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Title:
BUTTER CONTAINING SLIMMING AGENTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1998/021976
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Butter containing one or more slimming agents, for example agents based on: (i) an appetite-inhibiting agent; (ii) an agent which inhibits the take-up of fat in the body; and/or (iii) herbs or extracts thereof having a laxative, appetite-suppressant, stomach-filling, energy-generating and/or moisture-expelling action. Butter can be produced by adding one or more slimming agents, preferably as a liquid product, during the production of the butter.

Inventors:
Tol, Everardus Nicolaas Johannes Jozef (Oostwal 7, BJ Volendam, NL-1132, NL)
Van Leeuwen, Danny Marcel (Weegschaalstraat 58, MX Volendam, NL-1131, NL)
Application Number:
PCT/NL1997/000627
Publication Date:
May 28, 1998
Filing Date:
November 18, 1997
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Unilife (Zeilstraat 9-11, ED Volendam, NL-1131, NL)
Tol, Everardus Nicolaas Johannes Jozef (Oostwal 7, BJ Volendam, NL-1132, NL)
Van Leeuwen, Danny Marcel (Weegschaalstraat 58, MX Volendam, NL-1131, NL)
International Classes:
A23C15/16; A23D7/005; A23D7/015; (IPC1-7): A23C15/16; A23D7/00
Foreign References:
DE29508307U11995-07-27
FR2712191A11995-05-19
US5534272A1996-07-09
US5164384A1992-11-17
GB2292382A1996-02-21
DE3040246A11981-05-14
US4223023A1980-09-16
EP0648495A21995-04-19
BE1009545A61997-05-06
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Section Ch Week 9214, Derwent World Patents Index; Class B05, AN 92-111641, XP002057499
DATABASE WPI Section Ch Week 8523, Derwent World Patents Index; Class D13, AN 85-137295, XP002057500
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
De Bruijn, Leendert C. (Nederlandsch Octrooibureau, Scheveningseweg 82 P.O. Box 29720, LS The Hague, NL-2502, NL)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. Butter containing one or more slimming agents, characterized in that use is made of (i) one or more appetiteinhibiting agents, (ii) one or more agents which are based on peptide and which inhibit the take up of fat in the body and/or (iii) herbs or extracts thereof having a laxative, appetitesuppressant, stomach filling, energygenerating and/or moistureexpelling action as slimming agents, with the proviso that juniper berries are excluded from the above.
2. Butter according to Claim l, characterized in that the slimming agents are present in an amount of 0.0001 to 10% by weight, based on the weight of the butter.
3. Butter according to Claim 2, characterized in that the slimming agents are present in an amount of 0.0001 to 3% by weight, based on the weight of the butter.
4. Butter according to one or more of Claims 1 3, characterized in that one or more chromium additives are used as slimming agent (i).
5. Butter according to Claim 4, characterized in that chromium picolinate is used as slimming agent (i).
6. Butter according to one or more of Claims 1 5, characterized in that the product "leptide" is used as slimming agent (ii).
7. Method of producing a butter according to one or more of Claims 1 6, in which one or more slimming agents are added during the production of the butter.
8. Method according to Claim 7, in which the slimming agent is added as a liquid product.
Description:
BUTLER CONTAINING SLIMMING AGENTS The present invention relates to butter, the term "butter" as used in this application comprising not only the traditional butter or creamery butter, but also all substances resembling butter and imitations of butter, such as table margarine, margarine with a reduced fat content (also known as "low fat margarine") and margarine for baking and roasting, as well as diet butters, including those having an increased content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. All these butter-like substances have in common with one another that they are an emulsion of water in a fatty continuous phase.

Generally, butter is therefore an emulsion of water in a fatty medium or oil.

The fat content of butter is usually approximately 80%, the majority of which is formed by saturated fatty acids. Creamery butter is an emulsion of water droplets and fat spherules in a continuous fatty phase. The fat spherules usually have a crystalline outermost layer of radially oriented glyceride molecules having a relatively high melting point. Creamery butter is made from milk cream, an emulsion of fat in water. In milk cream, the majority of the milk fat is therefore also present in the form of small fat spherules. During the production of creamery butter, the dispersed fat spherules are destroyed, as a result of which liquid fat is released. Said liquid fat ultimately forms the continuous phase in the creamery butter.

Margarine is a mixture of edible fats, oils and water which is produced in the form of a solid or virtually solid emulsion (water in oil). The fats present are therefore not derived exclusively from milk fat, as is the case, however, for creamery butter. Margarine usually contains approximately 80% fat, not more than 16% water and not more than 4% salt. In addition, margarine contains vitamin A and D, as well as emulsifiers, preservatives, antioxidants, flavourings, aromas and possibly vegetable colorants. A margarine having a reduced or even a halved fat content ("low-fat margarine") generally contains in addition gelatine.

Creamery butter and margarine contain a fairly large amount of fat and may therefore result in undesired increase in weight when consumed. In order to overcome this problem to some extent, a butter has been developed which has a lower fat content and a higher water content. However, even this butter still contains an appreciable amount of fat, with a relatively high content of saturated fatty acids. Such fatty acids may, as is known, have the effect of increasing the cholesterol content in blood, which

is undesirable in view of the occurrence of heart and vascular diseases.

Diet butter provides a solution to this problem in the sense that it is a butter having a reduced content of saturated fatty acids and an increased content of polyunsaturated acids, i.e. fatty acids which contain at least two double bonds with a cis-methylene group in between. The latter fatty acids are generally assumed to have a cholesterol-reducing action. Monounsaturated fatty acids are more or less neutral in this connection. Usually, a diet butter contains at least twice as much polyunsaturated fatty acids as saturated acids, the saturated fatty acids making up not more than 20% of the total number of fatty acids.

In addition, US-A-4,223,023 discloses the use of chitosan as food additive or as a pharmaceutical preparation for reducing the adsorption of lipids by the body of, inter alia, the human being. In contrast to what is stated in column 2, lines 37 - 41 of US-A-4,223,023, it is stressed that the chitosan cannot be incorporated in butter, margarine, etc. The reason is that the chitosan adheres directly to the fat, which is at the expense of the stability of the emulsion present in the butter, as a result of which the butter starts to clot.

DE-A-30 40 246 discloses the use of saponins obtained from soya beans as a metabolism drug. As particular effects of said saponins, mention is made of the inhibition of the formation of lipid peroxides, the promotion of the metabolism of lipids and uric acid and an antioxidizing action for foodstuffs. On the basis of this, said saponins can be used to prevent or combat obesity and the occurrence of an excess fat content in the blood. Although the saponins are virtually insoluble in oil and fat but are in fact soluble in water, their use in butter etc. is disclosed in said DE-A-30 40 246, and the saponins will therefore be present in the water phase, which is small in terms of volume.

DE-A-19 04 658 discloses an aromatized butter or margarine. The butter and the like is aromatized, for example, by introducing by means of kneading comminuted aroma-containing plant parts, such as twigs, flowers, buds, fruits and the like. Ethereal oils or extracts of such aroma-containing plant parts may also be used. As examples of such plants, mention is made, inter alia, of thyme, rosemary, basil and juniper berries. Any reference to a slimming butter or slimming margarine is not disclosed in this literature reference.

The Swiss Patent Specification CH-685,373 relates to a method of producing

an extract having a slimming action from a specific mixture of plants in terms of composition and in terms of mutual ratio. A reference to a slimming butter or slimming margarine is not disclosed or suggested in this literature reference either.

US-A-5,504,202 proposes, inter alia, the use of a sucrose fatty acid polyester as a substitute for some of the fat in butter and the like. In this way, products can be obtained which contain a strongly reduced fat content and can therefore be used for combatting or preventing obesity etc. A disclosure of the inclusion in the butter and the like of an additive having slimming action (instead of replacing some of the fat present in the butter) is, however, neither disclosed nor suggested in this literature reference.

In addition, EP-A-0 444 482 describes new pancreas-lipase-inhibiting oxetanones which consequently have a fat-uptake-inhibiting action. Such oxetanones of synthetic nature can, according to said literature reference, be incorporated in butter and margarine for the purpose of combatting or preventing obesity, hyperlipaemia, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.

The object of the invention is to provide a butter which can prevent increase in weight. More particularly, the object of the invention is to provide a butter which will not result in increase in weight even if used frequently, but may even safely result in a decrease in weight. In addition, the butter according to the invention is intended to have a good texture and also a good taste and the butter is intended to appear attractive.

Of course, the butter according to the invention must also be stable. The butter according to the invention meets all these requirements.

The invention therefore relates to a butter containing one or more slimming agents, characterized in that use is made of (i) one or more appetite-inhibiting agents, (ii) one or more agents which are based on peptide and which inhibit the take- up of fat in the body and/or (iii) herbs or extracts thereof having a laxative, appetite-supressant, stomach- filling, energy-generating and/or moisture-expelling action as slimming agents, with the proviso that juniper berries are excluded from the above.

A great advantage of the butter according to the invention is that butter is a frequently used and accepted product which is easy to use and fit into the daily feeding pattern and which is accessible to a very wide public. Another advantage is that a

decrease in weight can be brought about without having to perform strenuous activities.

As appetite-inhibiting agents (i) which can be used in the butter according to the invention, mention may be made of fenfluramines. In addition, mention can also be made of the trace element chromium, which normally occurs in too small a quantity in the daily food supply. If the content of said trace element in the blood is too low, the blood sugar level, inter alia, increases and abnormal blood chloresterol and triglyceride levels occur in the blood since the hormone insulin can no longer function effectively.

The reason is that the hormone insulin can be regarded as the "master hormone" which not only regulates the blood sugar level and many other aspects of the carbohydrate breakdown and storage, but also has a great influence on the metabolism relating to fat, protein and energy. By keeping the content of chromium in the blood sufficiently high, the hormone insulin can function optimally, even as regards the fat metabolism. The butter according to the invention therefore preferably contains chromium, in particular as organic trivalent chromium. Examples of suitable chromium additives are chromium(III) chloride, chromium(III) nicotinate and, in particular, chromium(III) picolinate. The amount of chromium additive in the butter may vary within wide limits since trivalent chromium has hardly any toxicity. Advantageously, an amount of 1 - 50 mg/kg of butter (0.0001% by weight - 0.005% by weight) is used.

As an agent based on peptide which inhibits the take-up of fat in the body, mention may be made, for example, of the protein product "leptide". Administering said "leptide" results in an inhibition of the food intake and in a stimulation of the energy consumption. More particularly, the product "leptide" is a mixture of biologically active oligopeptides having a molecular weight range of 500 - 10,000 daltons and a mean molecular weight of 900 daltons, obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine globin protein, wheat protein and casein, a number of food-grade enzymes being used. Examples of such peptides are Val-Val-Tyr-Pro, Val-Tyr-Pro and Val-Thr-Leu (Val = valine; Tyr = tyrosine; Pro = proline; Thr = threonine, and Leu = leucine). The content of such an agent based on peptide in the butter according to the invention may vary within wide limits and is advantageously 0.01 - 4% by weight, in particular 0.1 - 1 % by weight, based on the total weight of the butter.

In addition, herbs or extracts thereof which have a laxative (L), appetite- suppressant (H), stomach-filling (M), energy-generating (E) and/or moisture-expelling action (V) can be used as slimming agent (iii). Examples of suitable herbs with their

action specified in brackets are: Aloe Barbadensis (L), Cortex Frangulae (L), Fructus Sennae (L), Semen Psyllii (H, M), Apii e Sem (L), Quarana (E), Stipites Cerasorum (V), Apium Graveolens L. (V), Folia Sennae (L), Folia Mate (H), Folia Betulae (H, E), Semen Ispagulae (H, M), Urtica Dioica L./Urtica Urens L. (H, E, V), Radix Ononidis (H, E) and Radix Rhapontica (L). Two aphrodisiacs which are known to have a slimming action are Acanthea Virilis L. and Cortex Yohimbe. Although this last type of agent can be used, it is not preferred.

The slimming agents should, of course, be present in such an amount that they do not result in health problems as a result of excessively rapid decrease in weight even if appreciable amounts are consumed. In addition, the slimming agents present should not have any disadvantageous effect on the taste, the texture or the appearance of the butter. The slimming agents according to the invention can be present in an amount of 0.0001 to 10% by weight, preferably 0.0001 to 3% by weight, based on the weight of the butter, depending on their type.

In addition, combinations of one or more slimming agents of one of the types (i), (ii) and (iii) and also of a plurality of types (i), (ii) and (iii) are, of course, also possible.

In addition, the invention relates to a method of producing a butter as described above, one or more slimming agents being added during the production of the butter. Such agents are preferably added as a liquid product or concentrate.

In addition to the slimming agents, the butter contains the standard additives (salt, emulsifier, dry milk constituents, preservatives, aromas, flavourings, natural colorants, possibly gelatine, etc.) in the standard amounts.

Example A low-fat margarine according to the invention is produced in accordance with the production methods generally known for low-fat margarine. The ingredients of the low-fat margarine are water, vegetable oils and fats, gelatine, emulsifier (E471), food acid (E330), colorant (E160a) and aroma. For every 100 g of low-fat margarine, 690 yg of vitamin A and 7.5 ,4g of vitamin D3 are used.

As slimming additives according to the invention, use is made of (i) chromium picolinate in an amount of 400 yg per 100 g of low-fat margarine and (ii) leptide in an amount of 0.28 g per 100 g of low-fat margarine.

The two slimming additives according to the invention are dissolved in water and should be added during the water phase when producing the low-fat margarine.