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Title:
BUOY COMPRISING LIGHT WEIGHT ARMATURE FOR WEIGHT TRANSFER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/212663
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A buoy to be used for attaching floating or submerged equipment, such as a floating vessel, a pipeline or may be used as a light buoy, or other. Buoy comprising an anchor connecting means and a mooring connecting means wherein the combined load weight has to be transferred between the two connecting means. The buoy itself may be floating or submerged.

Inventors:
SAMUELSEN, Tom (Riisallen 21, KJELLER, NO-2007, NO)
FLYDAHL, Oddgeir (N Isfjorden, O-6320, NO)
Application Number:
NO2018/050126
Publication Date:
November 22, 2018
Filing Date:
May 15, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PARTNERPLAST AS (P.O. Box 94, Strandgata 3, Ã…NDALSNES, NO-6301, NO)
International Classes:
B63B22/02; B63B22/04
Foreign References:
US6503115B12003-01-07
US3950806A1976-04-20
US2903990A1959-09-15
US4875427A1989-10-24
GB382726A1932-11-03
US9242702B12016-01-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZACCO NORWAY AS (P.O. Box 2003, VikaHaakon VII' gate 2, OSLO, NO-0125, NO)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1.

A buoy comprising:

a body (10) having at least a top side (30) and a bottom side (31) ,

the buoy having a through hole (32) extending from the topside to the bottom side, and

a first connecting means (1, 3) arranged in the top side (30),

a second connecting means (4, 15) arranged in the bottom side (31), and

a rope (5) arranged for connecting the first connecting means (1, 3) and the second connecting means (4, 15), wherein the rope (5) , the first connecting means (1, 3) and the second connecting means (4, 15) constitutes an armature (3,4,5), the armature (3,4,5) extents through the through hole, the first connecting means (1, 3), wherein the armature (3,4,5) being made of a light weight material.

2.

Buoy according to any of the previous claims, wherein the light weight material being chosen from one of fiber, natural fiber, polymer based material, or a combination thereof.

3.

Buoy according to claim lor 2, wherein a further strengthening plate (35) is arranged in the recesses (32) of the top side (30) and the bottom side (31) providing extra support for the first connecting means (1, 3)and the second connecting means (4, 15).

4.

Buoy according to any of the previous claims, wherein the armature (3,4,5) is one or more ropes in the form of a singular unbroken loop.

5.

Buoy according to any of the previous claims 1 to 3, wherein the armature (3,4,5) is one or more single strings of rope strung between the upper and lower connecting means, and each rope end is attached in a first end to the mooring connecting means (1, 3), and in the second end to the anchor connecting means (4, 15). 2

6.

Buoy according to any of the previous claims, wherein the first connecting means (1, 3) comprising a protruding lower portion (8) and an upper portion having the form of a disk (9), wherein the disk (9) being peripherally bound to the lower portion (8) and presenting a flat lower surface for abutment against the top side (30).

7.

Buoy according to claim 6, wherein the upper portion of the first connecting means (1, 3) comprising a first through hole (17) and a first shackle (1), the first shackle (1) being arranged in the first through hole (17). 8.

Buoy according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the first connecting means (1, 3) comprise a first strengthening insert (13) molded into the first connecting means (1, 3) for providing an increased shear strength when attaching lifting tools. 9.

Buoy according to any of the previous claims, wherein the second connecting means (4, 15) comprising a protruding lower portion (15), the lower portion (15) comprising a kernel (11') having longitudinal ridges (12', 12") for forming a gripping pattern which will provide a gripping feature when the second connecting means (4, 15) is inserted into the corresponding recess (32) in the buoy (10).

10.

Buoy according to claim 9, wherein the upper portion (4) of the second connecting means (4, 15) comprising a second through hole (18) and a second shackle (6), the second shackle (6) being arranged in the second through hole (18).

11.

Buoy according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the second connecting means (4, 15) comprise a second

strengthening insert (20) molded into the second connecting means (4, 15) for providing an increased shear strength for an attached load. 3

12.

Buoy according to claim 8 or 11, wherein the strengthening insert (13, 20) is made of steel. 13.

Buoy according to any of claim 9 to 12, wherein the longitudinal ridges (12', 12") is arranged in a first set of lower longitudinal ridges (12') and second set of upper longitudinal ridges (12"), and further the first set of lower longitudinal ridges (12') and second set of upper longitudinal ridges (12") are separated by a glitch (16) having the length g. 14.

Buoy according to claim 13, wherein the second connecting means (4, 15) further comprising a mountable disk assembly (2, 14), wherein the mountable disk assembly (2, 14) comprise a first safety ring (14)and an optional second lock ring (2), and the first safety ring (14), and the second lock ring (2), having an inner opening form corresponding to the contour form of the kernel (11') and ridge (12', 12") form of the second connecting means (4, 15) including a wider opening (19) around the rope (5) position allowing a twisting of the first safety ring (14) when arranged over the second connecting means (4, 15) without damaging the rope (5), and the thickness h of the first safety ring (14) is equal to the glitch (16) length g such that when twisted the first safety ring (14) have a tight fit in the glitch (16). 15.

Buoy according to claim 14, wherein the first safety ring (14) comprising additional shims rings (106) wherein the thickness of the shims rings and the first safety ring (14) equal to the glitch (16) length g, and the shims rings (106) having the same profile form as the first safety ring, or an inner diameter equal or larger than the contour form of the kernel (11') and ridge (12', 12") form of the second connecting means (4, 15) but less than the outer diameter of the first safety ring (14).

16.

Buoy according to claim 14 or 15, wherein the first safety ring (14), and the second lock ring (2) comprise corresponding locking means (102, 103, 105) for locking the second lock ring (2) to the first safety ring (14) when arranged over the second connecting means (4, 15) for preventing twisting movement of the first safety ring (14). 4

17.

Buoy according to claim 16, wherein the locking means (102, 103) is one of threaded hole and screw, hole and plugs, drive through spikes, glue layer between the rings, or welding joint between the rings.

Description:
Buoy comprising light weight armature for weight transfer

The present invention relates to the art of buoys and specifically to load transfer through the buoy. Marine buoys and mooring buoys often need to transfer load through the buoy, for example when lifting equipment or anchor assemblies.

The connection point on the buoy must transfer the pulling force load of the connected load through the buoy to the mooring line of the mooring. There is a relationship between the size of the buoy and the load capacity, since the connecting line through the buoy needs to be carried by the buoy as well as the buoy weight. The most commonly used connecting lines are galvanized steel anchor chains due to the strength and durability in harsh sea conditions of the galvanized steel material. The problem using galvanized steel anchor chain as connecting line through the buoy is that the cost of production, mounting arrangement and weight is high. Specifically the weight of the steel has a negative effect on the buoyancy budget, and hence the required size and buoyancy capacity of the buoy.

The use of a linked steel chain through the buoy, limits the use of the buoy since there are, established requirements and industry standards prohibiting the use of linked chains in lifting operations in offshore environments. This makes lifting operations of anchors and connected equipment demanding, as anchor connection means on the lower connection point on the buoy also need to comprise connection means for lifting equipment.

There are a further problems related to galvanic corrosion when using galvanized chains in aquaculture industry and offshore industry where there often is other equipment comprising various elements of steel,. Hence the chains cannot be galvanized, resulting in short lifetimes and rapid strength decay due to wear and tear in the marine environment.

It is an object of the invention to provide a solution to at least one of the above problems. It is an object of the invention to provide improved characteristics of a mooring buoy in view of cost of production, assembly arrangement of load line through the buoy, and the relative buoyancy of the buoy. It is an aim to provide a lifting arrangement of the buoy and its load and anchor assemblies that can be accessed from the upper side of the buoy, and that can be used in a variety of marine industrial environments. It is an object of the invention to provide a mooring buoy comprising mainly plastics and rope, such as polymer based ropes.

It is further an object of the invention to provide a novel concept of transferring the load weight between the upper and lower attachment means.

It is an object of the invention to provide a buoy that is lighter and less costly to produce and maintain, and which is more applicable and easier to use.

Further objects, advantages and capabilities will be described in the description and exemplified in the figures.

The individual features may be described and explained in combination with certain other features in the description and figures, but it should be understood that the features may be combined in any number or order independent on the embodiments in which they are explained here. It is the claims that shall define the protection scope.

Fig. 1 - Side view of buoy with armature

Fig. 2 - Front view of armature of buoy shown in fig. 1

Fig. 3A - Oblique view of buoy shown in fig. 1

Fig. 3B - Oblique view of buoy without attachment device and strengthening plate

Fig. 3C - Strengthening plate

Fig. 4 - Topside attachment device from below

Fig. 5 - Oblique view of topside attachment device with shackle attachment fog mooring line

Fig. 6 - Front view of topside attachment device

Fig. 7 - cross section side view of topside attachment device

Fig. 8 - Front view of bottom side attachment device

Fig. 9A - Side view of bottom side attachment device 9B - cross section side view of bottom side attachment device

Fig. 10 - Oblique view of bottom side attachment device with locking ring and shims for armature tension adjustment

Fig. 11A - Parts of figure 10 mounted

Fig. 11B - Bottom side attachment device mounted with rope

Fig. 12 - Buoy example with mooring load and anchor

When the phrase rope or line is used in this document, it should be understood that it may be comprised of any type of light weight material or combination of materials, synthetic and natural, usable for being provided in a rope form for use in lifting tasks.

When the phrase light weight material is used in this document, it should be understood that it may be chosen from one of fiber, natural fiber, polymer based material, or a combination thereof. The lightweight materials will typically not constituting a metal or an alloy, however it can be envisaged that elements of metals are used for enhanced characteristics.

A buoy may often be produced by combining a roto-molded polyethylene outer shell with a core composed of for example expanded polystyrene. Other materials and fillings may well be used. The buoy may be used for attaching floating or submerged equipment, such as a floating vessel, a pipeline or may be used as a light buoy, or other. It is often connected to an anchor in one end, and providing a mooring shackle or the like in the other end. Between the anchor connecting means and the mooring connecting means the combined load weight has to be transferred between the two connecting means. The buoy itself may be floating or submerged.

The common way to provide this is to provide a steel chain, often galvanized to minimize corrosion, and the higher load the higher dimension of chain and connecting means.

Often the weight of the chain and connecting means represent a major part of the requirements for buoyancy of the buoy. Thus, the larger load capacity the larger buoy has to be. Figure 1 illustrates one embodiment of a buoy 10 in accordance with present invention, and figure 2 shows details of the weight transfer armature 5 of the present invention. The traditional galvanized chain is substituted by a rope or internal connecting means 5 between the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and the mooring connecting means 1, 3 produced of a light weight endurable and strong material such as a fiber rope. The rope may be formed as a singular unbroken loop 5 of a length adapted to the height of the buoy. The loop 5 engages in rope recess 7' over the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and in rope recess 7 in the mooring connecting means 1, 3. In one embodiment the loop 5 is strung inside the buoy to define the shortest distance between the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and the mooring connecting means 1, 3. Several loops of rope may be used to increase capacity (not shown).

Alternative rope designs may be that one or more single strings of rope is strung between the upper and lower connecting means, and being attached to the connecting means in rope connecting means specifically designed to provide a durable and solid connection (not shown). Figure 3A and 3B illustrates one embodiment of a buoy 10 having a top side 30 and a bottom side 31 providing mainly plane surfaces wherein a recess 32, as shown in figure 3B, is provided for receiving either the anchor connecting means 4, 15 or the mooring connecting means 1, 3. The outline of the recess 32 corresponds to the outline of the lower portion 8, 15 of either the anchor connecting means 4, 15 or the mooring connecting means 1, 3. The top and bottom side may further be formed with a recess 34 for receiving a strengthening plate 35. The function of the strengthening plate 35, as shown in figure 3C is to provide an extra wide area for distribution of the stress on the buoy wall caused by the anchor connecting means 4, 15 or the mooring connecting means 1, 3. The buoy recess 34 may have further alignment recesses 33 for provided for engaging with corresponding ridges on the underside of the strengthening plate 35 (not shown). The strengthening plate 35 comprises an opening 36 having a corresponding form as the top and bottom side recess 32. The top and bottom side recesses 32 are typically connected to provide a through channel through the whole buoy, and thereby providing a channel for threading the fiber ropes 5. The top and bottom side may have equal design comprising recess 34 for receiving a corresponding strengthening plate 35. Figure 4 and 5 shows in more detail how the mooring connecting means 1, 3 for attachment to the topside of the buoy 10 may be designed to provide a lifting contact means for the load and anchor assembly. The mooring connecting means 1, 3 is further comprising a protruding lower portion 8 to be inserted into a corresponding recess in the topside of the buoy, and a disk 9 being designed to but against the outer surface of the buoy and strengthening plate 35, and function as a stopper disk such that the mooring connecting means 1, 3 is not pulled into the buoy 10 when load pull is increased, or when rope 5 is tightened. The lower portion may further be designed to be formed with a kernel 11 and longitudinal ridges 12 forming a gripping pattern which will provide a gripping feature when the mooring connecting means 1, 3 is inserted into a corresponding recess 32, 36 in the buoy 10 and strengthening plate 35. This way the mooring connecting means 1, 3 is gripped and biased to not twist in the buoy, and the ropes 5 connecting the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and the mooring connecting means 1, 3 will not tangle if the buoy rotates relative the mooring or load.

Figure 6 and 7 is a side view and a cross section view respectively of the mooring connecting means 1, 3. In one embodiment, for which the mooring capacity of the buoy must be further strengthened, the mooring connecting means 1, 3 may comprise a first insert 13 of strengthening material, such as steel. The first insert 13 which is molded into the mooring connecting means 1, 3, provides increased shear strength in the connecting point for a mooring shackle 1 or other connected lifting tool equipment. The mooring connecting means 1, 3 may further comprise a first through hole 17, corresponding to a hole in the first strengthening insert 13, if present, for attachment of a first shackle 1.

Figure 8, 9A and 9B is a side view and a cross section view respectively of the anchor connecting means 4, 15. For heavier mooring capacity of the buoy according to the present invention a second strengthening insert 20 may be molded into the anchor connecting means 4, 15 in the same manner as explained for the mooring connecting means 1, 3 above, providing an increased shear strength in the anchor connecting means 4, 15 for example for the anchor assembly 120, 121 shackle 6. The anchor connecting means 4, 15 may further comprise a second through hole 18, corresponding to a hole in an optional second strengthening insert 20, if present, for attachment of a second shackle 6. Figure 10, 11A and 11B shows in more detail how the anchor connecting means 4, 15 for attachment to the bottom side 31 of the buoy 10 may be designed to provide fastening and tightening of the weight transfer armature 5. The anchor connecting means 4, 15 may comprise a protruding lower portion 15 to be inserted into a corresponding recess 32, 36 in the bottom side 31 of the buoy and corresponding strengthening plate 35, and a mountable disk assembly 2, 14 being designed to but against the outer surface of the buoy 10, and function as a stopper disk such that the anchor connecting means 4, 15 is not pulled into the buoy 10 when load pull is increased, or when rope 5 is tightened. A strengthening plate 35 may be arranged in the same manner as on the top side 30. The lower portion 15 may further be designed to be formed with a kernel 11' and longitudinal ridges 12', 12" forming a gripping pattern which will provide a gripping feature when the anchor connecting means 4, 15 is inserted into a corresponding recess 32, 36 in the buoy 10 and strengthening plate 35. This way the anchor connecting means 4, 15 is gripped and biased to not twist in the buoy, and the ropes 5 connecting the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and the mooring connecting means 1, 3 will not tangle if the buoy rotates relative the mooring or load. The anchor connecting means 4, 15 comprise a rope tightening feature in that the mountable disk assembly 2, 14 comprise a first safety ring 14, and a second lock ring 2. The first safety ring 14 is chosen in a thickness necessary for providing required stretch in the weight transfer armature 5 when mounted. The anchor connecting means 4, 15 kernel 11' provides longitudinal ridges 12', 12" having a lower portion 12', a glitch 16 and an upper portion 12", and thereby providing a threading characteristics such that a ring 2, 14 having an opening corresponding to the contour form of the kernel ll'and ridge 12', 12" of the anchor connecting means 4, 15 can be threaded down over the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and twisted a fraction in the glitch 16. The first safety ring 14 is chosen to have a thickness h

corresponding to a distance g of the glitch 16 between the lower portion 12'and the upper portion 12" of the longitudinal ridges 12', 12". If using a first safety ring 14 having to small thickness h, it may be provided additional shims rings 106, between the first safety ring 14 and the strengthening plate 35 or the bottom side 31 of the buoy 10, having the same profile as the first safety ring 14, or having an inner diameter adapted to encircle outside the longitudinal ridges 12', 12", such that the sum of the shims rings and the first safety ring 14 thickness equals the distance g of the glitch 16 between the lower portion 12'and the upper portion 12" of the longitudinal ridges 12', 12". When the first safety ring is twisted sideways such that the solid section 104 of the first safety ring 14 pattern will be arranged in the glitch 16 and abut towards the underside of the upper portion of the ridge 12", and thus be prohibited for gliding back along the anchor connecting means 4, 15. The solid section 104 of the first safety ring 14 pattern may provide a small recess for biasing a small retaining force holding the first safety ring 14 in place until the second lock ring 2 is subsequently threaded over the anchor connecting means 4, 15. The first lock ring 2 comprises locking means 102 for locking the second lock ring 2 to the first safety ring 14 when mounted. The locking means may be holes and threads 102 for receiving a screw with corresponding threads, where the screw holes 102 have corresponding holes 102, 103 in both the second lock ring 2 and the first safety ring 14, such that screws 105 may be screwed into both the second lock ring 2 and the first safety ring 14 and thus lock them together. This way the first safety ring 14 is prohibited from turning out of the locking engagement with the underside of the upper portion of the ridges 12". Screws 105 may be substituted by other connecting means, such as plugs, glue, soldering, welding joints, spikes and other. The openings in the ring 2, 14 including a wider opening 19 for the rope position allowing a twisting of the first safety ring 14 when arranged over the anchor connecting means 4, 15.

The glitch 16 height is defined by the distance g between the lower portion 12'and the upper portion 12" of the longitudinal ridges 12', 12". The distance g is adapted to correspond to the thickness h of the first safety ring 14.

In one embodiment of the invention the rope 5 connecting the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and the mooring connecting means 1, 3 is chosen at a length providing a fairly tight fit. When the rope 5 is threaded through the buoy 10 and over the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and the mooring connecting means 1, 3, which is arranged in their respective recesses 32 in the buoy 10, and the rope 5 is tight whence the protruding lower portion 15 of the anchor connecting means 4, 15 inserted into the bottom side 31 of the buoy 10 is showing the glitch 16 just visible outside the recess. When the first safety ring 14now is arranged over the anchor connecting means 4, 15 and twisted it will hold the anchor connecting means 4, 15 in a way offering a biased stretch force to the rope 5. In a further embodiment a better connection between the buoy 10 and the armature 3,4,5 is achieved if the length of the rope 5 is chosen just a fraction shorter such that the anchor connecting means 4, 15 has to be pulled outwards from the recess to be able to arrange the mountable disk assembly 2, 14 correctly. The mountable disk assembly 2, 14 will when mounted create an effective butting action against the outer surface of the buoy, and function as a stopper disk such that the anchor connecting means 4, 15 is not pulled into the buoy 10 when load pull is increased, or when rope 5 is tightened

In figure 12 there is provided an example of a system using of the buoy 10 in accordance with present invention as a mooring of a fish farm.

The invention may further defined by a first embodiment of a buoy comprising:

a body 10 having at least a top side 30 and a bottom side 31 ,

the buoy having a through hole 32 extending from the topside to the bottom side, and

a first connecting means 1, 3 arranged in the top side 30,

a second connecting means 4, 15 arranged in the bottom side 31, and a rope 5 arranged for connecting the first connecting means 1, 3 and the second connecting means 4, 15, wherein the rope 5 , the first connecting means 1, 3 and the second connecting means 4, 15 constitutes an armature 3,4,5, the armature 3,4,5 extents through the through hole, the first connecting means 1, 3, wherein the armature 3,4,5 being made of a light weight material.

A second embodiment according to the first embodiment of a buoy, wherein the light weight material being chosen from one of fiber, natural fiber, polymer based material, or a combination thereof.

A third embodiment according to the first or second embodiment of a buoy, wherein a further strengthening plate 35 is arranged in the recesses 32 of the top side 30 and the bottom side 31 providing extra support for the first connecting means 1, 3and the second connecting means 4, 15.

A fourth embodiment according to any of the first to third embodiment of a buoy, wherein the armature 3,4,5 is one or more ropes in the form of a singular unbroken loop.

A fifth embodiment according to any of the first to third embodiment of a buoy, wherein the armature 3,4,5 is one or more single strings of rope strung between the upper and lower connecting means, and each rope end is attached in a first end to the mooring connecting means 1, 3, and in the second end to the anchor connecting means 4, 15.

A sixth embodiment according to any of the first to fifth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the first connecting means 1, 3 comprising a protruding lower portion 8 and an upper portion having the form of a disk 9, wherein the disk 9 being peripherally bound to the lower portion 8 and presenting a flat lower surface for abutment against the first surface 30.

An seventh embodiment according to the sixth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the upper portion of the first connecting means 1, 3 comprising a first through hole 17 and a first shackle 1, the first shackle 1 being arranged in the first through hole 17. An eighth embodiment according to the sixth or seventh embodiment of a buoy, wherein the first connecting means 1, 3 comprise a first strengthening insert 13 molded into the first connecting means 1, 3 for providing an increased shear strength when attaching lifting tools. A ninth embodiment according to any of the first to eighth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the second connecting means 4, 15 comprising a protruding lower portion 15, the lower portion 15 comprising a kernel 11' having longitudinal ridges 12', 12" for forming a gripping pattern which will provide a gripping feature when the second connecting means 4, 15 is inserted into the corresponding recess 32 in the buoy 10. A tenth embodiment according to the ninth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the upper portion 4 of the second connecting means 4, 15 comprising a second through hole 18 and a second shackle 6, the second shackle 6 being arranged in the second through hole 18.

A eleventh embodiment according to the ninth or tenth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the second connecting means 4, 15 comprise a second strengthening insert 20 molded into the second connecting means 4, 15 for providing an increased shear strength for an attached load.

A twelfth embodiment according to the eighth or eleventh embodiment of a buoy, wherein the strengthening insert 13, 20 is made of steel.

A thireenth embodiment according to the ninth to twelfth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the longitudinal ridges 12', 12" is arranged in a first set of lower longitudinal ridges 12' and second set of upper longitudinal ridges 12", and further the first set of lower longitudinal ridges 12' and second set of upper longitudinal ridges 12" are separated by a glitch 16 having the length g.

A fourteenth embodiment according to the thirteenth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the second connecting means 4, 15 further comprising a mountable disk assembly 2, 14, wherein the mountable disk assembly 2, 14 comprise a first safety ring 14, and an optional second lock ring 2, and the first safety ring 14, and the second lock ring 2, having an inner opening form corresponding to the contour form of the kernel 11' and ridge 12', 12" form of the second connecting means 4, 15 including a wider opening 19 around the rope 5 position allowing a twisting of the first safety ring 14 when arranged over the second connecting means 4, 15 without damaging the rope 5, and the thickness h of the first safety ring 14 is equal to the glitch 16 length g such that when twisted the first safety ring 14 have a tight fit in the glitch 16 .

A fifteenth embodiment according to the fourteenth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the first safety ring 14 comprising additional shims rings 106 wherein the thickness of the shims rings and the first safety ring 14 equal to the glitch 16 length g, and the shims rings 106 having the same profile form as the first safety ring 14, or an inner diameter equal or larger than the contour form of the kernel 11' and ridge 12', 12" form of the second connecting means 4, 15 but less than the outer diameter of the first safety ring 14.

A sixteenth embodiment according to the fourteenth or fifteenth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the first safety ring 14, and the second lock ring 2 comprise corresponding locking means 102, 103, 105 for locking the second lock ring 2 to the first safety ring 14 when arranged over the second connecting means 4, 15 for preventing twisting movement of the first safety ring 14.

A seventeenth embodiment according to the sixteenth embodiment of a buoy, wherein the locking means 102, 103 is one of threaded hole and screw, hole and plugs, drive through spikes, glue layer between the rings, or welding joint between the rings.