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Patent Searching and Data

Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1996/009241
Kind Code:
A brake assembly by means of which rotational motion and also linear motion, i.e. faulty motion of lifting platforms, especially dropping, is braked. The assembly comprises a braking gear (20, 21) fitted onto axle (4), a coupling (25, 26) to transmit rotational motion and furnished with a locking device (27) that releases by an adjusted rate of centrifugal force generated by the rotational motion and locks the coupling to transmit rotational motion between axle and locking device. Upon locking, the locking device in the coupling is fitted to transmit rotational motion also in the opposite direction of the direction produced by the locking device in order to open the locking by turning axle (4) in the opposite direction, and the coupling has a retaining shoulder (50) to prevent the locking device from returning immediately to not-locking position when the brake is opened by rotating axle (4) in the opposite direction.

Timari, Jali
Application Number:
Publication Date:
March 28, 1996
Filing Date:
September 20, 1994
Export Citation:
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Timari, Jali
International Classes:
B66B5/04; B66B5/16; F16D59/00; F16D65/14; F16D65/02; (IPC1-7): B66B5/16
Foreign References:
Other References:
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1. A brake assembly for braking or stopping uncontrolled motion, by means of which rotational motion and also linear motion, i.e faulty motion, especially dropping, of lifting platforms or similar vertically moving lifting housings is braked, in which case the linear motion is first turned into rotational motion by power tranmission means, such as gearwheel and gear rack, the assemby comprising a housing (1,2), fixed in the hoist gear so that the rotational motion, which is to be braked, is transmitted from hoist gear to axle (4) of the assembly, a coupling fitted on said axle (4) and transmitting rotational motion to braking gear (20,21), comprised of a locking device (27), which is released by an adjusted rate of centrifugal force energated by rotational motion, by means of which locking device the coupling is locked to transmit rotational motion between axle and braking gear, and the said brake gear (19,20,21), by means of which the rotat¬ ional motion of the axle (4) is locked or braked with regard to the assembly housing (1,2) characterized in that the locking device (27) in coupling (25,26) is, when locked, fitted to transmit rotational motion in the opposite direction, also with respect to the direction caused by locking, in order to open the locking by turning the axle (4) in the opposite direction and in that the coupling comprises a re¬ taining shoulder (50) to prevent locking device (27) from return¬ ing immediately into notlocking position when the brake is being opened by said counterwise rotation of axle (4) .
2. A brake assembly according to patent claim 1 characterized in that when the axle (4) is being rotated and the braking effect essentially reduced, the retaining shoulder (50) is arranged to get out from its position that prevents the coupling (25,25) from getting open.
3. A brake assembly according to patent claims 1 and 2 character¬ ized in that the brake tensioning and opening motion is connected to move retaining shoulder (50).
4. A brake assembly according to any of the patent claims 1 3 characterized in that the rotational motion over the coupling is in the first stage arranged to tighten the brake by an axial spring (19) tensioning motion, for the producing of which a mu¬ tually stepped pair of counter surfaces (45,46,47) and (44) is formed in support flange (18) and sleeve (29) for transmission of sudden axial motion into support flange (18) to tighten spring (19).
5. A brake assembly according to any of the patent claims 1 3 characterized in that in the second stage the rotational motion over the coupling is arranged to tighten the brake by a thread (41) formed in sleeve (29), by means of which a spring tension¬ ing axial motion is generated while the sleeve is turning in the counter thread in housing (2).
6. A brake assembly according to any of the patent claims 1 3 characterized in that in the first stage the rotational motion over the coupling is adjusted to open the brake by an axial mot¬ ion that reduces spring tension, for producing of which a mutually stepped pair counter surfaces (45,46,47) and (44) is formed in the support flange (18) and sleeve (29) for transmission of sudden axial motion into support flange (18) to reduce spring (19) tension.
7. A brake assembly according to any of the patent claims 1 3 characterized in that in the second stage the rotational motion over the coupling is arranged to open the brake by a thread (41) formed in sleeve (29), by means of which a motion thet reduces spring tension is generated while the sleeve is turning in the counter thread in housing (2).
8. A brake assembly according to any of the patent claims 1 7 characterized in that when the preventing impact of the retaining shoulder (50) is dropping, the locking device (27) is arranged to retreat from its counter surface in coupling (25) into a not locking state by placing the fixing point of locking device (27) in front of the locking device bracket (51) in the direction of the flange rotation.
9. A brake assembly according to any of the patent claims 1 8 characterized in that the ballspring construction (38,37), as¬ sociated with locking device (27), is turned into a regulating element, whereby the retaining capacity of locking device (27) can be influenced on adjusting the spring (37) tension by means of ball (38).
BRAKE ASSEMBLY The invention relates to a brake assembly according to patent claim 1 which is used as an automatically activted emergency brake a.o. in lifting platforms and elevators.

Automatically activated emergency brakes are previously known for instance from publications SE-302675 and 308785 illustrating the brake constructions, which in case of emergency brake and stop the motion due to a speed higher than ajusted. The disadvantage of these known construtions is the very complicated disassembly of the locking system. In lifting platforms and elevators the brake is always there. After emergency stop the platform or elevator may be very high up. Disassembly of brake locking is made by opening the brake gear, which means getting into an uncontrollable state, where the elevator or lifting platform is not locked by any other means. If the fault is in the driving motor or its axles, the driving motor has no retaining capacity and so an emergency sit¬ uation arises when the brake is being disassembled. In any case, the installation-requiring disassembly of the locking of these designs is as a time-taking and risky procedure a hazardous job. Even checking the working order of these emergency brakes requires a braking test, after which the brake locking must be disassembled by opening it with a tool.

By means of the brake assembly according to this invention these disadvantages are avoided and characterized in what is presented in the patent claim 1.

The most important advantages of this invention are that the brake locking can be opened simply in lifting the platform or elevator, i.e. in turning the brake assembly axle in the opposite direction. If the lifting motor and transmission of the lifting platform or similar equipment is in good working order, the brake can be open¬ ed safely and successfully without even touching the brake gear. Thus brake testing is an easy job. The brake opens automatically during the reverse rotation of the axle and is constantly fit for for emergency braking.

A significant advantage of the brake assembly is that opening the brake locking without disassembling the brake can be succesfully carried out with a hoisting gear wchi is in good condition. This means that, firstly, the hoisting gear is checked or repaired and possible faults amended, which may be the cause also of uncontrol¬ led dropping.

In the following the invention is presented in detail with refer¬ ence to the enclosed drawing, where

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the brake assembly when the brake gear axle is free to rotate.

Fig.2 is a cross-section at the coupling where the coupling is locked on.

Fig. 2a is an intersection of how the coupling becomes locked. Fig. 3 and 4 are a brake tightening sleeve.

Fig. 5 and 6 are a support flange arranged against the brake spring.

Figure 1 shows a brake assembly according to the invention, to which rotative motion is transmitted by means of cog-wheel 3, for instance from a gear rack in the vertical support frame of the hoist device. Cog-wheel 3 is fixed to axle 4 by means of a slot joint and locked by locking ring 12. The brake assembly itself is is fastened from its frame 1,2 to the movable lifting platform or elevator so that cog-wheel 3 remains in contact with the gear rack. Axle 4 is fastened with ball bearing 7 to housing 1. After the bearing a planetary gear 5,24,8 is is fixed on axle 4, by means of which the rotation speed of sleeve 6 is triplicated with regard to axle 4. As bearings of sleeve 6 sliding sleeves 30 and 31 are used. To sleeve 6 end one of the coupling counter flanges, s.c. locking flange 26, is fastened with screws 35, which comprises a moving locking device 27. The other counter flange 25 of the coupling is furnished with firm claws. Coupling 22,26 is a claw flange coupling, the power transmitting claw 27 of which functions as locking device. This locking device 27 is released by spring force from its locked state to the space betwen flange 25 claws by certain adjustably set rotation speed.

In figure 1 the coupling is open and rotation not transmitted to coupling 25. Coupling 25 is on the rotation transmitting slot joint fastened to sleeve 29 end. This sleeve 29 is fastened by sliding bearing 22 to rotate with respect to sleeve inside it. The sleeve 29 surface has also a thread 41 (fig. 4) and a correspond¬ ing thread in housing 2. This means that always when sleeve 29 is rotating, it also moves in line with the housing. To support cup springs 19 the end of this sleeve is fitted with a flange 18 , which transmits, in association with the sleeve motions, spring tensioning or tension reducing forces. Cup springs 19 press coni¬ cal brake surface 21 against the counterface in housing 2, which is furnished with friction surface 20.

The brake gear is progressive, because when braking action is re¬ leased by locking device 27 of coupling, the sleeve 29 and brake components 18, 20 and 21 start to rotate causing constant tight¬ ening of springs 19 untill axle rotation stops at a sufficient rate of braking force.

Figures 2a and 2 show what happens immediately when emergency braking is activated by locking device 27. Locking device 27 is turned outward by centrigul force and bracket 51, which funct- tions as a claw, hits the claw of the coupling counter flange 25 and puts also flange 25 into rotation. Flange 25 is then also rotating the sleeve 29, which due to thread 41 starts to move to the left in figure 2a. This makes shoulder 50 in coupling flange 25 start functioning as a clamp of locking device 27 thus prev¬ enting the locking device from returning inward. Accordingly, the construction locks the coupling into ON-position when emergency braking has been switched on. With axle 4 still in rotation, sleeve 29 moves to the left thus tensioning also brake springs 19 and raising the braking force. When axle 4 stops rotating, the brake and coupling remain locked on.

In the stage of emergency brake activation, the rotation of flange 25 is sensed by an electric switch, the impulse of which switches off the controlling current of the driving motor.

Releasing of locking device 27 is adjusted to required speed of rotation by ball 28, spring 37 and adjusting screw 36. There is a cavity against which the ball is supported and enabled to keep the coupling open to a certain rate of centrifugal force.

Figures 3 and 4 show sleeve 29, at the end of which there are slots for installing the coupling counter flange 25. In the approximate centre of the sleeve there is a thread 4, for which there is a counter thread in housing 2. In the other sleeve end there are clawlike bevelled surfaces 44, the function of which is described in connection with figures 5 and 6.

Figures 5 and 6 show flange 18 fixed to sleeve 29 end to support the cup springs and, at the same time, to transmit also the ro¬ tation motion from sleeve to the brake surface. A most useful feature is associated with the power transmitting surface between flange 18 and sleeve 29. In other words, claws 44 of sleeve 29 lean against surfaces 45 of flange 18 when the brake is in neut¬ ral state, which means that axle 4 rotates freely. When the coup¬ ling is switched on by locking device 27 and sleeve 29 has started to rotate, the claws begin to slide onto surface 45 of flange 18 hitting the bevel surface 46 and sliding onto the stepped surface 47. All this takes place when sleeve 29 is rotating only a few angular degrees. Due to the stepped difference between surfaces 45 and 47, flange 18 moves suddenly 3 or 4 mm in tensioning direction of springs 19 and a propriate increase of tension is produced be¬ fore the friction surface of the brake starts to slide. Anyhow, prior to this tensinoing, the brake is already ON and springs 19 are tightening the brake surface to a degree that prevents the flange 18 from starting to rotate when the sleeve 29 claws 44 rise over the bevelled surface 46 onto surface 47.

Flange 18 transmits the rrotational motion from cavities 48 on its outer surface to the brake surface 21, which has brackets to fit in the corresponding cavities. Claws 44, slided onto surface 47, hit then flange 18 stoppers 49, whereby sleeve 29 rrotational motion is transmitted to flange 18 and brake surface 21. Then,

when the braking force is constantly growing while the sleeve is rotating, the axle 4 motion is retarded by the increasing force and finally stopped. Braking remains ON in locked position.

The sliding surface between sleeve 29 and flange 18 is advantage¬ ous upon braking but upon opening it is still of much greater sig¬ nificance. Now, on starting to open the locked brake by turning axle 4, whereby the coupling and sleeve 29 are also turned but in the opposite direction, opening of brake proceeds as follows. The rotation force is also transmitted in another direction by coupl¬ ing 25,26 as per figure 2, whereby (in driving "up") the force is transmitted also by bracket 51 to the coupling claw, now only to the adjacent claw than in figure 2, whereat the coupling revolves slightly and transmission of the rotational motion gets started. On turning axle 4 in the opposite direction, just the sliding surface 47 between sleeve 29 and flange 18 becomes the first sliding face from which claw 44 slides off to surface 45. This sliding does not require any great rotation force and takes place by means of the example figure 5 construction at a range of ab. an 1/8 partial turn. Sliding of claw 44 to surface 45 reduces immediately the tension force of springs 19, since the flange can retreat at once about 3 - 4 mm with respect to the sleeve. Sleeve 29 starts to rotate flange 18 due to stoppers 49. Now, after the significant drop of spring force, opening of brake is proceeded so that even the brake surface 21 slides in the housing section 2 by means of its sliding surface 20. Even the driving motors of the lifting devices or elevators can easily perform this and opening continues so that the braking force is constantly falling and sleeve 29 moves to the right in figures 1 and 2a. When sleeve 29 is shifted so much to the right that the retaining shoulder 50 does not prevent locking device 27 from returning inwards, the locking device returns in-wards as per fig. 2, since the adjacent claw pushes the locking device in. In the brake opening direction, i.e. in the upward directed motion, the location of the fixed hinge point of coupling flange 26 is in direction of rotation before claw bracket 51, whereby claw 25 pushes bracket 51 inward and opens the locking. Accordingly, the brake assembly returns to

the state shown in figure 1, whereat axle 4 and, in addition, also locking flange 26 can rotate freely and by means of ball 38 the retaining capacity is turned to the locking device 27.

Even though the brake assembly is presented by disclosing one embodiment only, several modifications are possible within the limits of the inventional concept described in the patent claims.