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Title:
BREAD PRODUCT AND MANUFACTURE PROCESS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/103626
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method for producing dough comprising: providing a batter from a fermented dough; fermenting the batter under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and admixing the fermented batter with at least flour to form a manufactured dough, as well as uses of an admixture comprising a batter derived from a fermented dough, wherein said batter is fermented under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow, and at least flour, the admixture forming a manufactured dough for: minimising waste in dough manufacture; the manufacture of a dough having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture; reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process; for improving mould free shelf life of a baked product or combinations thereof and manufactured doughs, baked products and foodstuffs obtainable by a method or use of the invention.

Inventors:
KELLY, Colin (Back O'th Bank HouseHereford Street, Bolton BL1 8HJ, BL1 8HJ, GB)
BRIGGS, Mike (Back O'th Bank HouseHereford Street, Bolton BL1 8HJ, BL1 8HJ, GB)
BORLAND, Mark (Back O'th Bank HouseHereford Street, Bolton BL1 8HJ, BL1 8HJ, GB)
FRANKLAND, Jason (Back O'th Bank HouseHereford Street, Bolton BL1 8HJ, BL1 8HJ, GB)
Application Number:
GB2016/053992
Publication Date:
June 22, 2017
Filing Date:
December 19, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WARBURTONS LTD (Back O'th Bank House, Hereford Street, Bolton BL1 8HJ, BL1 8HJ, GB)
International Classes:
A21D2/36; A21D2/38; A21D8/04; A21D17/00
Domestic Patent References:
2016-06-02
Foreign References:
US20020136813A12002-09-26
DE3323081A11984-03-08
US20050266119A12005-12-01
Other References:
RICHARD BERTINET: "Brot", 2007, CHRISTIAN VERLAG, München, XP002767118
ANONYMOUS: "www.der-Sauerteig.de :: Thema anzeigen - 4.4 Die Geschenkten: Hermann, Robert und Co.", 5 September 2004 (2004-09-05), XP055343442, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170208]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HOBSON, David J. (Mathys & Squire LLP, The Shard32 London Bridge Street, London SE1 9SG, SE1 9SG, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 . A method for producing dough comprising:

a. providing a batter from a fermented dough;

b. fermenting the batter under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and c. admixing the fermented batter with at least flour to form a manufactured dough.

2. A method according to claim 1 , wherein the airflow is 5-15 litres per minute.

3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the fermented dough comprises at least flour, a yeast and water.

4. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the fermented dough is processed to form a batter.

5. A method according to claim 4, wherein the processing of the fermented dough to form a batter comprises mixing the fermented dough. 6. A method according to claim 4 or 5, wherein the processing of the fermented dough to form a batter comprises admixing with the fermented dough one or more ingredient(s) selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. 7. Use of an admixture comprising: a batter derived from a fermented dough, wherein said batter is fermented under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and at least flour, the admixture forming a manufactured dough for:

a. minimising waste in dough manufacture; and/or

b. the manufacture of a dough having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture; and/or

c. reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process; and/or

d. for improving mould free shelf life of a baked product or combinations thereof.

8. Use according to claim 7, wherein the improved baking performance is one or more selected from the group consisting of: improved volume, improved softness, improved whiteness and combinations thereof. 9. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the batter is fermented for at least about 2 hours, preferably at least about 3 hours.

10. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the batter is fermented for about 3.5 hours.

1 1 . A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein less than about 90% w/w based on flour weight of fermented batter is admixed with at least flour to form the manufactured dough. 12. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein ascorbic acid is admixed with the fermented dough or the batter from a fermented dough.

13. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein less than about 50% w/w based on flour weight of fermented batter is admixed at least flour to form the manufactured dough.

14. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the fermented batter is admixed with at least flour and one or more ingredient(s) to form the manufactured dough.

15. A method or use according to claim 14, wherein the one or more ingredient(s) is a dough.

16. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the fermented dough is a waste dough.

17. A method or use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the manufactured dough is baked to obtain a baked product.

18. A manufactured dough obtainable by a method or use according to any one of claims 1 -16.

A manufactured dough according to claim 18, wherein the dough is one or more selected from the group consisting of: a bread dough, a sweet dough, a laminated dough, a muffin dough, a doughnut dough, a dough for frying and a pretzel dough.

A baked product obtainable by a method or use according to claim 17.

A baked product having an improved property, wherein the improved property is determined by C-Cell image analysis, and is one or more of:

a. an improved volume and/or softness determined by a slice height that is at least 1 % greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method; and/or

b. an improved structure determined by a cell number per slice that is at least 1 % greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method; and/or

c. an improved whiteness determined by a mean grey level of pixels per slice that is at least 1 % greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method.

22. A baked product according to claim 21 , wherein the slice height, cell number per slice and/or mean grey level of pixels per slice is at least 2%, 5% or 10% greater.

23. A method or use according to claim 17 or a baked product according to any one of claims 20-22, wherein the baked product is one or more selected from the group consisting of: breads, sweet dough products, laminated doughs, muffins, doughnuts and pretzels. 24. A manufactured dough or baked product according to any one of claims 18-23, wherein the baked product or dough has one or more of the following properties: improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture and/or mould free shelf life; reduced additives; when compared to a manufactured dough or baked product that has not been manufactured using the method or use of any one of claims 1 -17 or 23. A method for manufacturing a foodstuff comprising admixing a manufactured dough according to claim 18, 19 or 24; or a baked product according to any one of claims 20-24 with at least one foodstuff ingredient. 26. A foodstuff obtainable by the method of claim 25.

Description:
BREAD PRODUCT AND MANUFACTURE PROCESS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method for producing dough as well as manufactured doughs, baked products and foodstuffs obtained from such methods. In particular the invention relates to fermented batter and dough admixtures as well as uses thereof.

BACKGROUND

Ferment and dough (a.k.a. sponge and dough) is a two-step bread technology for dough production that is still widely used for improving bread quality around the world, particularly in the USA and Asia. The technology is based on mixing a batter using flour, yeast and water, allowing the dough or batter to ferment for a period of time, then mixing a proportion of this dough or batter with fresh flour and other ingredients to form a fresh dough before processing. Effectively the process uses pre-fermented dough as an 'improver'.

Due to yeast fermentation during the ferment and dough process, certain acids and volatiles are produced which gives bread a more rounded, traditional flavour. However, the ferment and dough process generally requires a high w/w proportion of ferment to be mixed with fresh flour in order to obtain a dough with desirable properties and is therefore more time consuming and/or expensive than other processes.

Before the advent of the Chorleywood Bread Process (CBP) in 1961 , the ferment and dough technology was also common in the UK, Australia and South Africa. The CBP started as a development project in 1958 and was launched to the baking industry by the British Baking Industries Research Association (BBIRA), Chorleywood, Hertfordshire in 1961 . It was originally designed to allow the craft baker to move away from the traditional longer, slower Bulk Fermentation Time (BFT) process. The CBP allows for the use of lower-protein wheat and reduces processing time, the system being able to produce a loaf of bread from flour to a sliced and packaged product in a reduced time. This is achieved through the addition of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), fat, yeast, and intense mechanical working by high-speed mixers. Following high-speed mixing the dough can then be processed directly without the need for bulk fermentation and so cut the time needed to make commercially acceptable bread from 8 hours to around 4 hours. By mixing the dough to a defined energy level in a fast time and replacing the biological reactions that happen naturally due to yeast fermentation during the Bulk Fermentation process with chemical reactions, for the same flour quality, the bread produced is bigger in volume, has a finer cell structure and a greater softness. This allows the use of lower grade and less expensive flour to produce bread of the same quality in half the time. However, one of the criticisms of modern plant produced bread made by the CBP is that it lacks flavour.

The advent of the CBP meant the introduction of a number of micro-ingredients that have to be added to the recipe in order for the process to work effectively. These ingredients included oxidants, trace minerals and high melting point fats. Typically the micro-ingredients are added in minute quantities making it impractical for them to be added at the bakery. Thus 'improver houses' have become an intrinsic part of the modern bakery industry, blending the micro ingredients into one 'Compound Dough Conditioner' that is usually added at the bakery. In more recent years emulsifier and enzyme technology has started to come to the fore in addition to the micro-ingredients already being used in modern bread-making techniques. In the modern day there has been a shift in the attitude of a sector of consumers some of whom have a requirement for dough-based products having high functionality and desirable properties but with fewer additives.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to one aspect the present invention provides a method for producing dough comprising:

a. providing a batter from a fermented dough;

b. fermenting the batter under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and c. admixing the fermented batter with at least flour to form a manufactured dough.

In one aspect there is provided use of an admixture comprising: a batter derived from a fermented dough, wherein said batter is fermented under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and at least flour, the admixture forming a manufactured dough for:

a. minimising waste in dough manufacture; and/or

b. the manufacture of a dough having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture; and/or

c. reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process; and/or

d. for improving mould free shelf life of a baked product or combinations thereof. In one aspect the present invention provides a dough obtainable by a method or use of the invention. In one aspect there is provided a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention.

In a related aspect there is provided a baked product (suitably bread) having an improved property, wherein the improved property is determined by C-Cell image analysis, and is one or more of:

a. an improved volume and/or softness determined by a slice height (e.g. pixels/mm) that is at least 1 % or 2% greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method; and/or

b. an improved structure determined by a cell number per slice that is at least 1 % or 2% greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method; and/or

c. an improved whiteness determined by a mean grey level of pixels per slice that is at least 1 % or 2% greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method.

In one embodiment an improved property is improved volume and/or softness determined by a slice height that is at least 5% or 10% greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method. In one embodiment an improved property is improved structure determined by a cell number per slice that is at least 5% or 10% greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method. In one embodiment an improved property is improved whiteness determined by a mean grey level of pixels per slice that is at least 5% or 10% greater when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method. The slice height or cell number may be an average (e.g. mean) calculated by testing a plurality of slices.

In one aspect the invention provides a foodstuff manufactured from: a dough obtainable from a method or use of the invention; a dough of the invention; a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention; or a baked product of the invention. In one aspect there is provided a method for manufacturing a foodstuff comprising admixing a dough obtainable from a method or use of the invention; a dough of the invention; a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention; or a baked product of the invention with at least one foodstuff ingredient.

In one aspect there is provided a foodstuff obtainable by a method for manufacturing a foodstuff according to the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows (A) average slice height (pixels/mm); and (B) average number of cells per slice, for a control bread compared to a bread made according to the invention with 48% on flour weight (OFW) ferment.

Figure 2 shows (A) average slice brightness; (B) average slice height (pixels/mm); and (C) average number of cells per slice for ferments produced in the absence or presence of aeration.

Figure 3 shows (A) average slice height (pixels/mm); and (B) average number of cells per slice for bread prepared using ferment of different ages and produced at different temperatures as indicated on the x axis.

Figure 4 shows (A) average slice height (pixels/mm); and (B) average number of cells per slice for bread produced using different amounts of ferment where ascorbic acid was added to the ferment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A seminal finding of the present invention is that a dough can be manufactured in accordance with the methods and/or uses of the present invention having a higher functionality and/or more desirable properties and/or fewer additives when compared to conventional dough production techniques.

In one embodiment there is provided a method for producing dough comprising:

a. providing a batter from a fermented dough;

b. fermenting the batter under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and c. admixing the fermented batter with at least flour to form a manufactured dough.

In another embodiment there is provided a manufactured dough obtainable (e.g. obtained) by a method of the invention. In some embodiments the method further comprises baking the manufactured dough to obtain a baked dough product. Thus, there is provided a baked dough product obtainable (e.g. obtained) by a method of the invention. The invention also provides the use of an admixture comprising a batter derived from a fermented dough, wherein said batter is fermented under aerobic conditions by controlling airflow; and at least flour, the admixture forming a manufactured dough for: minimising waste in dough manufacture; the manufacture of a dough having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture; reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process; or combinations thereof.

The term "dough" as used herein has its standard meaning in the art and is meant to refer to an admixture comprising flour and water. Suitably the term "dough" may refer to an admixture comprising (or consisting of) flour, water and a yeast. In other embodiments a dough may comprise (or consist of) flour, water and a yeast and one more further ingredient, for example the one or more further ingredient may be one or more selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

In another embodiment a dough may not comprise one or more further ingredient selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

The term "flour" as used herein refers to a finely-ground meal of a grain suitable for use in the production of a dough. Preferably the term flour may refer to a finely-ground meal of wheat, more preferably wheat only.

The term "fermented dough" as used herein refers to a dough that has been subjected to a fermentation step prior to its use in a method or use of the invention. The fermentation to which the "fermented dough" is subjected is intended to be a substantial fermentation. A "substantial fermentation" is intended to exclude unintended de minimis fermentation which may arise via mixing a yeast with a flour and water. For example the term "substantial fermentation" may exclude fermentation of a dough comprising a yeast under non-standard and/or non-optimal conditions.

Suitably a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 20 minutes at at least about 25 ºC or at least about 20 minutes at at least about 28 ºC, preferably for at least about 20 minutes at at least about 30 ºC. Preferably a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 20 minutes at about 34 ºC or at least about 20 minutes at about 34 ºC. In other embodiments a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 30 minutes (suitably at least about 45 minutes) at at least about 25 ºC or at least about 30 minutes (suitably at least about 45 minutes) at at least about 28 ºC, preferably for at least about 30 minutes (suitably at least about 45 minutes) at at least about 30 ºC.

Preferably a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 30 minutes (suitably at least about 45 minutes) at at least about 34 ºC.

In some embodiments a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 45 minutes at at least 30ºC. Suitably, a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 1 hour or at least about 1 .5 hours (preferably at about 2.5 hours) at at least 34ºC. Suitably, a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring for at least about 2 hours or at least about 2.5 hours (preferably at about 3.5 hours) at at least 30ºC.

Suitably a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring at about 38 ºC for about 30 minutes.

In further embodiments a "substantial fermentation" may refer to an intended fermentation step occurring at between about 28 ºC to about 40 ºC for between about 1 .5 hours to about 4.5 hours.

Alternatively or additionally, determining whether a "substantial fermentation" has occurred may be measured by measuring pH levels and/or concentration of volatile compounds produced during fermentation. Such measurements can be made by any method known to the person skilled in the art. Without wishing to be bound by theory it is believed that pH levels drop during fermentation and/or the concentration of volatile compounds increases during fermentation. Suitably the pH levels and/or concentration of volatile compounds are compared to the same dough or a similar dough prior to fermentation. In one embodiment a "substantial fermentation" may be one in which the pH level has dropped by at least about 0.2 pH units or by at least about 0.4 pH units when compared to the dough prior to fermentation. Suitably a "substantial fermentation" may be one in which the pH level has dropped by at least about 0.6 pH units or by at least about 0.8 pH units when compared to the dough prior to fermentation.

The "fermented" dough may be derived from any source.

In some embodiments the "fermented dough" may be one or more selected from the group consisting of: a bread dough, a sweet dough, a laminated dough, a muffin dough, a doughnut dough, a dough for frying and a pretzel dough.

Preferably the "fermented dough" may be a bread dough. In one embodiment a "fermented dough" for use in accordance with the present invention may be a dough previously prepared in a dough production process.

Suitably the fermented dough (e.g. the first fermented dough) comprises at least flour, a yeast and water.

Suitably, the fermented dough for use in the invention may be a waste and/or excess dough obtained from a dough production process. More suitably the fermented dough may be a waste and/or excess dough obtained from a bread production process. In some embodiments the fermented dough for use in the invention may be a dough (e.g. a waste and/or excess dough) comprising one or more additives and/or enzymes. Advantageously this allows the recycling of said additives and/or enzymes reducing wastage and/or manufacturing costs. The fermented dough for use in accordance with the invention is suitably in the form of a batter.

In some embodiments the method and/or uses of the invention may comprise a step in which the fermented dough may be processed to form a batter. Thus the present invention may provide in one embodiment a method for producing dough comprising:

a. providing a first fermented dough;

b. processing the first fermented dough to produce a batter;

c. fermenting the batter; and

d. admixing the fermented batter with at least flour to form a second dough.

The fermented dough may be processed to form a batter. The term "batter" as used herein refers to a mixture comprising at least flour, water and yeast that is in a liquid or semi-liquid state derived from the fermented dough as defined herein. Suitably "batter" as used herein may refer to a slurry comprising at least flour, water and yeast obtainable from a fermented dough. The batter for use in the method may be prepared from a fermented dough by any suitable method.

In some embodiments the batter for use in the method may be prepared from a fermented dough by mixing the fermented dough. Any machinery known to the skilled person (such as machinery used in the baking industry) may be used for mixing the fermented dough. A non- limiting example of such machinery includes a Tweedy™ 70 high speed mixer. Other examples of appropriate machinery include planetary mixers and spiral mixers, numerous examples of which are known in the art. In one embodiment the batter for use in a method of the invention may be prepared from a fermented dough by mixing the fermented dough to a specific energy level.

In one embodiment the specific energy level may be at least about 10 Watt hours/kg or at least about 1 1 Watt hours/kg of fermented dough.

Suitably, the specific energy level may be at least about 12 Watt hours/kg or at least about 13 Watt hours/kg of fermented dough.

In other embodiments the specific energy level may be at least about 14 Watt hours/kg or at least about 15 Watt hours/kg of fermented dough. Suitably, the specific energy level may be at least about 16 Watt hours/kg or at least about 17 Watt hours/kg of fermented dough.

In further embodiments the specific energy level may be up to about 18 Watt hours/kg or about 20 Watt hours/kg of fermented dough.

Preferably the specific energy level may be about 12 Watt hours/kg of fermented dough.

Alternatively or additionally the batter for use in the method may be prepared from a fermented dough by admixing with the fermented dough one or more ingredient(s).

In one embodiment the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough one or more ingredient(s) selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough two or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough three or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough four or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough five or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough six or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough the ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. In another embodiment the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough one or more ingredient(s) selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough two or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough three or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the processing of the fermented dough may comprise (or consist of) admixing with the fermented dough the ingredients selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast rapeseed oil and malt flour.

The batter produced from processing the first fermented dough in accordance with the invention may be fermented. The fermented batter may be used synonymously herein with the term "ferment". One skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains is aware of suitable methods for fermenting a batter for example those taught in Cauvain & Young, Technology of Breadmaking, Second Edition, 28 Mar 2007, published by Springer, (ISBN-10 0387385630, ISBN-13 978-0387385631 ). Suitably the batter may be fermented using a yeast.

Without wishing to be bound by theory yeast produces gas, e.g. carbon dioxide, that becomes trapped as bubbles within the dough. When a dough or batter is baked, it "sets" and the holes left by the gas bubbles remain, giving breads and other baked goods their soft, sponge-like textures. Varieties of yeast, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but sometimes also wild yeasts, may be used in accordance with the present invention. Yeasts ferment the sugars present in the dough and produce carbon dioxide as a byproduct. This causes the dough to expand or rise as the carbon dioxide forms bubbles, which are trapped by the gluten network in dough. When the bread is baked it sets leaving holes, which give the bread a soft and spongy texture. The use of sugar in bread dough accelerates the growth of yeasts. Salt and fats such as butter slow down yeast growth.

Yeast also leaves behind other metabolic byproducts that contribute to the distinctive flavour of yeast breads.

Suitably, the yeast may be an exogenous yeast. The term "exogenous yeast" means yeast that is added during the method and/or use of the invention, as opposed to a yeast existing on, say, the flour (an endogenous yeast).

Preferred examples of yeasts include baker's yeast, compressed yeast, yeast cream, granulated yeast, dry yeast, instant yeast. Suitably, the yeast is baker's yeast (e.g. Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The batter may be fermented for at least 0.5 hour, 0.75 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours or 3 hours. Suitably at least 0.75 hour.

In other embodiment the batter may be fermented between about 0.5 hour to about 24 hours, suitably between about 0.75 hour to about 24 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented between about 1 hour to about 12 hours, more suitably between about 1 hour to about 6 hours.

In other embodiments the batter may be fermented between about 2 hours to about 5 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented for about 3.5 hours.

The fermentation may be carried out at any suitable temperature which allows for fermentation to proceed. Typically the temperature range selected will be one that allows for viability of the microorganism(s) used to facilitate the fermentation procedure or that allow for optimal fermentation by the microorganism(s) used. In one embodiment the fermentation may be carried out at a temperature between about 10 ºC to about 50 ºC, suitably at a temperature between about 20 ºC to about 40 ºC. Suitably the fermentation may be carried out at a temperature between about 25 ºC to about 35 ºC. More suitably at a temperature of about 30 ºC.

The fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between about 10 ºC to about 50 ºC for at least 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours or 3 hours. Suitably at least 3 hours. In another embodiment the fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between about 10 ºC to about 50 ºC for between about 0.5 hour to about 24 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented at a temperature between about 10 ºC to about 50 ºC for between about 1 hour to about 12 hours, more suitably between about 1 hour to about 6 hours.

In other embodiments the batter may be fermented at between about 10 ºC to about 50 ºC for between about 2 hours to about 5 hours.

Suitably the batter may be fermented at between about 10 ºC to about 50 ºC for about 3.5 hours.

The fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between about 20 ºC to about 40 ºC for at least 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours or 3 hours. Suitably at least 3 hours.

In another embodiment the fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between about 20 ºC to about 40 ºC for between about 0.5 hour to about 24 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented at a temperature between about 20 ºC to about 40 ºC for between about 1 hour to about 12 hours, more suitably between about 1 hour to about 6 hours.

In other embodiments the batter may be fermented at between about 20 ºC to about 40 ºC for between about 2 hours to about 5 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented at between about 20 ºC to about 40 ºC for about 3.5 hours. The fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between about 25 ºC to about 35 ºC for at least 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours or 3 hours. Suitably at least 3 hours.

In another embodiment the fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between about 25 ºC to about 35 ºC for between about 0.5 hour to about 24 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented at a temperature between about 25 ºC to about 35 ºC for between about 1 hour to about 12 hours, more suitably between about 1 hour to about 6 hours.

In other embodiments the batter may be fermented at between about 25 ºC to about 35 ºC for between about 2 hours to about 5 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented at between about 25 ºC to about 35 ºC for about 3.5 hours.

The fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature at about 30 ºC for at least 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours or 3 hours. Suitably at least 3 hours.

In another embodiment the fermentation of the batter in accordance with the invention may be carried out at a temperature between at about 30 ºC for between about 0.5 hour to about 24 hours. Suitably the batter may be fermented at a temperature between at about 30 ºC for between about 1 hour to about 12 hours, more suitably between about 1 hour to about 6 hours.

In other embodiments the batter may be fermented at about 30 ºC for between about 2 hours to about 5 hours.

Suitably the batter may be fermented at about 30 ºC for about 3.5 hours.

Additionally or alternatively, the fermentation of the batter may be carried out under aerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions may be effected by controlling airflow during fermentation of the batter. Controlling airflow may be achieved using any suitable means, including carrying out fermentation in a sealed vessel or container. In one embodiment the airflow may be controlled at between about 5 to about 15 L of air per minute. Suitably the airflow may be controlled at between about 7 to about 13 L of air per minute. Preferably the airflow may be controlled at about 10 L of air per minute. Suitably, the airflow may be in the presence of agitation.

In embodiments where fermentation of the batter is carried out under aerobic conditions (e.g. by controlling airflow) soya flour may suitably be admixed with the batter. Without wishing to be bound by theory soya flour is used in bread-making as it is believed to be a mild oxidant. It contains a natural enzyme called lipoxygenase which, when introduced to oxygen produces hydrogen peroxide in situ. This bleaches the free carotenoid pigments in wheat flour and produces bread with a whiter, brighter crumb and has been useful for the baking industry following a prohibition of the use of bleached flour in at least some jurisdictions.

Advantageously, using soya flour with the batter where fermentation is carried out under aerobic conditions results in an improved crumb whiteness in a bread produced from the dough when compared to a control bread produced from a dough in which fermentation has not been carried out under aerobic conditions.

Alternatively or additionally the fermented batter may be admixed with ascorbic acid.

Alternatively or additionally the fermented batter may be admixed with ascorbic acid, potassium bromate, calcium iodate, azodicarbonamide or combinations thereof.

Without wishing to be bound by theory ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used to build structure in modern bread making. Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent which when mixed with oxygen in the presence of the ascorbate enzyme (naturally present in wheat flour), is converted into Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). It is believed that this results in disulphide bond formation. Owing to the strength of these bonds, it is believed that they allow the dough to retain carbon dioxide gas created during the fermentation process.

Thus, in one embodiment the fermented batter may be admixed with ascorbic acid and/or soya flour. The fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour to form a dough (e.g. a manufactured dough).

Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and one or more ingredient(s).

The one or more ingredient(s) may be selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and two or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and three or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and four or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and five or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and six or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and the ingredients selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour.

In another embodiment the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and one or more ingredient(s) selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and two or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and three or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast rapeseed oil and malt flour. Suitably the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and the ingredients selected from the group consisting of: water, a yeast rapeseed oil and malt flour.

Alternatively or additionally the fermented batter of the invention may be admixed with at least flour and a dough.

The invention also provides the use of an admixture comprising a fermented batter derived from a batter from a fermented dough and at least flour, the admixture forming a manufactured dough for: minimising waste in dough manufacture; the manufacture of a dough having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture; reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process; for improving mould free shelf life of a baked product or combinations thereof.

The properties of a dough manufactured by the present invention may be determined from a baked product prepared using said dough. The assessment of said properties may be determined using any methods known to the skilled person, including for example C-Cell analysis using a C-Cell imager (commercially available from Calibre Control International Ltd., UK). Some parameters for assessment are represented in the tables below.

Slice crumb cell size

Crumb cell elongation and orientation

Suitably a method or use of the invention allows for the minimisation of waste in dough manufacture. Suitably the minimisation of waste in dough manufacture may be achieved by using waste and/or excess dough obtained from a dough manufacture process as the fermented dough in a method or use of the invention.

Suitably a method or use of the invention allows for the manufacture of a dough (e.g. a manufactured dough) having an improved baking performance.

The term "improved baking performance" as used herein means improved volume, structure, softness and/or strength, (such as improved volume, structure, softness and/or strength arising during the baking process) when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method (e.g. not a method of the invention).

The improved baking performance can be determined using any method known to the person skilled in the art, for example by C-Cell image analysis.

In one embodiment the improved baking performance may be improved volume when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method (e.g. not a method of the invention).

In a further embodiment the improved baking performance may be improved softness when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method (e.g. not a method of the invention). Volume and/or softness may be represented by the height of the baked product, which is in an average height of a slice of the baked product from the lower edge to 3 points of the top edge, represented as pixels/mm.

An improved volume and/or softness therefore may mean that a baked product manufactured by a method of the present invention has a height which is at least 1 %, 2% or 5% greater than that of a baked product manufactured by an alternative method (suitably at least 10% or 20% greater).

In another embodiment the improved baking performance may be improved structure when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method (e.g. not a method of the invention).

Structure may be represented by the number of discrete cells detected within a slice of the baked product. Higher numbers are thus associated with a finer cell structure, which is seen as advantageous in some baked products (e.g. bread).

An improved structure therefore may mean that a baked product manufactured by a method of the present invention has a cell number which is at least 1 %, 2% or 5% greater than that of a baked product manufactured by an alternative method (suitably at least 10% or 20% greater). In a yet further embodiment the improved baking performance may be improved strength when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method (e.g. not a method of the invention). In a yet further embodiment the improved baking performance may be improved bread whiteness when compared to an alternative product obtained using a different method (e.g. not a method of the invention). Suitably, this improved property may be obtainable when the method of manufacture involves aeration and/or the addition of soya flour. Whiteness may be represented by the brightness (e.g. light reflectance) of a slice of the baked product as determined by C-Cell imaging. Higher numbers are thus associated with an improved whiteness/brightness, which is seen as advantageous in some baked products (e.g. particularly white bread). An improved whiteness therefore may mean that a baked product manufactured by a method of the present invention has a mean grey level of pixels which is at least 1 %, 2% or 5% greater than that of a baked product manufactured by an alternative method (suitably at least 10% or 20% greater). Suitably a method or use of the invention allows for the manufacture of a manufactured dough having improved organoleptic properties.

The term "improved organoleptic properties" as used herein means a manufactured dough or other product of the invention has improved sensory properties, including for example improved taste, sight, smell, touch and/or texture. The term "improved organoleptic properties" may mean that a manufactured dough or other product of the invention has improved mouth-feel, taste and/or texture.

Suitably the organoleptic properties are improved when compared to a similar product which is not a product of the invention. For example, the organoleptic properties may be improved when compared to a similar product obtained from a different method (i.e. not a method of the invention).

Suitably an improved organoleptic property may be improved taste.

Suitably an improved organoleptic property may be improved smell. Suitably an improved organoleptic property may be improved mouth-feel and/or texture.

Suitably a method or use of the invention allows for reducing the additive necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process.

The term "reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process" as used herein means that fewer additives need to be added to the dough in the manufacture and/or baking process to obtain a manufactured dough and/or product of the invention with similar or equivalent beneficial properties (e.g. volume, structure, softness, strength and/or mould free shelf life) that adding additives in the dough manufacture and/or baking process results in. In other words the manufactured dough and/or product of the invention may have similar or equivalent beneficial properties that adding additives in the dough manufacture and/or baking process results in when compared to a similar dough and/or product comprising additives which is not a product of the invention. For example the product of the invention with similar or equivalent beneficial properties (e.g. volume, structure, softness, strength and/or mould free shelf life) that adding additives in the dough manufacture and/or baking process results in may be improved when compared to a similar product obtained from a different method (i.e. not a method of the invention).

The term "additives" as used in this context may mean one or more exogenous ingredients admixed with flour, yeast and water in the bread making process. The term "additives" may comprise an enzyme (such as a lipase, phospholipase, lipid acyltransferase, amylase (e.g. alpha-amylase), cellulase and/or hemicellulase (e.g. a xylanase)), an emulsifier (e.g. sodium stearoyl lactylate (E481 ) and/or DATEM (E472e)), a preservative (e.g. calcium propionate (E282)) and/or a flour treatment agent.

Thus, in one embodiment the invention may not comprise the use of an additive or comprises the use of a reduced amount of an additive. Suitably the invention may not comprise the use of one or more additive(s) or comprises the use of a reduced amount of one or more additive(s) selected from: an enzyme (such as a lipase, phospholipase, lipid acyltransferase, amylase (e.g. alpha-amylase), cellulase and/or hemicellulase (e.g. a xylanase)), an emulsifier (e.g. sodium stearoyl lactylate (E481 ) and/or DATEM (E472e)), a preservative (e.g. calcium propionate (E282)) and/or a flour treatment agent. Suitably the invention may not comprise the use of, or comprises the use of, a reduced amount of an enzyme (such as a lipase, phospholipase, lipid acyltransferase, amylase (e.g. alpha-amylase), cellulase and/or hemicellulase (e.g. a xylanase)). Suitably the invention may not comprise the use of, or comprises the use of, a reduced amount of an emulsifier (e.g. sodium stearoyl lactylate (E481 ) and/or DATEM (E472e)).

Suitably the invention may not comprise the use of, or comprises the use of a reduced amount of, a preservative (e.g. calcium propionate (E282)).

Suitably the invention may not comprise the use of, or comprises the use of a reduced amount of, a flour treatment agent.

The term "reduced amount of" as used in this context means less than about 80%, 60%, 40% or 20% concentration of an additive is used when compared to a typical method (i.e. not a method of the invention). Suitably the term "reduced amount of" as used in this context may mean less than about 10%, 5% or 1 % (more suitably less than about 0.1 %) concentration of an additive is used when compared to a typical method (i.e. not a method of the invention). The term "improving mould free shelf life of a baked product" as used herein means that a baked product prepared from a manufactured dough of the invention has a longer mould free shelf life than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method (i.e. not a method of the invention). Mould free shelf life may be determined by any standard method in the art, including comparing a manufactured dough product prepared by a method of the invention with an alternative product prepared by an alternative method which have been baked (and optionally packaged) at the same time under similar conditions. The two baked products would then be stored under similar conditions and monitored periodically for the presence of mould. The "mould free shelf life" may be expressed as the number of days from baking (and optionally packaging) that a baked product is mould free (e.g. no mould growth is visible).

In one embodiment a baked product obtainable from a manufactured dough of the invention may have a mould free shelf life of at least 5, 10 or 15 hours longer than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method (i.e. not a method of the invention). Suitably a baked product obtainable from a manufactured dough of the invention may have a mould free shelf life of at least 20, 25 hours or 30 hours longer than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method (i.e. not a method of the invention). Suitably a baked product obtainable from a manufactured dough of the invention may have a mould free shelf life of at least 40, 50 hours or 60 hours longer than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method (i.e. not a method of the invention).

In one embodiment a baked product obtainable from a manufactured dough of the invention may have a mould free shelf life of at least 5, 10 or 15 hours longer than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method comprising one or more additives (e.g. a preservative such as calcium propionate).

Suitably a baked product obtainable from a manufactured dough of the invention may have a mould free shelf life of at least 20, 25 hours or 30 hours longer than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method comprising one or more additives (e.g. a preservative such as calcium propionate).

Suitably a baked product obtainable from a manufactured dough of the invention may have a mould free shelf life of at least 40, 50 hours or 60 hours longer than an alternative baked product prepared by an alternative method comprising one or more additives (e.g. a preservative such as calcium propionate).

Suitably improving mould free shelf life may be achieved by using soya flour and/or ascorbic acid in a method or use of the present invention.

The term "admix" as used herein means the mixing of at least one constituent with one or more further constituent(s). The term "admix" as used herein refers to mixing constituents in any order, including mixing sequentially or simultaneously. Suitably the term "admix" may refer to the sequential mixing of constituents.

The mixture comprising at least one constituent and one or more further constituent(s) may be referred to herein as an "admixture". The constituents referred to may be any constituent referred to herein, including but not limited to a dough (e.g. a fermented dough), a batter at least flour and/or one or more ingredient(s). In one embodiment less than about 90% w/w (suitably less than about 85%) based on flour weight of fermented batter may be admixed with one or more ingredients to form the manufactured dough. In another embodiment less than about 70% w/w (suitably less than about 60%) based on flour weight of fermented batter may be admixed with one or more ingredient(s) to form the manufactured dough.

In another embodiment less than about 50% w/w (suitably about 45%) based on flour weight of fermented batter may be admixed with one or more ingredient(s) to form the manufactured dough.

The term "manufactured dough" is used to refer to a dough produced by admixing a fermented batter of the invention with one or more ingredient(s). Suitably the "manufactured dough" is a dough having improved properties in accordance with the present invention. The term "manufactured dough" may be used synonymously with "dough of the invention".

The manufactured dough may be a dough that is ready for further processing. Further processing comprises subjecting the dough to one or more further steps. Further processing may comprise (or consist of) one or more of: further fermentation of the manufactured dough, mixing of the dough, handling of the dough, proofing of the dough, baking of the dough, cooling of the dough (e.g. the baked dough), slicing of the baked dough (e.g. the cooled dough), packing (e.g. packing of the sliced dough) or combinations thereof. In one embodiment the invention provides a manufactured dough. Suitably the manufactured dough may be a manufactured dough obtainable or obtained by a method or use according to the present invention, sometimes referred to as a dough obtainable or obtained by a method or use according to the invention. In another embodiment the invention provides a manufactured dough that has undergone one or more further processing steps.

The manufactured dough (e.g. dough obtainable or obtained by a method or use according to the invention) or manufactured dough that has undergone one or more further processing steps may be a dough product. Suitably the manufactured dough may be one or more selected from the group consisting of: a bread dough, a sweet dough, a laminated dough, a muffin dough, a doughnut dough, a dough for frying and a pretzel dough.

Preferably the dough may be a bread dough.

Suitably the manufactured dough may have one or more of the following properties: improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture and/or mould free shelf life; reduced additives; when compared to a dough or baked product that has not been manufactured using a method or use of the invention.

In some embodiments the manufactured dough (e.g. dough obtainable or obtained by a method or use according to the invention) or manufactured dough that has undergone one or more further processing steps) according to the invention may be baked to obtain a baked product.

In some embodiments the manufactured dough (e.g. dough obtainable or obtained by a method or use according to the invention) or manufactured dough that has undergone one or more further processing steps) may be subjected to one or more further steps such as slicing, packaging or combinations thereof.

Therefore in one embodiment the present invention provides a baked product obtainable or obtained by a method or use of the invention.

Suitably the baked product may be one or more selected from the group consisting of:

breads, sweet dough products, laminated doughs, muffins, doughnuts and pretzels.

Suitably the baked product may have one or more of the following properties: improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture and/or mould free shelf life; reduced additives; when compared to a dough or baked product that has not been manufactured using a method or use of the invention.

In some embodiments the baked product may be subjected to one or more further step such as slicing, packaging or combinations thereof. The invention provides a foodstuff manufactured from: a manufactured dough obtainable from a method or use of the invention; a manufactured dough of the invention; a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention; or a baked product of the invention. Suitably there is provided a foodstuff manufactured from a manufactured dough obtainable from a method or use of the invention.

Suitably there is provided a foodstuff manufactured from a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention.

Suitably there is provided a foodstuff manufactured from a baked product of the invention.

The invention also provides a method for manufacturing a foodstuff comprising admixing a manufactured dough obtainable from a method or use of the invention; a manufactured dough of the invention; a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention; or a baked product of the invention with at least one foodstuff ingredient.

The at least one food ingredient may be one or more ingredient useful in preparing the foodstuff. The skilled person can select the one or more ingredient based on his knowledge of the art and will typically select the one or more ingredient based on the nature of the foodstuff being manufactured. For example, if the foodstuff is a sweetened dough-based foodstuff, the skilled person may select sugar as the one or more ingredient, or if the foodstuff is a fruit-based baked product the skilled person may select a fruit (e.g. an apple) as the one or more ingredient.

Suitably the method for manufacturing a foodstuff may comprise (or consist of) admixing a manufactured dough obtainable from a method or use of the invention with at least one foodstuff ingredient. Suitably the method for manufacturing a foodstuff may comprise (or consist of) admixing a manufactured dough of the invention with at least one foodstuff ingredient.

Suitably the method for manufacturing a foodstuff may comprise (or consist of) admixing a baked product obtainable by a method or use of the invention with at least one foodstuff ingredient. Suitably the method for manufacturing a foodstuff may comprise (or consist of) admixing a baked product of the invention with at least one foodstuff ingredient.

Thus there is provided a foodstuff obtainable by a method for manufacturing a foodstuff according to the invention.

The term "foodstuff" as used herein means a substance which is suitable for human and/or animal consumption (suitably for human consumption). Suitably, the term "foodstuff" as used herein may mean a foodstuff in a form which is ready for consumption. Alternatively or in addition, however, the term foodstuff as used herein may mean one or more food materials which are used in the preparation of a foodstuff. By way of example only, the term foodstuff encompasses both baked goods produced from dough as well as the dough used in the preparation of said baked goods.

In one embodiment the foodstuff as defined above may be a baked product (e.g. bakery products), (suitably including breads, sweet dough products, laminated dough products, muffins and doughnuts). In one embodiment the foodstuff may be a dough product or a baked product, such as a bread, a fried product, a snack, or snack items such as pretzels.

Suitably the foodstuff may be a baked product. The baked product may be one or more selected from the group consisting of: breads, sweet dough products, laminated doughs, muffins and doughnuts

Preferably the baked product may be a bread. In some embodiments the foodstuff may be subjected to one or more further step such as slicing, packaging or combinations thereof.

In one aspect there is provided a method for producing dough comprising:

providing a batter from a fermented dough;

fermenting the batter; and

admixing the fermented batter with at least flour to form a manufactured dough. In a related aspect there is provided use of an admixture comprising a fermented batter derived from a batter from a fermented dough and at least flour, the admixture forming a manufactured dough for: minimising waste in dough manufacture; the manufacture of a dough having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture; reducing the additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process; and/or for improving mould free shelf life of a baked product or combinations thereof. In another related aspect there is provided a manufactured dough obtainable by a foregoing aspect.

In a further aspect there is provided a baked product obtainable by a method or use of a foregoing aspect.

In another aspect there is provided a method for manufacturing a foodstuff comprising admixing a manufactured dough obtainable from a method or use according to any preceding aspect; a manufactured dough of a preceding aspect; a baked product obtainable by a preceding aspect; or a baked product of a preceding aspect with at least one foodstuff ingredient. There is also provided a foodstuff obtainable from the method of manufacture.

The aspects above may be combined with one or more (e.g. all) of the embodiments described herein, including the following embodiments. In one embodiment: the fermented dough comprises at least flour, a yeast and water. In one embodiment, the fermented dough is processed to form a batter. In one embodiment, the processing of the fermented dough to form a batter comprises mixing the fermented dough. In one embodiment processing of the fermented dough to form a batter comprises admixing with the fermented dough one or more ingredient(s) selected from the group consisting of: ascorbic acid, soya flour, water, a yeast, rapeseed oil and malt flour. In one embodiment the improved baking performance is one or more selected from the group consisting of: improved volume, improved softness, improved whiteness and combinations thereof. In one embodiment the batter is fermented for at least about 2 hours, preferably at least about 3 hours. In one embodiment the batter is fermented for about 3.5 hours. In one embodiment less than about 90% w/w based on flour weight of fermented batter is admixed with at least flour to form the manufactured dough. In one embodiment ascorbic acid is admixed with the fermented dough or the batter from a fermented dough. In one embodiment less than about 50% w/w based on flour weight of fermented batter is admixed at least flour to form the manufactured dough. In one embodiment fermentation of the batter is carried out under aerobic conditions. In one embodiment the fermented batter is admixed with at least flour and one or more ingredient(s) to form the manufactured dough (preferably wherein the one or more ingredient(s) is a dough). In one embodiment the fermented dough is a waste dough. In one embodiment the manufactured dough is baked to obtain a baked product. In one embodiment the dough is one or more selected from the group consisting of: bread dough, a sweet dough, a laminated dough, a muffin dough, a doughnut dough, a dough for frying and a pretzel dough. In one embodiment the baked product is one or more selected from the group consisting of: breads, sweet dough products, laminated doughs, muffins, doughnuts and pretzels. In one embodiment the baked product or dough has one or more of the following properties: improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture and/or mould free shelf life; reduced additives; when compared to a manufactured dough or baked product that has not been manufactured using the method or use of one of the preceding aspects.

ADVANTAGES

The methods, uses, manufactured dough, baked product and/or foodstuff of the invention achieve a number of distinct advantages.

Advantageously, the methods and/or uses of the invention allow for the preparation of a manufactured dough, baked product and/or foodstuff of the invention having an improved baking performance and/or improved organoleptic properties and/or texture and/or improved mould free shelf life when compared to an alternative product prepared by an alternative method (i.e. not in accordance with the present invention).

Surprisingly a manufactured dough, baked product and/or foodstuff of the invention has an improved mould free shelf life when compared to an alternative product prepared by an alternative method comprising one or more preservatives (e.g. calcium propionate (E282)).

The manufactured dough, baked product and/or foodstuff of the invention has a more rounded and/or traditional flavour when compared to alternative products obtained using alternative methods (i.e. not in accordance with the invention) such as the Chorleywood Bread Process. Without wishing to be bound by theory it is believes that this may be the result of certain acids and/or volatile compounds produced in the method of the invention. Additionally or alternatively the methods and/or uses of the invention allow for the reduction of additives necessary in the dough manufacture and/or baking process. Thus, surprisingly a manufactured dough and/or baked product and/or foodstuff can be provided that has similar beneficial properties to an alternative dough and/or baked product and/or foodstuff obtained by an alternative method which involves the use of additives. Suitably the manufactured dough and/or baked product and/or foodstuff may have increased health benefits via the use of fewer additives and/or may be subject to less governmental/organisational legislation due to the use of fewer additives and/or may be cheaper to manufacture due to the use of fewer additives.

For the first time the present inventors have shown that the methods and/or uses of the invention allow for the preparation of a manufactured dough, baked product and/or foodstuff of the invention from waste and/or excess dough obtained from a dough production process which may provide the fermented dough in accordance with the invention. Therefore, the methods and/or uses of the present invention result in the preparation of manufactured dough, baked product and/or foodstuff that is less wasteful and/or more economical and/or cheaper. Additionally or alternatively the invention also provides for reduced landfill costs. Advantageously the use of a fermented dough in the manufacture of a manufactured dough and/or baked product and/or foodstuff of the invention results in a reduced fermentation time for fermenting the batter for use in the method. This leads to inter alia increased efficiency and/or reduced manufacturing costs. The method and/or uses of the invention also allow for the use of reduced amounts of ferment (e.g. fermented dough/batter) than other alternative methods which reduces manufacturing costs and/or wastage and/or reduces manufacturing time when compared to such alternative methods. Methods of the invention comprising fermentation in an aerobic environment (e.g. in conjunction with the addition of soya flour) advantageously result in manufactured dough and/or baked products and/or foodstuff having improved crumb whiteness when compared to methods comprising fermentation in an anaerobic environment (e.g. in conjunction with the addition of soya flour). Where a fermented dough comprising one or more additives and/or enzymes is used in a method and/or use of the invention this allows the recycling of said additives and/or enzymes reducing wastage and/or manufacturing costs. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. Cauvain & Young, Technology of Breadmaking, Second Edition, 28 Mar 2007, published by Springer, (ISBN-10 0387385630, ISBN-13 978-0387385631 ) provides one of skill with a general dictionary of many of the terms used in this disclosure.

This disclosure is not limited by the exemplary methods and materials disclosed herein, and any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of embodiments of this disclosure. Numeric ranges are inclusive of the numbers defining the range.

The headings provided herein are not limitations of the various aspects or embodiments of this disclosure which can be had by reference to the specification as a whole. Accordingly, the terms defined immediately below are more fully defined by reference to the specification as a whole.

Other definitions of terms may appear throughout the specification. Before the exemplary embodiments are described in more detail, it is to understand that this disclosure is not limited to particular embodiments described, as such may, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting, since the scope of the present disclosure will be limited only by the appended claims.

Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, between the upper and lower limits of that range is also specifically disclosed. Each smaller range between any stated value or intervening value in a stated range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range is encompassed within this disclosure. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included or excluded in the range, and each range where either, neither or both limits are included in the smaller ranges is also encompassed within this disclosure, subject to any specifically excluded limit in the stated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in this disclosure.

It must be noted that as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an", and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a dough" includes a plurality of such candidate agents and reference to "the baked product" includes reference to one or more baked products and equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art, and so forth. The publications discussed herein are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that such publications constitute prior art to the claims appended hereto.

The invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the following Figures and Examples.

EXAMPLES

Bread produced using a typical ferment and dough procedure has better baking performance (volume, structure, softness and strength) than bread produced using a straight Chorleywood Bread Process (CBP) method. However, a drawback to use of this process is the amount of ferment needed to achieve the desired improvement, typically requiring the ferment addition to be around 100% of the total flour weight (i.e. w/w ferment to fresh flour - the weight of flour is set at 100% and other ingredients scaled thereto). A new method was developed that replaced admixing of ferment with fresh flour with the admixing of ferment with dough, thereby using dough as the substrate for the ferment as opposed to fresh flour. Surprisingly the new method produced a bread with improved properties. The dough (ferment base dough) for use in the method was broken down to produce a smooth homogenous slurry prior to admixing with the other ingredients of the ferment.

An exemplary method is briefly summarised below. Waste dough was mimicked by mixing a fresh dough and leaving it to ferment for a minimum of 45 minutes, thus representing conditions that a waste dough may be subjected to. This dough was then added to a number of other ingredients: Water

Yeast

Soya flour

Rapeseed oil

Malt flour

and mixed for 3 minutes on a Hobart 30M Planetary mixer (speed 1 (slow) for 1 .5 minutes and speed 2 for 1 .5 minutes) to produce a smooth batter. The batter temperature was around 30ºC. The batter was left to ferment for 3.5 hours. After this fermentation period, the ferment was added to a fresh dough mix at 100% on flour weight.

A baking performance gain was achieved, providing a bread with improved quality. The methods used to assess bread quality in the UK include inter alia increased: slice brightness; number of cells per slice; and slice height (mm). Data was obtained using C-Cell image analysis on a C-Cell imager (commercially available from Calibre Control International Ltd. UK) and is represented in the Examples below.

EXAMPLE 1

Experiments were carried out comparing the standard method with that discussed above. The tables below detail the recipes used:

Figure 1 shows that bread manufactured using the new production process (48% OFW (on flour weight) ferment) has (A) improved slice height and (B) number of cells per slice when compared to a control bread.

EXAMPLE 2

Fermentation under aeration

Experiments were carried out using a method similar to that indicated above, but in the presence of aeration (e.g. in the range of between about 5 to about 15 L of air per minute).

Specific details are provided in the tables below:

Figure 2 shows that aeration has a positive effect on the average slice brightness (A), average slice height (B) as well as the average number of cells per slice (C).

Bread having the advantageous characteristics displayed in Figure 2 is typically softer with an improved volume, thus complying with customer expectations.

Figures 3A and B demonstrate that all conditions tested resulted in improved bread height and average number of cells per slice when compared to the control. EXAMPLE 4

Trials testing the effect of oxidants

Following on from this success, a proportion of the recipe oxidant was added to the ferment. The recipes are detailed below:

Without wishing to be bound by theory ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used to build structure in modern bread making. Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent which when mixed with oxygen in the presence of the ascorbate enzyme (naturally present in wheat flour), is converted into Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). It is believed that this results in disulphide bond formation. Owing to the strength of these bonds, it is believed that they allow the dough to retain carbon dioxide gas created during the fermentation process.

An improvement was seen in the dough produced with a concentration-dependent improvement in the average height (Figure 4(A)) and average number of cells per slice (Figure 4(B)). Using dough as a substrate for the ferment as opposed to fresh flour adds more functionality to the ferment. This improves baking performance (volume, structure, softness and strength) and allows for a reduction in ferment addition rate whilst still achieving improved functionality.

EXAMPLE 5

Standard bread product (ingredient declaration)

Wheat Flour, Water, Yeast, Salt, Vegetable Oil, Soya Flour, Emulsifiers: E481 , E472e, Preservative: Calcium Propionate E282, Flour Treatment Agent Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) E300 **

** Added enzymes are classed as processing aids so legally do not have to be labelled on pack at present - Enzymes added Fungal alpha amylase, Hemicellulase, Lipase.

Bread of the invention (ingredient declaration)

Wheat Flour, Water, Yeast, Salt, Vegetable Oil, Soya Flour, Flour Treatment Agent Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) E300, Malt Flour

Mould free shelf life (MFSL) was assessed by comparing standard bread products with those of the invention at day 5 and 6 and determining if mould was present. Bread produced in accordance with the present invention showed increased MFSL and achieved a 6 day MFSL. The standard bakery bread failed MFSL on day 5. This was despite the standard bread containing a preservative (calcium propionate) and the trial containing no preservative.

All publications mentioned in the above specification are herein incorporated by reference. Various modifications and variations of the described methods and system of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention. Although the present invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood that the invention as claimed should not be unduly limited to such specific embodiments. Indeed, various modifications of the described modes for carrying out the invention which are obvious to those skilled in food technology or related fields are intended to be within the scope of the following claims.