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Title:
BLAST AND ANTI-RAMMING WALLS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2004/092543
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A prefabricated modular blast and/or anti-ram barrier wall has two components, a surface mounted wall panel, and above and below ground posts that support it. The wall panels are strung together and connected to posts, which provide their supporting foundation. The posts and panel cavities are filled with high-strength concrete to provide added mass and ballistic resistance. Erection of the posts involves auguring holes for the posts, dropping them in, then backfilling; backfill may be with native material or soil matching grout. Posts may also be attached to existing above or below ground structures for their support. The panels may be dropped into place either through a prefabricated keyway in the post or in front of the post of the post to be connected through a series of front and back connection plates welded at the site. Along the wall, hydraulic or motor operated panels may be moved vertically or horizontally to provide access or access denial through points of egress.

Inventors:
Crawford, John (2550N. Hollywood Way, Suite 500 Burbank, CA, 91505-5026, US)
Hinman, Eve (One Bush Street, Suite 510 San Francisco, CA, 94104, US)
Blacklin, Peter (11391 Barrow Downs, Columbia, MD, 21044-1005, US)
Heyward, George (440 E. 13th Street, Apt.B4 New York, NY, 10009, US)
Replogle, John (1029 East Sandpiper Drive, Tempe, AZ, 85283-2020, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2004/010274
Publication Date:
October 28, 2004
Filing Date:
April 02, 2004
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Adler, Richard S. (1573 Mimosa Court, Upland, CA, 91786, US)
International Classes:
E04H9/10; (IPC1-7): E21F/
Foreign References:
US4409764A1983-10-18
US5797591A1998-08-25
JPS63181816A1988-07-27
JP2002121821A2002-04-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Gealow, Jon C. (2903 N. Bayview Lane, McHenry, IL, 60051-9629, US)
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Claims:
THE CLAIMS
1. A multilaminate noncomposite structure for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy applied to the structure comprising: A. a first steel plate of a first thickness, B. a layer of concrete, C. a second steel plate of a second thickness, said second thickness be greater than said first thickness, said layer of concrete being sandwiched between and contiguous to said first and second steel plates, so as to form a multilaminate noncomposite, with the kinetic energy being applied first to said first steel plate, whereby said first steel plate absorbs some of the kinetics energy in deformation, and transmits kinetic energy to said layer of concrete, said layer of concrete absorbing some of the kinetic energy in deformation and disintegration and transmits kinetic energy to said second steel plate which absorbs more of said kinetic energy.
2. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 1, wherein the preferred thicknesses of said first steel plate said concrete and said second steel plate are determined by a modeling program.
3. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 1, wherein said concrete mixture is a high strength mixture.
4. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 1, including a steel bridging member extending between and secured to both said first and second steel plates and spanning said layer of concrete.
5. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 4, wherein said steel bridging member is concave, extending toward said layer of concrete.
6. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 1, including a pair of said steel bridging members extending between and secured to opposite edges of both said first and second steel plates and spanning said layer of concrete.
7. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 6, wherein said steel bridging members are concave, extending toward said layer of concrete.
8. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 1, formed as an elongated member having first and second ends, a top and a bottom, and having first and second steel end plates secured to said first and second ends of said first and second steel plates and bridging said layer of concrete.
9. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 8, wherein each of said first and second ends is supported by a post, a portion of which post is buried, wherein the kinetic energy not absorbed by said first steel plate, said layer of concrete, and said second steel plate, is transmitted to said post, which absorbs some of the transmitted kinetic energy, with the remaining kinetic energy being absorbed by the ground.
10. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 9, wherein said buried portion of said post is surrounded by the soil in which it is buried, so as to form a noncomposite structure with said soil.
11. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 8, wherein said first and second ends are secured to said post with said second steel plate being adjacent to said post.
12. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 9, wherein said post is a multilaminate noncomposite assembly formed of an elongated hollow steel member which is filled with concrete, and said kinetic energy absorbed by said post is absorbed by said elongated hollow steel member and by said concrete.
13. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 10, wherein a connecting steel plate is interposed between said post and said second steel plate, and is secured to both said post and said second steel plate.
14. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 12, wherein said connecting steel plate is welded to both said post and said second steel plate.
15. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 1, wherein first and second steel end plates are secure to said first and second ends of first and second steel plates, bridging said layer of concrete.
16. A multilaminate noncomposite structure for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy applied to the structure comprising: A. a first layer of steel having a first thickness, B. a second layer of concrete, C. a third layer of steel having a second thickness which is greater than said first thickness, said second layer of concrete being sandwiched between and contiguous to said first and third layers of steel plates, with the kinetic energy being applied first to said first layer of steel.
17. An elongated multilaminate noncomposite assembly for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy applied to the assembly comprised of: A. a plurality of multilaminate noncomposite elongated structures having first and second ends, and first and second sides for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy applied to the structures comprising: 1. a first elongated steel plate of a first thickness, 2. a layer of concrete, 3. a second elongated steel plate of a second thickness, said second thickness be greaterthan said first thickness, said layer of concrete being sandwiched between and contiguous to said first and second elongated steel plates, with the kinetic energy being applied first to said first steel plate, whereby said first steel plate absorbs some of the kinetics energy in deformation, and transmits kinetic energy to said layer of concrete, said layer of concrete absorbing some of the kinetic energy in deformation and disintegration and transmits kinetic energy to said second steel plate which absorbs more of said kinetic energy, B. a plurality of support means, said plurality of elongated structures being supported at said first and said second ends by one of said plurality of support means, with adjoining ends of said elongated structures being support by one of said support means.
18. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 17, wherein each of said plurality of elongated multilaminate noncomposite structures includes a steel bridging member extending between and secured to both said first and second steel plates and spanning said layer of concrete.
19. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 18, wherein said steel bridging members are concave, extending toward said layer of concrete.
20. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 17, wherein each of said plurality of elongated multilaminate noncomposite structures includes a pair of said steel bridging members extending between and secured to opposite edges of both said first and second steel plates and spanning said layer of concrete.
21. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 22, wherein said steel bridging members are concave, extending toward said layer of concrete.
22. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 17, wherein each of said plurality of elongated multilaminate noncomposite structures is formed as an elongated member having first and second ends, a top and a bottom, and having first and second steel end plates secured to said first and second ends of said first and second steel plates and bridging said layer of concrete.
23. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 23, wherein each of said first and second ends of each of said plurality of elongated multi laminate noncomposite structures is supported by a post, a portion of which post is buried in the ground, wherein the kinetic energy not absorbed by said first steel plate, said layer of concrete, and said second steel plate, is transmitted to said post, which absorbs some of the transmitted kinetic energy, with the remaining kinetic energy being absorbed by the ground.
24. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 23, wherein said first and second ends of each of said plurality of elongated multilaminate non composite structures are secured to said post with said second steel plate being adjacent to said post.
25. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 24, wherein said post is a multilaminate noncomposite assembly formed of an elongated hollow steel member which is filled with concrete, and said kinetic energy absorbed by said post is absorbed by said elongated hollow steel member and by said concrete.
26. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 23, wherein a connecting steel plate is interposed between said post and said second steel plate, and is secured to both said post and said second steel plate.
27. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 26, wherein said connecting steel plate is welded to both said post and said second steel plate.
28. The multilaminate noncomposite assembly of claim 17, wherein first and second steel end plates are secure to said first and second ends of first and second steel plates, bridging said layer of concrete.
29. The multilaminate noncomposite structure of claim 9, wherein said buried portion of said post is surrounded by the soil in which it is buried, so as to form a noncomposite structure with said soil.
30. A method for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy comprising the steps of: A. apply said kinetic energy to an elongated first steel plate having first and second ends, which is supported at each of said ends, and which absorbs some of said kinetic energy as it is deformed in tension between said supported ends, B. next applying said kinetic energy to an elongated layer of concrete located on the opposite side of said first steel plate from that to which the kinetic energy is applied, said layer of concrete absorbing some of the kinetic energy in deformation and disintegration, and C. next applying said kinetic energy to an elongaged second steel plate having first and second ends, which is supported at each of said ends, and which absorbs some of the kinetic energy as it is deformed in tension between said supported ends.
31. The method for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy of claim 30, including the additional step of next applying said kinetic energy to a pair of posts, a portion of each of which posts is buried, each of which supports one end of each of said first and second elongated steel plates, wherein said posts absorb some of the kinetic energy as said posts are deformed.
32. The method for absorbing and resisting kinetic energy of claim 31, including the additional step of next applying said kinetic energy to the soil in which each of the posts is buried, wherein said energy is absorbed by the soil.
33. A method for installing an antiram wall onsite including the steps of: A. Augering holes in ground slightly deeper that what is needed for the post, B. Pour soil matching grout in hole to required depth to create flat surface for bottom of post, C. Allow grout to dry for 24 hours, D. Place post in center of hole with portion of post above ground, E. Align above ground portion of post with external alignment fasteners, F. Pour soil matching grout around foundation hole, G. Allow soil matching grout to dry for 24 hours, H. Place premade six sided panel with bottom cutout over posts, I. Drill hole (s) through front face of panel, two faces of posts, and back end of panel. J. Place rebar in drilled holes. K. Place prepared front/back exteriorfinished panels with attached rebar through predrilled holes into main panel. L. Pour concrete through top holes into main panel and into void inside post. M. Apply capstone to top of panel.
34. a method for moving large sections of antiram walls including the steps of: A. Apply landing gear type hydraulic wheels in bottoms of connected panels, B. engage wheels whereby elevating moving antiram wall, C. utilize motorized vehicle to pull and drive moving wall to seal opening in roadway, D. guide track in stationary antiram wall connects with fixed locking element on moving wall maintains vertical and horizontal alignment of moving wall during in and outward movement, E. Once wall is fully extended stow hydraulic landing gear, F. carried backing elements with friction grabbing ground elements bite into roadway to produce resisting force, G. Lift wheels and drive back into stowed position to reopen roadway.
Description:
BLAST AND ANTI-RAMMING WALLS CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS The following U. S. Patent applications are hereby incorporated by reference in the entirety for their teachings: U. S. Application Serial No. 60/435,513, Filed : December 19,2002 : Adler structural delay blast wall system with wide flange beams and steel keyed blast panels with concrete, by Richard Steven Adler, Eve Hinman, and John Crawford.

U. S. Application Serial No. 60/462, 086, Filed : April 11,2003 : Terrorist bombing of dams mitigation devices including road armor, wedged connecting sections of blast road, pop-up hydraulic blast wall system, non-conducting collartie- downs into pipes in ground for transformers/switching stations, adjustable height vehicle entry preventer head knocker and covered roof to inhibit blast loads into switching/transformer yard, by Richard Steven Adler, John Crawford, and Peter Blacklin.

U. S. Application Serial No. 60/500,707, Filed : September 5,2003 : Adler blast wall and Adler non-spalling anti ramming barrierwall system, by Richard Steven Adler and John Crawford.

U. S. Application Serial No. 60/504,895, Filed : September 22,2003 : Adleranti-ramming barrierwall system, by Richard StevenAdlerand John Crawford.

U. S. Application Serial No. 60/509,017, Filed : October 04, 2003: Adler anti-ramming wall and design, by Richard Steven Adler and John Crawford.

U. S. Application Serial No. 60/552,773, Filed : March 11,2004 : Adler articulating Anti-ram wall, by Richard Steven Adler and John Crawford.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to structures and systems for forming barriers and anti-ramming walls that protects facilities, buildings, equipment, and personnel behind them by preventing entry by impact of a moving mass, such as a truck or car, and by reducing blast effects from reaching a site.

2. Description of Related Art Including Information Disclosed Under 37 CFR 1. 95 and 1. 98.

High-performance protective barrier (HPPB) walls are known in the prior art. While not all of these walls are patented, some examples of the known patented prior art are: U. S. Patent No. Inventor (s) Issue Date 3,678, 815 Younker 07/25/1972 4,307, 973 Glaesener 12/29/1981 4, 822, 207 Swahlan 04/18/1989 5, 588, 786 House et al 12/31/1996 5,860, 762 Nelson 01/19/1999 6,099, 200 Pepe et al 08/08/2000 6,219, 991 B1 Salek-Nejad 04/24/2001 6, 401, 427 B1 Snyder 06/11/2002 6, 669, 402 B1 Davis et al 12/30/2003 6,412. 230 B1 Zambelli et al 07/02/2002 U. S. Patent Appin. Inventor (s) Date of publication 2003/0127636 A1 Piron 07/10/2003 Foreign Pat. Documents Inventor (s) Date of Publication EP 0 844 336 A2 Knight 05/27/1998 WO 01/06063 A1 Camomilla et al 01/25/2001

WO 02/081824A1 Pendlebury 10/17/2002 The known prior art barriers orwalls are not as effective as they might be, in that they either do not provide comprehensive, salable protection, or they result in walls of large size and high cost, or they are not easily tailored for specific sites. It has been determined that there is yet a further need for a family of devices of similar design and capability to form a network of protections, while permitting the appropriate esthetic appearance to be achieved for particular sites. The applicants' device is specifically designed to provide a wide range of esthetic treatments.

It has also been determined that there is yet a further need for a movable wall that may be deployed rapidly when desired, and that looks similar in appearance to the fixed components of the wall.

It has also been determined that there is yet a still further need for a wall supporting system that can accommodate a wide variety of site conditions while still providing the capacity to support the wall and control the deflections incurred by the wall when attacked to an acceptable level and not provide a source for injurious debris.

However, all of the known non-patented walls and those described in prior patents do not employ unique features discovered and developed by the applicants that allow HPPB walls to be highly effective in providing a high performance protective device for preventing entry to a site by impact of a moving mass, such as a truck or car, and in reducing blast effects from reaching a site.

The wall and barrier system which the applicants'have invented provides significant/unique advantages over similar devices in terms of the cost and ease of installation as compared to the level of protection offered, as well as offering a highly salable design that can be easily tailored for a specific application and site.

This invention is particularly useful as a barrier to prevent passage of vehicles, air blast, and debris that might pose a threat to the entities protected by

the barrier. This wall system may be installed in a variety of site conditions including soils of different strength and composition, different elevations, and rough and level topographies. In addition, the wall can span drainage courses or be sited off the ground surface so as not to impede water flow and drainage.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention may be briefly described with respect to its objects.

It is an object of this invention to employ a unique set of behavior/features to resist high velocity impacts, nearby blast loads, and high velocity fragments. These behaviors and features include: a modular wall panel composed of a multi-laminate, noncomposite panel (essentially consisting of a front steel plate, a crushable heavy core, and a rear steel plate, which are not bonded to each other) that provides the initial absorption of the energy imparted by the threat (e. g., airblast, vehicle impact) in such a way that (1) the front steel plate of the wall spreads the load out over the core preventing its cratering and maximizing its involvement; (2) a core providing inertia resistance and energy absorption, and protecting the rear steel plate from tearing/fracture; and (3) a rear steel plate, which is the key feature of the panel design, that is allowed to debond from the rest of the panel elements (front face and core) and respond in cantenary action, which allows it to deform large amounts without failure and thus absorb maximum amounts of energy for its size, minimize the forces transferred to the post, while being isolated for the initial shock wave of the blast or impact. This is accomplished through an engineered design for energy transfer through a variety of like and unlike common construction elements assembled by factory and field processes.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a highly ductile post to support the wall panel and conduct the reaction forces from the wall to the soil in a way that minimizes the reaction forces and protects the post from failure in shear or bending. The ductility of the post is achieved by backfilling around the post with soil matching grout such that the post is held firmly, but can move substantially when the wall panel is loaded by a blast or vehicle impact.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide. an installation process that allows for prefabrication of the steel components in a factory setting and minimizes field welding and on site manufacture. The nominal installation process includes drilling holes at the site, placing the posts for the wall into them, then backfilling around them with soil matching grout, then attaching the wall panels to the post, and finally filling the wall panel's and post's cavities with high strength concrete. The steel walls serve as a form for the concrete.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, for walls and barriers which work for a large range of threats.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a barrierwall system that selectively controls access to a site and reduces airblast and debris that can reach a site from a bomb detonated near the outer surface of the system.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, protection for entities, objects, and personnel behind the HPPB wall.

It is still another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a wall system that prevents break through or vaulting over of street-legal vehicles of any size, impacting the wall at speeds well above those that such vehicles could achieve on the open road.

It is still yet another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a barrier system that prevents entry of airblast and debris generated by an explosive weapon or terrorist device placed in front of the barrier.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a foundation design for independent post placement that can easily be adjusted to accommodate underground utilities, to avoid damaging tree root systems, and to allow for drainage while maintaining the structural integrity of the overall system.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a salable system with respect to capacity, size, foundation, and functionality.

It is still another object of the invention to provide either separate distinct capacities, or a combination of anti-ram and blast load capacities. This may be accomplished by portions of the same mounted wall having anti-ram impact and/or blast load attenuation features at different reaches along the same integral wall structure. For example, elevation changes in the wall may protect different height structures located behind the same reach of wall. For example, portions of the wall may be designed to provide only anti-ram capacity, and portions of the same wall may be designed for different size impacts. Other portions of the wall may be designed for impacts and blast loads, and still other portions of the wall may be designed for blast loads only. The blast load portion of the wall may be designed to protect a low-rise facility or be made taller to protect a higher structure.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a modular wall system that, after initial installation, is easily repairable, adjustable, or modified to accommodate damage or layout changes that might transpire in the future.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, support for the wall panel without the use of full length foundation trenches. Support is provided with minimal or no excavation into the soil to facilitate installation in areas where underground congestion (e. g. , from buried utility lines) makes installation of continuous footings difficult, costly, and undersireable.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a functional support to the wall panel that moves with the blast and impact load so as to reduce the loads on the support and thus allow a smaller size of post or support.

Moreover, the resulting plowing action of the post through the soil provides another means to absorb the load energy.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a means to self anchor its ends such that no other special anchorage requirements are needed for the end panels of the barrier wall.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a foundation support (post and backfill) to reduce the post's loads by allowing the foundation support to move with the blast and impact load so as to transfer to the soil the loads absorbed by the whole invention in such a way as to not risk failure of the post as would occur were it embedded in high strength concrete as is often the case for other similar devices. x It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, an alternative support, whereby the post is replaced with an anchor block that is placed on the surface of the soil. The bottom of this block may have a variety of shapes to to enhance its resistance to motion with respect to the underlying surface, absorb the energy imparted to the wall, and raise the wall higher under blast and impact loading.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a salable design that is based on a detailed computational analysis that uses a high- fidelity physics based finite element model of the device, the specified threat, and the soil upon which the device is set that allows the design to be customized and minimizes the variety of structural elements of the invention. Examples of the benefit of this analysis may include smaller post size, less deep excavation requirements for the post, and the ability to predict the outcome from a particular threat to aid the client in selecting the design of most benefit for a particular site.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a salable and balanced design based on detailed computational analysis to best maximize the energy absorption and energy release of the multi-faceted elements of the invention. These elements would include the steel plate type and thicknesses forthe front, back, top, bottom, interior, and side plates as well as the strength of the crushable core of the wall, which may be composed of concrete or other material

that provides a high degree of energy absorption and inertia resistance. In addition the analysis would aid in determining the overall dimensions and spacing of the posts. The analysis also allows the distance between supports (i. e. , posts) to be minimized, providing benefits in terms of installation.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a taper of the front face of the wall panel to guide trucks into the ground to avoid their vaulting over the wall.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a wall panel with variable levels of torsional rigidity to ensure that for a particular anti- ram application that the twist of a panel under impact may be limited to less that a specific allowable twist and that the maximum cant of a panel may be kept less than a specific value.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a wall panel whose rear plate is designed to contain/stop any debris from the wall itself or of the object that strikes the front of the wall from going beyond the wall panel.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a barrier wall design that works efficiently in long, short and very short runs. While working most efficiently in long runs, it also works nearly as efficiently over short to very short runs.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a system that relies on adding the fill material on-site so that shipping weight is reduced to a minimum. Moreover, fill materials may consist of a variety of materials likelyto be easilyavailableworldwide, including grout, concrete, soil, rock, and water (or ice).

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a modular design that is fully compatible with inter model shipping, allowing units to be sent worldwide with no special handling required. Moreover, each element of the

system is fairly light, allowing for assembly with a broad range of small size lifting devices.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, for allowing a broad range of excavation devices to be used in installation of the wall's support system (e. g. , posts). The excavations into which the post's are placed may be made with an auger of suitable size (the recommended approach), a backhoe, hand tools (like shovels and picks), or by any other means. Since soil matching grout is used to backfill around the post, the shape and size of the excavation is immaterial to the wall's performance. XXXXX shape/matching It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, the ability to employ a wide variety of post configurations for support of the wall.

It is still another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, relatively short posts with specially designed anchorage as well as posts supported off of a dead man or fixed existing anchor. Adjacent structures may also be used to support the posts-the baseline system uses posts sunk about 10 feet in the ground. However, short posts with specially designed anchorage may be used as well as posts supported off of a dead man or anchor block. Adjacent structures may also be used to support the posts.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, ballistic protection with respect to small arms fire, RPGS and other handheld ballistic threats.

It is another object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, protection from satchel, contact, and shape charges.

One preferred embodiment of the present invention may be briefly described as: a bafflerwall system including : (a) a wall panel assembly having a first side panel member, a second side panel member, a left end plate member, a right end plate member, and optional top and bottom plate members; (b) a stand alone

post that is placed in a pre-augured hole to which the wall panel is mounted, or an anchor block placed on the surface of the soil to which the wall panel is attached, oran anchorage system provided by an adjacent building orothertype structure; (c) a baffler member being vertically or horizontally movable to control access through the baffler.

Another embodiment of the wall is its modularity including: (a) the ability to manufacture it off-site; (b) the ability to stack or join individual wall segments to achieve flexibility in matching specific size (length and height) and site requirements; (c) minimizing the need for precision work in the field (e. g. , a keyway is used to provide a means to connect the wall panel to the post without the need for field welding or bolting).

It is another object of the invention to provide blast protection for interior rooms or areas of buildings such as storage vaults, executive offices or loading docks.

It is another object of the invention to provide a crushable exterior extending element such as stairs, an annular ring or other shape (s) connected to but beyond the back located or centric located anti-ram element to allow people to safely walk or sit on the crushable element but when a vehicle rams the structure the vehicle runs through the crushable part to be stopped bythe hard cored anti-ram element.

It is another object of the invention to utilize the anti-ram units as an anti-ram structural base for overhead structures to be fit above the anti-ram panels to produce functional items such as a bus shelter, arbor, kiosk, vending unit, etc.

It is another object of the invention to utilize the anti-ram wall as a structural element to attach adjacent structures to such as benches, chairs, signage, trash receptacles, drinking fountains, roadway lights, planters, newspaper vending fixtures, etc.

It is an object of the invention to minimize installation efforts at the joints of angle meeting straight anti-ram segments by custom fabricating angled boxes ranging below, at or above 90 degrees to custom fit the gap with the ends of the angled boxes made straight with the ends of the two straight anti-ram segments.

It is an object of the invention to provide a full exterior cover, such as a planteror long seat arrangement overthe anti-ram wall to mask its security function.

It is an object of the invention to allow for personnel to run behind the applicant's blast walls or anti-ram walls to safety through openings between embedded wall sections as the units are mounted with spaces between them.

It is an object of the invention to allow for the foundation post of the anti-ram wall to be placed underneath the anti-ram wall panel and connected to the system through the adhesion of the concrete admixture when poured into the panel whereby adhering the two unconnected steel elements.

The present invention may also include features and/or objects such as being able to be install in close proximity to the exterior skin of a multistory office building, either interior or exterior the skin. These features and others that will be discussed below may be used individually or selectively combined to suit a particular application.

In addition to the above summary, the following disclosure is intended to provide a detailed description of the invention which is adequate to provide a complete understanding of the invention. However, this disclosure, showing particular embodiments of the invention, is not intended to describe each and every variation of the applicants'invention. These specific embodiments have been chosen to show at least one preferred or best mode of the present invention. These specific embodiments, as shown in the accompanying drawings, may also include diagrammatic symbols for the propose of illustration and understanding. The present invention is illustrated byway of example, and no limitations are to be drawn

from the following figures in the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals indicate like parts.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a section view of a prior art anti-ram baffler known as a Jersey baffler ; FIG. 2 is a view of another prior art anti-ram barrier known as a bollard system; FIG. 3 is a perspective view of still another prior art anti-ram barrier know as a Red Line barrier; FIG. 4 is a front elevation view of a two connected modules of a preferred embodiment the anti-ram barrier wall system of this invention: FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a module of the anti-ram barrier wall system shown in Fig. 4; FIG. 6 shows a cross-section of the module of the anti-ram barrier wall system shown in Fig. 5 at a location midway between the ends; FIG. 7 shows a cross-section of the module of the anti-ram barrierwall system shown in Fig. 5 at a support post; FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a module similar to that shown in Fig.

5, showing another embodiment of this invention, wherein the top plate omitted, leaving the top of the module open; FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a pair of modules as shown in Fig. 5, show details of the connection between the modules;

FIG. 10 is a exploded perspective view of the abutting ends of a pair of modules as shown in Fig. 5, showing further details of the connections between the modules; FIG. 11 is a perspective view showing the attachment of a module of the anti-ram barrier wall system and a corner portion to a support post in accordance with this invention; FIG. 12 is an exploded view of an alternate embodiment of the anti- ram barrier of the present invention: FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of an alternate embodiment of the anti-ram barrier of this invention wherein the wall is suspended above the ground to permit water to flow under the wall ; FIG. 14 shows the attachment of esthetic elements to a anti-ram wall module as shown in Fig. 5; FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view of the anti-ram wall module as shown in Fig. 14, with one of the esthetic elements spaced from the module : FIG. 16 is a perspective view of anti-ram wall module provided with soil anchor supports rather than posts as shown in Fig. 7; FIG. 17 is a top plan view of the anti-ram wall module shown in Fig.

16; FIG. 18 is a perspective view of an anti-ram barrier wall of this invention having portions at angles with respect to each other; FIGS. 19a, 19b, and 19c are perspective views of corner sections use in completing the anti-ram barrier wall of Fig. 18;

FIGS. 20a, 20b, 20c, and 20d, show progressive steps in disguising an anti-ram barrier constructed in accordance with this invention; FIG. 21 is a perspective view of an anti-ram wall having an offset or indented portion to accommodate appurtenances such as fire hydrants telephone poles, etc.; FIG. 22 is a perspective view of an anti-ram barrier wall of this invention disguised as park type benches; FIG. 23 is an exploded perspective view of an anti-ram wall in accordance with this invention, shown an arrangement for attaching exterior facing panels ; FIG. 24 is a perspective view of a modification of the anti-ram wall of this invention wherein an anti-scaling barrier is provided; FIG. 25 is a perspective view showing the two types of principal components of a blast wall module of a preferred embodiment of this invention, namely support posts and a wall panel ; FIG. 26 is a perspective view similar to Fig. 25, showing the wall panel assembled with the posts; FIG. 27 is a perspective view of one of the support posts as shown in Figs. 25 and 26; FIG. 28 is a perspective view of the rebar cage which is place within the hollow center of the wall panel and between the posts before the hollow center is filled with concrete: FIG. 29 is a perspective view of one module of the blast wall, with the hollow center filed with concrete:

FIG. 30 is a perspective view of one embodiment of the blast barrier wall system of the present invention surrounding a rectangulararea withoutthe legs or posts being buried in the ground; FIG. 31 represents a plan view of one embodiment of an anti-ram barrier wall system of the present invention; FIG. 32 is a perspective view of the use of blast walls of this invention to form a protective freight loading and unloading area in a building; FIG. 33a, 33b, and 33c are perspective views of a wall of a building, with the blast walls of this invention being secured inside an outer wall of the building in Figs. 33b and 33c; FIG. 34 is a perspective view showing the use of a blast wall panel of this invention on a road bed; FIG. 35 is a perspective view of an installation utilizing both the blast wall and anti-ram wall embodiments of this invention; FIG. 36 is another perspective view of an installation utilizing both the blast wall and anti-ram wall embodiments of this invention, including a retractable blast wall ; FIG. 37 is a perspective view of the anti-ram wall of this invention utilized as a round about.

The figures accompanying and forming a part of this specification disclose details of construction for the sole purpose of explanation. It is to be understood that structural details may be modified without departing from the concept and principles of the invention as claimed. This invention may be incorporated into other structural forms than shown.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In the following description, and in the appended claims, various details are identified by specific names for convenience. These names are intended to be generic in their application while differentiating between the various details.

The corresponding reference numbers referto like members throughout the several figures of the drawing.

Referring to the drawings and in particular to FIGS. 2 through 25, the HPPB wall assembly of the present invention is generally identified as 2; a portion of the HPPB wall is shown in FIG. 22; a complete wall panel module is shown in FIG. 23. An HPPB wall consists of two principal components: (1) a wall panel (FIG.

23) supported by (2) a post, identified as 20 in FIG. 22. The following provides a description of the wall panel. As shown in FIGS. 22 and 23, a wall panel is composed of a front face plate 13 and a rear face plate 27. The wall panel also has end plates 12 that tie the front and back panels together. The wall panel may also have top 11 and bottom plates 26 that tie all four other plates (13,27, 11, 12) together. Interior tie plates 14 may also be used. After attachment to the post, the interior of the wall panel is filled with concrete 22. The concrete is either placed through the holes 16 in the top plate 11, or where plate 11 is omitted, the concrete can be placed directly in the cavity.

While in the preferred embodiment concrete is used to fill the cavity, water, ice and sand may also be used. However, since that materials have different characterizable traits, an analytical model can be used to determine their effect on the performance of the blast wall. Under certain conditions, these materials could produce better behavior under some circumstances or result in a more deployable system because sand may be more readily available than concrete. With respect to the top and bottom plates, the shape of the top plate is not critical. However better performance of the barrier results when the bottom plate is concave upward.

While the back plate must be flat, the shape of the front panel is not critical. The thickness of the back panel should be at least twice that of the front panel. When the above described wall is used in anti-ramming situations, rather than blast situations, vertical diaphragms are provided, since they resist twisting of the front and back plates. The vertical diaphragms do not resist or absorb much energy, but

they do provide torsional stiffness. The particular arrangement of rebars in the cavity is not important, but the total area and length of the rebars does significantly effect the performance of the barrier.

It has been found that running post-tension cables through the length of the wall improves performance of the wall and may replace some of the rebars.

Due to the strength of the cables, only about one halve the area of cable is need to replace a corresponding are of rebar. Cable tension is achieved by putting the core concrete in compression. Cables run the whole length of the wall, with theirtension holing the wall modules together. Standard post-tension devices are used to install the cables in the concrete and to place the cables in tension.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the front wall has a downward and inward angle of 15 to 25 degrees, which forces the bumper of a vehicle impacting the wall to move downward rather that upward. rebars, th Holes 34 may be drilled in any of the wall panels exterior plates 11,13, and 27 for mounting of precast panels 32 embodying esthetic elements that have rebar 33 protruding from them (FIG. 15) such that they are aligned with holes 34.

Rebars 33 are inserted in holes 34, then tied to the wall panel with concrete 22 placed into the cavity 15 of the wall panel. The post 20 may be strengthened with cover plates 19 where needed. The wall panels are tied together with cover plates 24 and 18 are welded to the wall module face plates 13 and 27. The cover plate 24 comes from the fabricator already attached to post 20.

Rebars 31 are inserted in slots 17 as an additional means to tie the wall panels (FIG. 10) together. End panels 12 are welded to face plates 13 and 27.

The wall panel for the blast wall is similar to that for the anti-ram wall as shown in FIGS. 21,22, and 30, (FIGS. 26 and 30) has similar features. The style of blast wall illustrated in FIGS. 25 and 26 shows a different style of wall-to-post attachment (i. e., as compared to FIG. 4) in which a keyway device is used. This allows the wall and post to be attached without the need for field welding. Another form of wall-to-post attachment is shown in FIG. 30, where the post is placed inside the wall panel.

Referring to the drawings and in particular to FIGS. 25 to 30, the HPPB wall assembly of the present innovation is generally identified as 50 as related to its embodiment as primarily a blast wall ; a portion of the HPPB wall shown in FIG. 30 marked as 50 is shown in FIG. 26 in the installed configuration and in a configuration in FIG. 25 at a point where the wall panel 56 is about to be attached (51) by slotting (or dropping) it into the keyways 52 and 53 that bind it to two of the posts 54 and 55 that comprise the whole of wall shown in FIG. 30. The keys 57 and 58, inherent in the panel, lock it to the post without need for welding.

These elements, typically composed of precast elements are anchored to the structural portion of the bafflerwall by inserting the rebar 34 into the predrilled holes in the wall ; Variations to the construction of the anti-ram wall include placing the posts under the panel, such that little or no site welding is required. In another embodiment, units are stacked to provide a tallerwall. The thinner units are stacked on thicker units, but the back are kept flush to engage the same post. To form corners, the straight portions meeting at a corner are positioned, and the measurements made to cut and weld angle pieces to complete the corner.