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Title:
BUILDING UNITS AND WASTEWATER DRAINAGE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/051532
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to building units and modular wastewater drainage systems and assemblies for use with such building units. A wastewater pipe unit for a first building unit is disclosed, the wastewater pipe unit having a first pipework manifold configured to receive wastewater from a second building unit located above the first building unit and a second pipework manifold connected to and positioned below the first pipework manifold, the second pipework manifold comprising a plurality of inlets configured to receive wastewater from the first building unit. A formwork assembly and a floor tray for a building unit are also disclosed.

Inventors:
CAVANNA, Angel (c/- Buildom Pty Ltd, 6 Hepher RoadCampbelltown, New South Wales 2560, 2560, AU)
HUANG, Shuning (c/- Buildom Pty Ltd, 6 Hepher RoadCampbelltown, New South Wales 2560, 2560, AU)
Application Number:
AU2018/050676
Publication Date:
March 21, 2019
Filing Date:
June 29, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BUILDOM PTY LTD (6 Hepher Road, Campbelltown, New South Wales 2560, 2560, AU)
International Classes:
E03C1/122; F16L41/02
Foreign References:
JP2011179273A2011-09-15
JPS63243591A1988-10-11
US3346887A1967-10-17
US20100101673A12010-04-29
AU2012202356A12012-12-06
US4998754A1991-03-12
US0552677A1896-01-07
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FB RICE PTY LTD (Level 23, 44 Market StSydney, New South Wales 2000, 2000, AU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A wastewater pipe unit for a first building unit, the wastewater pipe unit comprising:

a first pipework manifold configured to receive wastewater from a second building unit located above the first building unit; and

a second pipework manifold connected to and positioned below the first pipework manifold, the second pipework manifold comprising a plurality of inlets configured to receive wastewater from the first building unit.

2. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first and second pipework manifolds includes an interconnection inlet that is set above and coaxially aligns with an outlet of the at least one of the first and second pipework manifolds. 3. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 2, wherein a bypass conduit extends between the interconnection inlet and the outlet of the at least one of the first and second pipework manifolds.

4. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 3, wherein the bypass conduit bypasses other inlets of the at least one of the first and second pipework manifolds.

5. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 3 or 4, wherein the bypass conduit is curved or bent. 6. The wastewater pipe unit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the plurality of inlets of the second pipework manifold comprises a first inlet and a second inlet below the first inlet, and the second inlet comprises a diameter equal to or greater than a diameter of the first inlet. 7. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 6, wherein the diameter of the second inlet is equal to the diameter of the first inlet.

8. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 6 or 7, wherein the diameter of the second inlet is 110 mm.

9. The wastewater pipe unit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first pipework manifold comprises an inlet configured to receive wastewater from the second building unit and an outlet to deliver the wastewater to the second pipework manifold.

10. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 9, wherein the first pipework manifold comprises at least two inlets configured to receive wastewater from the second building unit. 11. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 9, wherein the first pipework manifold comprises only two inlets configured to receive wastewater from the second building unit.

12. The wastewater pipe unit of claim 9, 10 or 11, further comprising an intermediate pipe unit connecting the outlet of the first pipework manifold to an inlet of the second pipework manifold.

13. The wastewater pipe unit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first pipework manifold is injection moulded. 14. The wastewater pipe unit of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising an upper portion configured to connect with a wastewater pipe unit of the second building unit to form a modular wastewater assembly.

15. A building unit comprising the wastewater pipe unit of any one of the preceding claims.

16. A building comprising the wastewater pipe unit of claim 14, wherein a floor of the building has been formed around the upper portion. 17. The building of claim 16, wherein the second building unit is positioned on the floor, above the first building unit.

18. A building unit for installation in a building above or below another building unit, the building unit comprising:

a set of walls comprising a ceiling and at least one side wall;

a floor, wherein the set of walls and the floor at least partly defines an interior space of the building unit; and

a formwork assembly comprising a set of support units configured to support and locate a formwork decking thereon for forming a floor above the building unit, wherein:

the set of support units is adjustable to vary a relative position of the formwork decking with respect to the ceiling;

the set of support units is connected to the set of walls; and

the set of support units is connectable to the formwork decking.

19. The building unit of claim 18, wherein the formwork assembly further comprises the formwork decking and the set of support units is connected to the formwork decking to support and locate the formwork decking thereon.

20. The building unit of claim 19, wherein at least a portion of the set of support units is removably connected to the set of walls and the formwork decking.

21. The building unit of claim 18, 19 or 20 wherein the formwork decking is configured to be retained by the formed floor.

22. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 21, wherein at least two support units of the set of support units comprise a concave receiver to support a bearer. 23. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 22, wherein the set of support units is configured to vary a distance of the formwork decking with respect to the ceiling.

24. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 23, wherein the set of support units is configured to vary an orientation of the formwork decking with respect to the ceiling.

25. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 24, wherein at least one of the support units of the set of support units comprises a threaded connector to vary the relative position.

26. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 25, the set of support units comprising six support units.

27. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 26, wherein each support unit of the set of support units is configured to be mounted to the set of walls by a threaded connector. 28. The building unit of any one of claims 18 to 27, wherein the formwork decking comprises decking side walls and the set of support units are removably connected to the decking side walls.

29. A floor tray for a building unit, the floor tray the floor tray comprising a floor cell and a floor frame that receives the floor cell.

30. The floor tray of claim 29, wherein the floor cell comprises a base wall that provides a floor of the building unit.

31. The floor tray of claim 30, wherein the base wall comprises a predetermined drain area, wherein the drain area is recessed from a remainder of the floor tray to receive water therefrom.

32. The floor tray of claim 30 or claim 31, wherein the floor cell comprises one or more cell side walls connected to the base wall.

33. The floor tray of claim 32, wherein the floor frame comprises one or more frame side walls.

34. The floor tray of claim 33, wherein the one or more frame side walls are configured to receive the one or more cell side walls. 35. The floor tray of claim 34, wherein the one or more frame side walls comprise one or more cavities configured to receive the one or more cell side walls.

36 The floor tray of any one of claims 29 to 35, wherein the floor frame comprises a recess to receive a filler material between the floor frame and the floor cell.

37. The floor tray of any one of claims 29 to 36, wherein the floor cell and/or floor frame is formed from a metal sheet.

38. The floor tray of any one of claims 29 to 37, wherein the floor frame is constructed from an extruded section.

39. The floor tray of claim 38, wherein the extruded section comprises a recess to receive a sealant between the floor cell and the floor frame. 40. A method of installing building units in a building structure, the method comprising: positioning a first building unit comprising a first wastewater pipe unit at a first level of the building structure, the first wastewater pipe unit comprising an upper portion projecting above a ceiling of the first building unit, the upper portion comprising a first upper connection pipe portion;

forming a floor over the first building unit to at least partly define a second level of the building structure above the first level, the floor being formed around at least a part of the first upper connection pipe portion; positioning a second building unit comprising a second wastewater pipe unit at the second level of the building structure, the second wastewater pipe unit comprising a lower portion adjacent a floor of the second building unit, the lower portion comprising a first lower connection pipe portion:

wherein the positioning the second building unit at the second level comprises positioning the second building unit so that the first lower connection pipe portion of the second building unit is connectable to the first upper connection pipe portion of the first building unit. 41. The method of claim 40, wherein the positioning the second building unit at the second level comprises lowering the second building unit into position.

42. The method of claim 40 or claim 41, wherein the upper portion comprises a second upper pipe portion connectable to the second building unit to receive wastewater from the second building unit.

Description:
BUILDING UNITS AND WASTEWATER DRAINAGE FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to building units such as pre-fabricated bathroom units, including modular wastewater drainage systems and assemblies for use with such building units.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Buildings that are constructed from or include building units, including modular building units, have become increasingly popular due to the reduced cost of construction per square metre and ability to transport or translocate all or part of the building. These building units can serve various purposes, including accommodation, office space, ablutions or as an educational space. One of the advantages of building units is that they can be constructed off site and then transported to where they are required, to form or to be included in a building.

The building units can also have some of the services, such as electrical cables, preinstalled and many of the internal structures such as walls, kitchens and cupboards can be prefabricated prior to transport.

Another advantage with buildings constructed from or including building units is that all or part of the building may be deconstructed with greater ease and moved to another location. This is especially advantageous where temporary accommodation or shelter is required.

The building units can offer several advantages over the prior and conventional building methods. However, buildings that include or are constructed from building units can suffer from some issues. For instance, once constructed, a building comprising building units may be difficult to expand in size or add to, due to the pre-existing services, such as the plumbing, that may be difficult to access. It should be appreciated that any discussion of the prior art throughout the specification is included solely for the purpose of providing a context for the present invention and should in no way be considered as an admission that such prior art was widely known or formed part of the common general knowledge in the field as it existed before the priority date of the application.

SUMMARY

One or more aspects of the present disclosure may relate to a building unit for use in construction of a building, wherein the building unit may be configured to be located above or below another building unit in the building, and/or may comprise a wastewater pipe unit, a formwork, a floor tray and/or a formwork assembly. One or more aspects of the present disclosure may relate to a building unit comprising a wastewater pipe unit, or a wastewater pipe unit for use in a building unit, wherein the wastewater pipe unit is connectable to another wastewater pipe unit above and/or below the wastewater pipe unit to form a modular wastewater assembly. In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a building unit comprising a wastewater pipe unit, the building unit being positionable at a first level of a building structure, wherein the wastewater pipe unit is configured to connect in a vertical direction to a wastewater pipe unit of at least one other building unit that is positionable on a second level of the building structure adjacent the first level, to form a modular wastewater assembly, the connection being by at least one of the wastewater pipe units extending at least partially through a hole in a floor between the first and second levels of the building structure.

A modular wastewater assembly comprising wastewater pipe units from a plurality of building units may be configured to receive wastewater from the plurality of building units and to deliver the received wastewater through one or more outlets of one of the wastewater pipe units.

A level of a building structure may comprise a floor (e.g. slab) separating the level from an adjacent level. The floor may at least partly define a level of the building structure, e.g. by at least defining a bottom of one level and/or a top of another level. Each building unit may have a floor and ceiling that is formed separately from the floors of the building structure.

In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a building unit assembly, the building unit assembly comprising:

a first building unit comprising a first wastewater pipe unit and positioned at a first level of a building structure, and

a second building unit comprising a second wastewater pipe unit and positioned at a second level of the building structure above the first level, wherein the first and second wastewater pipe units are connected vertically together to form a modular wastewater assembly, the connection being by at least one of the wastewater pipe units extending at least partially through a hole in a floor located between the first and second building units.

In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a building unit comprising a plurality of wastewater sources, and a wastewater pipe unit, comprising a pipework manifold to receive wastewater from the plurality of wastewater sources and an outlet to deliver the received wastewater to another building unit located under the building unit. Such an arrangement may reduce a number of required wastewater connections between vertically adjacent building units, thereby improving an ease of construction of a building.

In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a wastewater pipe unit for a first building unit, the wastewater pipe unit comprising:

a first pipework manifold configured to receive wastewater from a second building unit located above the first building unit; and

a second pipework manifold connected to and positioned below the first pipework manifold, the second pipework manifold comprising a plurality of inlets configured to receive wastewater from the first building unit.

In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a method of installing building units comprising:

positioning a first building unit comprising a first wastewater pipe unit at a first level of a building structure,

positioning a second building unit comprising a second wastewater pipe unit at a second level of the building structure above the first level and such that the second wastewater pipe unit connects to the first wastewater pipe unit,

wherein at least one of the first and second wastewater pipe units extends at least partially through a floor of the building structure located between the first and second units.

The building units may each comprise one or more side walls, e.g. at least four side walls, connected between its floor and ceiling. The building units may be supported by the building structure. The building units may provide a partial or complete room within the building structure, such as a bathroom, laundry or otherwise. A wastewater pipe unit of a building unit may not necessarily be located entirely within the room defined by the building unit. For example, the wastewater pipe unit may be partly located on an exterior of the side walls, and communicate to an interior space of the building unit. The building structure may be a frame structure, e.g., a concrete frame structure, an aluminium frame structure, a steel frame structure, a steel and wood frame structure or a wood frame structure. The floors and ceilings of different levels of the building structure may be provided by concrete, steel and/or wooden floors, the building units being supported by the floors of the building structure. In one embodiment, the floors of the building structure are provided by concrete slabs. The building structure may provide a core structure of an apartment block, an office block and/or a high-rise building, for example. The building units, including their respective wastewater pipe units, may be formed entirely separately from the building structure, e.g. at a remote location, before being transported to the building structure for installation.

In one embodiment, at least a part of the building structure is formed after installing some or all of the building units in the building structure. For example, the method of installing building units may comprise:

positioning the first building unit comprising the first wastewater pipe unit at a first level of a building structure,

forming a floor over the first building unit to at least partly define a second level of the building structure above the first level; and

positioning the second building unit comprising the second wastewater pipe unit at the second level of the building structure above the first level.

It is noted that throughout the present disclosure, where references are made to forming a floor, they are to be understood to include forming at least a part of the floor unless specified otherwise or clearly indicated by its context.

As indicated, each building unit may comprise a ceiling. An upper portion of the wastewater pipe unit of the building unit may project above the ceiling of the building unit. The upper portion projecting above the ceiling of the building unit may comprise at least a first upper connection pipe portion. In some embodiments, the upper portion projecting above the ceiling of the building unit may comprise at least a first upper connection pipe portion and a second upper connection pipe portion spaced (e.g. laterally) from the first upper connection pipe portion. The forming of the floor over the first building unit may comprise forming the floor around each upper connection pipe portion. Thus, when the building structure is formed using concrete, a concrete floor may be formed around (e.g. poured around) each upper connection pipe portion. By forming the floor of the building structure around each upper connection pipe portion, a wastewater path may be provided between the different (e.g. adjacent) levels of the building structure, e.g. automatically or without a need to remove further material from the floor, on forming a floor of the building structure between the different levels. This may reduce or remove any need for drilling, boring or cutting of the floors of the building structure in order to extend wastewater components through the building structure. The floor of the building structure may be formed around each upper connection pipe portion, such that an upper end of each upper connection pipe portion may be recessed from, substantially flush with, or project above an upper surface of the floor of the building structure. As also indicated, each building unit may comprise a floor distinct to a floor of a building structure. A lower portion of the wastewater pipe unit of the building unit may be adjacent the floor of the building unit. The lower portion may comprise at least a first lower connection pipe portion. In some embodiments, the lower portion may comprise at least a first lower connection pipe portion and a second lower connection pipe portion spaced (e.g. laterally spaced) from the first lower connection pipe portion. A lower end of each connection pipe portion may be recessed from, substantially flush with, or project beyond a lower surface of the floor of the building unit.

In general, the upper connection pipe portion(s) of one building unit may be connectable with a corresponding lower connection pipe portion(s) of another building unit to form the modular wastewater assembly.

Following from discussions above, in one embodiment, a method of installing building units is provided comprising:

positioning a first building unit comprising a first wastewater pipe unit at a first level of a building structure, the first wastewater pipe unit comprising an upper portion projecting above a ceiling of the first building unit, the upper portion comprising at least a first upper connection pipe portion;

forming a floor over the first building unit to at least partly define a second level of the building structure above the first level, the floor being formed around at least a part of the first upper connection pipe portion;

positioning a second building unit comprising a second wastewater pipe unit at the second level of the building structure, the second wastewater pipe unit comprising a lower portion adjacent a floor of the second building unit, the lower portion comprising at least a first lower connection pipe portion:

wherein the positioning the second building unit at the second level comprises positioning the second building unit so that the first lower connection pipe portion of the second building unit is connectable to the first upper connection pipe portion of the first building unit.

In any embodiment of the present disclosure, the positioning of a building unit may comprise lowering the building unit into position, e.g. using a crane. The positioning of the second building unit at the second level may therefore comprise lowering of the second building unit on to the second level so that the first lower connection pipe of the second building unit is lowered into connection with the first upper connection pipe of the first building unit. A similar connection may be achieved where second upper and second lower connection pipe portions are provided.

The building unit may be configured to support its own weight, such that it may be lifted by a crane and lowered into position without use of additional equipment or support structure. The building unit may be configured to be hoisted by an upper portion of the building unit, such as by a ceiling of the building unit, or by one or more side walls of the building unit. The building unit may comprise a set of anchor points on the ceiling and/or the side walls, by which the building unit may be lifted. Although various portions of the present disclosure may discuss first and second building units only, any number of building units may be provided that are to be vertically located relative to each other, e.g. at different levels of a building structure. Each building unit may have similar or identical wastewater pipe units which may connect to each other in the manner as described above.

Each wastewater pipe unit of a plurality of wastewater pipe units or a modular wastewater assembly may include multiple inlets and at least one outlet. A plurality of the building units in a building structure may each comprise a wastewater pipe unit substantially identical to one another.

Each wastewater pipe unit of a plurality of wastewater pipe units or a modular wastewater assembly may comprise at least one pipework manifold including a plurality of inlets and an outlet. In some embodiments, each wastewater pipe unit comprises at least two pipework manifolds, e.g. at least a first or upper pipework manifold and a second or lower pipework manifold. The upper and lower pipework manifolds may be connected together by a pipe, e.g. an intermediate pipe. Following from this, in one aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a wastewater pipe unit for a first building unit, the assembly comprising: a first pipework manifold configured to receive wastewater from a second building unit located above the first building unit; and a second pipework manifold connected to and positioned below the first pipework manifold, the second pipework manifold comprising a plurality of inlets configured to receive wastewater from the first building unit.

The first or upper pipework manifold may be positioned adjacent or toward the ceiling of the building unit and the second or lower pipework manifold may be positioned adjacent or toward the floor of the building unit. In some embodiments, the upper pipework manifold may be positioned above the ceiling of the building unit. For example, the upper pipework manifold may be comprised in the upper portion of the wastewater pipe unit. The lower pipework manifold may be comprised in the lower portion of the wastewater pipe unit One or more inlets of the upper pipework manifold may be configured to receive wastewater that is generated within an adjacent building unit, for example a building unit that is located above the building unit of the upper pipework manifold. On the other hand, one or more inlets of the lower pipework manifold may be configured to receive wastewater that is generated within its own building unit.

One or more inlets of the upper pipework manifold may be directly connected to an outlet of a wastewater pipe unit of the building unit above. Additionally or alternatively, one or more inlets of the upper pipework manifold may be directly connected to an outlet of a floor drain (e.g. shower drain) of the building unit above. On the other hand, one or more inlets of the lower pipework manifold may be directly connected to an outlet of the upper pipework manifold, e.g. via an intermediate pipe within the building unit. Additionally or alternatively, one or more inlets of the lower pipework manifold may be directly connected to an outlet of a basin and/or a WC (i.e. toilet) within the building unit. In this specification the term "directly connected" is intended to indicate a connection between an outlet of one wastewater component and an inlet of another wastewater component, there being no intervening connections, between the inlet and the outlet, to other active wastewater components.

In discussions above, it is indicated that the building units may be vertically positioned (i.e. substantially aligned in a vertical direction) relative to each other, but are not necessarily vertically supporting each other. A building unit is not necessarily located immediately on top of another building unit, albeit the two building units may be considered to be 'stacked' by virtue of their wastewater pipe units being directly connected, one on top of the other, through floors of the building structure) and/or their vertical positioning relative to each other. In some alternative embodiments, whole building units may be vertically supported by/stacked on top of each other. In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a modular wastewater assembly for building units that are vertically positionable relative to each other, the assembly comprising a plurality of generally identical wastewater pipe units, wherein each wastewater pipe unit of said plurality of generally identical wastewater pipe units is configured to be comprised in a respective one of the building units, each said wastewater pipe unit including multiple inlets and at least one outlet, said plurality of generally identical wastewater pipe units being stackable, wherein said at least one outlet of an overlaying wastewater pipe unit connects with one of said inlets of said underlying wastewater pipe unit.

In accordance with preceding discussions, each pipework unit may comprise at least one pipework manifold including a plurality of inlets and an outlet. In some embodiments, each pipework unit comprises at least two of the pipework manifolds, e.g. at least first and second pipework manifolds.

In another aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a wastewater pipe unit for a building unit, the wastewater pipe unit comprising, a first pipework manifold including a plurality of inlets and an outlet, a second pipework manifold including a plurality of inlets and an outlet, and an intermediate pipe extending between said first pipework manifold and said second pipework manifold, wherein the intermediate pipe is connected to the outlet of said first pipework manifold, and is connected to one of said plurality of inlets of said second pipework manifold, wherein at least some of said plurality of inlets of the first and second pipework manifolds are selectively connectable to ablutions pipework of the respective building unit.

The outlet of the second pipework manifold may be connected to or in fluid communication with a sewage or wastewater discharge apparatus.

The term wastewater used throughout the specification should be given its usual definition and includes greywater and blackwater (sewage). Although the reader should appreciate that the aspects of the present disclosure could be separately used for wastewater or blackwater where required.

One or more of the inlets of the first and second pipework manifolds may be sealed or include a cap wherein an installer can rupture the seal or remove the cap to access the inlet. Each of the pipework manifolds may include inlets at different orientations, wherein an installer can select a suitable inlet to connect a relevant pipe thereto. The inlets of the pipework manifolds may be connected to ablutions (i.e. wastewater sources) that may include bathroom sink drains, shower drains, toilet drains, kitchen sink drains and laundry drains, for example.

Each pipework manifold may include an interconnection inlet, which may be set above and coaxially align with the outlet of the pipework manifold. The interconnection inlet may directly connect to the outlet of another pipework manifold or to an intermediate pipe connected to the outlet of another pipework manifold. Within each manifold, the interconnection inlet may be in fluid communication with the outlet of the manifold by way of a bypass conduit, which may be a curved or bent conduit. The bypass conduit may bypass other inlets of the pipework manifold. Thus, wastewater flowing within a manifold from the interconnection inlet to the outlet via the bypass conduit may cause little or no interference with wastewater entering the manifold via other inlets of the manifold.

In one form, when the manifold is connected to an intermediate pipe, an axis of the bypass conduit may be misaligned with the axis of the intermediate pipe. This may ensure that the bypass conduit breaks a fall of wastewater at least as it travels downward from the first pipework manifold to the second pipework manifold and/or across a longer pipework assembly comprising multiple wastewater pipe units. The other inlets of the manifold may be adjoined to or provided in a passageway of the manifold that is at least partially separated from the bypass conduit. For example, the pipework manifold may include a passageway that branches into several inlet openings. The passageway may lead to the outlet and may provide a separate route to the outlet from that of the bypass conduit. The outlet may be located at one end of the passageway and the bypass conduit may join the passageway adjacent the outlet.

In one form the passageway is configured to extend generally vertically and at least some of the inlets are perpendicular to the generally vertical passageway. In one form, when the manifold is connected to an intermediate pipe, the axis of the passageway may be vertically aligned with the axis of the intermediate pipe. At least some of the inlets of the pipework manifold extend horizontally outwardly therefrom, wherein at least some inlets are perpendicular to other inlets of a respective pipework manifold on a horizontal plane. The inlets of the pipework manifold may be of different sizes. For example, one or more of the inlets may have different diameters to one or more other inlets. For example, one of the inlets may have a diameter of 75 mm and another of the inlets may have a diameter of 110 mm. In one form the pipework manifold could be generally understood to include three sides that are perpendicular to an adjoining one of the sides. Each side may have inlets that are the same size/diameter or that have different sizes/diameters. For example, at least one of the sides may have a large inlet and a small inlet. In one example, a lower pipework manifold may comprise one side comprising a large inlet located above a smaller inlet. The inlets may extend outwardly from the respective side. In one embodiment, a large inlet and a small inlet may extend outwardly from each of said three sides. The sides may form the passageway of the manifold. The pipework manifold may include a fourth side, which may have no inlets. The bypass conduit may extend over the fourth side.

The intermediate length of pipe that extends between the first and second pipework manifolds can be of any length and may be cut to size by an installer or manufacturer of the building unit. This may be carried out on site or at a remote location, such as at a factory. The intermediate length of pipe may be a single length of pipe or multiple lengths of pipe connected with corresponding joiners or junction members.

In another aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a plurality of modular building units each including a cavity for placement of a respective wastewater pipe unit therein, each respective wastewater pipe unit including at least one pipework manifold, wherein the modular building unit can be vertically positioned relative to each other such that the respective wastewater pipe units are connectable by way of the wastewater pipe units to thereby form a modular wastewater assembly.

The wastewater pipe unit and/or pipework manifolds of the present disclosure may be injection moulded and constructed from a plastics material, such as but not limited to cross- linked polyethylene (PEX), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chlorine (CPVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE, also known as PEHD). In one form at least some of the inlets of the pipework manifolds are fabricated as blind ended tubes, whereby an installer is able to cut off the end of the required blind ended tube to access a selected inlet. In another aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a method of installing a wastewater system for vertically positioned or stackable building units, including the steps of, providing a modular wastewater assembly comprising a plurality of generally identical pipework manifolds, each of the generally identical pipework manifolds comprising multiple inlets and an outlet, locating a first pipework manifold of said generally identical units, within a first building unit of said stackable building units, connecting an outlet of said first pipework manifold to a sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus, the first pipework manifold directing wastewater from the first building unit toward the sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus, locating a second pipework manifold of said generally identical units, within a second building unit of said stackable building units, connecting an outlet of said second pipework manifold to an inlet of said first pipework manifold, the second pipework manifold directing wastewater from the second building unit toward the sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus via the first pipework manifold. In one embodiment, in the above method at least one building unit is stacked on the top of the second building unit, wherein a respective pipework manifold is connected to the second pipework manifold or an underlying pipework manifold whereby the wastewater is directed towards the sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus via the first pipework manifold. In any aspects described herein, a building unit may comprise a formwork assembly. The building unit, including the formwork assembly, may be constructed at a first location, and subsequently transported to and installed at a second location. The formwork assembly may assist in creation of a floor (e.g. concrete slab) above the building unit at the second location. The building unit may comprise a set of walls comprising a ceiling and at least one side wall, and a floor, wherein the set of walls and the floor at least partly defines an interior space of the building unit. The formwork assembly may be connected to the set of walls, e.g. to the ceiling and/or at least one of the side walls. The formwork assembly may comprise one or more support units, e.g. a set of support units that are configured to support and locate a formwork decking for forming a slab, e.g. a concrete slab, above the building unit. The set of support units may be adjustable to vary a relative position of the formwork decking with respect to the ceiling of the building unit. The set of support units may be connected to the set of walls, e.g. to the ceiling and/or at least one of the side walls and may be connected or connectable to the formwork decking.

Following from this, in one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a building unit for installation in a building above or below another building unit, the building unit comprising: a set of walls comprising a ceiling and at least one side wall;

a floor, wherein the set of walls and the floor at least partly defines an interior space of the building unit; and

a formwork assembly comprising a set of support units configured to support and locate a formwork decking for forming a slab above the building unit, wherein:

the set of support units is adjustable to vary a relative position of the formwork decking with respect to the ceiling;

the set of support units is connected to the set of walls; and

the set of support units is connectable to the formwork decking.

As indicated, the building unit, including the formwork assembly as described above, may be constructed at a first location, prior to being positioned or installed at a second location such as a level of a building structure. For example, the building unit, including the formwork assembly, may be positioned or installed at a first level, on a first floor, of the building structure. The formwork assembly of the building unit may be subsequently be used to form a second floor of the building structure above the first floor.

In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a method of forming a building structure comprising transporting a building unit comprising a formwork assembly according to the preceding aspect from a first location to a second location, the second location being on a first floor of the building structure, and using the formwork assembly to form a second floor of the building structure above the first floor.

The formwork decking may be configured to at least partly define a shape of a floor (e.g. concrete slab) to be formed thereon. The formwork decking may comprise a decking floor and decking side walls, such as to define an interior space therein. The formwork decking may be retained in the floor once it has been formed and to this extent may be considered sacrificial. The formwork decking may be provided in the formwork assembly prior to transportation to the second or after transportation.

The formwork assembly of the building unit may be adapted to connect to further formwork that is constructed adjacent the building unit. The formwork assembly of the building unit may be adapted to form a portion of the floor immediately above the building unit and the further formwork may be adapted to form adjacent portions of the floor. The connection between the formwork assembly of the building unit and the further formwork may be via mating of formwork decking. When initially positioned at the second location, the formwork assembly may be misaligned with the further formwork. For example, the formwork decking of the formwork assembly may be misaligned with formwork decking of the further formwork. Such misalignment may cause a step to be created, undesirably, in the slab formed using the formwork, which may be aesthetically displeasing, structurally undesirable and/or cause inefficient use of space.

To reduce or ameliorate this potential problem, is indicated, the set of support units may be adjustable to vary a relative position of the formwork decking with respect to the ceiling. Accordingly, the set of support units may be adjusted to vary a relative position of the formwork decking relative to the further formwork, enabling alignment with the further formwork.

Thus, the formwork decking may be rearranged (or repositioned) with respect to an adjacent structure in situ. For instance, as a first step a building unit may be positioned in a building structure by locating the floor of the building unit on a floor of the building structure. As a second step, the formwork decking may be rearranged or repositioned with respect to the adjacent structure to reduce or remove gaps therebetween as required.

A support unit may comprise a first end connectable to the formwork decking, and a second end connectable to the body of the building unit, e.g. to the ceiling and/or at least one wall. The support unit may comprise a variable portion adjustable to vary a distance between the first end and the second end. The variable portion may comprise a lock to prevent further changes to the distance between the first end the second end. In one form, a variable portion may comprise a tube comprising a threaded inner surface, and a complementary shaft with a threaded outer surface. The variable portion may comprise a set of handles (e.g. connected to the tube) operable to adjust a length of the variable portion.

A set of support units may comprise a plurality of subsets of support units, each subset consisting of one type of a support unit. A first subset may be configured to directly support the formwork decking, and a second subset may be configured to support a bearer configured to be positioned between the formwork decking and the support unit.

In an example, a first subset may comprise four support units each located at a corner of the body of the building unit, and the second subset may comprise two support units each located at an opposing side of the body of the building unit. A support unit of the second subset may comprise a support surface to locate and/or support the bearer. According to one aspect of the present disclosure, the formwork assembly may be configured to be at least partly removed from the remainder of the building unit after the building unit has been installed and a floor has been formed above the building unit. The removed portion of the formwork assembly may be used in another building unit.

In one example, the formwork assembly may comprise a set of support units removably connectable to the body of the building unit and removably connectable to the formwork decking. In this example, at least a part of the set of support units may be retrieved from the building unit after the building unit has been installed and the formwork assembly has been used to form a floor above the building unit. The retrieved part of the set of support units may be reused which may be environmentally and economically beneficial.

A support unit may thus comprise a first end and a second end, removably connectable to the formwork decking and the body of the building unit respectively. An end of the support unit may be connectable by a fastener. Additionally, or alternatively, an end of the support unit may be connectable by way of being configured to support a weighted load, such as an end supporting a bearer which in turn supports the formwork decking.

In one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a method of installing a building unit in a building structure. In the method, the building unit, comprising a building body and a set of support units removably connected to the body, is transported to and located on a first floor of the building structure, a formwork decking connected to the building body by the set of support units is repositioned by adjusting the set of support units, at least a part of a second floor of the building structure is formed above the building unit using the formwork decking, and at least a portion of the set of support units is removed to be reused in another building unit.

In a building unit according to any aspect of the present disclosure, the floor of the building unit may comprise a floor tray. The floor tray may comprise a floor cell and a floor frame.

Related to this, according to one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a floor tray for a building unit, the floor tray comprising a floor cell and a floor frame. The floor tray may comprise a floor of the building unit when assembled. The floor tray may comprise a base wall and one or more side walls. The base wall may provide at least a part of a floor of the building unit. The one or more side walls may be connected to or integrated in one or more walls of the building unit that form an internal space of the building unit. The floor cell may comprise the base wall of the floor tray, and a portion of the one or more side walls, and the floor frame may comprise another portion of the one or more side walls. One or more side walls of the floor frame may be configured to receive one or more side walls of the floor cell. The floor tray may comprise one or more openings. The floor tray may comprise a side opening comprising a gap in the one or more side walls, configured to form a portion of a doorway. The floor tray may additionally or alternatively comprise an outlet configured to deliver wastewater from within the building unit comprising the floor. The floor tray may comprise a drain area, such as in a base wall of the floor tray. The floor tray may be configured to encourage a flow of water (e.g. wastewater) to the drain area of the floor tray in its working orientation. In one form, the drain area may be a lowest portion of the floor tray when the floor tray is installed in its working configuration. The drain area may be recessed with respect to a remainder of the floor tray. A floor tray comprising a drain area may provide an accurate and precise floor configuration for the building unit while reducing a potential for error which may be present in manually forming a shape of the floor to achieve similar aims.

The floor tray may comprise a base wall comprising the drain area, wherein the base wall comprises one or more slopes to direct water to the drain area. A slope may comprise a gradient of between 1% and 8% for example, such as at least 2%, 3%, 5%, or 7%. The one or more slopes of the base wall may be created by welding, or pressing a metal sheet. The drain area may comprise an outlet of the floor tray, wherein the outlet is configured to deliver wastewater from a floor of the building unit.

The floor cell may be formed from a metal sheet for assembly in the building unit. The floor cell may be manufactured from a sheet metal (e.g. a sheet of aluminium) to a predetermined shape, to be assembled in the building unit, such as into a frame. The floor cell may comprise: a base wall, one or more side walls, a side opening, a drain area configured to receive wastewater from the remainder of the floor cell, and/or one or more slopes configured to deliver wastewater to the drain area. The floor cell may thus improve an ability to mass manufacture building units. Additionally, construction from a single sheet may lead to fewer potential leak points and thus reduce risks. The floor cell may be manufactured by one or more of folding, pressing, welding, joining or any other known techniques. In one example, the floor cell for a building unit may be constructed from marine grade aluminium to discourage rusting / wear over time. In one form, the floor cell may be joined and sealed with the floor frame by injection of a sealant therebetween. The floor tray may include a recess, e.g. on an outer surface, to receive a filler material such as a sealant.

A building unit according to one or more aspects of the present disclosure may be suitable for use in one or more types of buildings. Examples of suitable types of buildings may include warehouses, retirement homes, special care facilities, residential buildings, office buildings, mixed use buildings or otherwise.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, are used to illustrate embodiments according to various aspects of the disclosure. In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a pipework manifold comprising multiple inlets; Figure 2 is a perspective of the pipework manifold of Figure 1 illustrating the multiple inlets in a sealed or closed arrangement;

Figure 3 is a cross- sectional schematic view of the pipework manifold of Figure 1, illustrating the outlet, inlets, conduit and passageway;

Figure 4 is a perspective view of the pipework manifold of Figure 1 connected to ablutions infrastructure within a building unit;

Figure 5 is a side view of one configuration of the modular wastewater assembly illustrating the connection of different types of pipework to the inlets and the interconnection of the pipework manifolds;

Figure 6 is a side view of one configuration of the modular wastewater assembly located within stacked building modules;

Figure 7 is a side schematic view of a portion of a building comprising stackable building units with modular wastewater assembly installed;

Figure 8A is an elevation view of two building units placed in a building structure; Figure 8B is a perspective view of two building units placed in a building structure; Figure 9 is a perspective view of a building unit comprising a formwork assembly; Figure 10 is a close-up perspective view of the building unit of Figure 9;

Figure 11 is a close-up view of a portion of the support unit of Figure 10;

Figure 12 is a simplified representation of a portion of a building unit showing the floor of a building structure above;

Figure 13a is a perspective view of a floor tray;

Figure 13b is a perspective exploded view of the floor tray of Figure 13 a; and

Figure 14 is a cross-sectional view of the floor tray of Figure 13a and a supporting floor of a building structure. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED AND EXEMPLIFIED EMBODIMENTS

Similar reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the drawings. Dimensions of certain parts shown in the drawings may have been modified and/or exaggerated for the purposes of clarity or illustration.

With references to Fig. 8A, in one embodiment of the present disclosure, a first building unit 1100 comprising a first wastewater pipe unit 1110 is provided. In this embodiment, the first building unit 1100 is positioned on a first floor 5100 of a building structure. The first building unit 1100 may be provided in combination with one or more other building units, such as a second building unit 1200 as also depicted in Fig. 8A, which can be positioned on a second floor 5200 of the building structure.

The first building unit as shown in Fig. 8A is a bathroom comprising a plurality of wastewater sources, including a sink 1191 and a toilet 1192. The first wastewater pipe unit 1110 includes first and second pipework manifolds and specifically an upper pipework manifold 1112U and a lower pipework manifold 1112L. The second building unit 1200 has second pipework unit 1210 of similar or identical construction to the first wastewater pipe unit 1110. The upper pipework manifold 1112U of the first pipework unit 1100 comprises inlets configured to receive wastewater from the second building unit 1200 that is above the first building unit 1100. The lower pipework manifold 1112L comprises inlets configured to receive wastewater from its own building unit 1100. The lower pipework manifold 1112L further comprises an inlet to receive wastewater from the upper pipework manifold 1112U of the same wastewater pipe unit 1110.

The upper pipework manifold 1112U may be located at least partly above a ceiling 1181 of the first building unit 1100. As will be described in further detail below, the ceiling 1181 of the first building unit 1100 may be located below and spaced from the second floor 5200 of the building structure, thus creating a volume for services or pipework. Such a volume may also allow de-coupling of load paths, reducing load capacity requirements of the building unit. The upper pipework manifold 1112U provides part of an upper portion of the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 that includes a first upper connection pipe portion 1113a and a second upper connection pipe portion 1113b.

The second building unit 1200, comprising the second wastewater pipe unit 1210, is positioned on the second floor 5200 of the building structure, the wastewater pipe units 1110 and 1210 of the first and second building units 1100, 1200 being connected to each other in a vertical direction.

The first and second wastewater pipe units 1110 and 1210 are connected through the second floor 5200 to form at least a part of a modular wastewater assembly (e.g. via a hole or a penetration). The second wastewater pipe unit 1210 of the second building unit 1200 comprises a lower pipework manifold 1212L configured to receive wastewater from one or more wastewater sources in the second building unit 1200. The lower pipework manifold 1212L of the second building unit 1200 comprises two inlets 1226b and 1228b to receive wastewater from within the second building unit 1200. In one form of the lower pipework manifold 1212L, inlets 1226b and 1228b may comprise an identical diameter, e.g. of 110 mm or otherwise. In other forms of the lower pipework manifold 1212L, the upper inlet 1226b may comprise a smaller diameter (e.g. of 75 mm or otherwise), and the lower inlet 1228b may comprise a larger diameter (e.g. of 110 mm or otherwise). The larger diameter inlet of the lower pipework manifold may make it more suitable for connection to a certain type of wastewater source, such as a WC, within the second building unit. In this embodiment, the lower pipework manifold 1112L of the first building 1100 takes substantially the same configuration at the lower pipework manifold 1212L of the second building unit 1200.

The lower pipework manifold 1212L of the second building unit 1200 further comprises an outlet 1220L to deliver the received wastewater to the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 of the first building unit 1100, via a first wastewater connection 3210 between the outlet 1220L of the second wastewater pipe unit 1210 and the first upper connection pipe portion 1113a of the first wastewater pipe unit 1110. Thus, only one outlet 1220L/one wastewater connection 3210 may deliver wastewater from a plurality of wastewater sources within the second building unit 1200, via the second wastewater pipe unit 1200, to the first wastewater pipe unit 1100. As a result, the number of wastewater connections between the first building unit 1100 and the second building unit 1200 may be reduced.

Nevertheless, in the arrangement shown in Fig. 8A, two wastewater connections 3210 and 3220 exist between the building units 1100 and 1200, the first wastewater connection 3210 as described above, which is the only wastewater connection 3210 between the first and second wastewater pipe units 1110 and 1210, and a second wastewater connection 3220. The second wastewater connection 3220 is provided between a floor of the second building unit 1200 and the first wastewater pipe unit 1110. The second wastewater connection 3220 delivers wastewater from a floor drain (e.g. a bathroom or shower floor drain) of the second building unit 1200 to the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 and specifically via the second upper connection pipe portion 1113b of the first wastewater pipe unit 1110. The second wastewater connection 3220 may be spaced from the first wastewater connection 3210. In general, one or more challenges in positioning and installing one or more building units in a building structure may relate to alignment, including alignment with respect to each other and/or the building structure. This may be a consequence of the building units being constructed independently of each other and/or the building structure and the accumulation of natural tolerances in manufacturing. By limiting the number of wastewater connections between the first and second building units, difficulties in aligning connections between the first and second building units may be reduced during positioning or installation of the building units. For example, the second wastewater connection 3220 may not need to be precisely located or formed with respect to the second building unit 1200, reducing a difficulty in aligning the second building unit 1200 with respect to the first building unit 1100.

In this embodiment, the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 extends at least partially through the second floor 5200 above the first building unit 1100. The first wastewater pipe unit 1110 may terminate below, at, or above a top surface of the second floor 5200. Thus, the top of the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 may protrude beyond, be flush with, or be recessed below the top surface of the second floor 5200, in a manner enabling connection with the second wastewater pipe unit 1210.

As will be described in further detail below, the second floor 5200 may be formed around the first upper connecting pipe portion 1113a of the wastewater pipe unit 1110 in situ, during which a formwork assembly of the building unit may be used as will be described in further detail elsewhere in the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the second floor 5200 may also be formed around the second upper connecting pipe portion 1113b of the wastewater pipe unit 1110 in situ. Forming the floor 5200 of the building structure around the upper connecting pipe portions may reduce or remove any need for drilling, boring or cutting of the floor 5200 in order to position wastewater components through the floor 5200 and specifically to achieve the first and second wastewater connections 3210, 3220. Nevertheless, in alternative embodiments at least one of the first and second wastewater connections 3210, 3220 may be achieved following a step of drilling, boring or cutting the floor. Subsequently to forming the second floor 5200, the second building unit 1200 may be placed on the second floor 5200, above the first building unit 1100, and the second wastewater pipe unit 1210 connected to the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 to complete the first wastewater connection 3210. The second wastewater connection 3220 may be completed independently of the completion of the first wastewater connection 3210.

One example method of installation of building units will now be described with reference to Fig. 8A.

In the method, a first building unit 1100 comprising a first wastewater pipe unit 1110 is transported to a building structure, and placed on a first floor 5100 of the building structure. Then, a second floor 5200 of the building structure is formed, including around at least a first upper connection pipe portion 1113a of the first wastewater pipe unit and optionally also around a second upper connection pipe portion 1113b of the first wastewater pipe unit.

A second building unit 1200 comprising a second wastewater pipe unit 1210 is then placed on the second floor 5200 (e.g. lowered with a crane). In placing the second building unit 1200 on the second floor 5200, the second wastewater pipe unit 1210 is aligned with and connected to the first upper connection pipe portion 1113a of the first wastewater pipe unit 1110 to complete a first wastewater connection 3210 and to form at least a part of a modular wastewater assembly of the building. Additionally, a second wastewater connection 3220 can be completed by connecting a drain of a floor of the second building unit 1200 to the second upper connection pipe portion 1113a.

Of course, as described elsewhere in the present document, additional building units may be provided to be vertically located relative to each other, which building units may be substantially identical to each other. Thus, a plurality of building units may be connected vertically, creating a modular wastewater assembly that comprises a wastewater pipe unit from each of the plurality of building units.

As described above, the method may require alignment of only one wastewater connection between each building unit when placing the building units on respective floors, resulting in a potentially efficient construction process.

A building unit and/or its wastewater pipe unit may be substantially identical to the corresponding unit below or above, as shown in Fig. 8A. In some arrangements, a building unit or its wastewater pipe unit may differ from the corresponding unit below or above, e.g., as shown in Fig. 8B. Fig. 8B shows an embodiment wherein a building unit 1000 on a floor 5000 is located below another building unit 1100 on another floor 5100. Fig. 8B shows that a wastewater pipe unit 1010 of the building unit 1000 is different to the wastewater pipe unit 1110 above. Such an arrangement may be applicable where the lower building unit 1000 is placed on a ground, or lowest level, of the building structure. The wastewater pipe unit 1010 for the lowest level of the building structure may be required to meet different requirements to that located on subsequent, upper levels of the building structure, and may therefore be differently arranged. For example, the wastewater pipe unit 1010 for the lowest level of the building structure may include fittings suitable for connecting to a mains sewerage system. Nevertheless, it may still comprise similar connection arrangements to those described in reference to Fig. 8A. For example, first and second wastewater connections 3110, 3210 may deliver wastewater from the building unit 1100 above to an upper pipework manifold 1012U of the wastewater pipe unit 1010 of the building unit 1000 below.

As evident from Fig. 8B, in this embodiment the wastewater pipe units of each building unit are located at least partly external to the interior space of the building unit. For example, referring to the building unit ceiling 1181 and the wastewater pipe unit 1110 of the building unit 1100, it can be seen that the building unit ceiling 1181 incorporates shortened edges on one corner of the building unit. Additionally, the wastewater pipe unit 1110 is partly located to the outside of the building unit ceiling 1181, and communicates to the interior space of the building unit to receive wastewater therefrom. Specifically, pipework connecting the sink 1191 and the toilet 1192 to the lower pipework manifold 1112L can be seen to extend through a wall of the building unit 1110.

To assist in constructing a floor of a building structure, above a building unit, building units according to embodiments of the present disclosure may comprise a formwork assembly, as will now be described with reference to Figs. 9-12. In one embodiment, with reference to Fig. 9, a building unit 9000 is provided comprising a set of walls 9100 connected to a formwork assembly 9200. The formwork assembly 9200 comprises a formwork decking 9210 and a set of support units 9300 configured to locate and support the formwork decking 9210 with respect to the set of walls 9100. In accordance with discussions above, the building unit 9000 may be installed or positioned on a first floor of a building structure. The building unit comprises all or part of the formwork assembly 9200 prior to being installed or positioned on the first floor. The formwork assembly 9200 may be used to form a second floor (e.g. 5200 of Fig. 12) of the building structure above the first floor. The provision of the formwork assembly 9200 as part of the building unit may make construction of the second floor more straightforward. It may reduce problems associated with introducing a formwork assembly above a building unit after it is installed or positioned in a building structure and/or problems associated with aligning a formwork assembly that is located above the building unit with further formwork.

At least some of the support units of the set of support units 9300 are adjustable to vary a position of the formwork decking 9210 relative to the set of walls 9100. A support unit 9310 may comprise an adjustable portion, such as a threaded connector, as is described in further detail below.

The set of supports units may comprise subsets of different type of support units. The set of support units 9300 in the present embodiment comprises a subset of decking support units 9310 and a subset of bearer support units 9320.

Each decking support unit 9310 is removably connected to the formwork decking 9210 and the set of walls 9100. Each bearer support unit 9320 is removably connected to the set of walls 9100 and removably connected to a bearer 9510. The bearer 9510 may be located under the decking assembly 9210, and may help to spread a load from the formwork decking 9210.

At least a part of the set of support units 9300 may be removable from the building unit 9000, even after the building unit 9000 has been installed in the building structure. The removable part of the set of support units 9300 may be retrieved and/or reused on another building unit. In the form shown in Fig. 9, each of the decking support units 9310 and the bearer support units 9320 is removable from the building unit after formation of a floor (e.g. 5200 of Fig. 12) using the formwork decking 9210.

The set of support units 9300 of the present embodiment comprises six support units across the two subsets. The first subset comprises four decking support units 9310 each located at a respective corner of the building unit and the second subset comprises two bearer support units 9320 located on opposing sides of the building unit to each other. Of course, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that other numbers of support units, or subsets of support units, may be suitable according to one or more factors. Examples of factors to be considered include a size and/or construction of the building unit, types of connections desired, thickness of the floor to be formed above the building unit or construction of the formwork decking. Fig. 10 shows the formwork assembly 9200 of Fig. 9 in greater detail. The formwork decking 9210 comprises a decking floor 9211, which may be corrugated, and decking side walls 9212. The decking support units 9310 each comprise an upper strut 9311, a threaded nut 9312, a threaded rod 9313, a first bracket 9318 and a second bracket 9319. The first bracket 9318 of the decking support unit 9310 is removably connected to the set of building walls 9100, and the second bracket 9319 of the decking support unit 9310 is removably connected to the formwork decking 9210. Both brackets 9318 and 9319 are removably connected by threaded fasteners (not shown). The fasteners (e.g. bolts) may be removed to retrieve support units. The formwork decking 9210 may comprise a sidewall extrusion as shown in Fig. 12, a cross section of the sidewall extrusion comprising a central portion, a first extension and a second extension. The central portion comprises the decking side walls 9212, the first extension comprises an overhang 9214 to abut or join a surrounding portion floor to the formwork, and the second extension is configured to connect with the decking support unit 9310. The first bracket 9318 is fastened to a corner frame 9130 of the set of building walls 9100 by threaded fasteners. The first bracket 9318 may be additionally or alternatively fastened to a ceiling 9120 and/or side wall 9110 of the set of building unit walls 9100. The second bracket 9319 is fastened to the decking floor 9211 by a set of fasteners. The second bracket 9319 may be additionally or alternatively fastened to the decking side walls 9212.

Each decking support unit 9310 is configured to vary a distance between its first end and its second end by a threaded connector. The threaded nut 9312 engages with the threaded rod 9313 to lengthen or shorten the decking support unit 9310. Accordingly, the first bracket 9318 is movable relative to the second bracket 9319 while the decking support unit 9310 is in situ. This arrangement allows repositioning and movement of the formwork assembly 9200 after installation of the building unit 9000 on site. It will be understood that these aspects of the decking support unit 9310 may be adapted to apply to other types of support units.

A close-up of an embodiment of a threaded connector of a support unit is shown in Fig. 11. A threaded rod 9313 may engage with a threaded nut 9312 to form a threaded connection, and may be movable relative to each other. The upper strut 9311 is configured to move with the threaded nut 9312 along an axis of the threaded connector, such as by being located on an internal shoulder of the threaded nut 9312. An example method of installation of a building unit is described below with reference to the embodiment of the building unit 9000 shown in Figs. 9-11, and a simplified representation shown in Fig. 12. In the method, the building unit 9000 comprising a formwork assembly 9200 is positioned on a floor of the building structure. Upon installation or positioning of the building unit, a position of a formwork decking 9210 may be assessed in relation to its alignment with further formwork and/or an adjacent portion of the building structure. For example, the alignment of the decking side walls 9212 with side walls of decking of the further formwork may be assessed. Then, the formwork decking 9210 is positioned and/or arranged as required by adjusting a set of support units 9300, e.g. so the decking side walls 9212 of the formwork decking 9210 align with and/or contact side walls of decking of the further formwork. The formwork decking 9210 may further comprise an overhang 9214 configured to extend from a side wall 9212. The overhang 9124 overlaps or abuts the further formwork to prevent leakage of any material such as cement or concrete therebetween. The formwork decking 9210 is then used to create at least a part of the floor 5200 above the building unit 9000, e.g. by concrete being poured on top of the formwork decking 9210 to form a concrete slab. Subsequently, at least a portion of the set of support units 9300 may be removed from the building unit 9000. On the other hand, the formwork decking may be retained in the floor 5200 once the floor is formed. The formwork decking may be sacrificial in this regard.

In the method, the set of support units 9300 may comprise a plurality of subsets of support units. The set of support units 9300 may be adjusted by varying a length of one or more of the set of support units 9300. Thus, the formwork assembly 9200 may be adjusted or moved while the body of the building unit 9300 remains in place.

In one form, the formwork assembly may comprise one or more pick-up points by which the building unit may be lifted and/or held. For example, the set of support units may comprise a plurality of pick-up points by which a hoist or a crane may pick up the building unit for transport and/or storage.

In embodiments described above or otherwise, the body of a building unit may comprise a floor tray. Figs. 13a and 13b show a floor tray 6000 according to one embodiment of the present disclosure. The floor tray 6000 may comprise a base wall 6010 and one or more side walls 6020. When the floor tray 6000 is assembled in a building unit, the base wall 6010 of the floor tray 6000 may provide at least a portion of a floor of the building unit. The one or more side walls 6020 of the floor tray 6000 may be comprised in, e.g. integrated in, the body of the building unit when assembled. For example, the one or more side walls 6020 of the floor tray may be connected to one or more side walls of the body of the building unit, which may extend to a ceiling of the building unit. The floor cell 6100 may be manufactured independently of the rest of the building unit prior to assembly. This may enable the floor tray 6000 to be easily manufactured in a manner that ensures that water cannot leak between the base wall 6010 and the side walls 6020 of the floor tray 6000. The floor tray 6000 may provide a leak proof tray at the bottom of the building unit. The floor tray may be manufactured from marine grade aluminium to discourage or prevent damage due to moisture. A suitable material may be a 4mm thick 5xxx series or 6xxx series marine grade aluminium.

The floor tray 6000 may comprise one or more openings, such as a side opening 6030 or an outlet 6110. The side opening 6030 may be a gap between or within the side walls 6020, and may form a portion of a doorway. As shown in Fig. 14, the floor tray 6000 may comprise an outlet 6110 to deliver wastewater from a building unit floor (e.g. shower floor) to a portion of a wastewater drainage system, such as a wastewater pipe unit located below. The outlet 6110 may be formed within a channel portion 6111 of the floor tray 6000, which channel portion 6111 may be formed in the base wall 6010 of the floor tray 6000, for example. Of course, it will be understood that the floor tray 6000 may comprise further outlets and/or openings as required.

The channel 6111 of the floor tray 6000 may provide a drain area, wherein the drain area is located lower than a surrounding area of the floor tray 6000. The drain area (e.g. channel 6111) may be partly or entirely surrounded by a slope, such as in the base wall 6010, to encourage water in the floor tray 6000 to flow to the drain area. The drain area may thus be configured to receive a flow of water from the remainder of the floor tray 6000, which may flow to the outlet 6110.

The floor cell 6100 of Fig. 13b may comprise a base wall 6010, wherein the base wall 6010 is sloped towards the drain area, or the outlet 6110 at a gradient of at least 3% or 5% or otherwise. The base wall 6010 may be configured to allow floor tiles to be directly bonded thereto, without any additional need to build in a "fall" in order to encourage wastewater to flow towards the outlet 6110.

The floor tray 6000 may be constructed in at least two parts, as readily seen in Fig. 13b. For example, the floor tray 6000 may comprise a floor frame 6200 and a floor cell 6100. The floor cell 6100 may comprise one or more cell side walls 6120 and the base wall 6010. The floor frame 6200 may comprise one or more frame side walls 6220 but may have no base wall. The frame side walls 6220 may form cavities 6221 therein. The cavities 6221 may be accessible at a base of the frame side walls 6221, e.g. via a slit. The frame side walls 6220 may also include a recess 6210 on an outer surface. For example, an extruded channel section of the frame side walls 6220 may provide the recess 6210. The recess 6210 may be in the form of a groove. The recess 6210 may be located on an outer surface of at least one of the frame side walls 6220, which outer surface may face in an inward direction of the tray 6000. The floor cell 6100 and/or the floor frame 6200 may be constructed from a sheet and folded and/or welded to its predetermined shape. The floor cell 6100 may be inserted into the floor frame 6200 of the building unit to form the floor tray 6000. For example, the cell side walls 6120 may be inserted into the cavities 6221 of the frame side walls 6221 to form the floor tray 6000. This construction may improve strength and/or leak prevention of the tray 6000.

As shown in Fig. 14, when the floor tray 6000 is assembled within a building unit or otherwise, it may be located on a floor 5200 of a building structure. One or more portions of the floor tray may project into a recess of the floor 5200. For example, the channel portion 6111 may project into a correspondingly shaped recess 5201 of the floor 5200. When the floor tray 6000 is in position on the floor 5200, a sealant or other filler material 6300 may be injected under at least a portion of the floor tray 6000, e.g. into the recess 5201 of the floor. By this process or otherwise, a sealant or other filler material 6300 may be injected into the recess 6210 of the floor frame 6200. The material 6300 may secure the floor cell 6100 to the floor frame 6200, and/or form a seal between the floor cell 6100 and the floor frame 6200, and/or form a seal or securing between the floor tray 6000 and the floor 5200 of the building structure. The material 6300 may for example be grout.

Figs. 1 to 7 illustrate a modular wastewater drainage system 10 according to further embodiments of the present disclosure. The drainage system 10 and components thereof are generally similar or identical to systems and components described above with reference to Figs. 8A and 8B, although in this instance the drainage system 10 is described in the context of building units that are stacked directly on top of each other, rather than being vertically located relative to each other on different floors of a separate building structure. Nevertheless, the drainage systems and components described with reference to Figs. 1 to 7 may be employed, mutatis mutandis, within a building structure as described above with reference to Figs. 8A and 8B.

In one form, the modular wastewater drainage system 10 comprises a plurality of pipework manifolds 12, and interconnecting lengths of pipe 14, as shown in Figures 5 and 6. The pipework manifolds 12 are positionable within respective stackable building units 16, which each includes a pipe receiving cavity 18. Turning back to Figures 1 and 2 there is illustrated one embodiment of the pipework manifold 12 for use in the modular wastewater drainage system 10.

The pipework manifold 12 includes an outlet 20 for fluid communication with a sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus, an interconnection inlet 22 for fluid connection with an overlaying pipework manifold 12, and a plurality of inlets 26a, 26b, 26c, 28a, 28b, 28c, for connection with ablutions infrastructure within the building unit 16 in which the pipework manifold 12 is located or associated with to receive wastewater that is generated within its own building unit.

As illustrated in Figure 3, the interconnection inlet 22 is in fluid communication with the outlet 20 by way of curved conduit 30, which bypasses the inlets 26a, 26b, 26c, 28a, 28b, 28c. A passageway 32 extends upwardly from where the curved conduit 30 branches off adjacent the outlet 20.

As illustrated in Figure 2, it is envisaged that the inlets 26a, 26b, 26c, 28a, 28b, 28c will be sealed or at least include a cap, wherein an installer can rupture the seal or remove the cap to access a preferred inlet. In this way depending upon the configuration or requirements of the ablutions infrastructure the drainage system can be easily tailored to suit.

The pipework manifold 12 may be injection moulded and constructed from a plastics material wherein the installer cuts off a blind end, as shown in Figure 2, to expose a selected inlet 26a, 26b, 26c, 28a, 28b, 28c. As illustrated in Figure 5, an S-bend type pipe 34 may be connected to outlet 26a, which is obscured in the figures, however the reader should appreciate that the S-bend type pipe 34 may be connected to any of Inlets 26a, 26b or 26c. Inlets 26a, 26b, 26c, 28b are of a different diameter to inlets 28a, 28c which can be used to connect pipes of different sizes. It should be appreciated that the pipework 34, 36, 38, 40 and associated couplings in the figures are provided only for illustrative purposes and other sized pipes or configurations could be used without departing from the scope of the disclosure.

As the reader will appreciate the inlets 26a, 26b, 26c, 28a, 28b, 28c at different orientations means that an installer can select a suitable inlet to connect a relevant pipe thereto.

As shown in Figure 4, pipework 36 is connected to a bathroom sink 42, including a sinkhole 44 and relevant tapware 46. The pipework 38 in the present embodiment is connected to a toilet 48. The reader will appreciate that the pipework manifold can be connected to additional or different ablutions infrastructure, such as, bathroom sink drains, shower drains, toilets, kitchen sink drains and laundry drains.

As further illustrated in Figures 5 and 6, the modular wastewater drainage system 10, includes appropriate boots or seals 50, 52, where the system passes through the floor/roof member 54 of the modular building unit 16.

To further illustrate the various configurations that can be used Figure 6 shows different pipe configurations connected to pipework manifolds 12a, 12b and 12c. It should be appreciated that these are only provided as for illustrative purposes and other configuration could be used.

As illustrated in Figure 7, the modular wastewater drainage system 10 can be used in a building 56 comprising stackable building units 16a, 16b, 16c, 16d, with a modular wastewater assembly installed comprising respective pipework manifolds 12a to 12h, and interconnecting lengths of pipe 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, located within respective pipe receiving cavities 18a, 18b, 18c, 18d.

The pipework manifold 12a of building unit 16a is connected to a sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus 58 located within or extending through the ground 60. The pipework manifold 12h of building unit 16d includes a cap or blind end (not shown) that can be removed or cut to access the drainage system 10 if another building unit or units are placed on top of the stacked building units.

In one form the present disclosure provides a pipework manifold 12 that can be used to easily connect different configurations of pipework and to interconnect drainage systems of overlaying modular building units of a building 8 structure. The provision of various inlets that can be selectively accessed provides significant advantages over the existing prior art.

Various aspects of the present disclosure have been particularly shown and described herein in connection with the exemplified embodiments. However it must be understood that these particular arrangements are illustrative only and are not intended to be limiting. Accordingly, an embodiment can include various modifications, while remaining within the spirit and scope of the disclosure. Throughout this specification the words "comprise", "include" and "have", and variations such as "comprises", "comprising", "includes", "including", "has" and "having", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion of any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps.

There follows a list of numbered clauses defining particular embodiments of the disclosure. Where a numbered clause refers to an earlier numbered clause then those clauses may be considered in combination.

Clauses

1. A modular wastewater assembly for stackable building units, comprising, a first pipework manifold including a plurality of inlets and an outlet, a second pipework manifold including a plurality of inlets and an outlet, and an intermediate length of pipe extending between said first pipework manifold and said second pipework manifold, wherein the intermediate length of pipe is connected to the outlet of said first pipework manifold, and is connected to one of said plurality of inlets of said second pipework manifold, wherein at least some of said plurality of inlets of the first and second pipework manifolds can be selectively connected to ablutions pipework of a respective stackable building unit.

2. The modular wastewater assembly in accordance with clause 1, wherein at least some of the plurality of inlets are positioned in different orientations, whereby an individual inlet can be selectively accessed to connect relevant ablutions pipework thereto.

3. A plurality of modular building units each including a cavity for placement of a respective wastewater pipe unit therein, each respective wastewater pipe unit including a generally identical pipework manifold, wherein the modular building unit can be stacked wherein the respective wastewater pipe units are connectable by way of the generally identical pipework manifolds to thereby form a modular wastewater assembly.

4. A method of installing a wastewater system for stackable building units, including the steps of, providing a modular wastewater assembly comprising a plurality of generally identical pipework manifolds, each of the generally identical pipework manifolds comprising multiple inlets and an outlet, locating a first pipework manifold of said generally identical units, within a first building unit of said stackable building units, connecting an outlet of said first pipework manifold to a sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus, the first pipework manifold directing wastewater from the first building unit toward the sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus, locating a second pipework manifold of said generally identical units, within a second building unit of said stackable building units, connecting an outlet of said second pipework manifold to an inlet of said first pipework manifold, the second pipework manifold directing wastewater from the second building unit toward the sewage system or wastewater discharge apparatus via the first pipework manifold.

5. The method of installing a wastewater system for stackable building units in accordance with clause 4, wherein the first and second pipework manifolds include selectably accessible inlets, wherein the selectably accessible inlets are sealed or include a cap whereby an installer can rupture the seal or remove the cap to access a preferred inlet.