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Title:
BARRIER CONSTRUCTION, JOINING AND ORIENTATION SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/021290
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A safety barrier having at least two end supports (12) and barrier panels (22) extending there between, said barrier being characterised by colour coding to indicate the orientation of the barrier. The end supports and/or opposed barrier panels can be of colours which are different to each other. The end supports can include complementarily shaped interfaces so that like barriers can connect to each other when the different coloured ends are adjacent to each other.

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Inventors:
RAFFERTY, John (38 Hugh Avenue, Peakhurst, NSW 2210, AU)
WALLACE, Hayden (19 Fourth Avenue, Loftus, NSW 2232, AU)
COLQUHOUN, Terry (Ingal Civil Products, 57-65 Airds RoadMinto, NSW 2566, AU)
Application Number:
AU2008/001183
Publication Date:
February 19, 2009
Filing Date:
August 15, 2008
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INDUSTRIAL GALVANIZERS CORPORATION PTY LTD (Ingal Civil Products, 57-65 Airds RoadMinto, NSW 2566, AU)
RAFFERTY, John (38 Hugh Avenue, Peakhurst, NSW 2210, AU)
WALLACE, Hayden (19 Fourth Avenue, Loftus, NSW 2232, AU)
COLQUHOUN, Terry (Ingal Civil Products, 57-65 Airds RoadMinto, NSW 2566, AU)
International Classes:
E01F15/10; E01F15/04; E01F15/08
Foreign References:
DE202007015641U12008-02-21
FR2867492A12005-09-16
FR2849875A12004-07-16
FR2619400A11989-02-17
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CONRICK, Patrick, Michael et al. (Halford & Co, 1 Market StreetSydney, NSW 2000, AU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A safety barrier having at least two end supports and barrier panels extending there between, said barrier being characterised by orientation indicia to indicate the orientation of the barrier.

2. A safety barrier as claimed in claim 1, said end supports and/or opposed barrier panels being of colours which are different to each other.

3. A safety barrier as claimed in claim 2, wherein the end supports include complementarily shaped interfaces so that like barriers can connect to each other when the different coloured ends are adjacent to each other.

4. A safety barrier as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein respective end supports are adapted to be connected to an end of an adjacent barrier.

5. A safety barrier as claimed in any one of claims 2 or 3, wherein said different colours are one or more of the following: contrasting colours; bright colours; white and red; yellow and red; yellow and orange.

6. A safety barrier as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein said end supports are manufactured from metal or polymeric material or a composite material or from a combination of these materials.

7. A polymeric safety barrier support having mounting formations adapted to secure a barrier panel to said support, said mounting formations including lobes to engage respective internal surfaces of lobes of said barrier panel, said lobes of said support having an external wall defining the outside surface thereof, said support being characterized by the external walls of adjacent lobes crossing over or intersecting and extending to a termination.

8. A support as claimed in claim 7, wherein said external walls of adjacent lobes terminate with a buttress formation.

9. A support as claimed in claim 7 or 8, wherein said support has a longitudinally extending support member.

10. A support as claimed in claim 9, wherein said support member is a side panel with connection formations on one side thereof to connect to a complementary barrier support and said mounting formations on another side thereof extending away from said side member.

11. A support as claimed in claim 7 wherein said support member is located centrally of said support and said mounting formations are located on either side of said support panel and extend in opposite directions away from said support member

12. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 11, wherein a lower buttress formation on one lobe crosses over with an upper buttress formation on a lower adjacent lobe.

13. A support as claimed in any one of claims 9 to 12, wherein a series of longitudinal and lateral ribs are present on a side of said support member having said mounting formations.

14. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 13 wherein said support includes shaped apertures, which are preferably obround, to receive complementarily shaped shanks on bolts used to secure said barrier panels to said supports.

15. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 13, wherein said support includes polymeric spigots, attached to or integrally formed with said support to allow said barrier panels to be secured to said supports by forming a head on said spigot to rivet said panel to said support.

16. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 15, wherein said support is manufactured from any appropriate polymeric material such as glass filled nylon.

17. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 16 wherein said support includes an aperture to function as a lifting point for lifting said support or a barrier in which said support is assembled.

18. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 17 wherein said support includes a longitudinal recess or aperture to allow a post or pole to be secured to said support.

19. A support as claimed in claim 18 further including a platform to support the base of said post or said pole.

20. A support as claimed in claim 18 or 19 wherein said support includes apertures on either side of a central axis to receive U-bolt shanks to secure said post or pole to said support.

21. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 20, wherein said support has a base which includes laterally extending ribs to provide friction contact with a ground surface.

22. A support as claim in any one of claim 7 to 21 , wherein the upper and lower surfaces of said support allow supports of like construction to be nested one on top of the other.

23. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 22 wherein an outwardly directed face of said support includes a vertically directed channel portion in which are located a series of tongues to allow the interconnection of one support when mounted on one end of a barrier to be secured by a pin with another support mounted on an adjacent barrier, which has mating tongues and a vertical channel.

24. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 23 wherein said support includes a flange around a periphery thereof so as to lie adjacent to the end of a barrier panel which will be secured thereto, said flange being of a height equal to or greater than the thickness of said barrier panel.

25. A support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 24, wherein a buttress formation extending from an external wall of a lobe on one side of said support terminates at the mounting formation side of said support with a buttress formation extending from an external wall of an opposite lobe on the other side of said support.

26. A support as claimed in claim 25, wherein said wall tapers in the vicinity of said cross over from a first dimension to a smaller second dimension measured furthest away from said cross over.

27. A support as claimed in any one of claims 25 or 26, wherein said buttress extends away from said cross over maintaining its cross section to a terminus.

28. A support as claimed in any one of the claims 7 to 27, wherein upper and lower walls of opposed lobes, which lobes are at the same height on said support, are such that the walls have the tail ends of their respective buttresses converging to a common terminus.

29. A support as claimed in claim 28, wherein said common terminus is located on a central axis of said support.

30. A barrier including a support as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 29 at either end of said barrier, with barrier rails extending between said supports and secured thereto.

31. A barrier as claimed in claim 30, wherein the supports at either extremity of said barrier are of different colours.

32. A barrier as claimed as claimed in any one of claims 30 or 31, wherein said barrier can have a pole or post secured to it.

33. A barrier as claimed in claim 32 wherein said pole or post can be used for one or more of the following: to hold an anti-gawking screen; to secure a like barrier on top of a lower barrier; to secure a barrier to the ground wherein the pole or post is first driven into the ground.

34. A pin system for joining work zone barriers said system comprising a combination of pins and or pin lengths with different lengths or classes of pins being coloured different from each other.

35. A pin system for joining work zone barriers, said system including a pin which is of a length to engage the ground so as to be inserted therein and to terminate at the top of a work zone barrier, to thereby secure the pin connection with the ground.

36. A pin system as claimed in claim 35 wherein other pins which do not engage the ground are utilised.

37. A pin system as claimed in claim 36, wherein pins of a length to engage the ground are of a different colour to pins which do not engage the ground.

38. A pin system for joining work zone barriers, said system comprising a pin and a stake, said pin to engage adjacent work zone barrier ends to thereby pin them together, with said stake being inserted into the ground, and means for said pin to engage said stake.

39. A pin system as claimed in claim 38 wherein said means for said pin to engage said stake comprises said pin including at least a hollow end to receive therein a portion of said stake which protrudes from a ground location, when said pin is located in said barrier ends.

40. A pin system as claimed in claim 38 wherein said means for said pin to engage said stake comprises said stake including at least a hollow end to protrude from a ground location to receive therein a portion of said pin when said pin is located in said barrier ends.

41. A barrier panel for a safety barrier, the panel including a first elongate rail with one or more longitudinal corrugations or channels and one or more stiffening panels attached to the rail and covering at least a portion of the length of at least one of the corrugations or channels.

42. A barrier panel as claimed in claim 41, including an outboard or outward-facing stiffening panel.

43. A barrier panel as claimed in claim 41 or 42, including an inboard or inward-facing stiffening panel.

44. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 43, wherein a stiffening panel spans all the formations having said outboard crests.

45. A barrier panel as claimed in claim any one of claims 41 to 43, wherein a stiffening panel spans any two formations having said outboard crests, be they adjacent or separated by one or more other outboard crests.

46. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 45, wherein the barrier has two inboard free legs and wherein a stiffening panel spans the two free legs.

47. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 45, wherein the barrier has two inboard free legs and at least two intermediate inboard crests, and wherein a stiffening panel spans at least two formations having said inboard crests.

48. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 45, wherein the barrier has at least one inboard crest and two inboard free legs, and wherein a stiffening panel spans the one free leg and at least one formation having said at least one inboard crest.

49. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 44 to 48, wherein stiffening panels span said formations having said inboard or said outboard crests by one or more of the following: spanning from crest to crest; spanning from a crest to a location which is displaced from a crest on another formation; spanning a location which is displaced from a crest to another location displaced from a crest on another formation.

50. A barrier panel as claimed in claim 41 having at least one outboard stiffening panel and at least inboard stiffening panel as respectively claimed in any one of claims 41 to 49.

51. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 50, including a joint reinforcing bar slidably mounted in a corrugation or channel of said rail.

52. A barrier panel as claimed in claim 51 , wherein the bar is captured by a stiffening panel or by said rail.

53. A barrier panel as claimed in claim 52, wherein the stiffening panel or rail which captures said bar includes a slot to enable the bar to be slid relative to said rail.

54. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 53, wherein said one or more stiffening panels is or are continuously or intermittently welded to the rail along two or more lines of contact between a respective panel and the rail.

55. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 54, wherein said at least one stiffening panel extends along a substantial length of at least one of the corrugations or channels.

56. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 54, wherein said at least one stiffening panel is a strap like member, with a series of such stiffening panels being used along the length of said rail.

57. A barrier panel as claimed in any one of claims 41 to 56, wherein said channels or corrugations include one or more of the following shapes in cross section: curved; square; trapezoidal; half round.

58. A barrier support including at least one connection flange including a connection pin hole, the flange including a reinforcing member moulded into the flange, the reinforcing member including a hole aligned with the connection pin hole.

59. A safety barrier support as claimed in claim 58 wherein each flange is supported by a gusset.

Description:

BARRIER CONSTRUCTION, JOINING AND ORIENTATION SYSTEM

Field of the invention

[001] The present invention works relates to work zone barriers which can be transported from one work zone location to another location and improvements in respect to the construction of such work zone barriers.

Background of the invention

[002] Work zone barriers consist of a few main types such as: hollow constructed plastic work zone barriers which can be filled with water to provide a suitable barrier when in use or which may be used without water for other barrier applications; and metal work zone barriers which, unlike the hollow plastic barriers, require no water due to their weight and anchoring; and concrete barriers which, unlike the hollow plastic barriers, require no water due to their weight

[003] Any reference herein to known prior art does not, unless the contrary indication appears, constitute an admission that such prior art is commonly known by those skilled in the art to which the invention relates, at the priority date of this application.

Summary of the invention

[004] The present invention provides a safety barrier having at least two end supports and barrier panels extending there between, said barrier including orientation indicia to indicate the orientation of the barrier.

[005] The orientation indicia can include colour coding of the ends or sides of the barriers, or directional arrows, and the like.

[006] The end supports can include complementarily shaped connection interfaces so that a like barrier can connect to each other when the different coloured ends are adjacent to each other.

[007] Respective end supports can be adapted to be connected to an end of an adjacent barrier.

[008] The different colours can be one or more of the following: contrasting colours; bright colours; white and red; yellow and red; yellow and orange.

[009] The end supports can be manufactured from metal or polymeric material or a composite material or from a combination of these materials.

[010] The present invention provides a polymeric safety barrier support having mounting formations adapted to secure a barrier panel to said support, said mounting formations including lobes to engage respective internal surfaces of lobes of said barrier panel, said lobes of said support having an external wall defining the outside surface thereof, said support being characterized by the external walls of adjacent lobes crossing over or intersecting and extending to a termination.

[011] The external walls of adjacent lobes can terminate with a buttress formation.

[012] The support can have a longitudinally extending support member.

[013] The support member can be a side panel with connection formations on one side thereof to connect to complementary formations on an adjacent barrier support and said mounting formations on another side thereof extending away from said side member.

[014] The support member can be located centrally of said support and said mounting formations are located on either side of said support panel and extend in opposite directions away form said support member

[015] A lower buttress formation on one lobe can cross over with an upper buttress formation on a lower adjacent lobe.

[016] A series of longitudinal and lateral ribs are present on the mounting formation side of said support member.

[017] The support can include shaped apertures, which are preferably obround, to receive complementarily shaped shanks on bolts used to secure said barrier panels to said supports.

[018] The support can include polymeric spigots, attached to or integrally formed with said support to allow said barrier panels to be secured to said supports by forming a head on said spigot to rivet said panel to said support.

[019] The support can be manufactured from any appropriate polymeric material such as glass filled nylon.

[020] The support can include an aperture to function as a lifting point for lifting said support or a barrier in which said support is assembled.

[021] The support can include a longitudinal recess or aperture to allow a post or pole to be secured to said support.

[022] The support can further include a platform to support the base of said post or said pole.

[023] The support can include apertures on either side of a central axis to receive U-bolt shanks to secure said post or pole to said support.

[024] The support can have a base which includes laterally extending ribs to provide friction contact with a ground surface.

[025] The upper and lower surfaces of said support can allow supports of like construction to be nested one on top of the other.

[026] The support can have an outwardly directed face which includes a vertically directed channel portion in which are located a series of tongues to allow the interconnection of one support when mounted on one end of a barrier to be secured by a pin with another support mounted on an adjacent barrier, which has mating tongues and a vertical channel.

[027] The support can include a preformed flange around a periphery thereof so as to lie adjacent to the end of a barrier panel which will be secured thereto, said flange being of a height equal to or greater than the thickness of said barrier panel.

[028] The support can have a buttress formation extending from an external wall of a lobe on one side of said support terminates at the mounting formation side of said support with a buttress formation extending from an external wall of an opposite lobe on the other side of said support.

[029] The wall can taper in the vicinity of said cross over from a first dimension to a smaller second dimension measured furthest away from said cross over.

[030] The buttress can extend away from said cross over maintaining its cross section to a terminus.

[031] Upper and lower walls of opposed lobes being at the same height on said support, have the tail ends of their respective buttresses converging to a common terminus.

[032] The common terminus can be located on a central axis of said support.

[033] The present invention also provides a barrier including a support as described above, at either end thereof, with barrier panels extending between said supports and secured thereto.

[034] The supports at either extremity of said barrier can be of different colours.

[035] The barrier can have a pole or post secured to it.

[036] The pole or post can be used for one or more of the following: to hold an anti- gawking screen; to secure a like barrier on top of a lower barrier; to secure a barrier to the ground wherein the pole or post is first driven into the ground.

[037] The present invention also provides a pin system for joining work zone barriers said system comprising a combination of pins and or pin lengths with different lengths or classes of pins being coloured different from each other.

[038] The present invention further provides a pin system for joining work zone barriers, said system including a pin which is of a length to be inserted into the ground and to terminate at the top of a work zone barrier, to thereby secure the pin connection with the ground.

[039] Other pins which do not engage the ground can be utilised.

[040] Pins of a length to engage the ground can be of a different colour to pins which do not engage the ground.

[041] The present invention also provides a pin system for joining work zone barriers, said system comprising a pin and a stake, said pin to engage adjacent work zone barrier ends to thereby pin them together, with said stake being inserted into the ground, and means for said pin to engage said stake.

[042] The means for said pin to engage said stake comprises said pin including at least a hollow end to receive therein a portion of said stake which protrudes from a ground location, when said pin is located in said barrier ends.

[043] Alternatively the means for said pin to engage said stake comprises said stake including at least a hollow end to protrude from a ground location to receive therein a portion of said pin when said pin is located in said barrier ends.

[044] The present invention also provides a barrier panel for a safety barrier, the panel including a first elongate rail with one or more longitudinal corrugations or channels and one or more stiffening panels attached to the rail and covering at least a portion of the length of at least one of the corrugations or channels.

[045] The barrier panel can include an outboard or outward-facing stiffening panel.

[046] The barrier panel can include an inboard or inward-facing stiffening panel.

[047] The barrier panel can include a stiffening panel which spans all the formations having said outboard crests.

[048] The barrier panel can include a stiffening panel which spans any two formations having said outboard crests, be they adjacent or separated by one or more other outboard crests.

[049] The barrier can have two inboard free legs and wherein a stiffening panel spans the two free legs.

[050] The barrier can have two inboard free legs and at least two intermediate inboard crests, and wherein a stiffening panel spans at least two formations having said inboard crests.

[051] The barrier can have at least one inboard crest and two inboard free legs, and wherein a stiffening panel spans the one free leg and at least one formation having said at least one inboard crest.

[052] The stiffening panels which span said formations having said inboard or said outboard crests can make the span by one or more of the following: spanning from crest to crest; spanning from a crest to a location which is displaced from a crest on another formation; spanning a location which is displaced from one crest to another location displaced from a crest on another formation.

[053] The barrier panel can have at least one outboard stiffening panel and at least one inboard stiffening panel as respectively described above.

[054] The barrier can include a joint reinforcing bar slidably mounted in a corrugation or channel of said rail.

[055] The bar can be captured by a stiffening panel or by said rail. The stiffening panel or rail which captures said bar can include a slot to enable the bar to be slid relative to said rail.

[056] The one or more stiffening panels can be or are continuously or intermittently welded to the rail along two or more lines of contact between a respective panel and the rail.

[057] The at least one stiffening panel can extend along a substantial length of at least one of the corrugations or channels.

[058] The at least one stiffening panel can be a strap like member, with a series of such stiffening panels being used along the length of said rail.

[059] The channels or corrugations can include one or more of the following shapes in cross section: curved; square; trapezoidal; half round.

[060] The present invention further provides a barrier support including at least one connection flange including a connection pin hole, the flange including a reinforcing member moulded into the flange, the reinforcing member including a hole aligned with the connection pin hole.

[061 ] Each flange can be supported by at least one gusset.

Brief description of the drawings

[062] Embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the following drawing figures:

[063] Figure 1 illustrates a perspective view of a work zone barrier;

[064] Figure 2 is a front elevation of the barrier of figure 1, showing anti-gawk screen poles assembled;

[065] Figure 3 is an underneath view of the barrier and poles of figure 2;

[066] Figure 4 is a side elevation of the barrier and poles of figures 2 and 3;

[067] Figure 5 illustrates an exterior perspective view of a first end element of the barrier of figure 1;

[068] Figure 6 illustrates an interior perspective view of the end of figure 5;

[069] Figure 7 illustrates an exterior side view of the end of figure 5;

[070] Figure 8 illustrates an interior side view of the end of figure 5;

[071 ] Figure 9 illustrates a front elevation of the end of figure 5 ;

[072] Figure 10 illustrates an underneath view of the end of figure 5 ;

[073] Figure 11 illustrates a plan view of the end of figure 5;

[074] Figure 12 illustrates an exterior perspective view of a second end element of the barrier of figure 1;

[075] Figure 13 illustrates an interior perspective view of the end of figure 12

[076] Figure 14 illustrates a perspective view of an intermediate support element of the barrier of figure 1;

[077] Figure 15 illustrates a side view of the element of figure 14, with the other side view being a mirror image of this figure;

[078] Figure 16 illustrates a front elevation of the end of figure 15;

[079] Figure 17 illustrates a plan view of the end of figure 15 ;

[080] Figure 18 illustrates an underneath view of the end of figure 15 ;

[081] Figure 19 illustrates a perspective view of the exterior of another end element;

[082] Figure 20 illustrates an opposite side perspective of the end of figure 19;

[083] Figure 21 illustrates an exterior side elevation of the end of figure 19;

[084] Figure 22 illustrates a front or rear elevation of the end of figure 19 ;

[085] Figure 23 illustrates an interior side elevation of the end of figure 19;

[086] Figure 24 illustrates a standard pin to pin joint adjacent work zone barriers together;

[087] Figure 25 illustrates an improved pin in cross section partially in the ground to pin joint adjacent work zone barriers together;

[088] Figure 26 illustrates a two piece pin system in cross section partially in the ground;

[089] Figure 27 illustrates a perspective view of the inboard side of an arrangement for strengthening the junction between a pair of connected barriers;

[090] Figures 28, 29 & 30 illustrate a protective rail which has been stiffened;

[091] Figure 31 shows an embodiment in which the width of the inner plates is reduced;

[092] Figure 32 shows a further alternative stiffening plate arrangement;

[093] Figure 33 illustrates a further embodiment of the outer stiffening plate;

[094] Figure 34 shows an end support frame having reinforced connection flanges;

[095] Figure 35 illustrates a reinforcing ring in plan view;

[096] Figure 36 illustrates perspective view of the reinforcing ring of Figure 35;

[097] Figure 37 is an end view of an end support frame;

[098] Figure 38 is a side view of an end support frame;

[099] Figure 39 is a top view of an end support frame;

[0100] Figure 40 illustrates a pair of mating support end frames;

[0101] Figure 41 illustrates an arrangement suitable for welding a reinforcing plate to a rail;

[0102] Figure 42 illustrates a bulkhead adapted for use with a reinforced rail according to an embodiment of the invention;

[0103] Figure 43 illustrates an embodiment with multiple stiffening plates;

[0104] Figure 44 illustrates an embodiment similar to that of figure 43, where the outboard plates span a crest and a location displaced from a crest on an adjacent formation; and

[0105] Figure 45 illustrates a barrier rail comprised of a single corrugate or channel with a reinforcing panel attached inboard thereof.

Detailed description of the embodiment or embodiments

[0106] Illustrated in figures 1 to 4 is a work zone barrier 10 which is constructed from a first end support element 12, a second end support element 14, and three intermediate support elements 16. Interconnected between each of these elements, on either side there are barrier panels also called guard rails or beams 18 and 20 and in a lower portion are tyre guards 22 and 24. Tyre guards 22 and 24 and the beams 18 and 20 are secured to the respective end elements or bulkheads 12, 14 and intermediate elements or bulkheads 16 by a series of bolts 26 which are held in place by a series of nuts 28. Optionally, anti-gawking screen poles 200 (see figures 2 to 4) can also be assembled with the barrier 10, as is described below.

[0107] Parts of the barriers can be colour coded or otherwise provided with orientation indicia to provide a readily recognizable visual indication of the orientation of the barriers.

[0108] In a first embodiment, first end element 12, second end 14 and intermediate elements 16 are manufactured from suitable polymeric material with the first end element 12 being made from a polymeric material which is a different colour to the second end element 14, which is in turn preferably of a different colour to the intermediate elements 16. For example, the end elements 12, 14 can be lightly coloured e.g. yellow and orange respectively, or red and white respectively. By making the first end element 12 of one colour and the second end element 14 in a different colour this will assist an operator who has to load the barriers 10 on the back of a truck or into position in a work zone by assisting them to load the barriers all in the same direction relative to the forward direction of the truck so that for example all the first end elements are facing the forward direction or alternatively all the second end elements 14 are facing the forward direction.

[0109] Alternatively the guard rails on opposite sides can be colour coded in the case where the barriers have vertical asymmetry, so that upside-down and right way up are distinct orientations so the coloured sides serve to indicate the correct longitudinal orientation.

[0110] This ensures that when the operator or transporter is unloading the barriers 10 and running these out in a line in the unloading process, that the first end elements 12 will be placed adjacent to second end elements 14 to allow the pins 30 to be readily positioned without having to reorient the barrier 10.

[0111] As an operator will place like end elements adjacent to each other this feature also has advantages in the storing of work zone barriers at sites awaiting use or deployment. Those persons having to maintain an inventory of these work zone barriers will be able to ensure that they are stored in the correct orientation to ensure that speedy loading onto the truck and unloading can occur at the work site.

[0112] Alternative orientation indicia in the form of arrows 5 can be provided, for example by stamping the arrows on an external surface of the barrier on each side.

[0113] The first end element 12 is illustrated in detail in figures 5 to 11. The first end element 12 has a longitudinally or vertically extending support member or face 70 and a joining tongue or flange 32 which is offset from the top surface of the end 12. The end 12 also has three other tongues 34, 36 and 38 which will sit above each of tongues 42, 44, 46 and 48 respectively of the second end element 14 (see figures 12 and 13) when a first end element 12 of the barrier 10 is placed adjacent to the second end element 14 of a like barrier.

[0114] The tongues 32 to 36 are located within and extending away from a diverging walled channel 40. The shape of the free end of the tongues 32 to 36 is curved but is sized so as to fit within the diverging wall channel 40 of an adjacently located barrier. If desired the curved free end can be substituted by a shape which is complementary to the three sided diverging walled channel 40.

[0115] Each of the tongues 32, 34, 36 and 38 has a respective aperture 62, 64, 66 and 68 which allows the respective tongues to receive a pin 30 therethrough. The forward face 70 is profiled at its sides (best seen in figure 6) so as to receive the edges of respective beams 18, 20 and tyre rails 22 and 24. The inside periphery of the front face 70 includes a flange 72 so that the ends of the beams 18, 20, and rails 22 and 24 will not sit proud of the flange 72. The flange 72 is manufactured with a thickness equal to or greater than thickness of the beams 18, 20 and rails 22

and 24. From an exterior side view, such as that of figure 7, the beams 18 and 20 and rails 22 and

24 will not be visible. As such the beams and rails do not present or provide any sharp edge, or no sharp edge thereof is exposed from a front view. The depth of the flange 72 best illustrated in figure 6.

[0116] Projecting rearwardly from the exterior side face 70 are a series of three lobes or supports 74, 76 and 78 on the front and rear of the end 12 (being the left and right sides of the end 12 as illustrated in figures 5 to 8). The supports 74, 76 and 78 are shaped so as though to receive respective troughs formed on the beams 18 and 20. The supports 74, 76 and 78 each have a series of four obround apertures 80 formed therethrough to receive respective bolts 26 therein. The bolts have an obround shank so that when they pass through the complementarily shaped obround holes in the beams 18 and 20 and through the holes 80, the bolts 26 will not rotate when the nuts 28 are being wound thereon, and tightened for securing the two together.

[0117] It will be noted from the exterior side elevation in figure 7 that the beams are angled relative to the vertical axes so that the top of the beams 18 and 30 terminate at approximately the same width as the base of the end 12.

[0118] It will also be noticed that the base includes an angled cut out 84 which will receive the angled formations 86 at the top of an end 12 or 14 so as to allow the respective ends to nest one on top of the other to either build a higher work zone barrier or when mounting same on the back of truck for transport or otherwise for storage purposes.

[0119] At the base of the end 12 are feet 88 (see figure 10) on each side thereof. The feet

88 have a series of two ribs 90 on the outer edges and a series of four ribs 92 inward thereof which are longitudinally extending in the same direction of extension as the beams 18 and 20. The ribs 90 and 92 assist by providing friction by means of providing lines and surface contact perpendicular to direction of movement of the barrier 10 if it were to be collided with. The ribs 90 and 92 help to provide points or lines of friction under the total weight of the barrier 10. This frictional effect is heightened by the total mass of a 4 metre barrier 10, as the end 12 will weigh approximately 20 kilograms as would each of the intermediate elements 16 and the second end element 14 and together with the weights of the beams 18, 20 and rails 22 and 24 making a total mass of approximately 400 kilograms being present.

[0120] Illustrated in figure 8, in the interior side view of element 12, and from figure 6, it can be seen that the supports 74, 76 and 78 are formed with buttress ends 94 which cross over or intersect at 94.1. These buttresses 94 which extend from the lobe walls from one side of one lobe

(eg 74 or 76 or 78) intersect and terminate at the internal side of the exterior face 70 with opposed buttresses. Thus the buttresses of the top walls of the lobe 74 intersect and terminate at 74.1, while the bottom walls of the lobe 74 intersect and terminate at 74.2. Both 74.1 and 74.2 are located on a centrally located, vertically extending rib or axis 10.1. Likewise the upper walls of lobe 76 terminate at 76.1 while the lower walls of the same lobe 76 terminate at 76.2, and likewise the upper walls of lobe 78 terminate at 78.1 while the lower walls of the same lobe 78 terminate at 78.2.

[0121] By providing at 94.1 the cross-over of the start of buttressed ends 94 on the end elements 12, 14 and intermediate elements 16 there is provided a greater ability for the ends to maintain their integrity so as to bear collision stresses should a collision occur with an errant vehicle.

[0122] It will be noted from figure 8 that an array or matrix of reinforcing ribs 98 are also provided between the outside rail mounting face and the rear face of the front face 70, while other similar rib arrangements 98.1, 98.2 and 98.3 are provided in the respective lobes of the beam supports 74, 76 and 78 and corresponding interior sides of the exterior side face 70. It will be noted that supporting the angled faces of the tyre guard angled support surface 99 and vertical support surface 99.1 are generally perpendicular ribs 99.2.

[0123] The second end element 14 is illustrated in figures 12 and 13 and is constructed from similar features as those of figures 5 to 11 and like parts have been like numbered. The second end element 14 is constructed in the same manner as the end 12 with the same features with the only difference between first and second end elements 12 and 14 being the height or location of the tongues 32/42,34/44, 36/46, 38/48 with respect to the bottom or top of the ends. The tongue 42 is at a height which is offset from the height of the tongue 32, and likewise for tongues 34/44, 36/46, 38/48.

[0124] The intermediate element 16 is illustrated in figures 14 to 18 and is also constructed with similar features and in a similar manner to the first and second end element 12 and 14, and like parts have also been like numbered.

[0125] One difference between the intermediate elements 16 and the end elements 12 and

14 is that the intermediate element 16 has a centrally located wall 10.2 (which performs the function of a longitudinally or vertically extending support member) from which extends to the left and right sides (into and out of the page of figure 15), the walls of the two lobes 74, the two lobes 76, the two lobes 78, and the angled supports 99 and 99.1.

[0126] Another difference is that the intermediate element 16 has a platform 160 on one side and platform 162 on the other which is below radiused cut outs 164 and 166 on either side all through intermediate element 16. Through the central column or wall 10.2 of the upper of the intermediate element 16 are a series of five holes, namely 168, 170, 172, and 174 and a larger hole 176. The holes 168 and 170 cooperate with a U-bolt and together with the holes 172 and 174 which cooperate with a second U-bolt and with the platforms 160 and 162 allowing pole 200 (see figures 2, 3 and 4) to be mounted to the intermediate elements 16 so that an anti-gawking screen can be fixed to the top of the work zone barrier 10 or if desired to secure another work zone barrier to the top of the work zone barrier 10. The hole 176 will allow the work zone barrier 10 to be connected to a shackle or hook for lifting purposes.

[0127] The intermediate element 16 is constructed similarly to the ends 12 and 14 where the upper wall of a lower lobe intersects with the lower wall of an upper lobe to form the intersection location 94.1 where the buttress ends 94 intersect and transmit forces applied to the outside of the barrier to the central column or wall 10.2 is provided with the same number of the intermediate element 16.

[0128] Another difference between the intermediate element 16 when compared with the end elements 12 and 14 is that the base has a larger number of centrally located ribs 92, as is illustrated in figure 18.

[0129] It will be noted that the central column or wall 10.2 includes a series of webs 178 and 180 which interlink the lobes of the beam mounting portions whilst the web 182 includes a cut out 184 to receive the longitudinal lower edges of the beams 18 and 20. It will be noted that the elements 12 and 14 do not required this cut out 184, as the end of the beam or guard rail abuts a web similar to web 182 adjacent the flange 72.

[0130] Likewise to the ends 12 and 14, the intermediate elements 16 has its buttresses 94 extending from the ends of lobes 74, 76 and 78, after the cross over point 94.1 with an adjacent lobe's buttress, meet at a central plane or line on the interior surface of the exterior side face 70. In the case of the buttresses of lobe 74, the ends of the buttresses meet in a straight line at the top of member 16 at location 74.1 and at a lower location 74.2. Whereas the buttresses of lobe 76 meet at the top of the element 16 at location 76.1 (which is in the same locale as location 74.1) and at a mid region below 74.2 at location 76.2. Likewise the buttresses of lobe 78 meet at location 78.1 which is between locations 74.2 and 76.2, while the lower buttresses of lobe 78 meet generally horizontally at location 78.2.

[0131] Preferably the work zone barrier 10 is manufactured in lengths of 2, 4 or 12 metres, with the 4 metre barrier being generally illustrated in the drawings described above.

[0132] A preferred polymer is a glass filled nylon however due to expense other plastics or polymers could be utilised for the manufacture of the ends 12 and 14 and intermediate elements 16.

[0133] If desired delineators can be mounted to the barrier 10 by means of the bolts 26 or alternatively delineators could be assembled on to the pole 200 attached to an intermediate element via the u- bolts and holes 168, 170, 172 and 174. The delineators can be colour coded to serve as orientation indicia to indicate the orientation of the barriers. In addition, the delineators can be reflective to indicate the opposite sides of a road to oncoming traffic. Flashing lights can also be mounted to poles 200 via the u- bolts.

[0134] By utilising shorter lengths such as the 2 metre or 4 metre barriers and by also allowing a 5mm gap between adjacent work zone barriers 10, and by the tongues 32, 42, 34, 44, 36, 46, 38, 48 being curved, a radius of curvature of an assembled multi piece work zone barrier of a 100m can be achieved.

[0135] While the above description utilises bolts 26 to mount the beam and rails 18, 20,

22 and 24, if desired instead of providing holes 80 to allow bolts to pass through, spigots of plastic or polymeric material can be formed so as to pass through holes in the beam and rails 18, 20, 22 and 24 and a head then formed on the spigot of plastic or polymeric material so as to rivet the beams and rails into position.

[0136] Whilst crossover 94.1 of the buttress ends 94 is thought to provide an advantageous construction, a single buttress emanating from the intersection of two sides of the support, could be utilised to bear and transmit the stresses from the sides to the front face 70.

[0137] Illustrated in figures 19 to 23 is a second end element 1400 similar to that of figures 12 and 13. Like parts have been like numbered, and for convenience, as the figures are of a smaller scale, some parts have not been numbered. It will be readily understood that a first end element can be constructed with the same features as the only difference between first and second end elements is the height location of the tongues 32/42, 34/44, 36/46, 38/48.

[0138] The second end element 1400 of figures 19 to 23 differs from the element 14 of figures 12 and 13 or the first end element of figures 5 to 11 in that part of the sides of the lobes 74, 76 and 78 terminate before meeting each other so as to form a cutaway or gap 82 between

them. The cutaways or gaps 82 can help to accommodate the crests on the internal face of the beams 18 and 20 (or troughs on the external faces thereof). Thus between adjacent lobes 74, 76 and 78 the cutaways or gaps 82 which assist in allowing for manufacturing inaccuracy's between the ends 12 and the beams 18 and 20.

[0139] Another difference as seen from figure 23 is that the external walls of the lobes

74, 76 and 78 cross over or intersect at 94.1, but terminate in buttresses 94, at a location removed from the central axis of the element 1400. Thus at the rear surface of the support member 70 the buttresses 94 at the ends of each lobe, after adjacent lobe buttresses have crossed over, meet at an off centre vertically extending rib, at the rear side of the diverging walled channel 40. This arrangement, like the previously described arrangement, assists in absorbing and or transmitting generally horizontal impact forces which may arise from collisions with vehicles or bumping of barriers 10 together during assembly of a joined barrier or tipping over forces if a barrier 10 topples over.

[0140] While the above embodiments are illustrated with a tri-lobal shape (lobes 74, 76 and 78) to receive a three lobed beam or guard rail (known by the trade mark THRIE-BEAM), it will be readily understood that the embodiments could instead include a two lobe beam or guard rail commonly called a W-beam. Alternatively the elements 12, 14 and 16 can be modified to remove the lowermost lobe 78 so as to save on polymeric material.

[0141] While the above described embodiments allow an anti-gawking screen pole to be secured to the intermediate elements 16, if desired the same securement mechanism can be used to secure a pole which is driven into the ground so as to secure the barrier 10 to particular ground location. In this instance, the platforms 160 or 162 can be removed or bent out of the position illustrated to allow for a pole 200 to pass through to the ground. Alternatively the pole can pass near to the edge of the platforms 160 or 162 and still be secured to the support member 10.2 by a longer U-bolt.

[0142] As is illustrated in figure 24 a convention length pin 30 (also illustrated in figure

1), which can be utilised to pin joint adjacent work zone barriers 10 together. The pin 30 has a head portion 30.1 with handles 30.2 extending therefrom.

[0143] Illustrated in figure 25 is a longer pin 300, which is similar to pin 30, and like parts have been like numbered. The pin 300 can be used to pin joint adjacent work zone barriers 10 together in the same manner as pin 30, but as pin 300 is longer than the pin 30, it can be

driven into the ground so as to stake the barriers 10 into the ground, so as to prevent them from readily moving or being accidentally moved.

[0144] Illustrated in figure 26, is two part pinning system which has a pin 320 which is either totally hollow or is at least hollow in its base. The hollow receives the protruding portion of a stake 310 which can be installed into the ground, so as to secure the work zone barriers 10 into place. The pin 320 serves to pin joint adjacent the barriers 10 together, while the stake serves function of securement with respect to the ground.

[0145] Preferably the pins 30, 300 and 320 are differently colour coded so that operators and users of the work zone barriers will know immediately what pin types have been used to pin adjacent work zone barriers together. By this means they will know when the barriers are in situ, which pins can be readily extracted by hand to enable movement or rotation of barriers to let persons or equipment past an established barrier, or where the optimum location might be due to added securement or engagement of the barriers joints with the ground.

[0146] The pins can be manufactured by any suitable process, such as moulding or fabricating. The pins and or stakes can be made from polymeric material or metal, or from metals coated in polymeric materials for colour coding purposes.

[0147] Figure 27 illustrates an arrangement for strengthening the junction between a pair of connected barriers 27.251, 27.253. In a first embodiment, a strengthening bolt 27.250 can be inserted in a channel or groove of the barrier with the operating lever 27.254 projecting inboard of the barrier. The sliding bolt 27.250, shown in dashed outline outside the channel, is adapted to slide in a channel of the protective rail or beam formed by one of the corrugations covered by a reinforcing or stiffening plate or panel 27.252. The bolt has a projecting operating lever 27.254 which is accessible via slot 27.256 in plate 27.252. The bolt and slot have sufficient length so that when a pair of barriers have been connected and a connecting pin inserted through the aligned connection holes in the flanges, and after passing through apertures in the abutting bulkheads (not shown) or formed between a bight in the bulkhead and the inboard side of a corrugation, the bolt can be slid forward to engage with an aligned channel of the connected barrier, the stiffening plate 27.258 providing a closure for the corresponding channel or groove. Sufficient length of the bolt is retained in both channels to provide effective communication of lateral forces between the two barriers to aid in reducing the chance of separation of the barriers on impact. Accordingly, the bolt has a length greater than the width of a pair of connected

bulkheads. Retaining notches (not shown) can be provided in the slot 27.256 to hold the bolt lever in the closed and open positions as required.

[0148] hi an alternative arrangement where the panels include outboard strengthening plates such as 27.255, the bolt can be located in an outboard channel or groove such as 27.257 and a slot formed in the inboard side of the channel for the operating lever. This arrangement does not require holes to be formed in the bulkheads to permit the bolt to pass, nor is an aperture required between a bight in the bulkhead and the inboard side of a corrugation.

[0149] To increase the resistance to twist around the longitudinal axis, the protective barriers can be reinforced. In the embodiment discussed below, the rail or beam is corrugated to produce a triple arch section and is usually installed with the free ends of the outer legs of the triple arch section facing inwards, ie, on the non-impact side of the rail or beam.

[0150] Figures 28, 29 & 30 illustrate a protective rail or beam which has been stiffened by adding stiffening plates, hi Figure 28, the rail 28.102 has a stiffening plate 28.110 attached to the outboard side. Plate 28.110 runs the full length of the rail 28.102. As best seen in Figure 30, the plate 30.110 extends from the apex of outer arch 30.122 to the apex of the opposite outer arch 30.130.

[0151] Figure 29 shows the inboard side of the rail of Figure 28, ie, the inside face of the rail. The three sets of attachment holes, 29.104, 29.106, 29.108, can be seen in Figure 29. Two stiffening plates 29.112, 29.114 extend between the two sets of attachment holes while leaving the attachment holes accessible.

[0152] Alternatively, a single extended length inner stiffening plate extending across the middle support frames or bulkheads can be used. In this case, the middle bulkhead can be smooth, ie, the lobes matching the rail corrugations can be omitted as shown at 42.272 in Figure 42. The extended length inner stiffening plate will leave the ends of the rail uncovered to provide access to the attachment bolt holes. Preferably, apertures can be provided in the stiffening plate to enable the rail to be attached to the bulkhead at least by the top and bottom bolt holes.

[0153] In an alternative the inner stiffening plate can be co-extensive with the rail, in which case the end and middle bulkheads can be straight sided as shown in Figure 42, as the lobed profile will not be required.

[0154] Figure 30 is an end view of the arrangement of Figure 28. The outer stiffening plate 30.110 extends between the first outer apex 30.122 and the third outer apex 30.130. Plate

30.110 can be attached to apex 30.122 and apex 30.130 by welding, riveting, bolting, adhesive, or other suitable means of attachment. Optionally, plate 30.110 can also be attached to the centre outer apex 30.126 by rivets of bolts, or by providing slots in the plates as shown in Figure 41 to allow the plates to be welded to the apexes, or by spot welding.

[0155] The width of inner stiffening plate 30.112 extends between the outer free ends

30.120, 30.132, covering the foil width of the rail. Plate 30.112 can be attached to the outer arms 30.120, 30.132 by welding. Optionally, plate 30.112 can also be attached to the inner peak 30.134 and 30.128 by rivets or bolts, or by spot welding or by providing slots in the plate in a manner similar to that shown at 41.110 in Figure 41.

[0156] The stiffening plates attached to the rail effectively create closed or hollow section beams or box section beams which provide improved twist resistance. If the beams have corrugations with square or straight sided cross sections, the closed sections will resemble box sections.

[0157] Various configurations of one or more stiffening plates can be used to stiffen the rail. The length and/or the width of the plates and/or the number of plates can be altered in different embodiments.

[0158] In one alternative embodiment, the outer plate 28.110, 30.110 can be omitted so only the inner stiffening plates 29.112 and 29.114 are attached to the rail.

[0159] In a further embodiment, the inner plates 29.112, 29.114 can be omitted so only the outer plate 28.110 is attached to the rail.

[0160] In a further embodiment, a full length inner plate can be used.

[0161] In another embodiment, full length inner and outer plates can be used.

[0162] Figure 31 shows an embodiment in which the width of the inner plates 31.112 extends only between the plateaus 31.134, 31.138. The inner plates of this arrangement can include two inner plates as shown in Figure 29, but in which the width of the inner plates is reduced to that shown in Figure 31.

[0163] Figure 32 shows a further alternative arrangement in which the stiffening plate

32.112 is attached across the base of the outer arch between the free arm 32.120 and plateau 32.124. In a variation, the plate 32.112 can be attached between plateau 32.128 and free end of arm 32.132. In a further embodiment, plates can be attached at both of these plate locations.

[0164] Figure 33 illustrates a further embodiment in which the outer stiffening plate

33.110 extends between the apex 33.122 and the apex 33.126. Alternatively, the plate 33.110 can extend between apex 33.130 and apex 33.126.

[0165] Figure 43 illustrates an arrangement with two outboard stiffening plates 43.326,

43.328 and three inboard stiffening plates 43.320, 43.324, 43.326. Each stiffening plate is attached across a single corrugation and edge welded to the rail.

[0166] Figure 34 shows an end support frame or bulkhead 34.202. This has an upper profile 34.204 adapted to match the cross-section of the protective rails, and a lower trapezium footing 34.206 to which a tyre protecting plate can be attached as discussed above.

[0167] The end bulkhead 34.202 also includes two or more connection tongues or flanges

34.208, 34.209, 34.220, 34.211, each with a circular hole 34.212, 34.213, 34.214, 34.215, for use in connecting the assembled barrier to an adjacent barrier. In the embodiment shown, there are four connection flanges.

[0168] The bulkheads at either end of a barrier are complementary, so that the connection flanges of adjacent barriers can be interleaved so their connection holes can be aligned vertically and a connection pin inserted through the holes of the interleaved flanges. The vertical spacing of the connection flanges on respective ends is shown in Figure 40.

[0169] The flanges can contain a reinforcing ring 35.220 as shown in Figures 35 and 36.

The reinforcing ring is substantially planar and has a central hole 35.222, 36.222. The reinforcing ring is adapted for being moulded into the bulkhead by the provision of anchoring projections 35.224, 36.224 and through holes 35.226, 36.226 and edge tabs 35.228, 36.228.

[0170] In one embodiment, the bulkhead can be moulded from a suitable plastics material.

[0171] The edge tabs can also serve for locating and holding the reinforcing rings during the moulding of the bulkhead. The outline of the flange of the bulkhead is shown in dashed outline at 35.230.

[0172] Figure 37 is an end view of the bulkhead of Figure 34, Figure 38 is a side view of the bulkhead, and Figure 39 is a plan view of the respective end bulkhead. The flanges 37.208,

37.209, 37,210, 37,211 have strengthening gussets 37.231, 37.232, 37.233, 37.234 at the attachment to a wall of the bulkhead to provide additional strength against the incidental force applied to the flanges when a connecting pin is inserted. As seen in figures 38 and 39, the flanges

project beyond the end of the body of the bulkhead. The gussets in this embodiment are provided in pairs located near the edges of the flange, and are integrally moulded with the bulkhead.

[0173] Figure 40 illustrates a pair of complementary bulkheads adapted for connection in a "head to tail" arrangement. As mentioned above, the opposing end bulkheads are asymmetric and can be colour coded to indicate the correct orientation for connecting a pair of bulkheads.

[0174] As shown in Figure 40, the first bulkhead 40.240 has a first set of flanges 40.208,

40.209, 40.219, 40.211, and the second bulkhead 40.242 has a second set of flanges 40.244, 40.245, 40.246, 40,247.

[0175] The dashed lines indicate the relative alignment of the two sets of flanges which permits the flanges to be interleaved. As can be seen, the flanges on the second barrier 40.242 are lower than the corresponding flanges on the barrier 40,240.

[0176] The spacing of the flanges and the orientation of the gussets relative to the plane of the flanges can be adapted to reduce the likelihood of the gussets interfering with the connection of adjacent barriers. The spacing of the flanges and the orientation of their gussets enables the flanges to be interleaved with minimal interference. For example, the top flange 40.208 is spaced above flange 40.209 by a greater distance than the space between other adjacent flanges. This is because the gussets of flange 4.208 project downward, so additional clearance is provided below this flange to enable interleaving flange 40.244 to fit below flange 40.208 without interference from its gussets. The remaining gussets of bulkhead 40.240 are located above their associated flange, while the gussets of bulkhead 40.242 are located below their flanges.

[0177] Figure 41 illustrates an arrangement for providing a series of welds along the longitudinal sides of a reinforcing plate 41.110. Holes 41.260 are provided along the longitudinal sides of the plate 41.110 and welds can be made to the rail 41.102 through these holes. A further row of holes aligned with the central corrugation can also be provided to permit welding of this corrugation with the plate 41.110.

[0178] The above description and illustrations represent the beams 18, 20 as quasi- sinusoidal corrugations having curved lobes, with lobes 74, 76, 78 of the end and intermediate bulkheads being of mating shape. However, if required, other corrugation or channel shapes can be utilized, such as square or trapezoidal corrugations, with the lobes 74, 76, 78 being of a corresponding matching shape.

[0179] Figures 27 to 33, 41 and 43 all show the stiffening panels spanning between two or more crests of the lobes or formations which contain the crests. In Figure 44, which has like parts numbered with that of Figure 43, there is illustrated for the outboard stiffening panels 44.326 and 44.328 a different arrangement. In figure 44 the panel 44.326 spans the crest 44.122 to a location 44.304 which is on the adjacent lobe or formation, but which is displaced from the crest 44.322, and likewise for the panel 44.328 between crest 44.322 and location 44.308.

[0180] The arrangement of Figure 43 when secured to end and intermediate bulkheads as described above, will result in an outer structure which will assist the barrier constructed with such a barrier panel so that a line perpendicular to the outward faces of stiffening panels are downwardly directed. In such an orientation this will aid in attempting to deflect a colliding vehicle in a downward direction, thereby aiding to prevent such a colliding vehicle from climbing the barrier.

[0181] The arrangement of the outboard stiffening panels of Figure 44 can also be applied inboard of the stiffening panel(s), however the advantages described in the preceding paragraph may not be forthcoming as the stiffening panels will not be on a face or side which will make contact with a colliding vehicle.

[0182] The embodiments of Figures 27 to 33, 41, 43 and 44 all have guard rails which are illustrated with the multiple corrugations or channels of a THRIE BEAM which has three outboard lobes or corrugations and two inboard lobes or corrugations with two inboard free edges. Such a Thrie Beam can be 10 Gauge or 12 Gauge depending upon the applications or standards which will apply to the completed barrier (approx 3.6 mm or 2.8 mm respectively), with the stiffening or reinforcement plates or panels being of a similar gauge. Another beam which can be utilised in the embodiments is a W beam which has two outboard lobes or corrugations and one inboard lobe or corrugation with two inboard free edges the Gauge can be selected as appropriate for the standard or use . Whereas another beam such as that illustrated in Figure 45 can be used which is a single lobe 45.122 guard rail, which has a stiffening panel 45.112 welded to the inboard side thereof. Such a guard rail will require bulkheads having a mating lobe so as to fit into the lobe 45.122 to support and connect same, or alternatively the use of a bulkhead such as bulkhead 42.270, which includes straight sided mounting sides to receive a barrier panel. The guard rail of figure 45 is expected to be not as effective as a Thrie Beam or W beam, but for some applications may be suitable if manufactured from an appropriate gauge of steel.

[0183] The attachment of the reinforcing plates to the rail/beam can be effected by means of a continuous weld along the upper and lower edges of the reinforcing plates and the rήl/beam. Alternatively, the welds can be intermittent. With respect to the welds of the reinforcing plates to the respective apexes, can be either continuous or intermittent. The panel can be welded continuously or intermittently along two or more lines of contact between the rail and the panel. The use of a continuous weld will provide the greatest amount of torsional reinforcement or stiffening, by comparison to intermittent welding

[0184] If only the upper and lower edges of the reinforcing plates and the rail/beam edges are welded, then a single hollow, closed or box section will be produced, whereas if the intermediate apexes are also welded then the resultant rail/beam will have a series of two or three hollow, closed or box sections.

[0185] In the above embodiments which use reinforcing plates, relatively long plates are utilised. However, in an alternative arrangement a series of straps or relatively narrow reinforcing members can be welded at critical locations or equispaced along the length of the rail or beam. For example 50 mm wide straps can be utilised and spaced approx 50 mm from each other along the length of the rail or beam, or for example 150 mm wide straps spaced in the region of 50 to 100 mm from each other can be utilised.

[0186] Where ever it is used, the word "comprising" is to be understood in its "open" sense, that is, in the sense of "including", and thus not limited to its "closed" sense, that is the sense of "consisting only of. A corresponding meaning is to be attributed to the corresponding words "comprise", "comprised" and "comprises" where they appear.

[0187] It will be understood that the invention disclosed and defined herein extends to all alternative combinations of two or more of the individual features mentioned or evident from the text. All of these different combinations constitute various alternative aspects of the invention.

[0188] While particular embodiments of this invention have been described, it will be evident to those skilled in the art that the present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments and examples are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, and all modifications which would be obvious to those skilled in the art are therefore intended to be embraced therein.