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Title:
BAKERY SHORTENINGS FROM PALM DIACYLGLYCEROL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/092531
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The present invention relates to bakery shortenings prepared from palm diacylglycerol and a method for producing the same. In a first aspect of the invention, the bakery shortening comprises a palm diacylglycerol stearin and a palm mid-fraction having an iodine value of 32 to 48. In a second aspect of the invention, the bakery shortening comprises a palm diacylglycerol olein having an iodine value of 56 to 64 and a palm stearin. The bakery shortenings of the present invention do not require any emulsifiers to be added.

Inventors:
BINTI OTHMAN, Noor Hidayu (KM 10 Jalan Banting-Kelanang,P.O.Box 207, Banting, Selangor, 42700, MY)
LATIP, Razam Abdul (KM 10 Jalan Banting-Kelanang,P.O.Box 207, Banting, Selangor, 42700, MY)
YUSOFF, Mohd. Suria Affandi (KM 10 Jalan Banting-Kelanang,P.O.Box 207, Banting, Selangor, 42700, MY)
Application Number:
MY2013/000186
Publication Date:
June 19, 2014
Filing Date:
October 24, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SIME DARBY MALAYSIA BERHAD (19th Floor, Wisma Sime DarbyJalan Raja Laut, Kuala Lumpur, 50350, MY)
International Classes:
A21D2/16; A23D7/00; A23D7/01
Domestic Patent References:
2001-03-01
Foreign References:
US5908655A1999-06-01
US20090226563A12009-09-10
US20050214436A12005-09-29
Other References:
MATSUO, N. ET AL., MALAYSIAN OIL SCI. TECHNOL., vol. 113, 2004, pages 30 - 40
NAGAO, T. ET AL., J.NUTR., vol. 130, 2000, pages 792 - 797
MURASE, T. ET AL., J. LIPID RES., vol. 42, 2001, pages 372 - 378
MAKI, K.C. ET AL., AM. JOUR. CLIN. NUTR., vol. 76, 2002, pages 1230 - 1236
HARA, K. ET AL., ANN. NUTR. METAB., vol. 37, 1993, pages 185 - 191
MURATA, M. ET AL., BIOSCI. BIOTECHNOL. BIOCHEM., vol. 58, 1994, pages 1416 - 1419
TAGUCHI, H. ET AL., J. AM. COLL. NUTR., vol. 19, 2000, pages 786 - 796
TADA, N. ET AL., CLIN. CHIM ACTA., vol. 311, 2001, pages 109 - 117
YAMAMOTO, K. ET AL., J. NUTR., vol. 131, 2001, pages 3204 - 3207
KONDO, H. ET AL., LIPIDS, vol. 38, 2003, pages 25 - 30
YANAGISAWA, Y. ET AL., BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMM., vol. 302, 2003, pages 743 - 750
YAMAMOTO, K. ET AL., METABOLISM, vol. 54, 2005, pages 67 - 71
TAGUCHI, H. ET AL., J. AM. CO//. NUTR., vol. 1, 2000, pages 786 - 796
TADA, N. ET AL., CLIN. CHIM ACTA., vol. 311, 2001, pages 109 - 111
K. HASEGAWA, IMPROVEMENT IN BLOOD LIPID LEVELS BY DIETARY SN-1,3-DIACYLGLYCEROL IN YOUNG, 2003
GHOTRA B.S. ET AL., RES. INT., vol. 35, 2002, pages 1015 - 1048
SIKORSKI, D: "Diacylglycerol Oils", 2004, AOCS 'PRESS, article "Application of Diacylglycerol Oil in Baked Goods, Nutritional Beverages/bars, Sauces and Gravies", pages: 223 - 252
HAUMMANN, B. F, INFORM, vol. 5, 1994, pages 668 - 678
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SATO, K., CHEM. ENG. SC., vol. 56, 2001, pages 2256 - 2265
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MATSUI ET AL., J. AGRIC. FOOD CHEM., vol. 46, 2001, pages 3879 - 3884
CHEONG LING ZHI: "Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.", 2010, WILEY-VCH VERLAG GMBH & CO. KGAA, article "Baking performance of palm diacylglycerol bakery fats and sensory evaluation of baked products"
GHOTRA B.S. ET AL.: "Lipid Shortening: A Review", FOOD RES. INT., vol. 35, 2002, pages 1015 - 1048
GIJS H. CALLIAUW ET AL.: "Principles of palm olein fractionation: a bit of science behind the technology", LIPID TECHNOLOGY, vol. 19, no. 7, July 2007 (2007-07-01)
HARA, K. ET AL.: "Dietary diacylglycerol-dependent reduction in serum triacylglycerol concentration in rats", ANN. NUTR. METAB., vol. 37, 1993, pages 185 - 191
HAUMMANN, B. F.: "Tools: Hydrogenation, interesterification", INFORM., vol. 5, 1994, pages 668 - 678
KELLENS, M.J.: "Edible Oil Processing", 2000, ACADEMIC PRESS, article "Oil modification processes", pages: 129 - 172
KONDO, H. ET AL.: "Digestion and assimilation features of dietary DAG in the rat small intestine", LIPIDS, vol. 38, 2003, pages 25 - 30
MAKI, K.C. ET AL.: "Consumption of diacylglycerol oil as part of a reduced-energy diet enhances loss if body weight and fat in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil", AM. JOUR. CLIN. NUTR., vol. 76, 2002, pages 1230 - 1236
MARANGONI, A.G.; R.W. LENCKI.: "Ternary phase behavior of milk fraction", J. AGRIC. FOOD CHEM., vol. 46, 1998, pages 3879 - 3884
MATSUO, N.: "Digestion, metabolism and health benefit of diacylglycerols", MALAYSLAN OIL SCI. TECHNOL., vol. 113, 2004, pages 30 - 40
MURASE, T. ET AL.: "Dietary diacylglycerol suppresses high fat and high sucrose diet- induced body fat accumulation in C57BL/6J mice", J. LIPID RES., vol. 42, 2001, pages 372 - 378, XP055247564
MURATA, M. ET AL.: "Alteration by diacylglycerols of the transport and fatty acid composition of lymph chylomicron in rats", BIOSCI. BIOTECHNOL. BIOCHEM., vol. 58, 1994, pages 1416 - 1419
MURATA, M. ET AL.: "Reciprocal responses to dietary diacylglycerol of hepatic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in the rat", BR. J. NUTR., 1997, pages 107 - 121
NAGAO, T. ET AL.: "Dietary diacylglycerol suppress accumulation of body fat compared to triacylglycerol in men in a double-blind controlled trial", J. NUTR., vol. 130, 2000, pages 792 - 797
NARINE, S.S. ET AL.: "Relating structure of fat crystal networks to mechanical properties: a review", FOOD RES. INT, vol. 32, 1999, pages 227 - 248
PODMORE, J.: "Fats in food technology", 2002, CRC PRESS, article "Bakery fats", pages: 30 - 68
SATO, K.: "Crystallization behaviour of fats and lipids - a review", CHEM. ENG. SC., vol. 56, 2001, pages 2256 - 2265
SIEW, W L ET AL.: "Diglyceride content and composition as indicators of palm oil quality", J. SCI. FOOD AND AGRIC., vol. 69, 1995, pages 73 - 79, XP055073468, DOI: doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740690112
SIKORSKI, D; KATSUGI, Y. ET AL.: "Diacylglycerol Oils", 2004, AOCS PRESS, article "Application of Diacylglycerol Oil in Baked Goods, Nutritional Beverages/bars, Sauces and Gravies", pages: 223 - 252
TADA, N. ET AL.: "Dynamics of postprandial remnant-like lipoprotein particles in serum after loading of diacylglycerols", CLIN. CHIM ACTA., vol. 311, 2001, pages 109 - 117
TAGUCHI, H. ET AL.: "Double blind controlled postprandial study on the effects of dietary diacylglycerol and postprandial serum and chyclomicron triacylglycerol responses in healthy human", J. AM. COLL. NUTR., vol. 19, 2000, pages 786 - 796
TERAMOTO, T. ET AL.: "Significant effects of diacylglycerol on body fat and lipid metabolism in patients on hemodialysis", CLIN. NUTR., vol. 23, 2004, pages 1122 - 1126, XP004571452, DOI: doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2004.02.005
YAMAMOTO, K. ET AL.: "Effects of diacylglycerol administration on serum triacylglycerol in a patient homozygous for complete lipoprotein lipase detection", METABOLISM, vol. 54, 2005, pages 67 - 71, XP004651697, DOI: doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2004.07.013
YAMAMOTO, K. ET AL.: "Long-term ingestion of dietary diacylglycerol lowers serum triacylglycerol in Type Il diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia", J. NUTR., vol. 131, 2001, pages 3204 - 3207
YANAGISAWA, Y. ET AL.: "Improvement in blood lipid levels by dietary sn-1,3-diacylglycerol in young women with variants of lipid transporters 54T-FABP2 and -493g-MTP", BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMM., vol. 302, 2003, pages 743 - 750
YANAGISAWA, Y. ET AL.: "Women with variants of lipid transporters 54T-FABP2 and -493g-MTP", BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMM., vol. 302, pages 743 - 750
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KHOR, Pauline Hong Ping (Suite 33.01 Level 33 The Gardens,North Tower, Mid Valley Cit, Lingkaran Syed Putra Kuala Lumpur, 59200, MY)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS:

1. A bakery shortening comprising a palm diacylglycerol stearin and a palm mid- fraction, wherein the palm mid-fraction having an iodine value of 32 to 48.

2. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin is present in an amount ranging from 40% to 50% by weight relative to thei total weight of the bakery shortening. 3. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the palm mid-fraction is present in an amount ranging from 50% to 60% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

4. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 40:60.

5. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 50:50. 6. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin contains 80% to 100% of diacylglycerol.

7. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the bakery shortening is enriched with diacylglycerol, containing 40% or more of diacylglycerol.

8. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 , wherein the bakery shortening has a slip melting point of 46°C to 51°C.

9. The bakery shortening according to claim 1, wherein the palm mid-fraction has a slip melting point of 32°C to 38°C.

10. The bakery shortening according to claim 9, wherein the palm mid-fraction has a solid fat content of 45% to 90% at 20°C. 11. A bakery shortening comprising a palm diacylglycerol olein having an iodine value of 56 to 64 and a palm stearin.

12. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 1 , wherein the palm stearin having an iodine value of 32 to 46.

13. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 1 , wherein the palm diacylglycerol olein is present in an amount ranging from 30% to 70% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

14. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 1 , wherein the bakery shortening has a solid fat content of 5% to 16% at 35°C.

15. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 1 , wherein the bakery shortening has a slip melting point of 36°C to 51 °C.

16. The bakery shortening according to claim 1 or 11 , wherein the bakery shortening contains no emulsifiers.

17. A method for producing a bakery shortening, the method comprising the steps of: admixing a palm diacylglycerol stearin with a palm mid-fraction having an iodine value of 32 to 48 or admixing a palm diacylglycerol olein having an iodine value of 56 to 64 with a palm stearin to obtain a mixture;

cooling and plasticizing the mixture to form crystals and obtaining a bakery shortening with a predetermined hardness; and

tempering the bakery shortening for a predetermined period to attain a solid state in which the bakery shortening is normally utilized.

18. The method according to claim 17, wherein the bakery shortening is tempered for a period ranging from 1 to 10 days at a temperature higher than the temperature off which the bakery shortening is packed. 19. The method according to claim 17, wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin is admixed in an amount ranging from 40% to 50% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

20. The method according to claim 17, wherein the palm diacylglycerol olein is admixed in an amount ranging from 30% to 70% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

21. The method according to claim 17, wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 40:60.

22. The method according to claim 17, wherein the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 50:50.

23. The method according to claim 17, wherein the palm diacylglycerol olein and the palm stearin are present in a weight ratio of 40:60. 24. The method according to claim 17, wherein the palm stearin having an iodine value of 32 to 46.

25. A food product containing a bakery shortening as claimed in claim 1 or 1 1.

Description:
BAKERY SHORTENINGS FROM PALM D!ACYLGLYCEROL

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to bakery shortenings prepared from palm diacylglycerol and a method for producing the same. More particularly, the present invention relates to a bakery shortening comprising palm diacylglycerol stearin and palm mid-fraction, and a bakery shortening comprising palm diacylglycerol olein and palm stearin. The bakery shortenings of the present invention do not require any emuisifiers to be added.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Diacylglycerol (DAG), also known as dig!yceride, is the esters of glycerol which is formed when two fatty acids are esterified onto a glycerol molecule. Diacylglycerol can exist in three isomers, namely, 1,2-, 2,3- and 1 ,3-diacylglycerol. Naturally present in various edible oils containing up to 10% (w/w) of diacylglycerol, diacylglycerol content may vary, depending on the origin of the oil. In general, palm oil contains up to 6% (w/w) of diacylglycerol (Matsuo, N. et al., Malaysian Oil Sci. Technol. 113:30-40 (2004)).

Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted and these studies have proven the effectiveness of diacylglycerol oil in reducing obesity. The consumption of diacylglycerol oil has shown to reduce body fat accumulation (Nagao, T. et al., J. Nutr. 130:792-797 (2000); Murase, T. et al., J. Lipid Res. 42:372-378 (2001); Maki, K.C. et al., Am. Jour. Clin. Nutr. 76:1230-1236 (2002). It is reported that a 70% reduction in body weight of mice occurred after the mice was put on a 5 months diet containing 30% of diacylglycerol oil (Murase, T. et al., J. Lipid Res. 42:372-378 (2001)). Diacylglycerol has also shown to lower blood serum triglycerides levels (Hara, K. et al., Ann. Nutr. Metab. 37:185-191 (1993); Murata, M. et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 58:1416-1419 (1994); Taguchi, H. et al., J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 19:786-796 (2000); Tada, N. et al., Clin. Chim Acta. 31 1 :109-117 (2001); Yamamoto, K. et al., J. Nutr. 131 :3204-3207 (2001); Kondo, H. et al. , Lipids. 38:25-30 (2003), Yanagisawa, Y. et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 302:743-750 (2003); Yamamoto, K. et al., Metabolism 54:67-71 (2005)).

Various clinical studies have confirmed that diacylglycerol is able to decrease serum triglycerides levels in a human body (Taguchi, H. et al., J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 19: 786- 796 (2000); Tada, N. et al., Clin. Chim Acta. 311 :109-1 1 1 (2001); Yamamoto, K. et al., J. Nutr. 131 :3204-3207 (2001); Yanagisawa, Y. et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 302:743-750 (2003); Yamamoto, K. et al., Metabolism, 54:67-71 (2005)). Diacylglycerol has shown to be beneficial in reducing serum triglyceride levels in young women with hyperlipidemia-prone variants of fatty acid binding protein 2 and MTP (Yanagisawa, Y. et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 302:743-750 (2003)) and in type 2 diabetic patients (Yamamoto, K. et al., J. Nutr. 131 :3204-3207 (2001); and K. Hasegawa, "Improvement in blood lipid levels by dietary sn-1 ,3-diacylglycerol in young", (2003)). Generally, bakery shortening is produced from a mixture of liquid oil (e.g., soybean oil, cottonseed oil, rapeseed oil or a mixture of these oils) and solid fat (hydrogenated soybean oil, cottonseed oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil or animal fat) (Ghotra B.S. et al., Res. Int. 35:1015-1048 (2002)). Nevertheless, in the late of twentieth century to early twenty-first century, there were attempts to include diacylglycerol as one of the main components in bakery shortening to improve the nutritional properties of baked products (Sikorski, D, "Application of Diacylglycerol Oil in Baked Goods, Nutritional Beverages/bars, Sauces and Gravies", In: Katsugi, Y., Yasukawa, T., Matsui, N., Flickinger, B.D., Tokimitsu, I., Matlock, M.G. (Eds), "Diacylglycerol Oils", AOCS Press: Champaign, Illinois, pp. 223-252 (2004)).

US Pat. No. 5,908,655 discloses a shortening system, products containing or produced with the shortening system, and methods for making and using the shortening system. The shortening system comprises an admixture of at least one non- hydrogenated vegetable oil and at least one stearin fraction obtainable from glycerolysis / interesterification of a fat or oil. In one of the embodiments described in this publication, the shortening system comprises a stearin fraction having an enhanced diglyceride concentration or at least one monoglyceride and/or diglyceride derived from palm oil and a vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of sunflower oil, soybean oil, corn oil, peanut oil, etc. The shortening is also used as a delivery system for emulsifier.

US 2009/0226563 A1 discloses a fat and oil composition that is used as a shortening and margarine in the field of bakery. The fat and oil composition comprises (i) 20% to 60% by weight of component A, which consists of fats and oils containing about 10% to 90% by weight of diacylglycerol; and (ii) 3% to 20% by weight, on dry-weight basis, of component B, which is an egg yolk. The source of diacylglycerol is obtained from glycerolysis and esterification of soybean and rapeseed oil, which is then further refined and purified by using short path distillation to obtain a finely emulsified and stabilized emulsion.

US 2005/0214436 A1 discloses an emulsifier composition, a shortening composition comprising such an emulsifier and to the use of the shortening composition as dough fat or filling fat, for instance. This publication also discloses a shortening system comprising unhydrogenated or non-hydrogenated vegetable oil (such as a highly unsaturated, non-hydrogenated or unhydrogenated vegetable oil, e.g., soybean oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, rice bran oil, or cottonseed oil) and a minimum amount of emulsifier composition containing essentially of a monoglyceride and/or diglycerides, an alpha tending emulsifier and an ionic emulsifier. The publication also discloses a process for the preparation of such a shortening composition. The shortening composition of this publication requires the use of an emulsifier. The use of emulsifiers in shortenings is acceptable in itself. Nevertheless, emulsifiers may cause allergic reactions or reactions based on hypersensitivity of the consumers in some cases.

Consequently, there is a need to provide bakery shortenings that seek to address at least one of the problems described hereinabove, or at least to provide an alternative.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The above and other problems are solved and an advance in the art is made by bakery shortenings in accordance with this invention. It is an advantage of the bakery shortenings in accordance with this invention that the bakery shortenings do not contain any emulsifiers. A second advantage of this invention is that the bakery shortenings have properties that are comparable to those known in the art. A third advantage of this invention is that the bakery shortenings can be used in bakery products, in place of hydrogenated shortenings or fats.

In accordance with a first embodiment of this invention, a bakery shortening comprising a palm diacylglycerol stearin and a palm mid-fraction, wherein the palm mid- fraction having an iodine value of 32 to 48 is provided. In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol stearin is present in an amount ranging from 40% to 50% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening. In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm mid-fraction is present in an amount ranging from 50% to 60% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

In accordance with some embodiments of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 40:60. In some other embodiments, the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 50:50.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol stearin contains 80% to 100% of diacylglycerol.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the bakery shortening is enriched with diacylglycerol, containing 40% or more of diacylglycerol. In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the bakery shortening has a slip melting point of 46°C to 51 °C.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm mid-fraction has a slip melting point of 32°C to 38°C. In some embodiments, the palm mid-fraction hag a solid fat content of 45% to 90% at 20°C.

In accordance with a second embodiment of this invention, a bakery shortening comprising a palm diacylglycerol olein having an iodine value of 56 to 64 and a palm stearin is provided.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm stearin having an iodine value of 32 to 46.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol olein is present in an amount ranging from 30% to 70% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening. In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the bakery shortening has a solid fat content of 5% to 16% at 35°C.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the bakery shortening has a slip melting point of 36°C to 51 °C.

In accordance with some of the embodiments of this invention, the bakery shortening contains no emulsifiers. In accordance with a third embodiment of this invention, a method for producing a bakery shortening in accordance with this invention is provided. The method comprises the steps of admixing a palm diacylglycerol stearin with a palm mid-fraction having an iodine value of 32 to 48 or admixing a palm diacylglycerol olein having an iodine value of 56 to 64 with a palm stearin to obtain a mixture; cooling and plasticizing the mixture to form crystals and to obtain a bakery shortening with a predetermined hardness; and tempering the bakery shortening for a predetermined period to attain a solid state in which the bakery shortening is normally utilized.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the bakery shortening is tempered for a period ranging from 1 to 10 days at a temperature higher than the temperature of which the bakery shortening is packed.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol stearin is admixed in an amount ranging from 40% to 50% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol olein is admixed in an amount ranging from 30% to 70% by weight relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening.

In some embodiments of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 40:60. In some other embodiments, the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 50:50.

In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the palm diacylglycerol olein and the palm stearin are present in a weight ratio of 40:60. In accordance with a further embodiment of this invention, a food product containing a bakery shortening in accordance with this invention is provided. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other features and advantages of the present invention will more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:

Figure 1 shows the solid fat content (SFC) profile for shortenings comprising (a) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm mid-fraction (PMF); (b) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO); (c) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm olefin (POL); and (d) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and sunflower oil (SFO).

Figure 2 shows the iso-solid diagrams for shortenings comprising (a) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm mid-fraction (PMF); (b) palm diacylglyqerol (PDAG) stearin and refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO); (c) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm olefin (POL); and (d) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and sunflower oil (SFO).

Figure 3 shows the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting curves for shortenings comprising (a) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm mid-fraction (PMF); (b) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO); (c) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm olefin (POL); and (d) palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and sunflower oil (SFO).

Figure 4 shows the solid fat content (SFC) of commercial shortening and shortenings comprising palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm mid-fraction (PMF); palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO); palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm olefin (POL); and palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and sunflower oil (SFO). Figure 5 shows the solid fat content (SFC) profile of palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) bakery shortening, CS shortening and PDG shortening. Figures 6(a) to (e) show madeira cakes prepared from commercial (CS) shortening and palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) shortening formulated from palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) oleins. Figures 7(a) to (c) show biscuits prepared from commercial (CS) shortening and palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) shortening formulated from palm diacylgiycerot (PDAG) oleins.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Shortenings are mixtures of fats and/or oils. Conventional types of shortenings include those with emulsifiers. The particular types of shortenings discussed herein are those wherein no emulsifier is added. According to a first embodiment of the invention, a bakery shortening comprising palm diacylglycerol stearin and palm mid-fraction is provided.

The term "palm diacylglycerol stearin" as used herein refers to palm stearin containing relatively high amount of diacylglycerol. Preferably, the palm diacylglycerol stearin is obtained from palm diacylglycerol containing about 55% to 100% of diacylglycerol, more preferably about 75% to 100% and yet more preferably about 85% to 100% of diacylglycerol.

The term "palm mid-fraction" as used herein refers to a specialty fat produced by multiple dry fractionation of palm oil. The main characteristic of the palm mid-fraction is that it has a very high content or rich in 1 ,3-dipalmito-2-oleo-triacylglycerol (POP) which produces a very steep solid fat content (SFC) temperature curve. Being a specialty fat, palm mid-fraction can be produced with a wide range of characteristics, including fractions with iodine values of 32 to 48, slip melting point (SMP) of about 32°C to 38°C and solid fat content (SFC) of about 45% to 90% at 20°C.

In one embodiment of the invention, the bakery shortening comprises about 40% to 50% by weight of palm diacylglycerol stearin relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening, and about 50% to 60% by weight of palm mid-fraction relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening. In a preferred embodiment, the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 40:60. In another preferred embodiment, the palm diacylglycerol stearin and the palm mid-fraction are present in a weight ratio of 50:50.

The palm diacylglycerol stearin of the present invention can be obtained by any suitable methods known in the art. In one embodiment of the invention, the palm diacylglycerol stearin is obtained from dry fractionation of palm diacylglycerol (PDAG). The crude palm diacylglycerol oils and fats is obtained from glycerolysis of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) containing about 30% to 60% or more of diacylglycerol (DAG), preferably about 30% to 50% of diacylglycerol. The crude palm diacylglycerol then undergoes short path distillation to obtain a purified palm diacylglycerol containing about 55% to 100% of diacylglycerol, more preferably about 75% to 100%) and yet more preferably about 85% to 100% of diacylglycerol. The palm diacylglycerol is then subjected to dry fractionation process to obtain a palm diacylglycerol stearin and a palm diacylglycerol olein, both having enhanced diacylglycerol composition as compared to typical olein and stearin fractions. The palm diacylglycerol stearin of the present invention preferably has a diacylglycerol content of about 80% to 100%.

The palm mid-fraction (PMF) of the present invention is a fraction that can be obtained from double-fractionation of palm olein with an iodine value of 56. The first stage of the fractionation involves fractionating the palm olein to obtain a soft palm mid- fraction with an iodine value in the range of 42 to 50 and a super olein with an iodine value of 64 and above. The soft palm mid-fraction then undergoes a second stage fractionation to produce a hard palm mid-fraction with an iodine value of 32 to 48, preferably 34 to 42, and a mid-olein with an iodine value of 54 to 56. It is understood that other methods known in the art can also be employed to obtain suitable palm mid-fraction for use in the present invention.

The bakery shortening in accordance with this embodiment preferably has a slip melting point of 46°C to 51°C.

The palm diacylglycerol olein obtained from the dry fractionation of palm diacylglycerol as described hereinabove can also be used to produce a palm diacylglycerol bakery shortening,

According to a second embodiment of the invention, a bakery shortening comprising a palm diacylglycerol olein and a palm stearin is provided. The term "palm diacylglycerol olein" as used herein refers to liquid fraction of palm diacylglycerol containing relatively high amount of diacylglycerol. Preferably, the palm diacylglycerol olein is obtained from palm diacylglycerol containing about 55% to 100% of diacylglycerol, more preferably about 75% to 100% and yet more preferably about 85% to 100% of diacylglycerol.

The term "palm stearin" as used herein refers to solid fraction of palm oil produced by partial crystallization of the palm oil at controlled temperature.

The palm diacylglycerol olein of the present invention has an iodine value of 56 to 64, preferably 56 to 62 and more preferably 56 to 60. Iodine value indicates the degree of unsaturation of oils and fats product. Preferably, the palm diacylglycerol olein of the present invention has a diacylglycerol content of about 80% to 100%.

The palm stearin of the present invention has an iodine value of 32 to 46, more preferably 36 to 42 and more preferably 38 to 40.

The bakery shortening in accordance with this embodiment has a solid fat content (SFC) of 5% to 16%, more preferably 8% to 15% and most preferably 0% to 14% at 35°C. This property of the bakery shortening helps to maintain the organoleptic properties of the shortening and to encourage structural formation of bakery products. The bakery shortening preferably has a slip melting point of about 36°C to 51 °C, more preferably about 46°C to 49°C, and even more preferably about 40°C to 44°C.

The bakery shortening of this embodiment comprises preferably about 30% to 70% by weight of palm diacylglycerol olein, more preferably about 30% to 60% by weight of palm diacylglycerol olein, and even more preferably about 30% to 50% by weight of palm diacylglycerol olein, relative to the total weight of the bakery shortening with respect to its functionality and physicochemical properties of bakery shortening. In a preferred embodiment, the palm diacylglycerol olein and the palm stearin are present in a weight ratio of 40:60. The bakery shortening also does not require any emulsifiers to be added.

Palm oil contains a balanced composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid. It is an alternative source of hard stock for trans-free products. It is naturally semi-solid, an important advantage in solid fat formulations as it requires no hydrogenatipn. Hydrogenation is not only costly but also produces trans fatty acids and isomers, which pose a health risk. It has been reported that trans fatty acids have a negative impact on plasma lipoprotein profile by lowering the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raising the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This has raised the need to replace hydrogenated fats with natural fats in food product formulations.

Due to the increasing concern about the nutritional impact of trans fatty acids on health, interesterification has become the main method for the preparation of plastic fats with low trans isomer contents, or even with the absence of these compounds, given that it allows the modification of oil and fat behaviours, rendering important contributions for the increase and optimization of their use in food products (Haummann, B. F, Inform. 5:668-678 (1994)). Interesterification process blends soft oils with hard fats to get a desired consistency and functionality. However, scientific researchers have raised a concern about interesterified fat consumption. Other researches also show that interesterified fat may lower the high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels that is the good cholesterol, and may raise the blood sugar levels in a human body.

Preparation of palm diacylglycerol shortening involves the steps of blending, cooling, plasticizing and tempering of the oil mixture. Palm-based shortening does not need to be hydrogenated as palm oil has natural solid content. Thus, palm-based shortening is free from harmful effect of trans fatty acid.

The palm-based bakery shortenings of the present invention are prepared by physical blending or admixing the palm diacylglycerol stearin with the palm mid-fraction or the palm diacylglycerol olein with the palm stearin. Preferably, the blending or mixing is carried out with mechanical agitation and more preferably, with stirring. The mixture is preferably stirred at about 70°C until a homogenous mixture is obtained. The mixture then undergoes chilling, followed by plasticizing with continuously agitation until the mixture reaches complete crystallization and becoming a shortening. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the duration of the agitation may vary according to the desired hardness that is to be achieved for the bakery shortening.

The prepared shortening is then tempered for 1 to 10 days at a temperature higher than the temperature of which the shortening is packed. Preferably, the bakery shortening is tempered at a temperature ranging from 20°C to 25°C. The tempering process is carried out by storing the shortening in an incubator at a specific temperature. Tempering is an important step for attaining the solid state in which the shortening is normally utilized. It will transform the fats crystals into a preferred polymorphic form. Lack of tempering will adversely affect the functional properties of the shortening.

The bakery shortenings of the present invention are plastic shortenings at room temperature. The term 'plastic' as used herein refers to a solid, non-fluid, non-pourable, and non-pumpable shortenings at room temperature. The shortenings have slip melting point (SMP) ranging from 46°C to 51 °C. Based on Joma shortening, the range of SMP is between 36°C and 51 °C, whereby SMP of 36°C to 44°C are mainly for bakery, confectionery, creaming and frying; and SMP of 46°C to 51 °C are mainly for bakery, confectionery and frying. The SMP of palm diacylglycerol olein and palm stearin shortening falls within the range of 36°C to 51 °C. The shortenings are thus suitable for use in bakery, confectionary and frying. The bakery shortenings of the present invention are suitable for use in food products, especially in baked food products including, but are not limited to, biscuits, cookies, pie crust, pastries, cakes and the like.

For conventional bakery shortening, emulsifiers play an important role in achieving the desired effect in food products. Emulsifier and the shortening help to improve the plasticity, crispiness, stability and shelf-life of food products. In the present invention, no emulsifier needs to be added to the shortenings for making food products as the diacylglycerol contained in the shortenings is sufficient to act as an emulsifier in the shortening system.

The bakery shortenings of the present invention can include minor amounts of other components known to those of ordinary skill in the art to be useful in the preparation of food products so long as they do not interfere with the essential functions of the principal components and do not adversely affect the quality of the bakery shortenings. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognise that the additional components may be included depending on the desired result to be achieved and do not limit the scope of the invention.

The bakery shortenings of the present invention can be topically applied to food products. It has been observed that the bakery shortenings of the present invention can improve the organoleptic properties of food products. Basically, shortening is a mixture of different fats. Understanding the physicochemical properties of pure components is very important to illuminate the effect of molecular interaction between the pure components and the fats system. Fat system can occur in various crystalline forms. The existence of two or more distinct crystalline forms is merely due to differences in packing of the constituent molecules upon crystallization (Narine, S.S. et al., Food Res. Int. 32:227-248 (1999)). The crystallization process is made up of nucleation and crystal growth, and diacylglycerol has been found to inhibit the nucleation process (Siew, W L. et al., J. Sci. Food and Agric. 69:73-79 (1995)).

The amount of solids present in shortening depends on its functionality at working temperature, for example, at 25°C. At body temperature of about 37°C, the amount of solids must not be too high so as to maintain the organoleptic properties of the shortening. It is reported that bakery shortening should contain a minimum of about 20% of solid at working temperature, at about 25°C and minimum of about 5% solid at a higher temperature, of about 40°C to obtain the optimum baking performance. (Podmore, J., et al., CRC Press: Sheffied, U.K., pp.30-68 (2002)). It is important that the percentage of solid in the shortening does not diverge extensively during storage as it may influence the functionality of the shortening. In the present invention, the bakery shortening contains about 28% to 29% of solid at a working temperature of about 25°C and about 10% of solid at higher temperature, for example, about 40°C. In the embodiment containing palm diacylglycerol olein and palm stearin, the bakery shortening contains about 20% to 25.3% of solid at a working temperature of about 25°C and about 4% to 7% of solid at a higher temperature, for example, about 40°C.

High quality shortening can be obtained by crystallizing the shortening mainly in β' form. Basically, β' crystal consists of small, uniform needle-like crystals which are densely packed in orthorhombic perpendicular subcell (0±) (Sato, K., Chem. Eng. Sc. 56:2256-2265 (2001)). β' form is the most functional and desirable form in shortening due to its better crystalline network and thin-needle shape morphology. The transformation of crystal from β' form to a more stable β form is unfavourable because it results in deterioration of the end product.

The bakery shortenings of the present invention has specifications that are comparable to the specifications of some commercial shortenings produced from triglycerides (which generally contains less than 6% of diacylglycerol), for example, JOMA™ shortening (as can be seen in Table 6 below). Although the physical properties of the shortenings of the present invention are comparable to those of the commercial shortenings, the compositions of the shortenings in the present invention are different from that of the commercial shortenings. The shortenings of the present invention are enriched with diacylglycerol, containing about 40% or more of diacylglycerol. The palm diacylglycerol oiein and palm stearin shortening contains about 30% or more of diacylglycerol. The bakery shortenings of the present invention have health-enhancing properties for baked food products with enhanced physical functionality, due to the presence of a higher content of diacylglycerol in the bakery shortenings. Also, the bakery shortenings of the present invention do not require any emulsifiers to be added. They also do not need to be hydrogenated and are free from harmful effect of tans-fatty acid, as described hereinabove.

The following examples are provided to further illustrate and describe particular embodiments of the present invention, and are in no way to be construed to limit the invention to the specific procedures, conditions or compositions described therein.

EXAMPLES

Preparation of formulations containing palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin Four different sets of blending formulations between the stearin fraction of palm diacylglycerol with palm oil fractions and soft oils were prepared and tested. The stearin fraction of palm diacylglycerol, which is also referred to as the main hardstock of vegetable fats and oils blends, is obtained from fractionation process using LABMAX ® device (automatic lab reactor) to crystallize the fraction. The crystallized fraction was then pressed using a hydraulic press filter to separate the solid fraction (palm diacylglycerol stearin) from the liquid fraction (palm diacylglycerol olein).

The following four formulations were prepared and tested:

- palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm mid-fraction (PMF); - palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO);

- palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm olein (POL); and

- palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and sunflower oil (SFO). It is reported that about 40% of diacylglycerol is preferably required in edible fat composition to achieve beneficial health effects. ( atsui, K. et al. , J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 3879-3884 (2001 )). In the present examples, the four blends of palm diacylglycerol stearin with the various palm oil fraction and soft oil were prepared with palm diacylglycerol stearin present in an amount ranging from 40% to 90% by weight relative to the total weight of the shortening prepared. in these tests, a simple process was carried out at different cooling temperatures to blend the four formulations. Each formulation was continuously stirred until it reached complete crystallization, which varies according to the hardness desired in the end product. The prepared shortening was then tempered for 1 to 10 days at a temperature higher than the cooling and plasticizing temperatures of the prepared shortening.

The four formulations were analyzed and readings such as the solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), fatty acid composition (FAC) and x-ray differential (XRD) were taken. Solid fat content (SFC) is defined as the percentage of the total lipid which is solid at a particular temperature that influences many of its sensory and physical properties. It is measured according to MPOB test method p4.8: 2004, "Determination of Solid Fat Content by Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR) Section 1 : Direct Method". The oil sample was analyzed using a Bruker Minispec pulsed-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR) Analyzer Model No. 120 (Hamburg German). This test was carried out based on the methods taught in IS08292. 991 (E), "Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils", and AOCS Official Methods Cd 16b-93, "Solid Fat Content at Low Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance". The percentage of the solid fat content of each fraction is measured as a function of temperatures.

The slip melting point (SMP) is the temperature at which a column of fat of specified length starts to rise in an open capillary tube. It is determined in accordance with the MPOB test method p4.2: 2004. Particularly, three clean capillary tubes (75 mm / 75 μΙ with d.a 1.5 - 1.6 mm, (Hirschmann Laborgerate, Germany)) were dip into a liquid sample and chilled with ice crystal until the liquid sample solidified. Thereafter, the capillary tubes were transferred into a small beaker and placed into a water bath .at 10°C for 16 hours. When taking the measurements, the capillary tubes were attached to the bottom of a thermometer with a rubber band. The thermometer was then suspended into the beaker that contains 500 ml of distilled water. The distilled water was heated on a hot plate operated with magnetic stirrer. Readings of temperatures were taken when the sample started to melt and increase in its level in the capillary tube. Fatty acid composition (FAC) is determined as methyl ester (FAME), of palm and palm oil products obtained in accordance with the method specified in MPOB p3.4 Part 1 to Part 4: "Determination of Fatty Acid Composition (FAC) as t-Methyl ester", by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography. The gas chromatograph (Clarus500, Perkin Elmer) used in the tests is equipped with a flame-ionisation detector and a fused silica capillary column (Supelco) which has a length of 30m and an internal diameter of 250 pm, to obtain individual peaks of FAME. The FAME peaks are identified by comparing their retention time with those of standards. Percent relative fatty acid is calculated based on the peak area of a fatty acid species to the total peak area of all the fatty acids in the oil sample.

XRD analysis was conducted to study the polymorphs of the binary mixtures on whether the binary mixtures crystallized in α, β, or β' form. The polymorphic forms of the fat crystals were determined with an FR592 Enraf-Nonius Diffractis X-ray generator (Delft, The Netherlands) and an Enraf-Nonius model FR 552 Guinier camera equipped with a customized single-compartment cell with the temperature controlled by an external- circulating thermostated bath. Melted oil (333 K) was placed in the cell, which was set at the Tc. Samples were held isotherma!ly until all the polymorphic phases were fully observed. Kodak (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) diagnostic film with direct exposure (cat. no. 155 8162) was used, and the diffracted line spacing on the X-ray film were measured with an Enraf-Nonius Guinier Viewer Camera capable of taking reading to the nearest 0.001 nm under illuminated magnification.

Example 1: Palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin / Palm-mid fraction (P F)

This example illustrates an embodiment of a bakery shortening in accordance with the present invention, wherein the bakery shortening comprises palm diacylglycerol stearin and palm mid-fraction prepared using the process described above. The readings for the shortening comprising different amounts of palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm mid-fraction (PMF) were taken and as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 : Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG stearin and PMF

Blending A B C D E F

PDAG stearin 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% PMF 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

SMP (°C) 50.60 51.73 52.80 53.80 54.67 55.07

SFC (%):

10°C 72.47 72.35 73,52 74.55 74.62 73.7

20°C 42.54 44.07 46.87 50.25 53.36 56.90

25 0 28.59 31.53 35.44 40.2 44.43 48.02

30°C 19.65 22.81 26.56 31.22 35.82 39.69

35°C 14.39 17.41 20.61 24.89 28.60 32

40°C 10.0 12.76 15.27 19.08 22.34 25.04

FAC (%):

C16 58.31 57.93 58.41 58.89 59.82 60.66

C18 5.34 5.43 5.4 5.45 5.39 5.35

C18-1 29.77 29.88 29.16 28.45 27.34 26.33

C18-2 4.84 4.97 5.16 5.37 5.53 5.69

C18-3 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.14

Others 1.64 1.68 1.75 1.71 1.79 1.83

Polymorphic

β' + β β' + β β β β β

Forms

PDAG stearin has high composition of palmitic acid and this contributes to a high SMP of 55.07°C; making it undesirable for food application. Meanwhile, hard PMF, Which is characterized by sharp melting point, has low SMP of 32.10°C. The blend of PDAG stearin and PMF has shown to slowly reduce the SMP of the binary mixture from about 55.07°C to 50.6°C (Table 1). It shows that the blend of PDAG stearin and PMF can reduce high SMP of PDAG stearin by up to 9%.

The blend of PDAG stearin and PMF can achieve the desired level of fats especially at body temperature of about 37°C in the binary mixtures of PDAG stearih and PMF. As can be seen from the results in Table 1 , the blends containing 0% to 60% of PMF with PDAG stearin show a decrease in SFC profile from about 48% to 30% at 25°C, and from about 25% to 10% at 40°C respectively. The readings taken at 37°C (not shown) show a decrease in SFC profile from about 23% to 12.5%. All the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and PMF are completely liquid at 60°C.

For fatty acid composition (FAC), PDAG stearin generally contains higher amount of palmitic acid as compared to PMF. PMF that is produced from dry fractionation of palm olein generally contains a higher amount of oleic acid as compared to PDAG stearin. Blending PDAG stearin with PMF causes an increase in the amount of oleic acid and a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and linoleic acid present in the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and P F. The increase of oleic acid and the decrease of palmitic acid and linoleic acid in the binary mixtures are related to the changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and PMF.

In terms of polymorphs, both PDAG stearin and PMF are crystallized in β form. Only two binary mixtures, i.e. A and B as shown in Table 1 are crystallized in a mixtufe of β' + β polymorphs, at XPDAGSt = 0.4 and XPDAGSt = 0.5 (i.e. when PDAG stearin is present in an amount of 40% and 50% respectively).

Example 2: Palm Diacylglycerol (PDAG) Stearin / Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) The readings for the shortening comprising palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBDPO) were taken and as shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG stearin and RBDPO

Blending A B C D E F

PDAG stearin 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

RBDPO 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

SMP (°C) 50.2 52.95 53.2 51.2 51.53 51.98

SFC (%):

0°C 51.24 52.83 54.21 58.25 60.98 63.53

20°C 35.73 36.69 37.96 43.52 48.25 53.96

25°C 28.86 31.04 32.30 37.59 41.45 45.53

30°C 24.94 28.13 29.88 35.37 38.78 42.84

35°C 20.22 23.90 26.08 32.18 36.65 41.63

40°C 14.85 19.05 21.54 28.49 33.53 39.09

FAC (%):

C16 51.72 54.49 55.66 56.05 57.53 59.24

C18 4.79 4.86 4.92 4.94 5.10 5.21

C18-1 33.33 3 .09 30.13 29.83 28.57 27.18

C18-2 8.15 7.56 7.27 7.14 6.77 6.35

C18-3 0.2 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.15

Others 1.81 1.83 1.85 1.87 1.86 1.87 Forms

RBDPO with comparable amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids has SMP of about 38.8°C. PDAG stearin with high amount of palmitic acid contributes to a high SMP of about 59.40°C, making it undesirable for food application. Similar to PMF, the blends of 10% to 60% of RDBPO with PDAG stearin show a decrease in the SMP values of the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and RDBPO from about 51.98°C to about 50.2°C (Table 2).

Both RBDPO and PMF have different SFC profiles. Similar to PMF, the blends containing 10% to 60% of RBDPO with PDAG stearin show a decrease in SFC profile from about 45.53% to 28.86% at room temperature of 25°C, and from about 39.09% to 14.85% at 40°C respectively. The readings taken at 37°C (not shown) show a decrease in SFC profile from about 40.61% to 18.07%. All the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and RBDPO are completely liquid at 60°C except for binary mixtures at XPDAGSt = 0,7 to XPDAGSt = 0.9 (i.e. when PDAG stearin is present in an amount ranging from 70% to 90% respectively), which are completely liquid at above 60°C.

In terms of FAC, the saturated fatty acid composition in PMF is much higher than in RBDPO. The addition of RBDPO to DAG stearin has caused an increase in the amount of oleic acid, from 27.18% to 33.33% and a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid, from 59.24% to 51.72% present in the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and RBDPO (Table 2).

In terms of polymorphs, PDAG stearin crystallized in β polymorphs while RBDPO crystallized in β' + β form. Only one binary mixture of PDAG stearin and RBDPO crystallized in β' + β form, i.e. the binary mixture with XPDAGSt = 0.4 (i.e. mixture A as shown in Table 2, with PDAG stearin present in an amount of 40%). !t is suggested that the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and RBDPO comprising more than 40% of PDAG stearin has contributed to a hard shortening system.

Example 3: Palm Diacylglycerol (PDAG) Stearin / Palm Olein (POL)

The readings for the shortening comprising palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and palm olein (POL) were taken and as shown in Table 3. Table 3: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG stearin and POL

Blending A B C D E F

PDAG stearin 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

POL 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

SMP (°C) 53.30 53.80 56.80 57.50 58.50 59.00

SFC (%):

10°C 31.18 38.74 45.21 51.65 56.58 62.54

20°C 20.32 25.06 30.22 36.85 43.15 51.24

25°C 19.91 24.24 28.61 33.48 37.54 44.28

30°C 18.58 23.27 27.68 32.51 36.57 42.54

35°C 16.07 21.01 26.13 31.09 35.81 42.71

40°C 13.41 17.86 22.58 27.40 32.60 38.47

FAC (%):

C16 36.8 47.69 50.11 51.8 54.38 57.29

C18 3.89 4.72 4.91 5.08 6.6 5.47

C 8-1 45.35 36.53 34.56 33.17 30 28.73

C18-2 12 9.11 8.47 7.98 7.02 6.57

C18-3 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13

Others 1.75 1.77 1.79 1.82 1.86 1.81

Polymorphic

β β β β β β Forms

PDAG stearin has a high SMP of about 59.40°C while POL has a low SMP of about 14.40°C. Nevertheless, the blends of shortening comprising 10% to 60% of POL with PDAG stearin does not give much temperature reduction as expected with 9.66% reduction in the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and POL, from 59°C to 53.3°C.

PDAG stearin is a hard solid fat while POL appears completely liquid at room temperature. The blends containing 10% to 60% of POL with PDAG stearin have produced binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and POL with SFC profile ranging from about 44.28% to 19.91 % at room temperature of 25°C, and about 38.47% to about 13.41 % at 40°C respectively. The readings taken at 37°C (not shown) show a decrease in SFC profile from about 41 % to 15%. All the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and POL are completely liquid at 60°C except for binary mixtures at XPDAGSt = 0.8 to XPDAGSt =? 0.9 (i.e. when PDAG stearin is present in an amount ranging from 80% to 90% respectively).

PDAG stearin contains higher amount of palmitic acid as compared to oleic acid. Meanwhile, POL contains higher amount of oleic acid as compared to palmitic acid. It can be observed that all the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and POL have high amount of palmitic acid, followed by oleic acid and linoleic acid. The addition of POL to PDAG stearin has decreased the amount of palmitic acid by up to 5% and increased the amount of oleic acid by up to 10%. The ratios of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in the binary mixtures range from 1.2 to 2.0.

The polymorph of POL could not be detected as crystallization took place at very low melting point. All the binary mixtures comprising 40% to 90% of PDAG stearin with POL crystallized in β polymorphs. This indicates that the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and POL form hard shortening system. This may be due to the high SMP of the binary mixtures as compared to the other mixtures comprising PDAG stearin and PMF, and PDAG stearin and RBDPO.

Example 4: Palm Diacylglycerol (PDAG) Stearin / Sunflower Oil (SFO)

The readings for shortening comprising palm diacylglycerol (PDAG) stearin and sunflower oil (SFO) were taken and as shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG stearin and SFO

Blending A B C D E F

PDAG stearin 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

SFO 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

SMP (°C) 54.40 56.50 57.00 58.30 59.00 59.30

SFC (%):

10°C 23.32 30.26 37.01 44.45 52.14 59.92

20°C 19.08 24.27 30.05 36.81 43.70 50.89

25°C 18.70 23.57 28.06 32.75 37.85 43.67

30°C 17.53 22.66 26.45 32.10 36.85 42.09

35°C 14.87 20.03 25.14 30.86 35.99 41.27

40°C 13.49 18.01 22.87 26.87 32.44 38.78

FAC (%):

C16 31.48 36.26 41 .52 46.32 51 .51 56.71

C18 4.52 4.73 4.98 5.16 5.4 5.63

C18-1 25.27 25.22 25.1 25.09 25.04 24.97

C18-2 36.64 31.7 25.95 21.33 15.92 10.56

CI 8-3 0.2 0. 18 0. 17 0. 15 0. 14 0. 12

Others 1.93 1.91 2.28 1 .95 1.99 2.01 Forms

The SMP of PDAG stearin is high for shortening. Similar to POL, the blends comprising 10% to 60% of SFO with PDAG stearin do not give much temperature reduction as expected with 8.26% reduction in the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO, from 59.30°C (10% SFO) to 54.40°C (60% SFO).

In terms of fats content, the results show that the SFC profile of the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO is almost similar to the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and POL. The blends containing 10% to 60% of SFO with PDAG stearin have produced binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO with SFC profile ranging from about 43.67% to about 18.7% at room temperature of 25°C, and about 38.78% to 13.49% at 40°C respectively. The readings taken at 37°C (not shown) show a decrease in SFC profile from about 40.27% to 14.32%. All the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO are completely liquid at 60°C except for binary mixtures of XPDAGSt = 0.7 to XPDAGSt = 0.9 (i.e. when PDAG stearin is present in an amount ranging from 70% to 90%).

The dominant fatty acid in PDAG stearin is palmitic acid, followed by oleic acid and stearic acid. Meanwhile, the dominant fatty acid in SFO is linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic. The binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO as listed in Table 4 show some diversity as compared to their pure components. The blends of SFO with PDAG stearin have drastically decreased the amount of palmitic acid by up to 13% and increased the amount of linoleic acid by up to 50%. The ratios of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid in the binary mixtures range from 0.2 to 2.4. Similar to POL as discussed hereinabove, the polymorph of SFO also could not be detected as crystallization took place at very low melting point. It can be seen that the binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO crystallized in β' + β polymorphs at XPDAGSt = 0.4 and XPDAGSt = 0.5 (i.e. when PDAG stearin is present in an amount of 40% and 50% respectively). Other binary mixtures of PDAG stearin and SFO crystallized in β polymorphs at XPDAGSt = 0.6 to XPDAGSt = 0.9 (i.e. when PDAG stearin is present in an amount of from 60% to 90% respectively), which are similar to PDAG stearin crystallization behaviour.

Example 5: Comparison with commercial shortening The overall behaviour of the 4 types of shortenings is summarised in the following Table 5, together with readings taken for the commercial shortening:

Table 5: Overall summary, comparing the 4 types of shortening with commercial shortening

The amount of solids present in the shortening depends on its functionality at working temperature of 25°C and body temperature of 37°C. At body temperature, the amount of solids must not be too high so as to maintain the organoietic properties of the shortening. For optimum baking performance, the bakery shortening should have a minimum of about 20% of solid fat content (SFC) at working temperature (25°C) and also a minimum of about 5% of SFC at high temperature (of about 40°C). From the above results, it can be seen that the combination of PDAG stearin and PMF shows the best results amongst the four blends because it can achieve almost similar percentage of solid fat at 35°C and close SFC profile with the commercial shortening.

With regard to the other blends, it can be seen that PDAG stearin and RBDPO has slow melting profile with SFC at high value even at temperature above 30°C. Meanwhile, the blends of PDAG stearin and POL, and PDAG stearin and SFO have very low fat content at lower SFC temperature (see figure 4). This profile is totally different from the SFC profile of the commercial shortening. Even though the saturated fatty acid in the PDAG stearin and PMF blend is higher as compared to the other blends, the right blending combination in the PDAG stearin and PMF blend is able to obtain the desired polymorphic behaviour of β' + β. This selected blending system has high degree of structural complementary where the iso-solid lines are closed to each neighbouring lines and this makes the blend fully miscible in the binary system. Accordingly, the best combination is a shortening comprising PDAG stearin and

PMF, preferably with a blend composition of 40:60 or 50:50 of PDAG stearin to PMF. Besides the SFC, the other important parameter to look into is the polymorphic behaviour analysed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). This blend can solidify in more than one crystal form. Both PDAG stearin and PMF can crystallized in β' + β polymorphic form.

It can be seen from Table 6 that the shortenings comprising PDAG stearin and PMF have specifications comparable to that of the commercial shortening, and hence, they can be used as an alternative choice to the commercial shortening. Table 6: Comparison of shortening comprising PDAG stearin and PMF with commercial shortening

Others 0.67 1.64 1.68

Polymorphic Forms β' + β β' + β β' + β

Preparation of formulations containing palm diacylglyceroi (PDAG) oleins According to Matsui et a!., J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:3879-3884 (2001 ), 40% of diacylglyceroi is preferably required in edible fat composition to achieve beneficial health effects. Blends of palm stearin with palm diacylglyceroi (PDAG) oleins of various iodine values were prepared at compositions ranging from 30% to 90% of palm diacylglyceroi (PDAG) oleins. Four analyses were conducted on the various blends, which include solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), fatty acid composition (FAC) and x-ray differential (XRD) analysis.

Example 6: Palm Diacylglyceroi (PDAG) Olein IV56 / Palm Stearin (PS) Table 7 shows the SMP, SFC and FAC of palm diacylglyceroi (PDAG) olein with an iodine value (IV) of 56, palm stearin (PS), and binary mixture of palm diacylglyceroi (PDAG) olein IV56 and palm stearin (PS).

PDAG olein IV56 has a higher SMP of 33.3°C as compared to a normal palm olein IV56 which has a maximum SMP of about 24°C. This may be due to less amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the PDAG olein and the nature of the oil itself which is formed when two fatty acids esterified onto a glycerol molecule instead of three fatty acids in triglycerides oil. However, the PDAG olein IV56 itself can be considered soft for bakery shortening. Palm stearin (PS), which contains higher saturated fatty acid than unsaturated fatty acid, has a high SMP of 50°C. The addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV56 has shown an increased in the SMP of the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS, from 38.3°C to 43.5°C (see Table 7). These S Ps of the binary mixtures fall within the desired range of SMP for bakery shortening. A suitable range of SMP for bakery shortening based on Joma Margarine is between 3|6°C and 51 °C. Preferably, the SMP of bakery shortening is between 40°C and 44°C.

The SFC of PDAG olein IV56, palm stearin (PS) and the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS were determined using NMR method. The PDAG olein IV56 has a SFC of approximately 10.72% at room temperature (25°C), 3.37% at body temperature (37°C) and completely liquid at 50°C. Meanwhile, the palm stearin (PS) obtained from dry fractionation of palm oil has a high SFC content of approximately 50.2% at room temperature (25°C), 19.8% at body temperature (37°C) and completely liquid at 55°C. The addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV56 has shown an increase in the SFC of the binary mixture of PDAG olein (V56 and PS, from about 16% to 30.36% at room temperature (25°C) (see Table 7) and from 6.7% to 14% at body temperature (37°C) (not shown). It can be seen that the addition of PS into the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS has slowly improved the solid fat content of the binary mixture to a desired level to be suitable for bakery shortening. Table 7: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG olein IV56 and S

Blending A B C D E

PDAG Olein

30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

IV 56

PS 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

SMP (°C) 43.5 43.3 41 40.4 38.3

SFC (%):

10°C 64.03 61.1 58.6 58 50.8

20°C 45.09 39.86 35.63 35 30.87

25°C 30.36 25.3 21.51 20.96 15.99

30°C 22.21 18.66 15.85 15.43 11.15

35°C 14.09 12 9.98 9.81 6.71

40°C 7.97 6.41 4.95 4.73 1.18

FAC (%):

C16 50.50 48.37 46.43 44.50 42.14

C18 4.46 4.36 4.19 4.03 3.81

C18-1 35.60 37.49 39.10 40.86 42.87

C 8-2 7.44 7.80 8.22 8.54 8.99

C 8-3 0.23 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.27

Others 1.77 1.73 1.81 1.8 1.92

In terms of FAC, PDAG olein IV56 has high composition of oleic acid (47.58% C18-1 ) followed by palmitic acid (36.78% C16). Meanwhile, palm stearin (PS) has high composition of palmitic acid (55.49% C16) followed by oleic acid (30.94% C18-1). Increasing the amount of palm stearin (PS) in the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS has resulted in an increase in the saturated fatty acid and a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid in the binary mixture to a desired level of oils and fats in the shortening formulation. The desired level should be close to the control, Joma shortening, which has about 50.35% of C16 (palmitic acid) and 36.27% of C18-1 (oleic acid). The changes of FAC in the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS may be associated to the changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of the binary mixture.

Example 7: Palm Diacylglycerol (PDAG) Olein IV62 / Palm Stearin (PS)

PDAG olein with an iodine value (IV) of 62 with high composition of oleic acid has a low S P of 22.1°C and this makes the PDAG olein IV62 softer than PDAG olein IV56. Palm stearin (PS) that contains higher saturated fatty acid than unsaturated fatty acid has a high SMP of 51 °C. From Table 8, it can be seen that the addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV62 has resulted in an increase in the SMP of the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV62 and PS, from 30.9°C to 44°C (see Table 8). This range of SMP of the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV62 and PS makes the binary mixture more practicable to be applied to bakery shortening.

PDAG olein IV62 has a SFC of approximately 5.26% at room temperature (25°C) and it is completely liquid at body temperature (37°C). Meanwhile, palm stearin (PS) has a high SFC content of approximately 52% at room temperature (25°C), about 20% at body temperature (37°C) and completely liquid at 55°C. It can be seen in Table 8 that the addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV62 has resulted in an increase in the SFC of the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV62 and PS, from 12.58% to 31.13% at room temperature (25°C) and from 3.2% to 11% at body temperature (37°C) (not shown). This improves the amount of SFC in the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV62 and PS, making the binary mixture suitable for use as a bakery shortening.

Table 8: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG Olein IV62 and PS

Blending A B C D

PDAG Olein

30% 40% 50% 60% 70% IV 62

PS 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

SMP (°C) 44 43.1 42.5 40.5 30.9

SFC (%):

10°C 64.2 60.58 56.24 51.99 47.65

20°C 42.71 36.47 31.24 27, 13 23.25

25°C 31.13 25.32 20.38 15.94 12.58 30°C 19.98 16.19 12.84 9.84 7.19

35°C 13.68 1.22 8.77 6.58 4.69

40°C 7 5.1 3.65 2.01 1.02

FAC (%):

C16 48.47 46.13 43.68 41.37 38.75

C18 4.3 4.08 3.86 3.64 3.38

C18-1 36.96 39.07 41.17 43.26 45.38

C18-2 8.08 8.59 9.09 9.53 10.18

C18-3 0.25 0.25 0.28 0.3 0.3

Others 1.94 1.88 1.92 1 9 2.01

In terms of FAC, PDAG olein IV62 has higher composition of oleic acid (51.36% C18-1) and lower composition of palmitic acid (31.98 % C 6) as compared to PDAG olein IV56 (47.58% C18-1, 36.78% C16). Meanwhile, palm stearin (PS) has high composition of palmitic acid (55.69% C16) followed by oleic acid (30.78% C 8-1 ). Although PDAG olein IV62 has more unsaturated fatty acid and less saturated fatty acid, the addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV62 did not result in much difference in the amount of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid present in the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV62 and PS, as compared to the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS.

Example 8: Palm Diacylglycerol (PDAG) Olein IV64 / Palm Stearin (PS) PDAG olein with an iodine value (IV) of 64 has a higher percentage of oleic acid as compared to PDAG olein IV56 and PDAG olein IV62. It has a SMP of 24.9°C. Palm stearin (PS) that contains higher saturated fatty acid than unsaturated fatty acid has a high SMP of 51°C. Adding 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV64 has resulted in an increase in the SMP of the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV64 and PS, from 27.5°C to 45.3°C (see Table 9).

PDAG olein IV64 has a SFC of approximately 6.41 % at room temperature (25°C). Similar to PDAG olein IV62, it is completely liquid at body temperature (37°C). Meanwhile, palm stearin (PS) has a high SFC content of approximately 52% at room temperature (25°C), about 20% at body temperature (37°C) and completely liquid at 55°C. From Table 9, it can be seen that the addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein 1V64 has resulted in an increase in the SFC of the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV64 and PS, from 12.46% to 30.51 % at room temperature (25°C) and from 2.43% to 9.83% at body temperature (37°C) (not shown). Similar to the previous blending systems, the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV64 and PS has improved the suitability of PDAG olein IV64 to be used as a bakery shortening. Table 9: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG Olein IV64 and

PS

Blending A B C D E

PDAG Olein

30% 40% 50% 60% 70% IV 64

PS 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

SMP (°C) 45.3 42.9 41.9 41.4 27.5

SFC (%):

10°C 64.51 61.26 56.18 51.69 48.27

20°C 43.76 37.86 31.58 27.59 24.89

25°C 30.51 25.09 19.49 15.22 12.46

30°C 20.81 16.88 13.01 9.96 7.53

35°C 1 1.74 9.39 8.67 5.64 3.47

40°C 6.97 5.37 3.8 1.98 0.88

FAC (%):

C16 47.35 44.45 38.55 36.3 37.07

C18 4.17 3.9 3.63 3.24 3.26

C18-1 38.45 40.6 45.85 47.05 47.98

C18-2 8.47 8.83 10.05 10.54 10.37

C18-3 0.26 0.29 0.35 0.34 0.33

Others 1.3 1.93 1.57 2.53 0.99

In terms of FAC, PDAG olein IV64 has 52.91 % oleic acid (C 8-1) and 30.49% palmitic acid (C16). Similar to the FAC results discussed in the previous binary mixtures, palm stearin (PS) has high palmitic acid (55.69% C16) content followed by oleic acid (30.78% C18-1). The addition of 30% to 70% of palm stearin (PS) to PDAG olein IV64 has showed an increase in the amount of saturated fatty acid and a decrease in the amount of unsaturated fatty acid present in the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV64 and PS, similar to the observation made with respect to the binary mixture of PDAG olein IV56 and PS as shown in Example 6.

Example 9: Selected blending formulations for Palm Diacy!glycerol (PDAG) Olein based bakery shortening Table 10 shows the physicochemica! properties of five different PDAG shortening formulations (40DAGOL56, 40DAGOL62, 50DAGOL62, 40DAGOL64 & 50DAGOL64); commercial Joma (CS) shortening and palm diacylglycerol (PDG) shortening developed by Cheong Ling Zhi (2010), "Baking performance of palm diacylglycerol bakery fats and sensory evaluation of baked products", Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. (2010), WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. CS shortening was used as a standard reference to develop the PDAG shortening by comparing the shortening properties in terms of slip melting point (S P), solid fat content (SFC), fatty acid composition (FAC) and polymorphs. Meanwhile, the PDG shortening developed by Ling Zhi was used as a guideline as it is produced from palm-based diacylglycerol (DAG).

The five different PDAG shortenings comprise PDAG olein and palm stearin (PS) in the following amounts: - Shortening F (40DAGOL56): comprises 40% PDAG olein IV 56 and 60% PS;

Shortening G (40DAGOL62): comprises 40% PDAG oiein IV 62 and 60% PS; Shortening H (50DAGOL62): comprises 50% PDAG olein IV 62 and 50% PS; Shortening I (40DAGOL64): comprises 40% PDAG olein IV 64 and 60% PS; and

- Shortening J (50DAGOL64): comprises 50% PDAG olein IV 64 and 50% PS.

It can be observed that all five PDAG shortenings developed from the combination of PDAG oleins and palm stearin (PS) have SMP in the range of 42°C to 43°C, which is lower than the CS shortening (SMP 46.87°C) but slight)]/ higher than the PDG shortening (SMP 41 .5°C). All the formulated PDAG bakery shortenings have lower saturated fatty acid between 42% and 53% as compared to the CS shortening which has about 54.95% of lower saturated fatty acid. However, in terms of polymorphs, 50DAGOL62 showed less favourable crystal formation because it crystallized in β form only as compared to the other PDAG shortenings which crystallized in β' + β form; similar to CS shortening and PDAG shortening.

Table 10: Physicochemical characteristic of shortening comprising PDAG shortenings of the present invention and control shortenings

Analysis C1 C2 F G H I J

Commercial

PDG

Joma 40DAGOL56 40DAGOL62 50DAGOL62 40DAGOL64 50DAGOL64 shortening

shortening SMP 46.87 41.5 43.3 43.1 42.5 42.9 41.9

SFC (%):

10"C 73.67 52 61.1 60.58 56.24 56.28 56.18

20°C 49.8 30 39.86 36.47 31.24 35.53 31.58

30°C 23.48 18 18.66 16.19 12.84 16.97 13.01

35°C 14.23 12 12 11.22 8.77 11.59 8.67

40°C 7.97 7 6.41 5.1 3.65 6.63 3.8

FAC (%)'.

C16 50.35 46.28 48.37 46.13 43.68 44.45 38.5

C18 4.57 4.07 4.36 4.08 3.86 3.9 3.63

C18-1 36.27 38.29 37.49 39.07 41.17 40.6 45.8

C18-2 7.68 9.76 7.8 8.59 9.09 8.83 10.05

XRD: β' + β β' + β β' + β β' + β β β' + β β' + β

Figure 5 shows the SFC curve of the PDAG shortenings (40DAGOL56, 40DAGOL62, 5QDAGOL62, 40DAGOL64 & 50DAGOL64), CS shortening and PDG shortening determined by NMR method. It can be seem that the SFC profile of all PDAG shortenings were between the SFC profile of the CS shortening and the PDG shortening.

Example 10: Baking performance of Madeira Cakes prepared from PDAG shortenings and commercial Joma shortening The recipe for Madeira cake was shown in Table 1 1. Firstly, dry ingredients including all-purpose flour, self-rising flour, sugar and salt were mixed until a homogenous dispersion of the ingredients was formed. Following that, the shortening and sugar were creamed together until pale and soft for about 10-15 minutes. Eggs were added and beat well between each addition together with flavouring. The dry ingredients were slowly mixed into the mixture at minimum speed for 3 minutes. Finally, the batter of about 400 g each was placed into two round cake baking tins (140 mm id) which were lined with grease roof papers. The batter was baked in oven at 160°C for about 1 hour. Rapeseed displacement method was used to measure the weight and volume of the cakes once they were sufficiently cooled. The specific volumes of the cakes were then measured.

Table 1 1 : Recipe for Madeira Cake

Egg 3 whole

Castor sugar 175g

Salt a pinch of salt

Flavour 1 ml

Table 12 shows the specific volume of Madeira cakes prepared from commercial Joma (CS) shortening and PDAG shortenings F to J mentioned in Example 9, while Table 13 shows the percentage of specific volume of the Madeira cakes prepared from PDAG shortenings F to J as compared to CS shortening. It can be seen that all PDAG shortenings F to J gave better baking performance than CS shortening (see Figure 6). These results show that PDAG shortenings formulated from palm-based DAG oleins are suitable for baking cake. Customer acceptance test was conducted and the results showed that Madeira cake prepared from PDAG shortening F scored the highest rating in terms of colour, texture, aroma, test and overall acceptability (see Table 14)

Table 12: Specific volume of Madeira cakes prepared from CS shortening and PDAG shortenings

Table 13: The percentage of specific volume of Madeira cakes prepared from PDAG shortenings as compared to commercial shortening (CS)

Table 14: Sensory Evaluation of Madeira cake prepared from Commercial Shortening and PDAG Shortenings based on customer acceptance test PDAG Shortening F 6.1 6.5 7.1 6.3 6.6

PDAG Shortening G 5.5 6.1 6.5 5.5 5.7

PDAG Shortening H 5.9 5.5 6.3 5.8 5.5

PDAG Shortening 1 5.8 6.1 6.3 5.7 5.6

PDAG Shortening J 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.5

Example 11 : Baking performance of biscuit prepared from PDAG shortenings and commercial shortening

The recipe for biscuit is as shown in Table 5. Firstly, the shortening was beaten with icing sugar for 3 to 5 minutes until the mixture became pale and soft. Egg was added into the mixture, followed by vanilla flavouring. Dry ingredients, including salt and flour were added and mixed together until biscuit dough was formed. The molded biscuit was then baked in an oven at 180°C for 20 minutes. After the biscuit was baked and sufficiently cooled, the width and thickness of the biscuit were measured and recorded. The baking performance of the biscuit was determined by calculating the value of biscuit spread (the ratio of biscuit width and biscuit thickness).

Table 15: Recipe for Biscuit

Table 16 shows the mean biscuit spread of the biscuits prepared from CS shortening and three PDAG shortenings, F, I and J formulated from PDAG oleins, with composition as defined in Example 9. The results show that the biscuit prepared from PDAG shortening F has the highest mean biscuit spread of 2.89, followed by CS shortening with 2.73. Nevertheless, there was not much difference in the readings between the mean biscuit spread prepared from CS shortening and PDAG shortenings, except for PDAG shortening J. As reported by Sikorski, D, In: Katsugi, Y. et a!., AOCS Press: Champaign, Illinois, pp. 223:252 (2004), a reduction of biscuit spread was due to the diacylgiyceroi being able to enhance gluten development which lead to a reduction in biscuit spread. Overall, the biscuit prepared from PDAG shortenings was acceptable in terms of snap types and crispiness, especially for PDAG shortening F. The baking performances of all biscuits are as shown in Figure 7.

Table 16: Mean biscuit spread of CS shortening and PDAG shortenings

The above is a description of the subject matter the inventors regard as the invention and is believed that others can and will design alternative systems that include this invention based on the above disclosure.

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