers.

(c) Suds Suppressor The ADD compositions of the present invention can optionally contain an alkyl phosphate ester suds suppressor, a silicone suds suppressor, or combinations thereof.

(d) Perfume (i) Non-Blooming Perfumes-Perfumes and perfumery ingredients useful in the present compositions and processes comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic chemical ingredients, including, but not limited to, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and the like.

(ii) Blooming Perfumes-Blooming perfume compositions, as disclosed herein, can be formulated into automatic dishwashing detergent compositions and provide significantly better noticeability to the consumer than non-blooming perfume compositions not containing a substantial amount of blooming perfume ingredients.

(e) Metal-Protecting Agent The present ADD compositions can contain one or more material care agents which are effective as corrosion inhibitors and/or anti-tarnish aids. Such materials are preferred components of machine dishwashing compositions especially in certain European countries where the use of electroplated nickel silver and sterling silver can be still comparatively common in domestic flatware, or when aluminum protection can be a concern and the composition can be low in silicate.

ADJUNCT INGREDIENTS Detersive ingredients or adjuncts optionally included in the instant ADD compositions can include one or more materials for assisting or enhancing cleaning, sanitizing and stain removal performance of tableware treated by electrolyzed water in an automatic dishwashing appliance containing an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device. They are further selected based on the form of the composition, i. e. , whether the composition can be to be sold as a liquid, paste (semi-solid), or solid form (including tablets and the preferred granular forms for the present compositions).

Adjuncts which can also be included in compositions of the present invention, at their conventional art-established levels for use (generally, adjunct materials comprise, in total, from about 1% to about 90%, preferably from about 5% to about 75%, more preferably from about 10% to about 50%, by weight of the compositions), and can include other active ingredients such as nanoparticles, functionalized surface molecules, polymers, surfactants, co-surfactants, metal ions, proteins, dyes, acids, bases, organic solvents, enzymes, enzyme stabilizing systems, chelants, optical brighteners, soil release agents, wetting agents, dispersants, blooming perfumes, colorants, filler salts, hydrotropes, preservatives, anti-oxidants, germicides, fungicides, color speckles, silvercare, anti-tarnishing agents, alkalinity sources, solubilizing agents, carriers, electrode maintenance and/or descaling agents, processing aids, pigments, and pH control agents, bleaching agent, bleach activators, bleach catalysts and mixtures thereof. These adjuncts are described in detail in U. S. Patent 6,143, 707, Trinh et al. , incorporated herein by reference.

The precise nature of these additional detergent ingredients, and levels of incorporation thereof, will depend on the physical form of the composition and the nature of the operation for which the composition can be to be used. The selection of the adjunct will depend upon the type and use of the composition. Non-limiting illustrative examples of compositions as well as suitable adjunct (s) for the illustrative compositions are described hereinafter. Particularly preferred adjuncts are surfactants, enzymes, chelants, dispersant polymers, thickeners, and pH adjusting agents as described in detail hereinafter.

(a) Surfactant One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition comprising a surfactant can be selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, amphoteric surfactants, ampholytic surfactants, zwitterionic surfactants, and mixtures thereof.

It should be noted that low foaming nonionic surfactants are useful in automatic dishwashing to assist cleaning, help defoam food soil foams, especially from proteins, and to help control spotting/filming and are desirably included in the present detergent compositions at levels of from about 0. 1% to about 20%, preferably from about 0. 5% to about 5%, by weight of the composition. In general, bleach-stable surfactants are preferred. ADD compositions of the present invention preferably comprise low foaming nonionic surfactants (LFNIs).

(b) Co-Surfactant The composition of the present invention can further contain optional co-surfactants.

These optional surfactants will be preferably bleach stable. Preferred optional co-surfactants are low cloud point nonionic surfactants, high cloud point nonionic surfactants, anionic surfactants and mixtures thereof.

(c) Enzyme "Detergent enzyme", as used herein, means any enzyme having a cleaning, stain removing or otherwise beneficial effect in an ADD composition. Preferred enzymes are hydrolases such as proteases, amylases and lipases. Highly preferred for automatic dishwashing are amylases and/or proteases, including both current commercially available types and improved types which, though more bleach compatible, have a remaining degree of bleach deactivation susceptibility.

Enzyme-containing compositions, especially liquid compositions, herein can comprise from about 0.001% to about 10%, preferably from about 0.005% to about 8%, most preferably from about 0.01% to about 6%, by weight of an enzyme stabilizing system. The enzyme stabilizing system can be any stabilizing system which can be compatible with the detersive enzyme. Such stabilizing systems can comprise calcium ion, boric acid, propylene glycol, short chain carboxylic acid, boronic acid, and mixtures thereof.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to a liquid, liquitab, and/or gel automatic dishwashing composition for treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition comprising: (a) at least about 0. 1%, by weight of the composition, of a halogenated salt having the formula (M) X (X) y, wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced; (b) a component selected from the group consisting of a builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof; and (c) an effective amount of an enzyme; and (d) an effective amount of a thickening agent; wherein the liquid, liquitab, and/or gel composition can be optionally free of bleach. Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein the composition does not contain chlorine bleach, oxygen bleach, or mixtures thereof.

The ADD compositions herein optionally comprise one or more enzymes. If only one enzyme can be used, it can be preferably an amyolytic enzyme. Highly preferred for automatic dishwashing can be a mixture of proteolytic enzymes and amyloytic enzymes. More generally, the enzymes to be incorporated include proteases, amylases, lipases, cellulases, and peroxidases, as well as mixtures thereof. Other types of enzymes can also be included. They can be of any suitable origin, such as vegetable, animal, bacterial, fungal and yeast origin. However, their choice can be governed by several factors such as pH-activity and/or stability optima, thermostability, stability versus active detergents, builders, etc. In this respect bacterial or fungal enzymes are preferred, such as bacterial amylases and proteases, and fungal cellulases.

Enzymes are normally incorporated in the instant detergent compositions at levels sufficient to provide a"cleaning-effective amount". The term"cleaning-effective amount"refers to any amount capable of producing a cleaning, stain removal or soil removal effect on substrates such as fabrics, tableware and the like.

(d) Chelating Agents The compositions herein can also optionally contain one or more transition-metal selective sequestrants, "chelants"or"chelating agents", e. g. , iron and/or copper and/or manganese chelating agents. Chelating agents suitable for use herein can be selected from the group consisting of aminocarboxylates, phosphonates (especially the aminophosphonates), polyfunctionally-substituted aromatic chelating agents, and mixtures thereof. Without intending to be bound by theory, it can be believed that the benefit of these materials can be due in part to their exceptional ability to control iron, copper and manganese in washing solutions which are known to decompose hydrogen peroxide and/or bleach activators ; other benefits include inorganic film prevention or scale inhibition. Commercial chelating agents for use herein include the DEQUEST (E) series, and chelants from Monsanto, DuPont, and Nalco, Inc.

(e) Dispersant Polymer Preferred ADD compositions herein can additionally contain a dispersant polymer. When present, a dispersant polymer in the instant ADD compositions can be typically at levels in the range from 0 to about 25%, preferably from about 0.5% to about 20%, more preferably from about 1% to about 8%, by weight of the ADD composition. Dispersant polymers are useful for improved filming performance of the present ADD compositions, especially in higher pH embodiments, such as those in which wash pH exceeds about 9.5. Particularly preferred are polymers which inhibit the deposition of calcium carbonate or magnesium silicate on dishware.

(f) Thickeners The physical stability of the liquid or gel product can be improved, and the thickness of the product can be altered, by the addition of a cross-linking thickener to the liquid or gel detergent product as a thixotropic thickener.

(g) Functionalized Surface Molecules The functionalized surface molecule of the present invention can be present in the composition to provide hydrophilic or hydrophobic character to the composition, to anchor and/or enhance surface adsorption of the tableware, and/or to provide water-affinity to treated tableware.

(h) pH adjusting components The above liquid or gel detergent product can be preferably low foaming, readily soluble in the washing medium and most effective at pH values best conducive to improved cleaning performance, such as in a range of desirably from about pH 6.5 to about pH 12.5, and preferably from about pH 7.0 to about pH 12.0, more preferably from about pH 8.0 to about pH 12.0.

Preferably the pH can be less than about 10.0 for better enzyme stability, most preferably less than about 9.0. The pH adjusting components are desirably selected from sodium or potassium hydroxide, sodium or potassium carbonate or sesquicarbonate, sodium or potassium silicate, boric acid, sodium or potassium bicarbonate, sodium or potassium borate, and mixtures thereof. NaOH or KOH are the preferred ingredients for increasing the pH to within the above ranges. Other preferred pH adjusting ingredients are sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, and mixtures thereof.

(i) Organic Solvent One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition comprising an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of low molecular weight aliphatic or aromatic alcohols, low molecular weight alkylene glycols, low molecular weight alkylene glycol ethers, low molecular weight esters, low molecular weight alkylene amines, low molecular weight alkanolamines, and mixtures thereof.

Bleach, Bleach, Bleach Catalyst And/Or Bleach Activator One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition comprising a bleach, bleach catalyst and/or bleach activator can be selected from the group consisting of benzoyl peroxide, s-phthalimidoperoxyhexanoic acid, 6-nonylamino-6-oxoperoxycaproic acid, tetraacetyl ethylene diamine, benzoylcaprolactam, nonanoyloxybenzenesulphonate (NOBS), decanoyloxybenzenesulphonate, (6-octanamidocaproyl) oxybenzenesulfonate, (6- nonanamidocaproyl) oxybenzenesulfonate, (6-decanamidocaproyl) oxybenzenesulfonate, magnesium monoperoxyphthalate, quaternary substituted bleach activators, and mixtures thereof.

(k) Electrochemically-Activated Pro-Benefit Agent Another embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition comprising an electrochemically-activated pro-benefit agent selected from the group consisting of pro- perfume, pro-oxidant, pro-reductant, pro-surface active agent, pro-glass care agent, and mixtures thereof, wherein when the electrochemically-activated pro-benefit agent is exposed to at least one electrochemical cell it undergoes oxidation and/or reduction and can be thereby converted into an active agent which provides a treatment benefit to tableware upon contact with the tableware, and wherein the benefit can be selected from the group consisting of cleaning, aesthetic, disinfecting, stain-removal, dish-care, and combinations thereof.

(1) Moisture Content Since ADD compositions herein can contain water-sensitive ingredients or ingredients which can co-react when brought together in an aqueous environment, it can be desirable to keep the free moisture content of the ADDs at a minimum, e. g. , 7% or less, preferably 4% or less of the ADD; and to provide packaging which can be substantially impermeable to water and carbon dioxide. Coating measures have been described herein to illustrate a way to protect the ingredients from each other and from air and moisture. Plastic bottles, including refillable or recyclable types, as well as conventional barrier cartons or boxes are another helpful means of assuring maximum shelf-storage stability. As noted, when ingredients are not highly compatible, it can further be desirable to coat at least one such ingredient with a low-foaming nonionic surfactant for protection. There are numerous waxy materials which can readily be used to form suitable coated particles of any such otherwise incompatible components; however, the formulator prefers those materials which do not have a marked tendency to deposit or form films on dishes including those of plastic construction.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to an ADD composition, wherein the composition can be present in the form selected from the group consisting of liquid, gel, tablet, powder, water-soluble pouch, and mixtures thereof.

ADJUNCT INGREDIENTS Any adjunct ingredient in any amount may be used in the ADD composition. For example, adjunct ingredients may be selected from the group consisting of nanoparticles, functionalized surface molecules, polymers, surfactants, co-surfactants, metal ions, proteins, dyes, acids, bases, organic solvents, enzymes, enzyme stabilizing systems, chelants, optical brighteners, soil release agents, wetting agents, dispersants, blooming perfumes, colorants, filler salts, hydrotropes, preservatives, anti-oxidants, germicides, fungicides, color speckles, silvercare, anti- tarnishing agents, alkalinity sources, solubilizing agents, carriers, electrode maintenance and/or descaling agents, processing aids, pigments, and pH control agents, bleaching agent, bleach activators, bleach catalysts and mixtures thereof.

METHOD FOR TREATING SOILED TABLEWARE The present invention also relates to a method of treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device that results in improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the method comprising the steps of : (a) placing tableware in need of treatment in the appliance; (b) providing an automatic dishwashing composition comprising a component selected from the group consisting of halogenated salt, phosphate, silicate, suds suppressor, perfume, bleach-scavenging agent, metal- protecting agent, and mixtures thereof, during a wash and/or a rinse cycle in the appliance; (c) passing an aqueous electrolytic solution through the electrochemical cell to generate at least some electrolyzed water in the wash and/or rinse liquor of the appliance; and (d) contacting the tableware with the electrolyzed water.

This invention also encompasses a method of washing tableware in a domestic or commercial automatic dishwashing appliance, comprising treating the soiled tableware in an automatic dishwasher with an aqueous bath comprising the above ADD composition.

This invention also encompasses a method for cleaning, sanitizing and removing stains of soiled tableware comprising use of a separate composition in conjunction with electrolyzed water, such as at least one product selected from the group consisting of a solid electrolysis precursor compound of low water solubility, an electrolysis precursor compound containing a matrix of low water solubility, and mixtures thereof, for treatment, pre-treatment, or post-treatment of tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance can be used in conjunction with the electrolysis process of the present invention.

The method of use can also incorporate the steps of providing and dispensing a bleach- scavenging agent to deactivate the halogenated mixed oxidants that were generated by the electrolysis process. The chlorine bleach-scavenging agent can be released subsequent to the period of electrolysis, or during one or more of the rinses to deactivate the abovementioned halogenated mixed oxidants.

The electrolyzed water that exits the electrolytic device of this invention can effectively disinfect and/or sanitize the aqueous electrolytic solution comprising tap water, wash and/or rinse liquor solution, recirculated wash and/or rinse liquor, and mixtures thereof, making the aqueous electrolytic solution useful for treating tableware in automatic dishwashing appliances by providing cleaning, sanitization, and stain removal benefits in both commercial, as well as, in residential applications. The attached, integrated, recirculating electrolytic device of the automatic dishwashing appliance can be used for cleaning, sanitization, and stain removal tableware in all types of applications.

Though recirculation of the wash and/or rinse liquor provides for continuous production of newly electrolyzed halogenated mixed oxidants that will be available immediately during specific times of the wash and/or rinse cycles, it can be highly preferred to use the electrolyzed electrolytic solution immediately after the electrolysis, since the beneficial biocidal halogenated mixed oxidants have a short life span. Preferably, the aqueous electrolytic solution, when used for disinfection and/or sanitization or sterilization, can be used within about 15 minutes, preferably within about 5 minutes, more preferably within about 1 minute, and most preferably almost immediately, after electrolysis.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of treating tableware in an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device that results in improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the method comprising the steps of : (a) placing tableware in need of treatment in the appliance; (b) providing an automatic dishwashing composition comprising a component selected from the group consisting of halogenated salt, builder, suds suppressor, perfume, bleach-scavenging agent, metal- protecting agent, and mixtures thereof, during a wash and/or a rinse cycle in the appliance; (c) passing an aqueous electrolytic solution through the electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device to generate at least some electrolyzed water in the wash and/or rinse liquor of the appliance; and (d) contacting the tableware with the electrolyzed water.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method further can comprise the step of providing the composition for an additional and/or separate dispensing during the wash and/or rinse cycles in the appliance after the step of initially contacting the tableware with the electrolyzed water. After the step of initially contacting the tableware with the electrolyzed water, the method can also further comprise steps of providing an ADD composition comprising a component selected from the group consisting of bleach-scavenging agent, metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof, and subsequently contacting the tableware with a wash and/or rinse liquor comprising the composition. The method can further comprise repeating all and/or individual steps until the tableware needing treatment can be treated It can be preferred that when the composition comprising bleach-scavenging agent, metal-protecting agent, and mixtures thereof, can be provided, no further electrolyzed water comes into contact with the tableware.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method, wherein the composition can comprise NaCl, KCI, and mixtures thereof, at a level of greater than about 0.1%, preferably at a level greater than about 0.5% by weight of the composition, more preferably at a level of greater than about 1% by weight of the composition. And most preferably at a level of greater than about 2%, by weight of the composition.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method, wherein the composition can comprise an electrochemically-activated pro-benefit agent can comprise a compound selected from the group consisting of pro-perfume, pro-oxidant, pro-reductant, pro- surface active agent, pro-glass care agent, and mixtures thereof, wherein when the electrochemically-activated pro-benefit agent is exposed to at least one electrochemical cell it undergoes oxidation and/or reduction and can be thereby converted into an active agent which provides a treatment benefit to tableware upon contact with the tableware, and wherein the benefit can be selected from the group consisting of cleaning, aesthetic, disinfecting, stain-removal, dish- care, and combinations thereof.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method, wherein the composition can comprise an electrolytic device comprising at least one of the features selected from the group consisting of (a) a non-partitioned electrochemical cell; (b) at least one disposable and/or replaceable electrochemical cell component; (c) a recirculating system allowing for wash and/or rinse liquor to continuously circulate and/or recirculate through the electrolytic device, into the bulk wash or rinse liquor contained in the appliance, and back through the device; (d) an electrochemical cell comprising a cathode of stainless steel, an anode of titanium coated or layered with at least one of the materials selected from the group consisting of platinum, ruthenium, iridium, and oxides, alloys, and mixtures thereof, (e) a gap between the at least one pair of electrodes having a gap spacing between about 0.1 mm to about 0.5 mm, (f) an operating voltage of the electrolytic device and/or electrochemical cell between about 1.5 and about 220 volts; and combination thereof.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method, wherein the composition can be used in the wash and/or rinse cycle of the appliance at temperatures from about 120 degrees F and below.

ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE The present invention relates to an article of manufacture for an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising: (a) a package; (b) a replacement product comprising a component selected from electrolytic solution comprising halogen ions, halogenated salts having the formula (M) X (XOZ) Y and/or (M) X (X) y wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, electrolysis precursor compound, a halogenated salt with low water solubility, a halogenated salt contained within a medium for controlled release, and mixtures thereof; (c) optionally, a replacement a porous basket comprising the product for dispensing; and (c) information in association with the package comprising instructions to insert the replacement components and/or the a porous basket in the appliance and/or the electrolytic device.

The present invention also relates to an article of manufacture, wherein the replacement product can be in the form such that once placed inside a dishwashing appliance it provides a controlled release of the electrolysis precursor compound into the wash and/or rinse liquors during operation of the automatic dishwasher over a period of several weeks or months of regular household and/or commercial use.

Commercial Automatic Dishwashing Appliance One embodiment of the present invention comprises ADD composition and/or method of using said composition in a commercial dishwasher appliance selected from the group consisting of conveyor-low-temperature type, cabinet-low-temperature type, and combinations thereof.

COMPOSITION OF MATTER The present invention relates to an ADD composition of matter consisting essentially of the in the wash and/or rinse liquor of an automatic dishwashing appliance comprising an electrochemical cell and/or electrolytic device for improved tableware cleaning, sanitizing, and/or stain removal, the composition of matter comprising: (a) at least some electrolyzed water comprising halogenated mixed oxidants; (b) an ADD composition comprising a compound selected from the group consisting of a halogenated salts, halogenated salt with low water solubility, builder, suds suppressor, perfume, enzyme, bleach-scavenging agent, a metal- protecting agent, and mixtures thereof; (c) optionally, an ADD composition comprising a compound selected from the group consisting of an electrolytic composition comprising halogen ions, an electrolytic composition comprising halogenated salts having the formula (M) X (XO2) y and/or (M) X (X) y wherein X can be Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced, an electrolysis precursor compound, a halogenated salt with low water solubility, an electrolysis precursor compound contained within a medium for controlled release, and mixtures thereof; and (d) optionally, adjunct ingredients.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a composition of matter, wherein the operating temperature during the wash and/or rinse cycle (s) of said appliance is less than about 120° F. Thus, the composition of matter comprises a water temperature less than about 120° F.

EXAMPLES Examples of formulations according to the present invention are as follows. All ingredients are expressed as weight % of the total formula composition. A B C D E F G H Builder'25 25 30 30 30 30 20 20 Na2CO3 25 25 10 10 -- -- -- -- Silicate 10 10 8 8 10 12 Enzymes2 1. 0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 3. 0 4.0 NaOH--------1. 0--1. 0 1.0 Dispersant-0. 5 1.0 1.0 0. 5 -- 0.5 0.5 Polymer3 Suds 1.0 1.0 1. 5 1. 5 1.0 1. 5 2.0 2.0 suppressor4 Halogenated 0. 5 1.0 5. 0 7.0 0. 5 1.0 5. 0 5. 0 salts ThickenerÓ 0. 5 0. 5 0.7 0.7 HEDP7 0. 5 0. 5 Filler and balance balance balance Balance balance balance balance balance adjuncts8 1. Selected from Sodium tripolyphosphate, trisodium citrate.

2. Selected from protease, amylase, and mixtures thereof.

3. selected from polyacrylate, polyacrylate/polymethyacrylate, or polyacrylate/polymaleate co- polymers 4. selected from Triton DF-18 (ex Dow@), LF404 (ex BASF@), SLF18 (ex Olin@), and mixtures thereof.

5. Having the formula (M) x (XO2) y, wherein X can be F, Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced 6. selected from Polygel DKP (ex 3V Co. fob)), or Rheolate-5000 (ex Rheox (E)) 7. ethane l-hydroxy-l, l-diphosphonic acid 8. water, perfume, sodium sulfate, metal protection agents, and misc. etc.

Further examples of formulations according to the present invention are as follows. All ingredients are expressed as weight % of the total formula composition. I J K L builder1 5 10 5 -- solvent 10 10 10 10 nonionic 15 15 20 10 surfactant3 Polymer4----0. 5-- HEDP5 -- 1. 0 NaOH -- -- -- 0. 2 hydrotrope6 5 10 -- -- Halogenated 1.0 2.0 10 5.0 salt7 Filler and Balance balance balance Balance adjuncts3 1. selected from citric acid, phosphoric acid, and mixtures thereof 2. selected from ethanol, propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol 3. selected from Triton DF-16 (ex Dow#), Triton X-45 (ex Dow@) 4. selected from polyacrylate, polyacrylate/polymethyacrylate, or polyacrylate/polymaleate co- polymers 5. ethane 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonic acid 6. selected from sodium cumenesulfonate, sodium xylenesulfonate 7. Having the formula (M)x(XO2)y, wherein X can be F, Cl, Br, or I and wherein M can be a metal ion or cationic entity, and wherein x and y are chosen such that the salt can be charge balanced 8. water, perfume, sodium sulfate, metal protection agents, and misc. etc.




 
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