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Title:
AUXILIARY SYSTEM FOR POWER REGENERATION FOR VEHICLES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/095202
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Auxiliary energy regeneration system for motorvehicles (7) propelled by an electric, or electro-thermal hybrid propeller, equipped with MGU-K motor generator units (13), and possibly also of MGU-H units, characterised in that: Said auxiliary energy regeneration system consists of an aerogenerator system (A) arranged on said motorvehicle (7) in at least one dynamic air intake (8), or air duct, and comprising one or a group of wind turbines (1) electrically connected to one or a group of batteries (6) dedicated to the operation of said MGU- K unit (13), and possibly also of said MGU-H unit, wherein said aerogenerator system (A) is controlled by a control and electronic management unit (4) to actively cooperate in parallel with said MGU-K unit (13), and possibly also with said MGU-H unit, in order to reduce the charging time of the group of batteries (6), increasing the performance of the electric propeller or of the electro-thermal hybrid propeller of said motorvehicle (7).

Inventors:
CIPOLLA DANIELE (IT)
Application Number:
IB2019/059497
Publication Date:
May 14, 2020
Filing Date:
November 05, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CIPOLLA DANIELE (IT)
International Classes:
B60L8/00; B60K16/00; B60L7/10; B60L58/20; B60L58/26; B60L58/27; B60T1/00; B60W30/18; F01N5/02; F02G5/02
Foreign References:
US20070278795A12007-12-06
US20070202976A12007-08-30
EP3363674A12018-08-22
GB2410012A2005-07-20
US8274169B22012-09-25
US20170082092A12017-03-23
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VATTI, Francesco Paolo et al. (IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Auxiliary energy regeneration system for motorvehicles (7) propelled by an electric or electro-thermal hybrid propeller, equipped with MGU-K motor generator units (13), and/or with MGU- H units, characterised in that: said auxiliary energy regeneration system consists of an aerogenerator system (A) arranged on said motorvehicle (7) in at least one dynamic air intake (8), or air duct, and comprising one or a group of wind turbines (1) electrically connected to one or to a group of batteries (6) dedicated to the operation of said MGU-K unit (13), and/or of said MGU-H unit, wherein said aerogenerator system (A) is controlled by a control and electronic management unit (4) to actively cooperate in parallel with said MGU-K unit (13), and/or with said MGU-H unit, in order to reduce the charging time of the group of batteries (6), to increase the performance of the electric propeller or of the electro-thermal hybrid propeller of said motorvehicle (7) .

2. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claim 1, wherein said aerogenerator system (A) , actuated by said control and electronic management unit (4), once a set travel speed of said motorvehicle (7) has been exceeded, appropriately supplies said group of batteries (6) both when the electromechanical gene rator of MGU-K unit (13), and/of MGU-H unit, is in an active mode, supplying energy to the group of batteries (6), and when he elec tromechanical motor of MGU-K unit (13), and/or of MGU-H unit, is in an active mode, drawing energy from the group of batteries (6), and when both the electromechanical generator and the electrome chanical motor of MGU-K unit (13), and/or of MGU-H unit, are in an inactive mode during the travel of said motorvehicle (7) .

3. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claims 1 and 2, wherein said aerogenerator system (A) comprises wind turbines (la) having a rotary axis arranged in a substantially longitudinal direction to the travel direction of motorvehicle (7) and/or wind turbines (lb) with a rotary axis arranged substantially perpendi cularly to the travel direction of motorvehicle (7) .

4. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claims 3 and

4, wherein said wind turbines (la) comprise at least one propel ler, whereon at least one between a control unit of fitting tilt angle (9) and a control unit of the opening angle (10) is applied, controlled by said control and electronic management unit (4) to improve the efficiency of said wind turbines (1) to charge said group of batteries (6).

5. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claim 3, wherein on at least one of said wind turbines (la) at least one between a yaw control unit (11) and a pitching control unit (12), is applied, controlled by said control and electronic management unit (4) to improve the efficiency of said wind turbines (1) to charge said group of batteries (6).

6. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claims 4 and

5, wherein said control and electronic management unit (4) acts on the control unit of the fitting tilt angle (9), on the control unit of the opening angle (10), on the yaw control unit (11) and on the pitching control unit (12) based on the processing of sensor data received from at least one between a fluid speed, pressure and flow rate measuring system (16), a fluid direction measuring system (17) and a position measuring system (18).

7. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in 1, wherein said dynamic air intakes (8), or air ducts, of motorvehicle (7) comprise at least central air intakes (8a) , fender side air inta kes (8b) and flank side air intakes (8c) .

8. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claim 1, wherein said wind turbines (1) are arranged, in a speed race car (7), such as a Formula 1 single-seater and a Formula E single- seater, at least within the side bellies, within the side slits with shark gills and within the central airscope.

9. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claims 1 and 2, wherein said aerogenerator system (A) is actuated by said con trol and electronic management unit (4) to independently charge said group of batteries (6) in case a failure of the electrome chanical generator of said MGU-K unit, and/or of said MGU-H unit, is detected.

10. Auxiliary energy regeneration system as in claims 1 and 6, wherein each wind turbine (1) comprises a speed multiplier system (2) and possibly also a gear motor reducer system, con trolled by said control and electronic management unit (4) to increase or possibly also reduce the number of rotor revolutions of said wind turbine (1), based on the processing of sensor data detected by a rotor tachometer sensor.

Description:
AUXILIARY SYSTEM FOR POWER REGENERATION FOR VEHICLES

DESCRIPTION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an auxiliary system for power re- generation, used onboard motorvehicles .

In the wide field of apparatuses used for the recovery of kinetic energy, the present invention addresses in particular aerogenerating power devices, capable of supplying power to a propeller of an electrical component onboard a motorvehicle, equi- pped with MGU-K units and/or MGU-H motor generator units.

STATE OF THE PRIOR ART

In the market of devices used for energy recovery, the steps forward in technology have determined substantial developments in the field of propellers equipped with auxiliary power units. Said auxiliary power units, APU, are employed mainly in the automotive sector, to supply power aid to the propellers of mo torvehicles, in particular in the field of high-performance cars, such as sport cars and speed racing cars.

For purely explanatory purposes, APUs are motor generators for propellers with entirely electrical technology or with hybrid endothermal-electrical technology, capable of exploiting an elec trical component to supercharge the propeller and store energy from the same propeller to then use said energy at a later time. The APU is activated only when it is necessary to recharge the drive-dedicated battery - in generator mode - and to supply power aid to the motorvehicle propeller - in engine mode.

In general, the APUs arranged on motorvehicles include a MGU-K (Motor Generator Unit - Kynetic) motor generator unit and MGU-H (Motor Generator Unit - Heat) motor generator unit, which represent the main ERS (Energy Recovery System) systems, used for energy recovery, to supply power aid in propellers of high-per- formance motorvehicles , such as sports cars or Formula 1 and For mula E single-seater cars .

As mentioned earlier, APUs can be used in electrical propel lers and in hybrid propellers. In particular, hybrid engines com prise an ICE (Internal Combustion Engine), a turbocharger, an electric motor which can comprise an MGU-K and/or an MGU-H motor generator, at least a dedicated battery and a control and elec tronic management system, generally an ECU (Electronic Control Unit) .

It is understood that the MGU-H motor generator is arranged only on vehicles equipped with hybrid propeller provided with a turbocharger, while the MGU-K motor generator can be arranged both on vehicles equipped with hybrid propeller and on vehicles equi pped with an entirely electrical propeller.

In general, MGU-H and MGU-K motor generators are systems which, during the motor vehicle deceleration phase, act as power generators - recovering electric energy for the charging of the dedicated battery and contributing to motorvehicle deceleration - and, during the motorvehicle acceleration phase, they act as elec trical motors - imparting mechanical energy, with obvious consu mption of the dedicated battery, and contributing to the accele ration of the motor vehicle.

In particular, the MGU-K (Motor Generator Unit - Kynetic) motor generator is the regenerating component mounted on the drive shaft, derived from the KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System) technology, to recover part of the kinetic energy from the drive shaft of the propeller during the braking phase - through a rege nerating ED electrodynamic braking system - and to transform it into newly expendable energy for the drive of the motorvehicle.

While the MGU-H (Motor Generator Unit - Heat) motor generator unit is the regenerating component applied to the turbo-charging system, where the MGU-H system, mounted on the impeller shaft of the turbo-charger recovers an otherwise dispersed percentage of kinetic energy and of pressure still present in the exhaust gases, coming out of the turbine exhaust pipe, contributing to motor- vehicle deceleration.

Like in the MGU-H system, the energy recovered by the MGU-K system subsequently imparts rotation to the rotors of the elec trical motor of the hybrid propeller which, during the thrust and acceleration phase, hence supplies the motor shaft of the propel ler with power in addition to that supplied by the thermal compo nent of the ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) endothermal engine.

It can be clearly understood that said MGU-K units and MGU- H units during the input step are driven into a curve to recover energy and during the output step from the curve to supply an acceleration increase to the motor vehicle.

Moreover, it is understood that in a hybrid propeller the two MGU-H and MGU-K motor generators can operate symbiotically or, otherwise, independently from one another.

Suitable electronic control units, based on information ob tained from a measuring sensor system, manage the regeneration and generation steps of these units, causing them to take up generator mode and motor mode, respectively. For example, the measuring sensor system can comprise measuring sensors of the number of revolutions-torque of the engine and/or of the outflow rate, as regards the MGU-H system, and measuring sensors of the number of revolutions-torque of the engine and/or of braking pres sure, as regards the MGU-K system.

It is understood that the two operating modes of the motor and of the generator use current flows of opposite versus, re spectively. For such reason, in the deceleration/braking phase, the dedicated electronics must be capable of rectifying the ACT three-phase alternate electric current, generated by the electric generators of the MGU units, and of transforming it into DCM single-phase, direct current, to charge the dedicated battery. On the contrary, in the acceleration phase, the electronic component must be capable of converting the DCM single-phase direct electric current, stored in the dedicated battery, into ACT, three-phase alternate current, which can hence be absorbed by the components of the electric motor of MGU systems.

As mentioned previously, the charging step of the dedicated battery occurs mainly coming in into a curve. There are hence time periods during which the travel of the motorvehicle - for example in acceleration, in a constant-speed-regime or when the motor- vehicle is left to sail with both motors unconnected - wherein the MGU-K and MGU-H units are not in an active mode.

Think, for example, of the speed racing cars when they face straight circuit portions, so that, while driving on these por tions, no recharge of the supply battery occurs - both in the case of hybrid propellers, as in Formula 1, and in the case of entirely electrical propellers, as in Formula E.

Moreover, MGU units are kept inactive during the sailing ("sailing" or "coasting") function, wherein the transmission gets uncoupled from the engine, so as to exploit the inertia caught by the motorvehicle and, consequently, the kinetic energy already spent by the motor, thus allowing to limit consumptions.

As a result, during such driving periods, the MGU-K and MGU- H units are not capable of supplying the dedicated battery, nor, if already charged, of keeping it at a constant level.

In addition, providing a hybrid propeller which comprises both an MGU-K unit and an MGU-H unit, the step of generating electric power by MGU-K units and the step of generating electric energy by MGU-H units occur substantially in the same driving period of the motorvehicle, like the mechanical drive step by said MGU-K unit and the mechanical drive step by MGU-H units occurs substantially in the same driving period of the motorvehicle. It can hence be clearly understood that the MGU-K unit cannot manage to recharge the dedicated battery which the MGU-H unit draws electric energy from, nor vice versa.

The acceleration phase coming out from a curve for a motor- vehicle equipped with said MGU units must be noted in particular, during which only the electric energy stored in the dedicated battery is consumed, a system for the generation of electric energy which recharges the dedicated battery being totally mis sing .

Summing up, during motorvehicle drive there are periods of time wherein the supply battery of the electric motor or of the electric part of the hybrid motor receives no recovery energy whatsoever from the electromechanical generators of the MGU units.

The need is thus felt on the market to have an energy rege neration system capable of applying a percentage of energy to the battery of an electric motor or of the electric part of a hybrid motor, in particular during the steps in which the electromecha nical generators of the MGU units are inactive, thereby supplying a substantial aid to the performance of the motorvehicle motor.

Such an energy regeneration system should, hence, operate in parallel with the regenerating components of the MGU units during the dedicated battery charge, either in redundancy to said MGU units - should a fault occur - or as a replacement of said MGU units in the steps in which the electromechanical generators of the MGU units are not active.

Moreover, such a system of energy regeneration should also be capable of maintaining, during the driving of the motor vehi cle, a continuous charging condition of the dedicated battery, both during the acceleration and deceleration steps, and at a constant speed.

In addition, an energy regeneration system is required which is capable of actively cooperating with said MGU units and of performing the charging of the dedicated battery - of an electric motor or of a hybrid motor - also for substantially the entire driving path of the motorvehicle. In particular, that is required for a speed racing car, such as Formula 1 single-seaters and Formula E single-seaters, wherein an even not substantial percen tage of additional charge in the dedicated battery corresponds to an additional drive power percentage, which - even though minimal - would guarantee non-negligible performance results. As a matter of fact, one needs only think of car racing wherein differences of hundredths of second of time are of a remarkable importance for the results of the race.

Moreover, it is requested that such a system does not require burdensome manufacturing costs and that it is simple to be mounted onto the motorvehicle .

Finally, such an energy regeneration system should be suited not to impair the aerodynamical, weight and dimensional features of the motorvehicle, but be arranged and working in harmony and in coordination with the motorvehicle attitude.

US2017 /082092 discloses a system of wind turbines and air channels arranged on a motorvehicle and provided to cool vehicle parts, in particular the braking system or the cooler, and to store electric energy in a first and in a second motorvehicle battery, through a generator or a motor generator, used in series to convert the kinetic energy of the wind turbines into electric energy or, in inverse function, to actuate the wind turbines to cool the braking system or the motorvehicle cooler.

Therefore, no solutions exist so far capable of providing auxiliary energy to batteries dedicated exclusively to the opera tion of MGU-K and/or MGU-motor generator units, in order to reduce energy consumptions and to improve the performance features of the motorvehicle.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The objects reported above, according to the present inven tion, are achieved through an energy regeneration system having the features defined in claim 1. Other preferred features of the auxiliary system according to the present invention are defined in the dependent claims .

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further features and advantages of the invention will in any case be more apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the same, provided purely as a non limiting example and illustrated in the attached drawings, whe rein : fig. 1 is a perspective view, partially exploded, of a mo- torvehicle whereon the devices of the energy regeneration system according to the present invention are mounted; fig. 2 is an exemplifying block diagram which illustrates the operation of the energy regeneration system according to the present invention in combination with a motor generator system, in particular an MGU-K, in electric energy generation mode; and fig. 3 is an exemplifying block diagram which illustrates the operation of the energy regeneration system according to the present invention, in combination with the MGU-K motor generator system of fig. 2, in kinetic energy generation mode.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

An energy regeneration system A consists, as clearly illu strated in figs. 2 and 3, mainly of one or of a group of wind turbines 1, comprising at least a propeller, a rotor, a mechanical speed multiplier system 2 and an alternator electromechanical system 3. With said group of wind turbines 1 a control and elec tronic management unit 4 are operatingly connected, a current converter unit 5 and at least one or a group of supply batteries 6.

In general, the aerogenerator system A is conceived to be arranged on motorvehicles 7, in particular on sports motorvehicles or speed racing cars, such as Formula 1 single-seaters or Formula E single-seaters.

As can be clearly understood in fig. 1, the group of wind turbines 1 is preferably arranged within ventilation openings 8 - otherwise called air intakes or dynamic air intakes - and in ventilation ducts (not shown) . The wind turbines 1 of the present invention are conceived suited to the number and to the layout of the intakes 8 of the specific motorvehicle 7.

Wind turbines 1 preferably comprise aerogenerators with horizontal rotary axis, in particular wind turbines with a rotary axis arranged substantially longitudinally to the travel direction la, and wind turbines with a rotary axis arranged substantially transversally to the travel direction lb.

As clearly illustrated in fig. 1, in the central air intake 8a of the front bumper or of the front grid at least one wind turbine with a transversal axis 1 b is arranged.

No embodiments of the present invention are excluded wherein in the central air intake 8a multiple wind turbines with tran sversal axis lb in vertical overlap are arranged, for example two or more wind turbines lb arranged one on top of the other.

Moreover, embodiments are possible wherein in the central air intake 8a at least one wind turbine with transversal axis lb is present, for example a wind turbine lb, arranged in central position to the central air intake 8a, and at least a wind turbine with longitudinal axis la, for example two wind turbines la ar ranged at the respective terminal ends of the central air intake 8a, or, alternatively any other arrangement of wind turbines la arranged in the central air intake 8a.

It is understood that any arrangement of any wind turbine 1, arranged within the central air intake 8a, does not negatively affect in any way the function and the arrangement of the cooler and of the ventilation propeller - related to the cooler system - of a generic motorvehicle propeller 7.

However, embodiments are provided wherein the wind turbines 1 are arranged in a position joined to the cooler propeller system.

In lateral air intakes of bumper 8b at least a wind turbine with longitudinal axis la is arranged. As illustrated in fig. 1, a wind turbine la is arranged in the lateral air intake of front bumper 8b.

No embodiments are excluded of the present invention whe rein a wind turbine la is present within side air intakes of bumper 8b arranged in an upper - above the wheel - or rear - behind the wheels - side position.

Finally, in side flank air intakes 8c at least one wind turbine with longitudinal axis la is arranged. Moreover, as for the side air intakes of bumper 8b, it is provided that wind tur bines la have a size suited to the particular shape of the opening conduit - for example, lateral air intakes 8c are air intakes of the NACA type .

In addition, it is provided that the wind turbines 1 of the present invention have a size and a layout suited to be arranged in any other type of ventilation opening. For example, wind tur bines 1 can also be arranged within air intakes 8 of the NACA and/or of the "tuning" type, installed on the hood, on the flanks and on the roof of motorvehicle 7, also possibly arranged projec ting from the hood, from the flanks and from the root of motor- vehicle 7.

Moreover, wind turbines 1 are provided within air intakes 8 of racing cars - for example Formula 1 single-seaters and Formula E single-seaters - wherein said wind turbines 1 are preferably arranged within the side bellies and/or within the central air- scope, which towers the pilot' s arrangement within the single- seater.

Alternatively, it is provided that wind turbines 1 are ar ranged also in the side slits with shark gills, on the flanks, on the front and rear ailerons, on the aileron supports and on the partitions .

Moreover, in air intakes 8, both of type 8a and of type 8b and of type 8c, wind turbines 1 can be arranged as pop-ups - in a visible manner - immediately at the entrance of the air duct or as a pop-up - in an invisible manner - at a certain depth in the air duct.

Finally, the installation of wind turbines 1 below car plat form 7 or below a specific piece of bodywork is not excluded, for example below the front bumper, the fender and the miniskirts.

It is understood that for any embodiment, wind turbines 1 are arranged so as to limit the triggering of possible turbulences at the fluid limit layer, in contact with the surface portions of the bodywork of motorvehicle 7.

In general, wind turbines 1 are positioned within air in takes 8 or in the air ducts with an arrangement suited to offer a reduced aerodynamic resistance and are oriented, as accurately as possible, substantially longitudinally to the flow of incoming fluid at air intake 8 and/or at the air duct.

Wind turbines 1 can be integrated directly in the manufac turing factory, during the design of motorvehicle 7, or they can be mounted following the manufacture of the elements which host wind turbine 1 or at the exit of motorvehicle 7 from the manufac turing factory. Wind turbines 1 can be mounted to the piece by welding, wedging, gluing or by threading and screws .

Moreover, it is provided that air intakes 8 and the "tuning" air ducts are insulated by means of layers or panels of insulating materials which do not allow heat exchange, in order to supply wind turbines 1 suitable thermal insulation - thermal coat -, whenever wind turbines 1 are arranged in the proximity of the propeller and/or in air ducts which let hot air out.

The wind turbines 1 of the present invention can comprise a single propeller or multiple propellers, side by side on the same rotary shaft, for example it can be a double-propeller turbine. Each propeller can be single-blade, double-blade, preferably with three or more blades.

In the case of wind turbines with longitudinal axis la, blades arranged with a spiral layout can be used, or otherwise any concentric, circular or radial arrangement. The propellers of wind turbines la have a layout with a negative drawing propeller, to obtain drive from the incoming fluid and transmit torque to the motor shaft of wind turbine la.

The propeller hub of wind turbine la preferably has an ogival layout, to have minimum resistance against the incoming fluid, coming into air intake 8.

The propellers of wind turbine can be fastened or, in the case of wind turbines la, the propeller blades are preferably orientable at a controllable pitch - that is, the blades can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the rotor - with the auto- matically-adjustable fitting tilt angle, through a servomechani- cal system included in a control unit of fitting tilt angle 9, provided, for example, with actuator means, electrical motors, reducers, connecting rods and various gears.

Moreover, the keying-on angle is dynamically adjusted, du ring movement, by the control and electronic management unit 4. The propeller pitch is adjusted based on the greater or smaller traction to the incoming fluid into air intake 8.

Wind turbines la can be provided with folding blades along the rotor axis, with opening and closing of the adjustable blades, during travel, depending on the increase of the speed of motor- vehicle 7, so as to minimize fluid friction and the onset of turbulences. The adjustment of the opening angle of the blades, during travel, is dynamically performed by the control and elec tronic management unit 4, which sets the movement of a suitable servomechanical system included in a control unit of the opening angle 10. Said control unit of the opening angle 10, hence, is capable of increasing or reducing the surface set forth to wind, thereby changing the aerodynamic efficiency of the blades.

A yaw control unit 11 is furthermore provided, that is of a servomechanical system apt to adjust the rotation of the wind turbine la around the vertical axis thereof. Hence the rotor, whereto the blades are connected, is oriented towards the wind direction. Thereby, wind turbine la is rotated with an aerodynamic angle of attack - yaw angle - suited to maintain constant the rotation speed of the propeller upon wind speed change.

A pitching control unit 12 is furthermore provided, that is of a servomechanical system, similar to the yaw control unit 11, suited to the rotation adjustment of the wind turbine la about the horizontal axis thereof, so as to cause the wind turbine la to rotate with an aerodynamic angle of attack - pitching angle - apt to maintain constant the rotation speed of the propeller upon wind speed change .

The control and electronic management unit 4 manages and processes the information supplied by a measuring system, compri sing for example an anemometer for detecting wind speed and pres sure, and an anemoscope for detecting wind direction, preferably digital. Therefore, the control and electronic management unit 4 pilots the previously mentioned servomechanical systems, in order to set for wind turbine la the optimal alignment between the rotor axis and the direction of the wind inflow.

It is easy to understand that said yaw control units 11 and pitching units 12, driven by the control and electronic management unit 4, are used to maintain constant the amount of electric energy produced by wind turbines la.

For ease of understanding, the speed, pressure and flow rate measurement system of the fluid 16, the measurement system of the fluid direction 17 and the position measurement system 18, as illustrated in figs. 2 and 3, substantially comprise the various measurement systems relating to the arrangement of the blades of wind turbine 1.

However, it is understood that wind turbines la and the related servomechanical systems, are characterised by limited size and bulk capacity, in order to meet the strict aerodynamic requi rements adopted on motorvehicle 7.

It can be understood that the maximum diameter of the pro peller of wind turbines 1 must be limited in such a size as to allow a suitable yaw and pitching movement within air intake 8 or of the air duct.

In addition, wind turbines la and lb can be equipped with protection grids, to avoid the contact of propeller blades with undesired external elements.

It is understood that all the components making up wind turbine 1 must be of a light and sturdy material, and securely connected to the motorvehicle component 7 which hosts wind turbine 1, in order to withstand to environmental disturbances, such as for example the pressure of incoming fluid from air intake 8, the vibrations of components next to wind turbine 1, the mechanical stresses of motorvehicle 7 during travel and the heat induction deriving from the propeller or from hot airflow ducts, whenever all these factors manifest themselves to a high extent and/or for long periods of time.

Moreover, the wind turbines 1 of the present invention are provided with a mechanical speed multiplier system (commonly cal led "gearbox") 2 between the rotor and an alternator electrome chanical system 3, the latter apt to produce electric energy. Since the revolutions per minute of the rotor of wind turbine 1 are quite subject to change, due to the continuous wind speed change, said mechanical speed multiplier system 2 proves useful to increase and make constant the speed of the rotor of wind turbine 1. Moreover, the speed multiplier system 2 guarantees an adequate direct connection between the rotor and the electrome chanical alternator system 3, should one have an excessively high number of revolutions of the rotor and/or overabundant polar tor ques, resulted in the electromechanical alternator system 3.

Generally, the speed multiplier system 2 consists of one or more pairs of gears of an epicycloidal type or with parallel axes.

Finally, the change of revolutions of said speed multiplier system 2 is adjusted by the control and electronic management unit

4. In addition, the rotor is provided with a tachometer sensor (not shown) , connected to the control and electronic management unit 4, for detecting the instant rotational speed, and with a revolution motor reducer device (not shown) , driven by the control and electronic management unit 4. It can be clearly understood that the control and electronic management unit 4, based on the speed information received from said tachometer sensor, drives the revolution motor reducer device for decreasing and keeping the rotational speed of the rotor at a desired level.

An alternator electromechanical system 3 preferably compri ses an electric generator of the type with permanent magnets (for example, brushless), generally synchronous, with three-phase win ding .

Said alternator electromechanical system 3 is hence an elec tric generator which produces three-phase alternate electric cur rent AC.

Moreover, an electromechanical system is arranged for the protection and safety of the alternator electromechanical system 3 which comprises switches or changeover switches and/or deacti vation devices and uncoupling for disengaging the alternator elec tromechanical system 3 from the rotor shaft, should the latter take up excessive speed.

The rotor, the revolution multiplier system 2, the braking system and the alternator electromechanical system 3 and some among the servomechanical systems and measurement sensors can be arranged in a casing - shuttle - for housing and protection, thus making up the main structure of wind turbine 1. The alternator electromechanical system 3 is connected by means of electric wi ring to a current converter unit 5.

The current converter unit 5, which comprises electric con ditioning circuits and an AC/DC current rectifier, operates so as to convert alternate current AC into a direct current DC, suited to the charge of the group of batteries 6. The current converter unit 5 can be housed in a different seat from the one taken up by wind turbine 1, for example in a housing far from components subject to heat and/or to mechanical stresses. In addition, the current converter unit 5 can be housed in a suitable protective casing .

Briefly, the current converter unit 5 transforms electric energy, produced by the alternator electromechanical system 3, from three-phase alternate ACT to single-phase direct DCM and transfers it to the group of batteries 6 by means of suitable electric wiring.

It can be well understood that current converter unit 5, which operates as rectifier, must have a high efficiency and a quick reaction to load changes, in order to optimise the effi ciency and profitability of flow battery storage systems.

It is understood that all the electric contacts and all the portions of electric wiring of the aerogenerator system A are made safe by using stiff casings and flexible protection pipes, re spectively, characterised by insulating materials for functional thermal insulation.

The control and electronic management unit 4 generally com prises an electronic circuit board provided with a microchip con trolled by appropriate control software.

In particular, the control and electronic management unit 4, in addition to monitoring, due to various measurement sensors, and to driving the servomechanical systems applied to wind turbi nes 1, is electrically connected to an MGU-K motor generator unit 13 and possibly also to an MGU-H motor generator unit (not shown) .

It can be clearly understood then that the electronic control unit which manages the various wind turbines 1 and the electronic control units which manage both unit MGU-K 13, and possibly also unit MGU-H, are integrated in a single control and electronic management unit 4.

Therefore, control and electronic management unit 4 manages the operations of actuation of the aerogenerator system A of the present invention and, in parallel, the actuation and switching operations from engine mode to generator mode, and vice versa, of the MGU-K motor generator unit 13 and possibly also of the MGU- H motor generator unit .

Hence, the recharge of the group of batteries 6 is accompli shed in parallel by the aerogenerator system A and by MGU-K unit 13 and possibly also by the MGU-H unit.

In particular, as clearly illustratd in fig. 2, the currents coming from the various wind turbines 1 are channelled into a first current channelling unit 14a, to obtain a single outgoing current. The first current channelling unit 14a can comprise, for example, an analogical multiplexer device or a current partitio ning circuit or a current adder circuit .

Possibly, it is also provided the use of electrical condi tioning systems (not shown) , for example electrical transformers, to adjust the values of the currents coming from the alternator electromechanical systems 3 of each wind turbine 1 to the values compatible with the type of batteries used in the group of batte ries 6.

The exit from the first current channelling unit 14a is connected to a current sorting unit 15, for example an analogical de-multiplexer device. Said current sorting unit 15 is controlled by the control and electronic management unit 4 to channel the outgoing current from the first current channelling unit 14a to wards a second current channeling unit 14b, when the MGU-K unit 13, and possibly also the MGU-H unit, is operative in the generator mode (fig. 2), or directly towards the group of batteries 6, when the MGU-K unit 13, and possibly also the MGU-H unit, is operative in the motor mode (fig. 3) .

As apparent in fig. 2, in the phase of generator mode of the MGU-K unit 13, the outgoing current from the current sorting unit 15 goes to the entrance of a second current channelling unit 14b, which channels also the currents coming from the MGU-K unit 13, and possibly also from the MGU-H unit. Finally, the single exit of the second current channelling unit 14b is connected to the group of batteries 6, so as to accomplish the charging.

As apparent in fig. 3, in the engine mode phase of MGU-K unit 13, the outgoing current from current sorting unit 15 goes directly to supply the group of batteries 6, from which at the same time energy is drawn to drive the electromechanical motor of MGU-K unit 13.

Understandably, control and electronic management unit 4 deals with controlling the two current channelling units 14a and 14b and with selecting current sorting unit 15.

In general, in the preferred embodiment, assuming a high travel speed, during the time frame in which motorvehicle 7 ope rates a speed reduction, such as for example braking on entering a curve, aerogenerator system A, MGU-K system 13 and MGU-H system contribute simultaneously and in active cooperation to the charge of the group of batteries 6.

On the contrary, in the time frame in which motorvehicle 7 operates a speed increase, such as for example, an acceleration out of a curve, aerogenerator system A remains in active mode, accomplishing the charge of the group batteries 6, while - through the polarity inversion performed by the bidirectional inverter found in the MGU units - the two MGU-K 13 and MGU-H units act as engine, with resulting consumption of the energy stored in the group of batteries 6, in order to give a greater rotational thrust to the drive shaft of the propeller of motorvehicle 7.

Moreover, owed to the parallel connection of aerogenerator system A and of MGU-K unit 13, and possibly also of MGU-H unit, it is provided that the aerogenerator system A of the present invention can come into function for the charge of the group of batteries 6 also should a fault be detected in the generators of the MGU systems, thereby contributing to avoid the full depletion of the group of batteries 6 and acting as emergency generator. The actuation of aerogenerator system A is triggered by con trol and electronic management unit 4 whenever motorvehicle 7 exceeds a set threshold travel speed. The threshold speed is for example 80 Km/h. Possibly, speed multiplier system 2 could con tribute to activate alternator electromechanical system 3 for lower travel speeds.

Once the incoming fluid speed - detected by control and electronic management unit 4 through the data supplied by the anemometer and by the tachometer sensor - exceeds a given minimum threshold, control and electronic management unit 4 actuates the drawing of current from the alternator electromechanical system 3 of the various wind turbines 1.

Moreover, as regards the control of the alternator electro mechanical system 3 of wind turbines 1, control and electronic management unit 4 controls and manages the speed adjustment of the rotor, based on the power which one wishes to obtain from alternator electromechanical system 3. As a matter of fact, whe never motorvehicle 7 takes up a set speed, the speed increase of the incoming fluid at air intake 8 implies an increase of rotor revolutions and, hence, a progressive increase of the instant power delivered by alternator electromechanical system 3. At a given speed of motorvehicle 7 a rated wind speed is thus achieved for which alternator electromechanical system 3 supplies the desired typical power appropriate to the features of the group of batteries 6.

In addition, owed to the speed multiplier system 2 and to the gear motor reducer device, driven by control and electronic management unit 4, the delivered power peak remains virtually constant below a maximum threshold of wind speed ("cut-out wind speed") tolerated by alternator electromechanical system 3. Such device serves to avoid any overheating and the establishing of excessive polar torques and of any further undesired phenomena, which would cause, as a result, a malfunctioning of the entire alternator electromechanical system 3. Therefore, once such thre shold has been exceeded, control and electronic management unit 4 makes alternator electromechanical system 3 safe by activating the gear motor reducer device, as described earlier, in order to thus avoid damages to the mechanical components.

Understandably, the maximum wind speed threshold ("cut-out wind speed") is preset based on the construction features and on the specific techniques of alternator electromechanical system 3 and on the shape of the propeller of wind turbine 1.

The group of batteries 6 can comprise electric batteries for sports cars and for speed racing cars - which deliver, for example for the Formula E sector, energies of 54-56 kWh or above.

Moreover, the minimum and maximum speed values, for the ac tuation and for a constant nominal operation, respectively, are preset in control and electronic management unit 4, based on the construction specifications of wind turbines 1 and of the group of batteries 6, used and arranged on motorvehicle 7.

Furthermore, it is provided that during acceleration, assu ming that motorvehicle 7 is travelling along a straight stretch, control and electronic management unit 4 acts on speed multiplier system 2 applied to wind turbines 1, so as to increase the rota tional speed of the rotor and hence obtain a greater energy pro duction, which will be subsequently stored in the group of batte ries 6.

It is hence clearly understandable that a fundamental fea ture of the present invention is the charge action of the group of batteries 6 by aerogenerator system A, substantially and pos sibly in almost all the travel periods of motorvehicle 7 and, as a result, for decidedly longer charge time intervals than the durations in which the electric generators of MGU-K units and MGU- H units 13 are active.

It is easily understood that the aerogenerator system A of the present invention is well suited to the charge of the group of batteries 6, since it is sufficient for the actuation thereof that motorvehicle 7 reaches an easily achievable and exceedable travel speed, and that it is unlikely that the speed of motor- vehicle 7 can decrease below said speed for almost the entire stretch - in case they are especially extraurban routes which can be driven at sustained speeds, such as for example motorways and speed racing tracks.

In the following the operation of the invention is briefly described for greater clarity, as clearly illustrated in figs. 2 and 3.

The case is made, particularly suitable for the present in vention, of an arrangement of the aerogenerator system A of the present invention on a Formula E single-seater, which comprises an electric motor and an MGU-K system 13.

It is assumed that aerogenerator system A comprises wind turbines 1 arranged, for example, in the air intakes of the side bellies of the single-seater.

Moreover, it is assumed that the Formula E single-seater travels a circuit of a generic autodrome, for example during a race .

Once travelling - starting from a straight stretch - the Formula E single-seater reaches in a very short time the threshold speed, for example 80 km/h, once it has been exceeded the aeroge nerator system A according to the present invention enters stan dard operation mode.

Control and electronic management unit 4 coordinates the operation of wind turbines 1 for the charge of the group of bat teries 6. In the meantime, MGU-K system 13 keeps in non-active mode .

Once the single-seater is facing a generic curve, the dece leration of the electric propeller - due to the action of the braking system for slowing down and correcting the trajectory of the single-seater - determines the actuation of MGU-K unit 13, which in such phase acts as current generator. Hence, MGU-K system 13 contributes both to the reduction of the revolutions of the drive shaft of the electric propeller, and to the charge of the group of batteries 6.

In such phase, aerogenerator system A and the electromecha nical generator of MGU-K unit 13 actively cooperate in parallel for the charging operation of the group of batteries 6.

Understandably, during the curve, wherein the single-seater takes different tangential directions, a flow rate reduction and a speed change of the incoming fluid at air intake 8 occur. Control and electronic management unit 4, based on the information obtai ned from the various measuring systems, manages the control of the speed multiplier system 2 and of the various servomechanical systems applied to wind turbines 1.

In particular, control and electronic management unit 4 acts on opening angle control unit 10 to adjust the folding blades of wind turbines 1, so as to increase the surface of the blades exposed to wind, in order to obtain a greater traction and, hence, a greater flow rate.

Moreover, control and electronic management unit 4 acts on keying-on angle control unit 9 to increase the profile of the blades in contact with the fluid, to obtain, also in this case, a greater traction and thereby transfer a greater power to the drive shaft .

In addition, control and electronic management unit 4 acts on yaw control unit 11 and on pitching control unit 12, in order to best orient the propeller in line with the direction of the incoming fluid in air intake 8 - since the incoming fluid direction during a curve portion is different from the incoming fluid di rection during the travel of a straight stretch, in addition to the establishing of any turbulence effects.

Finally, control and electronic management unit 4 acts on speed multiplier system 2, in order to increase the rotation speed of the rotor portion applied to alternator electromechanical sy stem 3.

It can be clearly understood that aerogenerator system A keeps normally active for the entire duration of the curve, since a Formula E single-seater, especially on a track during a race, maintains high speeds for the entire circuit travel, while the electromechanical generator of MGU-K unit 13 remains active only in the portions wherein the braking system is actuated.

At this point, once motorvehicle 7 is leaving the curve, the pressure of the accelerator pedal causes control and electronic management unit 4 to activate the polarity inversion of a bidi rectional inverter (not shown) of MGU-K unit 13, so that MGU-K unit 13 goes from generator mode to engine mode. The drawing of energy is thereby triggered from the group of batteries 6 to supply the electromechanical motor of MGU-K unit 13 to transmit an additional thrust to the drive shaft of the electric propeller of the single-seater.

For the purposes of the invention it is important to under stand that, in the acceleration phase, the eletromechanical motor of MGU-K unit 13 draws energy from the group of batteries 6, while aerogenerator system A maintains still active in charging the group of batteries 6, thereby slowing down the excessive consump tion of electric charge drawn by the electromechanical motor of MGU-K unit 13.

Therefore, owed to the contribution provided by aerogenera tor system A during the motor mode phase of the MGU-K unit, the group of batteries 6 will exhibit a level of electric charge perceptably higher upon entering a subsequent curve.

Consequently, it is easy to infer that such greater amount of energy remained in the group of batteries 6, adding to the new amount of energy supplied by the electromechanical generator of the MGU-K unit and also again by aerogenerator system A during the travel of said new curve, will remarkably contribute to speed up the charging completion of the group of batteries 6 at the exit of said new curve.

Therefore, again during the acceleration phase, due to the greater charge stored thanks to the addition of a percentage of energy produced by aerogenerator system A, in active cooperation with MGU-K unit 13, the single-seater is capable of exploiting a pull power for a longer track portion.

In the light of the teachings reported here, aerogenerator system A proves useful to speed up the charging time of the group of batteries 6, thus imparting improvements to the performances of motorvehicle 7.

Particularly suited to speed competitions, aerogenerator sy stem A guarantees a reduction of the charging time of the group of batteries 6 at the exit of a curve. For example, in case of relatively long competitions, such as in Formula E, aerogenerator system A is capable of reducing the number of pit stops.

In particular, with a perceptably higher level of stored energy in the group of batteries 6, due to the contribution im parted by the action of the aerogenerator system A of the present invention, the electromechanical motor of MGU-K unit 13, and pos sibly also of unit MGU-H, can exploit during acceleration a grea ter amount of energy to be transmitted to the propeller of motor- vehicle 7.

Therefore, it is easily understandable that, during accele ration, the electromechanical motor of MGU-K unit 13 is active for longer, consequently causing motorvehicle 7 to travel longer distances at a higher speed.

Thereby, owed to the action of aerogenerator system A, the level of energy consumption in the group of batteries 6, during an acceleration phase, is remarkably reduced.

Moreover, control and electronic management unit 4 acting on the fitting tilt angle and on the opening angle of the folding blades of wind turbine 1 determines that, upon speed increase of motorvehicle 7, the blades of wind turbine 1 have a smaller resi stance surface to the incoming fluid in air intake 8, so as to suitably increase the number of revolutions of the rotor of wind turbine 1 to reach in a short time current values useful for the charge of the group of batteries 6.

Moreover, control and electronic management unit 4 acts to direct wind turbines 1 to a direction substantially coinciding with the direction of the airflow which invests motorvehicle 7 during travel, in order to obtain a greater possible flow rate.

In addition, in case the flow rate of incoming fluid exceeds the maximum threshold of tolerable wind speed - cut-out wind speed - control and electronic management unit 4 acts on the speed multiplier system 2 and on the gear motor reducer system, in order to guarantee a regular operation of the electromechanical alter nator system 3, and consequently to guarantee a flow of electric energy adequately compatible with the features of the group of batteries 6.

As can be clearly understood from the above reported de scription, the aerogenerator system A according to the present invention allows to perfectly achieve the preset objects.

In short, aerogenerator system A represents an effective solution to the need of having to charge in a shorter time one or more batteries dedicated to supply power to an entirely electric or hybrid propeller on a high-performance motorvehicle whereon an MGU-K system 13 and possibly also an MGU-H system operates. As a matter of fact, for a motorvehicle 7 capable of travelling at rather high speeds, aerogenerator system A proves useful to per form the charging function during travel, since it is capable of exploiting the kinetic energy of the moving air mass which opposes the travel of motorvehicle 7.

In particular, through air intakes 8 and the air ducts, aerogenerator system A exploits the energy possessed by the chan nelled fluid mass - in opposition to the direction of travel - transforming it into electric energy, without having to resort to the use of further energy storage apparatuses which motorvehicle 7 would have to transport - which are normally bulky, heavy, expensive, perishable.

Moreover, unlike MGU motor generators, which univocally be have in distinct phases either as electric generators - during a deceleration of motorvehicle 7 - or as electric motors - during an acceleration of motorvehicle 7, aerogenerator system A proves capable of supplying energy both during acceleration and during deceleration, but also at constant speeds, as long as motorvehicle 7 keeps travelling at rather high speeds.

In particular, aerogenerator system A keeps in active mode, supplying further and constant amounts of energy to the group of batteries 6, also at times when MGU-K unit 13 behaves as electric motor, that is when MGU-K system 13 is in the phase of energy drawing from the group of batteries 6 to transmit pull power to motorvehicle 7.

Moreover, aerogenerator system A is particularly suited for a speed racing car, such as for example a Formula E single- seater, due to the fact that, thanks to the high speeds normally maintained, energy supply to the group of batteries 6 by aeroge nerator system A is kept continuous, substantially for the entire travel duration of motorvehicle 7.

In addition, since the higher the travelling speed, the greater the production of electric energy, and hence the shorter the charging time, by aerogenerator system A - of course until a construction tolerance limit of the regenerative system, so that at a threshold maximum speed a protection block to the wind turbine is triggered, aerogenerator system A proves suited to competition cars provided with electric propeller, such as example Formula E motorvehicles . As a matter of fact, for such competitive sector, aerogenerator system A is purely conceived as an auxiliary system, constantly cooperating with MGU-K motor generator 13.

Therefore, in the light of the aooarebt advantages, aeroge nerator system A proves useful to supply an auxiliary contribution to MGU-K motor generator 13, and possibly also to the MGU-H motor generator in case it is a hybrid propeller equipped with turbo charger, or to both, to increase the travel performance of motor- vehicle 7.

Moreover, aerogenerator system A, owed to its construction, is remarkably reliable with respect to MGU-H and MGU-K motor ge nerators 13, which require maintenance and related costs, in addition to being more subject to wear, since they operate with elements in continuous friction and/or subject to high temperatu res. In particular, an MGU motor generator unit, such as for example MGU-K unit 13, used in competition can undergo such wear as to have even serious faults, with a certain frequency. Aeroge nerator system A can hence act also as possible generator of emergency charge to supply the group of batteries 6.

Furthermore, any damage applied to one or all the various devices comprised in aerogenerator system A does not determine the break of the propellling system, nor, even less so, the in terruption of travel of motorvehicle 7. In particular, a damage to a wind turbine of aerogenerator system A does not impair the operation of the other wind turbines of the same aerogenerator system A, except that it implies if any a smaller - but not null - supply of electric energy flow to the battery of motorvehicle 7.

In addition, incoming air resource to the propeller is un limited and easily available, so that aerogenerator system A is decidedly preferable to other energy regeneration systems which exploit possibly heavy, bulky and polluting resources.

Additionally, aerogenerator system A does not require coo ling fluids, as possibly required by other energy regeneration systems .

Finally, aerogenerator system A has far smaller weight, bulk, design, feasibility, production and mounting efforts and costs if related to the ones of state of the art motor generators. However, it is understood that the invention must not be limited to the particular embodiments illustrated above, which make up only exemplifying embodiments thereof, but that different variants are possible, all within the reach of a person skilled in the field, without departing from the scope of protection of the invention, which is exclusively defined by the following claims .

For example, no embodiments are excluded wherein wind tur bines 1 are used which make up aerogenerators having a vertical rotary axis. Preferably, it is provided that one or more wind turbines 1 with a vertical rotary axis be arranged in central air intake 8a of the front bumper or of the front grid.

LIST OF REFERENCE CHARACTERS

A Energy regeneration system, aerogenerator system 1 Wind turbine la Wind turbine equipped with horizontal rotor arranged longitudinally to the travel direction lb Wind turbine equipped with horizontal rotor arranged perpendicularly to the travel direction

2 Speed multiplier system

3 Alternator electromechanical system

4 Control and electronic management unit

5 Current converter unit

6 Supply battery, group of batteries 7 Motorvehicle

Dynamic air intake

8a Central air intake of front bumper or front grid

8b Side air intake of fender 8c Side air intake of flank

9 Control unit of fitting tilt angle

10 Control unit of opening angle 11 Yaw control unit

12 Pitching control unit

13 Motor generator unit MGU-K

14 Current channelling and selection unit 14a First current channelling and selection unit 14b Second current channelling and selection unit 15 Current sorting unit

16 Measuring system of fluid speed, pressure and flow rate 17 Direction measuring system

18 Position measuring system