LONERGAN, Dennis, Arthur (1825 County Road 24, Medina, MN, 55356, US)
What is claimed is:
1. A method of making a bread like food item, the method including :
adding a predetermined amount of water to chemical leavener and flour wherein total water being present in an amount of between about 75% and about 125% by weight of dry flour, said flour and added water being in a container;
at least substantially closing said container;
mixing the flour and water by shaking the container and thereby forming an agglomeration of the flour and water; and
cooking the agglomeration after the mixing.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the mixing is characterized by an absence of mixing with a mechanical mixing device .
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the container including a flexible bag.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein chemical leavener is added to the flour prior to the mixing.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein the chemical leavener, flour and container being provided in a sealed package.
6. The method of claim 5 wherein the added water is included in a container in the sealed package and addition to the flour is accomplished after releasing the water from the water container.
7. The method of claim 2 including placing the agglomeration on a cooking utensil prior to cooking the agglomeration .
8. The method of claim 5 wherein the flour including wheat flour .
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the flour has a gluten content of at least about 8% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis .
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the amount of flour is in the range of about 100 gr. and about 600 gr. on a dry weight basis .
11. The method of claim 10 wherein the chemical leavener being present in an amount in the range of between about 0.5% and about 6% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis.
12. The method of claim 10 wherein the chemical leavener being contained in the flour and stored in a container for sale to consumers prior to said shaking.
13. The method of claim 10 wherein the flour being stored in a storage container for sale to consumers and the mixing of the flour and water occurring in the storage container.
14. The method of claim 10 wherein the flour is in the range of between about 200 gr. and about 500 gr.
15. The method of claim 10 wherein the flour is in the range of between about 300 gr. and about 400 gr .
16. The method of claim 10 wherein the total water being present in the range of between about 85% and about 110% by weight of flour on dry weight basis.
17. The method of claim 10 wherein the water being present in the range of between about 95% and about 105% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis.
18. The method of claim 10 wherein the flour being at least substantially gluten free.
19. The method of claim 1 wherein the agglomeration being cooked immediately after the formation thereof.
20. A product for making a bread like product including: a sealed package;
flour in the package;
leavener in the package; and
a first container in the package having a volume potential in excess of the volume of the flour and the leavener in the package and water, if added to the flour, in an amount of about 75% by weight of the flour on a dry weight basis of at least about 10% by volume.
21. The product of claim 20 wherein the flour being contained in the first container, said first container including means to at least substantially seal the first container with the flour therein.
22. The product of claim 20 including water in a sealed second container, said water being present in an amount in the range of between about 75% and about 125% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis.
23. The product of claim 20 wherein the leavener including chemical leavener and the product including instructions on the package informing a person to mix the flour, the leavener and water in the first container by shaking and to cook the dough mass at a time including immediately after formation of the dough mass.
24. The product of claim 20 wherein the flour is present in the range of between about 100 gr. and about 600 gr. on a dry weight basis .
25. The product of claim 20 wherein the flour is present in the range of between about 200 gr. and about 500 gr. on a dry weight basis.
26. The product of claim 20 wherein the flour being at least substantially gluten free.
27. The product of claim 20 wherein the leavener including chemical leavener.
28. A product for making a bread like product including: a sealed first container;
flour in the first container;
chemical leavener in the first container;
the first container having a volume potential in excess of the volume of the flour and the yeast in the first container and water in an amount in the range of about 75% by weight of the flour on a dry weight basis of at least about 10% by volume; and indicia associated with the first container providing instructions to form an agglomeration by adding water to the flour and chemical leavener and shaking the water, flour and chemical leavener.
29. The product of claim 28 wherein the first container including a flexible bag with a closure device to selectively close an opening of the bag.
30. The product of claim 28 wherein the first container including a pair of nested receptacles which are adapted to be separated and secured together to form a container for shaking the chemical leavener, the flour and water together to form an agglomeration therein.
31. The product of claim 30 including means of securing the receptacles in nested relation and the flour being contained in one of the receptacles.
32. The product of claim 31 including a lid secured to the receptacle containing the flour sealing the flour therein.
33. The product of claim 30 wherein the flour and chemical being mixed together and being in the same receptacle.
34. The product of claim 28 wherein the product including a package containing the first container.
35. The product of claim 28 wherein the flour including gluten .
36. The product of claim 28 wherein the flour being at least substantially gluten free.
37. A method of making a baked flour based food item, the method including:
adding a predetermined amount of water to a comminuted seed product including flour wherein total water is in an amount of at least about 75% by weight of comminuted seed product on a dry weight basis, said comminuted seed product and added water being in a container;
at least substantially closing said container;
mixing the comminuted seed product and water by shaking the container and thereby forming an agglomeration of the comminuted and water; and
cooking the agglomeration after the mixing.
38. The method of claim 37 including mixing powdered fat with the water and flour to form the agglomeration.
39. The method of claim 38 wherein the powdered fat is present in an amount of between about 10% and about 50% by weight of comminuted seed product on a dry weight basis.
40. The method of claim 39 including mixing sugar with the flour and water, said sugar being present in an amount in the range of between about 10% and about 60% by weight of comminuted seed product on a dry weight basis.
41. The method of claim 40 wherein the total amount of water being in the range of between about 125% and about 175% by weight of comminuted seed product on a dry weight basis.
42. The method of claim 40 wherein the cooked agglomeration being a cookie.
43. The method of claim 37 wherein the total water amount being in the range of between about 75% and about 125% by weight of comminuted seed product on a dry weight basis and the cooked agglomeration forming a bread like item.
44. The method of claim 37 wherein the water is at least partially provided as part of at least one of fruit juice and dairy products.
45. The method of claim 44 wherein the fruit juice including orange juice.
46. The method of claim 37 wherein the comminuted seed product including wheat flour and at least one other flour or meal from a seed crop.
47. The method of claim 45 wherein the seed crop including at least one of a bean flour and cereal grain flour.
48. The method of claim 45 wherein the comminuted seed product including oatmeal.
In the practice of making bread and bread like items, flour is mixed with water and other ingredients including leavener, such as yeast, to form a dough. The leavener, preferably yeast, provides carbon dioxide to expand the dough and produce a cell structure in the cooked dough. Typically, the dough is mixed to peak development to form what most bread consumers consider desirable bread attributes, such as texture and appearance. After mixing, the dough is allowed to rise, after which the dough is cooked to set the structure of the dough to form the finished bread. Typically, the rising dough is punched down and allowed to rise again. This is well known in the art of bread making. Many different types of bread and bread like products are made this way, both commercially and at home. Such breads are typically made using wheat flour that contains gluten, a protein that forms the gas retention properties of the developed dough. These methods reguire mechanical mixing to develop the dough.
Another method has come about recently and that is the so called Artisan bread process. It too requires mechanical mixing to form the dough. A book entitled My Bread by Jim Lahey (copyright 2009 and published by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. of New York, NY) discusses the making of Artisan bread. Rather than mix the dough to full development, the mixed dough is allowed to rise for a long period of time, say, for example, 24 hours before baking. The final cooked product is like the bread products produced using the "mix to full development" process. This process is sometimes referred to as a "no knead" method, but still requires handling by the preparer. Dough prepared by this method is also very high in moisture content.
Both these methods require the use of a mechanical mixer and containers to hold the dough during mixing and development. These processes require cleanup of the mixing device and the containers.
The present invention allows for the production of bread like items without the required mechanical mixing. It was surprisingly discovered that high quality bread like products can be easily made and produce a high quality cooked item without mechanical mixing of the dough, and that a dough can be formed by simply shaking the bread ingredients together in a container followed by an extended fermentation step. As seen in Fig. 3, the dough formed by shaking is highly irregular and its appearance indicates mixing is needed to provide a usable dough. This mix by shaking can take as little as about 5 seconds when the mixture is allowed to ferment for at least about 8 hours. This dough formation method eliminates the need for mixing bowls and utensils and their cleanup, and more importantly, transforms bread making into a simple, fool-proof process.
While it is known that batters can be easily formed by shaking or mechanical mixing, there are two attributes which differentiate a batter from a dough. First, a batter has a much higher water content, and hence fluidity, than a dough and hence permits intimate and uniform mixing of the ingredients. This facilitates the uniform hydration of the flour in a batter by shaking and hence the formation of a flowable viscous liquid, commonly known as a batter. Second, batters do not rely on development of the gluten in the batter to achieve the desired baked product. In fact, the aim is to avoid development of a gluten matrix. Batters, when cooked produce a crumb structure.
A dough is a plastically deformable solid and was not considered formable without mechanical agitation with a mixing device to obtain sufficient and uniform hydration of the flour and alignment of the gluten molecules (e.g. dough development) throughout the dough mass to permit bread making. Hand kneading has also been used as a form of mechanical mixing with a mixing device, the hands. SUMMARY
The present invention involves the provision of a method of making a bread like food item. The method includes adding a predetermined amount of water to flour containing gluten such as a wheat flour or a blend of flours including gluten. The water is added in an amount in the range of between about 55% and about 95% by weight of flour (as is) making the total water in the mix, including the water in the ingredients (flour typically has about 12% moisture) present in the range of between about 75% and about 125% by weight of dry flour. The flour and added water are in a closable container. The container can be a rigid container or a flexible container, such as a bag made of a flexible film. After adding the water to the flour, the container is at least substantially closed. The flour and water are mixed by shaking the container sufficiently to form an agglomeration of the water, flour and other ingredients. The initial agglomeration is allowed to ferment and quiescently develop to form dough from the action of yeast, a leavener, for a period of time of at least about 8 hours. The fermented dough can be handled, which will decrease its volume, and then either cooked (e.g., baked) directly or allowed to rise for a short period of time (e.g., 30-45 minutes) after which it is then cooked (e.g., baked).
The invention also involves a product for making a bread like product. The product can include a sealed package that contains flour with gluten and yeast leavener. A sealable container is provided with the product. The sealable container has a volume potential of at least about 200% in excess of the volume of the dry mix (e.g., flour, salt and yeast) in the sealed package and water to be added.
The invention also involves the provision of a method of making a baked flour based food item. The method includes adding a predetermined amount of water to a comminuted seed product including flour wherein total water is in an amount of at least about 75% by weight of comminuted seed product on a dry weight basis. The comminuted seed product and added water are in a container and the container is at least substantially closed. The comminuted seed product and water are mixed by shaking the container to form an agglomeration of the comminuted and water. The agglomeration is cooked after the mixing.
The invention further involves the provision of a method of making a bread like food item. The method includes adding a predetermined amount of water to chemical leavener and flour. The total water is present in an amount of between about 75% and about 125% by weight of dry flour. The flour and added water are in a container that is at least substantially closed. The flour and water are mixed by shaking the container to form an agglomeration of the flour and water. The agglomeration is cooked after the mixing. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a product package with portions broken away to show contents in the container.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective view of a container used to mix contents of the package with water.
Fig. 3 is a photograph of a flour/water agglomeration formed by mixing flour and water in the container of Fig. 2 by shaking .
Fig. 4 is a photograph of a dough formed by mixing with a dough hook for 8 minutes.
Fig. 5 is a photograph of two loaves of bread baked with the right loaf having been formed from a dough formed by shaking and fermenting in accordance with the invention and the left loaf being formed by conventional mixing.
Figs. 6A and 6B illustrate a pair of alternate containers usable to store dry ingredient ( s ) and for admixing flour and water .
Figs. 7A and 7B illustrate a second alternate container usable to store dry ingredient ( s ) and for admixing flour and water.
Fig. 8 is a photograph of a flour/water dough formed by mixing flour, water and chemical leavener.
Fig. 9 is a photograph of the dough of Fig. 8, but cooked after the dough was divided into smaller quantities. DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Fig. 1 illustrates a packaged food product 1 including an outer sealed package 2 which may be made of any suitable material compatible with containing food products. As shown, the package 2 is a rectangular solid having sidewalls 3A-D, a bottom wall 4 and a top wall 5. The package is preferably constructed to provide means to open same, e.g., a tear strip, as is known in the art. A suitable package material can be paperboard. Graphics, branding, labeling information and instructions 7 can be provided on the exterior of the package 2.
The package 2 contains flour 8 (Fig. 2) preferably in a sealable container 9 such as a water impermeable plastic bag with a closure device 11 that permits selective opening of the container 9 and its reclosure for a purpose later described. The container 9 may also be vented if fermentation and development are to take place in the container. The container 9 is also preferably resistant to moisture migration to help maintain the original moisture content of the flour 8. A suitable material can be polyethylene or polypropylene. Venting may be achieved by at least partially opening of the closure device 11 after mixing or may be provided with one or more vents such as holes 12 through one or more walls of container 9 at a location that will allow content mixing without appreciable loss of materials. The holes 12 may be sealed with a closure device such as a piece of tape that is operable to selectively close the holes. Venting may also be achieved by constructing the container 9 with a material which has a permeability to carbon dioxide sufficient to vent the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast . The container 9 has a volume potential (or fully expanded volume) when closed in excess of the volume of the contained flour and other components of the bread in the package 2, plus the volume of the recommended amount of water to be added of at least about 200% and up to about 400%, and more preferably at least about 250% and preferably in an amount in the range of between 250% and about 300%. The container 9 can be used to contain the formed agglomeration (described below) during fermentation and development if desired and is preferably vented to allow the escape of fermentation gases as by the holes 12 or opening of a closure 11. The agglomeration (formed by admixing the dry and wet ingredients as described herein) or fermented dough (herein collectively referred to as doughy mass) may be removed from the container 9, when it is a flexible bag, by simply turning the bag inside out to expose the contained material. It is preferred to remove the doughy mass from contact with the container by starting the release of the material at an edge portion and working to an opposite edge portion of the area in contact with the container 9.
As shown, the container 9 can be in the form of a closable flexible bag. The container 9 may include a mechanical closure device 11 such as those found on resealable plastic bags that have slide locks or those that have a rib that fits into a corresponding groove. An adhesive closure may also be used.
The package 2 can also contain a predetermined amount of water in a sealed container 30. It has been found that the amount of water added to the flour 8 can be an important factor. This can be due to the fact that people have trouble accurately measuring water using typical household measuring cups because of their large cross sectional area, the difficulty in holding them level, and the fact that many are not accurately calibrated or manufactured. The ability to judge the amount of water when there is a meniscus is also limited. A measuring device for water may also be provided that has a small transverse cross sectional area, much like a graduated cylinder that would make measuring a proper amount of water easier and more accurate if water is not included in the package 1. The container 30 can serve this function in subsequent uses and need not be provided in additional kits.
If water is provided in the kit, it is provided in an amount in the range of between about 55% and about 95%, preferably in the range of between about 65% and about 85%, and most preferably in the range of between about 70% and about 80% by weight of flour as the flour exists in the package. This water amount is based on the flour having a 12% moisture content. The total water in the mixed water and flour would be in the range of between about 75% and about 125%, preferably in the range of between about 85% and about 110%, and most preferably in the range of between about 95% and about 105% by weight of dry flour. As known to one skilled in the art, the optimal amount of water in dough is a function of several factors, including the type of bread being made, the moisture content of the flour and the absorption value of the flour. These amounts of water are also the same as those to be provided and added by the preparer.
The water may optionally come from a liquid food which contains a high percentage of water. Examples include milk (skim, 1% fat, 2% fat or whole milk), cream, beer and fruit juices. When these items are used, their percentage in the formula is adjusted to reflect the percentage of water in each item. For example, skim milk contains approximately 10% of non-water components. Thus, if the formula called for 100 grams of water, approximately 111 grams of skim milk would be used in its place.
Alternates to container 9 are shown in Figs. 6A, B. As seen in Fig. 6A, the container 21 can be a pair of tubes 22, 23, one being slidably received in the other to provide a variable or changeable volume. Also, the container 25 (Fig 6B) is in the form of a fixed volume rigid container base 26 with an attachable lid 27. The lid 27 or the base 26 may also serve as a baking tray if made of ovenable material. The container 25 can also serve the function of the package 2 as well as the container 9.
Figs 7A, B show a further embodiment of the invention. It includes a container 40 that can substitute for the container 9 and package 2. The container 40 includes a pair of receptacles 41, 42 that have tapered sidewalls permitting nesting of the receptacles in a stack as seen in Fig. 7B. This stacked configuration can be used to form a package configuration to substitute for the package 2. The container 40 may be overwrapped with a transparent shrink wrap 43 to secure the receptacles 41, 42 in nested relationship. The flour 8 and other ingredients may be stored in the inner receptacle 42 and it may be sealed with a lid member 45 that may be heat sealed to the receptacle 42. The container 40 may be labeled with a paste on label or a printed on label 46. The receptacles 41, 42 can be releasably secured together in the superposed configuration shown in Fig. 7A for mixing of the flour 8 and water. As shown, one of the receptacles can have an axially extending peripheral skirt 47 forming a female opening and the other receptacle can be provided with an axially extending wall portion 48 receivable in the skirt for interengagement therewith. The interengagement can be through a rib 50 on the wall portion 48 or the skirt 47 and a corresponding groove 51 in the other of the wall portion or skirt which will releasably secure the receptacle 41 to the receptacle 42 for mixing and fermentation. The receptacle 42 may be provided with indicia 52 on the label 46 or a side wall to indicate the amount of water recommended to be added to the dry ingredients and the preparation instructions. The instructions may include any suitable language or words informing a person how to prepare and cook the product. For example, any word or words indicating the fermentation and cooking steps can be used. For example, for the fermentation step, the wording may indicate rest, rise, set, ferment, proof or the like, all of which are equivalent for the word ferment, a more technical term. As for the cook step, the word or words could be bake, cook, heat or the like. The receptacle 42 can then serve as a measuring cup if desired and be provide with indicia such as a fill line (Fig. 7A) to indicate the recommended amount of water to be added. The receptacles 41, 42 can be formed as by thermoforming of a suitable plastic such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate ) . As with the other forms of the invention, other dry ingredients and water may be included in the kit.
The flour 8 may be any suitable flour and contain gluten. The flour may be a blend of different cereal grain flours and preferably contains wheat flour, which can be white flour, whole wheat, or a blend of the two. Other flours contain gluten, e.g., rye, and barley. The total gluten content is in the range of between about 8% and about 14% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis. Gluten is a protein that helps form the gas holding ability of the formed dough that allows the dough to rise from the production of carbon dioxide by the leavener. The flour present in the package for a loaf type bread is in the range of between about 100 gr. and about 600 gr., preferably in the range of between about 200 gr. and about 500 gr., and most preferably in the range of between about 300 gr. and about 400 gr. on a dry weight basis.
Any suitable yeast leavener can be used. Enough yeast should be provided to allow the initial agglomeration to double in volume during the fermentation and quiescent development as described below. Different yeasts will have different carbon dioxide producing capacities. A preferred yeast is dry yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast (e.g., active dry yeast), is present in the range of between about 0.1% and about 6% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis. If the agglomeration does not contain a significant amount of sugar, the most desired range of dry yeast is between about 0.1% and about 1% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis. Preferably, the yeast is packaged separately and in a moisture and air resistant package 15. However, the yeast may be premixed with the flour 8 and stored with the flour in the container 9.
Other ingredients may be included and can be provided in a separate package, or if dry, in the flour like the yeast described above. One such ingredient might be a flavor provider such as dry bacterial cultures of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria that can be added to produce a sour dough type of product.
Hydrocolloid may be added, such as a mixture of xanthan and guar gum. The amount of water can exceed the above described amount to accommodate the gum. This can increase chewiness to make a Ciabatta type of bread with a chewy texture. One example was using 1.0% (total agglomeration content basis) of this gum mixture, and 50% formula added water. This is 100 grams water per 100 grams of flour (as is) and 127 grams of total water per 100 grams of flour (dry basis) . At this level of water, dough is relatively sloppy if no gum is included. With the gum, it is a nice dough and baked to a very nice final product.
Other ingredients may be included such as flavorings, salt, sugar, butter, oil, food particulates such as dried fruit and dough conditioners. They may be premixed with the flour or can be provided in separate packages (not shown) .
The above described packaged food product is adapted for sale at retail outlets such as grocery stores. It is provided for the household production of bread like items such as artisan bread. The produced agglomeration may also be divided to produce smaller items such as demi-loaves or dinner rolls. The dough may also be flattened and shaped after fermentation and before cooking to use as a very high quality pizza crust.
It was surprisingly found that by simply shaking the flour with the added water in at least a substantially closed container that an initial agglomeration could be produced, which, following an extended fermentation and development step, would make a high quality baked product. The container may be completely closed. However, the agglomeration immediately after formation, had an appearance as seen in Fig. 3 that would indicate that a quality baked product was not going to be produced. It was non uniform in appearance and texture, and the flour was not uniformly hydrated as discussed below. No traditional mixing with a mechanical mixer such as a dough mixer, a hand held mixer or even mixing with the hands by kneading is needed. A moisture content test was conducted on the dough precursor, the initial agglomeration, prepared in accordance with the present invention and dough prepared by conventional mixing. The inventive agglomeration as formed by shaking was tested for moisture throughout at 24 locations as was conventionally mixed dough. The samples were then dried to determine the amount of water in each sample. The moisture content in the inventive agglomeration ranged from 0.76 to 0.95 (g H20/g dry mix) and had a standard deviation 19 times (0.0552 versus 0.0029) the moisture content of the conventionally mixed dough which had a moisture content range of between about 0.84 and 0.85. Another mass of inventive dough, after it was fermented and developed for 24 hours, had a more uniform moisture content, but did not reach the uniformity of mechanically mixed dough. This second dough, formed by shaking, had a standard deviation found to be 0.034 (as compared to 0, 0552) gram water/gram dry matter, and the moisture content ranged from 0.854 to 1.012. But, surprisingly, when baked, the dough formed by shaking is equal to or superior in quality to baked mechanically mixed dough.
The flour, leavener and other ingredients that are to be part of the dough are placed in a mixing container adapted to be shaken, such as the container 9, 21, 25 or 40. The water is then added to the container and the container is closed, at least substantially to prevent loss of ingredients. The ingredients are mixed at room temperature preferably above about 65°F (18°C) . The order of ingredient addition to the container for mixing is not important. The dry ingredients may be first added and shaken to obtain mixing thereof prior to water addition if desired. The flour, salt, yeast and other dry ingredients may already be preblended and contained in the container 9, 21, 25 or 40 depending on the particular execution of the product 1 and its package 2. The container 9 may be a water impermeable flexible bag, or a rigid utensil with a receptacle and lid, which can be a form of package 2 if desired. The flour, water and other ingredients are then shaken until a doughy mass is formed. The agglomeration is then allowed to ferment and quiescently develop without any further mixing. Fermentation and quiescent development can occur in the container 9 or in another location or receptacle as desired. It is preferred that the doughy mass be handled during the fermentation and development at least once in a manner to reduce its volume and then allowed to again rise prior to cooking. Transferring the dough from a fermentation device to a cooking device is a preferred method of accomplishing this. The fermentation and development are allowed to continue at room temperature until the flour is more uniformly hydrated, the gluten structure is developed, and the flavor typical of artisan bread has been produced. Alternately, if the doughy mass is to be divided to make a plurality of individual items, the agglomeration can be divided prior to fermentation and development. The fermentation is preferably allowed to occur for a time period of at least about 8 hours and more preferably for at least about 24 hours until fermentation and quiescent development is considered complete. It is preferred that the fermented dough has a volume of at least about 1.5, and more preferably at least about 2 times its original formed volume prior to its being cooked. The dough is then transferred to a baking surface or device. This transfer or handling may reduce the dough volume, and the dough after transfer may be allowed to set for a while to permit secondary rising of the dough for approximately 30 minutes for additional increase in specific volume. The dough may be cooked with or without the secondary rise step, i.e. without any appreciable additional rising or fermentation prior to starting the cooking; the cooking is started substantially immediately with some rising occurring during the cooking. A preferred method of cooking is by baking. As is known to one skilled in the art, there is a general relationship of the specific volume of dough (measured as cc' s/gram) and the final baked specific volume. Thus, allowing the dough to increase in specific volume just prior to baking results in a final baked product with a larger specific volume. Depending on the texture desired in the product, this may or may not be desirable. The dough can then be cooked as desired for example at a temperature above about
350°F (117°C) and more preferably above about 400°F (204°C) for a time until done as is known in the art. Prior to cooking, flavorants may be applied to the exterior of the dough as can be liquid washes, such as an egg wash. It is preferred to handle the doughy mass as little as is practicable after formation of the agglomeration and before cooking .
Fig. 3 illustrates an agglomeration as mixed in accordance with the above description, and it can be noted the non uniform surface that can be characterized as coarse and irregular or lumpy lacking in surface smoothness. Surprisingly, even with this exterior conformation and non uniform hydration of the flour, a smooth loaf of cooked bread is produced, see Fig. 4.
Example 1 - Artisan Italian Foccacia
The formula for the bread was as follows:
Bread Flour (unbleached) 57.6% 350 grams
Water (40° C) (added) 41.2% 250 grams
Salt 1.0% 6 grams
Yeast (Active dry) 0.2% 1.5 grams A dry mix was prepared which contained the flour, salt and yeast. This dry mix was placed in a screw cap high density polyethylene container which was approximately 16 cm in height and 12 cm in diameter. The water was then added to the container and the cap screwed onto the container. The container was then shaken for 15 seconds. The cap was slightly loosened and the container was held at 20° C for 24 hours. After the 24 hours of fermentation and quiescent development, the dough was transferred from the container to a non-stick baking tray. Twenty grams of olive oil and 1 gram of dried oregano was applied to the surface of the dough. The dough was then baked in a consumer oven at 220° C for 30 minutes. The baked product was very high quality artisan style bread.
Example 2 - Rustic Artisan Whole Wheat
The formula for the bread was as follows:
Bread Flour (unbleached) 39.9% 260 grams
Whole Wheat flour 15.4% 100 grams
Water (40° C) (added) 41.5% 270 grams
Sugar (raw) 2.0% 13 grams
Salt 0.9% 6 grams Yeast (Active dry) 0.3% 2 grams
A dry mix was prepared which contained the flours, sugar, salt and yeast. This dry mix was placed in a screw cap high density polyethylene container which was approximately 16 cm in height and 12 cm in diameter. The water was then added to the container and the cap screwed onto the container. The container was then shaken for 15 seconds. The cap was slightly loosened and the container was held at 20° C for 24 hours. After the 24 hours of fermentation and quiescent development, the dough was transferred from the container to a non-stick baking tray. It was then allowed to rise for approximately 30 minutes. Five grams of whole wheat flour was applied to the surface of the dough. The dough was then baked in a consumer oven at 220° C for 30 minutes. The baked product was very high quality rustic artisan style whole wheat bread.
Example 3 - Pan Loaf White Bread
The formula for the bread was as follows:
Bread Flour (unbleached) 54.9% 350 grams
Water (40° C) (added) 39.2% 250 grams Butter (powdered) 3.1% 20 grams
Sugar (raw) 1.6% 10 grams
Salt 0.9% 6 grams Yeast (Active dry) 0.3% 2 grams
A dry mix was prepared which contained the flour, powdered butter, sugar, salt and yeast. This dry mix was placed in a screw cap high density polyethylene container which was approximately 16 cm in height and 12 cm in diameter. The water was then added to the container and the cap screwed onto the container. The container was then shaken for 15 seconds. The cap was slightly loosened and the container was held at 20° C for 20 hours. After the 20 hours of fermentation and quiescent development, the dough was transferred from the container to a non-stick loaf style baking pan. It was then allowed to rise for approximately 30 minutes. Five grams of whole wheat flour was applied to the surface of the dough. The dough was then baked in a consumer oven at 220° C for 30 minutes. The baked product was very high quality loaf of white bread.
The present invention can also be practiced with non yeast leaveners . Chemical leaveners are well known in the art and are used in such products as refrigerated dough (biscuits and the like) . Such chemical leaveners include baking powder, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), monocalcium phosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) , sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bitartrate and potassium carbonate. Chemical leaveners produce gas by chemical reaction and/or heat. Chemical leaveners are typically chemical mixtures or compounds that release gas (usually carbon dioxide) when they react with moisture, acid and/or heated. Chemical leavener as- used herein includes a complete leavener system, acid plus base (e.g., baking powder) or a component of the system, for example, the base like baking soda. The acid can either be added as a component of the complete leavener system or as an ingredient, like buttermilk to provide both acid and water.
It has been found that the long hold time after shaking to form the doughy mass (agglomeration of flour, water and other dough ingredients) and prior to cooking can be reduced or eliminated when a chemical leavener is used instead of yeast leavener as described above. The water can be provided as a component of added fruit juice and/or dairy products such as orange juice, apple juice, milk, buttermilk and the like. The leavener can be provided in the consumer package already mixed with the flour component or can be contained in a separate package for mixing when shaking the flour/water mixture. While the amount of leavener will vary by the particular leavener and the amount of leavening desired in the dough, the leavener provided will be in the range of between about 0.5% and about 6% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis. The formula ingredient ranges for the chemically leavened dough is basically the same as discussed above for the yeast leavened dough but the chemical leavener is substituted for the yeast leavener. It is to be noted that the doughs of the present invention can also be nutritionally fortified with other comminuted seed crop ingredients that can be grain based or bean based such as an additional flour or meal. This ingredient can also be whole grain if desired. The ingredient can be derived from a seed crop such as a cereal grain or bean such as soy, oats, rice, quinoa, buckwheat, amaranth, barley, rye and the like can be added as dry ingredients and can be up to 40% by weight of the primary flour ingredient. Corn meal and oatmeal are examples of a meal type ingredient. For purposes of the amount of water and the other ingredients addition, they can be considered as part of the flour component. Figure 8 shows a mixture formed by shaking, comprising 100 parts flour (wet basis), 90 parts added water (wet flour basis), 4 parts of baking powder leavener (on a wet flour basis). Particulates can be added to the dough, preferably during formation of the dough component, such as dried fruit pieces like cranberries and blueberries, or other food pieces like nuts or the like, and can provide different tastes and compartmentalized sugar and other ingredients that are separate from the dough component. The flour based mixture is shaken for about 5-15 seconds and removed from the shaking container. Any suitable container can be used as described above for the mixing. The mixture/dough can be immediately placed on or in a cooking device such as a baking sheet or loaf pan. The mixture can then be cooked as by conventional baking in an oven or convection oven. The dough was divided to form scones and baked at 400°F for 14 minutes. The baked products are shown in Figure 9. Just as with the yeast leavened product, it was surprising that a visually appealing or normal looking finished product could be produced from such a rough looking dough mixture with basically no hold time. The texture of the cooked product was equivalent to normally mixed product. Even though the mix is non uniform in moisture content, it has been found that the invention can be used to produce small cooked products, as well as larger products, for example, one pound loafs with uniform quality throughout. Surprisingly, there appears to be no problem with moisture equilibration throughout the product from cooking without the normal mixing for a product where no rest time is used as in the products using chemical leavener.
It has been found that the mixed dough can be cooked immediately, e.g., less than one hour and preferably less than about 15 minutes of hold time, or can be held under conditions to slow the production of carbon dioxide from the leavener system, as by refrigerating the dough and then cooked. The dough can be held refrigerated for up to about 24 hours and then cooked. The dough starts degrading after long hold times, as by enzymatic action. Discoloration can occur during very long hold times.
Moisture analysis was conducted on a dough prepared in accordance with the present invention and a similar formula prepared with conventional mixing. The water content of the doughs was measured at 24 locations in each dough. The water content for conventionally mixed dough ranged from 0.784 to 0.754 grams water/gram dry matter for a total variation (high to low) of 0.03 grams water/gram dry matter, and had a standard deviation of 0.0020 while the dough of the present invention had a water content that ranged from 0.617 to 0.806 grams water/gram dry matter for a total variation of 0.189 grams water/gram dry matter and a standard deviation of 0.0549. Even with a wide range of moisture throughout the inventive dough, the dough when cooked produced a guality product with a uniform crumb throughout. As described, food particulates can be provided in the dough. The amount of particulates is determined by the desired end product, but the particulates are typically provided in an amount in the range of between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the total dough. The particulates are not included in the components of the dough weight amounts as expressed herein since they remain discrete within the dough and cooked product.
The present invention may also be used to produce cookies from cookie dough. Cookie dough is different from bread and biscuit doughs. A somewhat typical cookie recipe (Toll House recipe from Nestle) has about 120% sugar, 30% water and 75% fat (exclusive of fat in the chocolate chips) by weight of dry flour called for, much different than the inventive cookie dough. Traditional cookie dough has a higher level of fat and a relatively high level of added sugar, and a relatively lower water content than bread dough and biscuit dough. The fat in any of the inventive doughs described herein also needs to be dispersed in the dough. Preferred fats include powdered shortening or powdered butter. It has been found that by having dough with a higher water level and lower level of sugar in the dough, a quality cookie can be prepared from a dough formed by shaking as described above. Overall sweetness can be maintained by incorporating sweet particulates such as dried fruits into the dough which, while providing sweet taste, does not increase the sugar in the dough itself. The amount of total water in the dough component itself is preferably in the range of between about 125% and about 175%, more preferably in the range of between about 135% and about 165%, and most preferably in the range of between about 145% and about 155% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis. Particulates such as dried fruit pieces and nuts are not part of the dough in its formulation amounts of ingredients. The amount of added dough sugar is preferably in the range of between about 10% and about 60%, more preferably in the range of between about 20% and about 50%, and most preferably in the range of between about 30% and about 40% by weight of flour on a dry weight basis. Typically, cookies have dough sugar in the range of between about 100% and about 140% on a dry flour basis. The added fat is preferably a spray dried fat in particulate form to improve its ability to be dispersed in the mixture of flour and water during shaking. The added fat can be butter fat. The amount of fat is preferably in the range of between about 10% and about 50%, more preferably in the range of between about 20% and about 40%, and most preferably in the range of between about 25% and about 35% by weight of flour on a dry flour weight basis. A leavener can be provided. Cookies typically only include baking soda rather than a chemical leavening system which would include baking soda and an acidic ingredient. Baking soda can be added in amounts sufficient to produce the desired product guality and will vary in amount used. However, in general the baking soda can be in the range of between about 0% and about 1% by weight of dry flour. An acidic ingredient such as buttermilk can be added in conjunction with the baking soda. Although it is not common, chemical leaveners can also be added to cookie dough. Such chemical leaveners include or comprise baking powder, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), monocalcium phosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bitartrate and potassium carbonate as is well known in the art. Some leavening effect can also be provided by steam generated in the product during cooking. The cookie dough can have mixed therein particulates such as the dried fruit already mentioned, nuts, and chocolate chips.
The cookie dough is made by shaking the ingredients in a container. It has been found that the container can have a smaller headspace than described above since the shaking of the ingredients forms headspace from some ingredients filling interstitial space in other ingredients, for example, the water going into interstitial space between flour particles and by being absorbed into the flour particles. It has been found that a container with essentially no headspace after the addition of the dry mix and the liquid to the container will work. If desired, a headspace may be present, which would typically be from 10% - 100% of the volume of the dry mix and liquid to be added. One reason little or no headspace is needed is that chemically leavened dough, unlike the yeast leavened bread dough, does not need to significantly expand in volume prior to baking.
It has also been found that the inventive method which replaces conventional mixing of either a chemically leavened product or a yeast leavened bread can be used on a gluten-free product as well. This is a product in which the wheat flour is replaced by a non-gluten containing flour or starch (or mixture of flours or starches) such as rice flour, tapioca flour, corn flour, sorghum flour and/or garbanzo bean flour. A gum, such as xanthan gum, alginate or guar gum, emulsifiers or a film forming protein such as egg albumin can also be included in these gluten free flour mixes. Commercially available examples of gluten free mixes include Bob' s Red Mill Bread mix and Bisquick® gluten free baking mix.
Examples of chemically leavened products produced by the present invention are provided below.
Example 4-Chemically Leavened Scone or Drop Biscuit
A dry mix was prepared by combining the following ingredients;
110 grams wheat flour (unbleached, enriched, all purpose )
30 grams powdered butter
16 grams raw sugar
4 grams baking powder
120 grams dried fruit (cranberries, blueberries and cherries
2 grams baking soda
This dry mix was placed in a cylindrical container with a diameter of approximately 12 cm and an internal volume of 600 cc's. 120 ml of cultured buttermilk was then added to the container and the lid was placed on the container. The mixture was shaken for 5 seconds. The resultant dough was immediately spooned onto a baking sheet in 5 lumps and baked at 400°F for 14 minutes.
The resultant fruit scones were of excellent quality; equal to or better than a similar product prepared via conventional mixing in a mechanical mixer, but with a much more convenient preparation method.
Example 5-Gluten-free Fruit Scones
This product was prepared as per example 4, except that the 110 grams of wheat flour was replaced with gluten free flour containing 80 grams of white rice flour and 30 grams of tapioca starch, and the amount of buttermilk was increased to 135 grams, and the bake time was increased to 16 minutes at 400°F. The resultant product was of high quality.
Example 6-Drop Cookies
A dry mix was prepared by combining the following ingredients ;
112 grams gluten free flour (82 grams white rice flour and
30 grams of tapioca starch)
42 grams powdered butter
33 grams raw sugar
4 grams baking powder
145 grams dried cranberries
7 grams powdered vanilla
3 grams baking soda
This dry mix was placed in a cylindrical container with a diameter of approximately 12 cm and an internal volume of 600 cc's. 135 ml of skin milk was then added to the container and the lid was placed on the container. The mixture was shaken for 5 seconds. The resultant dough was immediately spooned onto a baking sheet in 10 lumps and baked at 400°F for 12 minutes. The result was an excellent tasting cookie with a shape very similar to cookies made with a conventional formulation and with mechanical mixing.
One skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the present invention is well adapted to carry out the objectives and obtain the ends and advantages mentioned, as well as those inherent therein. The embodiments, methods, procedures and techniques described herein are presently representative of the preferred embodiments, are intended to be exemplary and are not intended as limitations on the scope. Changes therein and other uses will occur to those skilled in the art which are encompassed within the spirit of the invention and are defined by the scope of the appended claims. Although the invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood that the invention as claimed should not be unduly limited to such specific embodiments. Indeed, various modifications of the described modes for carrying out the invention which are obvious to those skilled in the art are intended to be within the scope of the following claims.