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Title:
BIOEQUIVALENT FORMULATION OF EFAVIRENZ
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/055375
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides a suitable technique namely wet milling and the process for reducing the particle size of efavirenz and making a tablet or capsule formulation with desired bioavailability equivalent to the reference listed drug without loosing its characteristics.

Inventors:
PARTHASARADHI REDDY, Bandi (Hetero House, 8 -3 - 166/7/1Erragadda,Hyderabad 8, Andhrapradesh, 50001, IN)
KHADGAPATHI, Podili (Hetero House, .8-3- 166/7/1Erragadda,Hyderabad 8, AndhraPradesh, 50001, IN)
KAMALAKAR REDDY, Goli (Hetero House, 8 -3 -166/7/1Erragadda,Hyderabad 8, Andhra Pradesh, 50001, IN)
Application Number:
IN2009/000625
Publication Date:
May 12, 2011
Filing Date:
November 04, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HETERO RESEARCH FOUNDATION (Plot No . B- 80 & 81, A. P . I . E .. Balanagar,Hyderabad, Andhrapradesh 8, 50001, IN)
PARTHASARADHI REDDY, Bandi (Hetero House, 8 -3 - 166/7/1Erragadda,Hyderabad 8, Andhrapradesh, 50001, IN)
KHADGAPATHI, Podili (Hetero House, .8-3- 166/7/1Erragadda,Hyderabad 8, AndhraPradesh, 50001, IN)
KAMALAKAR REDDY, Goli (Hetero House, 8 -3 -166/7/1Erragadda,Hyderabad 8, Andhra Pradesh, 50001, IN)
International Classes:
A61K9/20; A61K31/536
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Claims:
We claim:

1. A suitable technique namely wet milling and its process for obtaining the 90 volume- percent of the particles (Dgo) in the range of 2 to 100 um of crystalline efavirenz form HI using high speed homogenizer with an aqueous dispersion of 1 to 15% WW at a speed of 10000 to 30000 rpm.

2. The process according to. claim I, wherein the aqueous dispersion further includes the solvents selected from isopropanol, methanol and acetone or a mixture there of.

3. The process according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of the aqueous dispersion is in the range of 1.5 to 10% W/V.

4. The process according to claim 3, wherein the aqueous dispersion is in the range of 5 to 8% W/V.

5. The process according to claim 4, wherein the aqueous dispersion is in the range of 2 to 3% W/V.

6. The process according to claim 1, where in the speed of homogenizer is in the range of 12000 to 28000 rpm.

7. The process according to claim 6, where in the speed of homogenizer is in the range of 15000 to 25000 rpm.

8. The process according to claim 1, wherein the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D90) in the range of 3 to 50 um.

9. The process according to claim 8, wherein the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D90) in the range of 5 to 15 um.

10. A stable, bioequivalent tablet or capsule comprises efavirenz having a 90 volume- percent of the particles (D90) in the range of 2 to 100 um.

11. The composition according to claim 10, wherein the composition is in the form of tablet.

12. The composition according to claim 10, wherein the compositions further comprises one or more additional excipient selected from diluents, disintegrants, surfactants, lubricants and glidants.

13. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the diluent is selected from microcrystalline cellulose and lactose.

14. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the disintegrant is selected from crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate.

15. The composition according to claim 14, wherein the disintegrant is crospovidone.

16. The composition according to claim 15, wherein the crospovidone is in the concentration of 5.0 to 10.0% by weight relative to the total weight of the compressed tablet or capsule.

17. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the surfactant is selected from sodium lauryl sulfate, docusate sodium, benzekonium chloride, benzethonium chloride and cetrimide.

18. The composition according to claim 17, wherein the surfactant is sodium lauryl sulfate.

19. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the lubricant is selected from magnesium stearate, zinc stearate, calcium stearate, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium stearyl fumarate.

20. The composition according to claim 19, wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate.

21. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the glidant is selected from talc, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate and magnesium oxide.

22. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the glidant is silicon dioxide and/or sodium benzoate.

23. A tablet or capsule formulation of efavirenz form HI is in an amount of 200 mg to about 600 mg in a single dosage unit, characterized in that the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D90) of efavirenz form HI used is in the range of 2 to 100 um.

24. A tablet or capsule formulation of efavirenz form HI characterized in that the 90 volume-percent of the particles (Ό90) of efavirenz form HI used is in the range of 2 to 100 um in combination with emitricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or both.

25. A process for preparing a tablet or capsule of efavirenz form HI, which comprises: a. wet granulating of efavirenz form HI with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients;

b. drying the granules obtained in step (a) at 25 to 45°C; and

c. compressing the dried granules into a tablet or filled in a capsule, characterized in that the process does not involve milling.

26. The process according to claim 25, wherein the efavirenz form HI is in the form of a tablet along with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients and the tablet is optionally film coated.

27. The process according to claim 25, wherein the drying is carried out 30 to 40°C.

Description:
BIOEOUIVALENT FORMULATION OF EFAVIRENZ

Field of the Invention

The " present invention relates to ~ a suitable technique and its process for the reduction of particle size of crystalline efavirenz form HI and making an oral dosage form viz. tablets or capsules alone or in combination with one or more other active ingredients such as emitricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The pharmaceutical formulation according to the invention is bioequivalent to the reference listed drug (RLD) when bioavailability studies are conducted in humans.

Background of the Invention

Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor ( NRTI) and is used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1.

Efavirenz is chemically, (45)-6-chloro-4-(2-cyclopropylethynyl)-4-

(trifluoromethyl)-2, 4-dihydro-lH-3, l-benzoxazin-2-one also used in combination with other antiretroviral agents as part of an expanded post exposure prophylaxis regimen to reduce the risk of HIV infection in people exposed to a significant risk.

WO Patent Application Publication No. WO 2006/018853 discloses the synthesis of crystalline and amorphous form of efavirenz i.e. crystalline efavirenz form HI and is characterized by an x-ray powder diffraction spectrum having peaks expressed as 29 at about 5.4, 10.4, 11.6, 12.5, 15.3, 20.1, 20.8, 22.5, 23.1, 25.7, 27.9, 28.5, 28.8, 29.5, 30.2 and 38.2 degrees.

As the form is new, the characteristics as well as its behavior in vivo are not known. Tablets were made using the conventional methods and conducted bioequivalence study and found that it is not bioequivalent to the RLD.

It is known that the degree of solubility can influence the bioavailability, attempts were made to increase the solubility using various techniques known in the prior art such as ultrasonication, particle coating and particle size reduction.

Ultrasonication was not successful in enhancing the solubility and retaining the characteristics of new polymorph of efavirenz. Particle coating showed an improvement in retaining the characteristics of new polymorph but no change was observed in terms of solubility.

With the earlier expertise in developing the formulation of efavirenz, it has been found that there is a requirement of special particle size to increase the-solubility in order- to achieve the desired bioavailability and to make a formulation bioequivalent to the reference listed drug.

Different techniques were evaluated to reduce the particle size of efavirenz such as impact milling, fluid energy milling, wet milling and tumbling by ball mill.

Impact milling, fluid energy milling and tumbling by ball mill were failed to retain the characteristics of novel form. When the wet milling process developed by the inventor was applied to achieve particle size reduction, it has been found that there is no conversion of one form to another form of efavirenz.

The polymorph used in the process of size reduction by the process of invention is preferably efavirenz form HI.

Tablets and capsules were made with the obtained efavirenz after wet milling using pharmaceutically acceptable excipients like super disintegrant viz. crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate, diluent/filler viz. microcrystalline cellulose and lactose, glidant viz. talc, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate and magnesium oxide , lubricant viz. magnesium stearate, zinc stearate, calcium stearate, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium stearyl fumarate.

The tablets and capsules were submitted to bioequivalence study and found that these are bioequivalent with reference listed drug.

Detailed Description of the Invention

According to one aspect of the present invention there is provided a suitable technique namely wet milling for obtaining the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D 90 ) in the range—of 2 to 100 um of crystalline efavirenz form HI using high speed homogenizer with an aqueous dispersion of 1 to 15% W/V at a speed of 10000 to 30000 rpm.

Optionally, the aqueous dispersion further includes the solvents selected from isopropanol, methanol and acetone or a mixture there of.

Preferably, the concentration of the aqueous dispersion is 1.5 to 10% W/V, more preferably the aqueous dispersion is 5 to 8% W/V and still more preferably the aqueous dispersion is 2 to 3% W/V.

Preferably, the wet milling process is carried out at a speed of 12000 to 28000 rpm and more preferably at a speed of 15000 to 25000 rpm.

Preferably, the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D 90 ) in the range of 3 to 50 μιτι and more preferable in the range of 5 to 15 μηι.

The term "μηι" refers to "micrometer" which is lxlO "6 meter.

No change in polymorph has been observed during the size reduction by the process of the invention.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a stable, bioequivalent tablet or capsule comprises efavirenz form HI having a 90 volume-percent of the particles (D 90 ) in the range of 2 to 100 μηι.

Preferably, the dosage form is in the form of tablet.

The pharmaceutical composition of compressed tablet or a capsule of the invention may contain one or more additional excipients. These excipients selected from diluents, disintegrants, surfactants, lubricants and glidants.

The preferable diluent is selected from microcrystalline cellulose and lactose.

Preferably, the disintegrant is selected from crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate. More preferably the disintegrant is crospovidone in the concentration of about 5.0 to 10.0% by weight relative to the total weight of the compressed tablet or capsule. It is preferred that the surfactant is selected from sodium lauryl sulfate, docusate sodium, benzekonium chloride, benzethonium chloride and cetrimide. More preferable surfactant is sodium lauryl sulfate.

Glidant is selected from talc^ colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium -benzoate and magnesium oxide, preferably the glidant is silicon dioxide and/or sodium.benzoate.

The preferable lubricant is selected from magnesium stearate, zinc stearate, calcium stearate, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium stearyl fumarate. More preferable lubricant is magnesium stearate.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a tablet or capsule formulation of efavirenz form HI is in an amount of 200 mg to about 600 mg in a single dosage unit, characterized in that the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D90) of efavirenz form HI used is in the range of 2 to 100 um.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a tablet or capsule formulation of efavirenz form HI characterized in that the 90 volume-percent of the particles (D90) of efavirenz form HI used is in the range of 2 to 100 um in combination with emitricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or both.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for preparing a tablet or capsule of efavirenz form HI, which comprises:

a. - wet granulating of -efavirenz form HI with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients;

b. drying the granules obtained in step (a) at 25 to 45°C; and

c. compressing the dried granules into a tablet or filled in a capsule, characterized in that the process does not involve milling.

Preferably, the efavirenz form HI is in the form of a tablet along with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

The tablet formulation is optionally film coated.

Preferably, the drying may be carried out at 30 to 40°C. Examples

Example 1:

Wet milling of-2.0 % dispersion of Efavirenz (form-Hl)

2 gm of efavirenz (form-Hl) was accurately weighed and dispersed in 100 gm of water with laboratory stirrer. The above said dispersion was allowed to size reduction by homogenizer at 15000 rpm. After homogenization, the dispersion was filtered using nylon filter under vaccum and dried. Example 2:

Wet milling of 2.0 % dispersion of Efavirenz (form-Hl)

2 gm of efavirenz (form-I) was accurately weighed and dispersed in 100 gm of water with laboratory stirrer. The above said dispersion was allowed to size reduction by homogenizer at 20000 rpm. After homogenization, the dispersion was filtered using nylon filter under vaccum and dried.

Example 3:

Wet milling of 2.0 % dispersion of Efavirenz (form-Hl)

2 gm of efavirenz (form-Hl) was accurately weighed and dispersed in 100 gm of water with laboratory stirrer. The above said dispersion was allowed to size reduction by homogenizer at 25000 rpm. After homogenization, the dispersion was filtered using nylon filter under vaccum and dried.

Example 4:

Wet milling of 5.0 % dispersion of Efavirenz (form-Hl)

5 gm of efavirenz (form-Hl) was accurately weighed and dispersed in 100 gm of water with laboratory stirrer. The above said dispersion was allowed to size reduction by homogenizer at 30000 rpm. After homogenization, the dispersion was filtered using nylon filter under vaccum and dried. Example 5:

600 mg tablet formulation

Method of manufacture: Efavirenz (form-Hl) is mixed with other ingredients and then wet granulated using an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate. This wet mass may then be dried in a fluid bed, tray or other suitable dryer. The dried granules are blended and lubricated. This blend is compressed into tablets. The compressed tablets are film coated.

Example-6:

600 mg tablet formulation S. No Ingredients Mg/tab % w/w

1 Efavirenz ( form-Hl, D9o=100 microns) 600.0 44.44

. 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 200,00. 14.81 .

3 Sodium lauryl sulfate 46.00 3.41

4 Crospovidone 94.50 7.00

5 Lactose monohydrate 389.25 28.83

6 Colloidal silicon dioxide 6.75 0.50

7 Magnesium stearate 13.50 1.00

Core Weight 1350

Coating weight buildup 27

Total tablet weight 1377

Method of manufacture: The method of manufacturing process is same as that described in Example.5. The tablets are coated using the same composition as the coating composition of Example.5.

Example 7:

600 mg tablet formulation

Method of manufacture: The method of manufacturing process is same as that described in Example.5. The tablets are coated using the same composition as the coating composition of Example.5. Example 8:

200 mg capsule formulation

Method of manufacture: The method of manufacturing process is same as that described in Example.1. The Lubricated blend is filled into capsules.

Example 9:

Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenfovir disproxil fumarate combination Efavirenz Granulation

S. No Ingredients Mg/tab % w/w

1 Efavirenz (Form H 1) 600 35.55

2 Microcrystalline cellulose 267 15.82

3 Sodium lauryl sulfate 46 2.73

4 Croscarmellose sodium 77 4.56

6 Colloidal silicon dioxide 27 1.60

7 Magnesium Stearate 20 1.19

Emitricitabine and Tenofovir disproxil fumarate Compaction

8 Emitricitabine 200 11.85

9 Tenofovir disproxil fumarate 300 17.78

10 Croscarmellose sodium 38.5 2.28

11 Microcrystalline cellulose 89.5 5.30

12 Colloidal silicon dioxide 5 0.30

13 Magnesium stearate 17.68 1.05

Core Weight 1350

Coating weight buildup . 27

Total tablet weight , 1377

Coating Material Composition

1 Polyvinyl alcohol

2 Polyethylene glycol

3 Iron oxide red

4 Titanium dioxide

5 Talc

6 Black iron oxide

Method of manufacture: Efavirenz is mixed with other ingredients and then wet granulated using an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate. This wet mass may then be dried in a fluid bed, tray or other suitable dryer. The dried granules are blended and lubricated. Emitricitabine and tenofovir disproxil fumarate is compacted with other excipients and lubricated. Emitricitabine, tenofovir disproxil fumarate final blend and efavirenz final blend are lubricated together with magnesium stearate and colloidal silicon dioxide and mixed together. This blend is compressed into tablets. The compressed tablets are film coated using the coating composition mentioned in example- 9.

Dissolution study:

The dissolution profile of the resulting coated tablets as per Example 6 and 7 were studied in 1000 ml of water with 2.0% sodium lauryl sulphate using USP-II apparatus at 50 rpm. The sampling was carried out at 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 minutes. The results are depicted in the table below:

Bioequivalence study:

Two products are considered to be bioequivalent if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the relative mean C max , AUC (0-t) and AUC( 0-∞ ) of the test to reference should be within 80.00% to 125.00% in the fasting state.

A two-way crossover bioequivalence study was carried out using the tablets of composition of Example 6 and 7. The study was monitored in terms of the AUC and C m ax achieved for efavirenz with the test and reference products. When study was conducted with the tablets made with efavirenz of particle size 100 microns, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of the log transformed mean values for C max and AUC for the test and reference product (T/R ratio) were outside the bioequivalence criteria. But when tablets made with particle size of 5-10 microns, 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of the log transformed mean values for C ma x and AUC for the test and reference product (T R ratio) were with in the bioequivalence acceptance criteria.

From the bioequivalence studies conducted for pharmaceutical formulation of novel form of efavirenz, it has been observed that there is a requirement of special particle size to prepare a bioequivalent pharmaceutical formulation of novel polymorph of efavirenz and it can be achieved only by the process developed by the inventor.