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Title:
CARBOHYDRATE COMPOSITION, PROCESS FOR PRODUCING THE COMPOSITION AND FEED AND FOOD PRODUCTS COMPRISING SUCH A COMPOSITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/130264
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a carbohydrate composition comprising from 40 to 65% of glucose, from 10 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 25% of lactose; and at most 10% of oligosaccharide, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition. The invention also relates to a food product, a feed product or a beverage comprising such a carbohydrate composition.

Inventors:
LECOLLIER, Audrey (20 Promenade du Verger, Issy-Les-Moulineaux, 92130, FR)
JAMROZIK, Claude (25 rue sous le Craie, Villiers-le-Sec, 70000, FR)
DUCROCQ, Ludovic (2 rue des Gautreaux, Ouzilly, 86380, FR)
BERROCAL FLORES, Rafael (Route de Saint-Légier 81, St-Legier, CH-1806, CH)
PRIOULT, Guénolée Eliane Marie (Cäcilienstrasse 34, Bern, CH-3007, CH)
MAES, Dominick (Route de la Glâne 130, Villars-sur-Glâne, CH-1752, CH)
CAUVILLE, François (Chemin du Reposoir 16, Lausanne, CH-1007, CH)
TERPSTRA, Gerard (Lischera 11, Cordast, CH-1792, CH)
Application Number:
IB2018/060693
Publication Date:
July 04, 2019
Filing Date:
December 28, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
EUROSERUM (Route de Villers, Port sur Saone, 70170, FR)
International Classes:
A23L29/30; A23C9/12; A23C9/142; A23C21/02; A23K20/163; A23K50/10; A23K50/40; A23L33/00; A23L33/125; C12P19/02; C12P19/12; C12P19/14
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003008617A12003-01-30
WO2004052900A12004-06-24
WO2010023362A22010-03-04
WO1990002494A11990-03-22
WO2017216000A12017-12-21
Foreign References:
US20100239709A12010-09-23
US20100055289A12010-03-04
EP2526784A12012-11-28
US4478855A1984-10-23
EP0113288A11984-07-11
Other References:
DATABASE GNPD [online] MINTEL; May 2016 (2016-05-01), NUTRICIA: "Stage 3 Happy Kid Growing Up Formula", XP002781150, Database accession no. 4024905
ANDRES ILLANES: "Whey upgrading by enzyme biocatalysis", EJB ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 14, no. 6, 14 November 2011 (2011-11-14), CL, XP055569227, ISSN: 0717-3458, DOI: 10.2225/vol14-issue6-fulltext-11
M LEIVA ET AL: "Formation of Oligosaccharides during Enzymic Hydrolysis of Milk Whey Permeates", PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 30, no. 8, 1995, GB, pages 757 - 762, XP055569116, ISSN: 0032-9592, DOI: 10.1016/0032-9592(95)00006-H
ANONYMOUS: "Oligosaccharide nomenclature - Wikipedia", 11 December 2016 (2016-12-11), pages 1 - 5, XP055569502, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190314]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DELAVEAU, Sophie (Lexando & Caracteq, 14 rue Rodier, PARIS, 75009, FR)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A carbohydrate composition comprising from 40 to 65 % of glucose, from 10 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 25% of lactose; and at most 10% of oligosaccharide, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition.

2. A carbohydrate composition according to claim 1 , comprising from 45 to 60% of glucose, from 12 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 20% of lactose, and at most 10% of oligosaccharide, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition.

3. A carbohydrate composition according anyone of claims 1 and 2, comprising from 50 to 60% of glucose, from 15 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 17% of lactose, and from 1 to 9% of oligosaccharides, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition. 4. A carbohydrate composition according to claim 1 , comprising from 40 to

50% of glucose, from 10 to 25% of galactose, from 10 to 25% of lactose, and from 1 to 10% of oligosaccharides, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition.

5. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the ratio of glucose/galactose is greater than 1.5 : 1.

6. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the ratio of glucose/galactose is greater than 2 : 1.

7. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that comprises galacto-oligosaccharides. 8. A carbohydrate composition according to claim 1 to 8, having a total solid content of 55 to 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition.

9. A carbohydrate composition according to claim 1 to 8, having a total solid content of 60 to 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition.

10. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it further comprises minerals. 11. A carbohydrate composition according to claim 11 , characterized in that it comprises potassium in an amount of from 0,9 to 3% by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition.

12. A carbohydrate composition according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that potassium makes up at least 50% of the sum of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride and phosphorus contents.

13. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it has a sweet honey flavour.

14. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that its viscosity is comprised between 40 and 300 cP at 20°C. 15. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that its glycemic index for 100% of dry matter of the carbohydrate composition is comprised between 50 and 70, preferably between 60 and 70.

16. A carbohydrate composition according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that its reducing sugar content is comprised between 70% and 95 % of the dry matter.

17. A process for producing a carbohydrate composition comprising at least the steps of : i. treating a source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase; ii. obtaining a composition having a total solids concentration of about 25 to 40% oligosaccharides; iii. subjecting the composition to a nanofiltration step after the beta- galactosidase treatment; and iv. concentrating the permeate from the nanofiltration.

18. A process according to claim 17 wherein a step of concentrating a source of lactose to 30 to 75% based on the total weight of dry matter is carried out before the step of treating the source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase.

19. A process according to anyone of claims 17 and 18 wherein the step of treating the source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase is carried out until a glucose concentration comprising between 10 and 35% based on the total weight of dry matter is obtained.

20. A process according to anyone of claims 17 to 19 wherein the step of treating the concentrated source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase is carried out until a glucose concentration of 20% based on the total weight of dry matter is obtained. 21. A process according to anyone of claims 17 to 20 wherein the step of treating the concentrated source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase is carried out between 1 to 8 hours at 45 -70°C.

22. A process according to any one of claims 17 to 21 , wherein the source of lactose is a deproteinised milk material. 23. A process according to claim 22, wherein the deproteinised milk material is milk ultrafiltration permeate or whey ultrafiltration permeate.

24. A process according to anyone of claims 22 and 23, wherein the deproteinised milk material is further concentrated to 40 to 75% total solids, most preferable 50% total solids. 25. A process according to any one of claims 17 to 24, wherein the nanofiltration step is carried out such as to obtain a permeate containing a total solids content of 0.5 to 5% by weight, relative to the total weight of the permeate.

26. A process according to any one of claims 17 to 25, wherein the nanofiltration step is combined with a diafiltration step.

27. A process according to any one of claims 17 to 26, wherein the concentration step is carried out by reverse osmosis filtration, evaporation or a combination thereof.

28. A process according to any one of claims 17 to 27, wherein the permeated is concentrated to a total solid content of 60 to 75% by weight.

29. A process according to any one of claims 17 to 28, wherein a step of subjecting the composition to a heat treatment to inactivate the enzyme is carried out after the step of treating the composition with the beta-galactosidase and before the nanofiltration step.

30. A carbohydrate composition obtainable by the process of any one of claims 17 to 29.

31. A food product, a feed product or a beverage comprising a carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

32. A sweet liquid feed product comprising between 10 to 60% of a carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

33. A sweet liquid feed product comprising between 40 to 60% of a carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30. 34. Feed ration of dairy cow comprising between 2 and 5% in dry matter of the sweet liquid feed product of any one of claims 32 and 33.

35. Growing-up milk comprising between 10 and 80% of a carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

36. An isotonic sport drink comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

37. An isotonic sport drink according to claim 36, comprising between 3 to 15% by weight of the carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

38. An ice cream comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

39. An ice cream according to claim 38, comprising between 1 to 10% by weight of the carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

40. A sponge cake comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30. 41. A sponge cake according to claim 40, comprising between 1 to 10% by weight of the carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

42. Formulation for feed licks for ruminant comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30. 43. Formulation according to claim 42 comprising between 5 to 35% by weight of the carbohydrate composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

44. Pellets for animals comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

45. Sprayable formulation for pellets for animals comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and 30.

Description:
"Carbohydrate composition, process for producing the composition and feed and food products comprising such a composition”

[0001 ] The present invention relates mainly to a carbohydrate composition and to process for producing said composition.

[0002] The present invention also relates to a food product, a feed product and a beverage comprising such a carbohydrate composition.

[0003] A large diversity of compositions comprising available carbohydrates are used in the food and feed industry. Such compositions are mainly used as sweetening agent and/or to provide energy.

[0004] Sweetening materials such as sucrose, fructose, lactose, dextrose or sorbitol are already known. These sweetening materials have the combined or isolated disadvantages as being too caloric or insufficiently soluble, as presenting an unsuitable viscosity, or as being incompatible with a decreasing of the Aw (Water Activity) that ensures good preservation of the product.

[0005] It is therefore desirable to make compositions comprising available carbohydrates having a balanced nutritional content, a pleasant taste, properties adapted to their use both in the food and feed industry, and good stability over time compatible with the storage conditions and marketing. It would also be particularly advantageous to produce such a carbohydrate composition from a natural dairy source.

[0006] For this purpose, the carbohydrate composition of the invention comprises from 40 to 65 % of glucose, from 10 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 25% of lactose; and at most 10% of oligosaccharide, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition.

[0007] The composition of the invention may also include the following optional characteristics considered individually or in any possible combination thereof: - The carbohydrate composition of the invention comprises from 45 to 60% of glucose, from 12 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 20% of lactose, and at most 10% of oligosaccharide, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition; - The carbohydrate composition of the invention comprises from 50 to 60% of glucose, from 15 to 30% of galactose, from 5 to 17% of lactose, and from 1 to 9% of oligosaccharides, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition;

- The carbohydrate composition of the invention comprises from 40 to 50% of glucose, from 10 to 25% of galactose, from 10 to 25% of lactose, and from 1 to 10% of oligosaccharides, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition;

- the ratio of glucose/galactose in the carbohydrate composition of the invention is greater than 1.5 : 1 ; - the ratio of glucose/galactose in the carbohydrate composition of the invention is greater than 2 : 1 ;

- The carbohydrate composition comprises galacto-oligosaccharides;

- The carbohydrate composition has a total solid content of 55 to 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition; - The carbohydrate composition has a total solid content of 60 to 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition;

- The carbohydrate composition further comprises minerals;

- The carbohydrate composition comprises potassium in an amount of from 0,9 to 3% by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition; - In the carbohydrate composition the potassium makes up at least 50% of the sum of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride and phosphorus contents;

- The carbohydrate composition has a sweet honey flavour; - In the carbohydrate composition the viscosity is comprised between 40 and

300 cP at 20°C;

- the glycemic index for 100% of dry matter of the carbohydrate composition is comprised between 50 and 70, preferably between 60 and 70;

- In the carbohydrate composition the reducing sugar content is comprised between 70% and 95 % of the dry matter.

[0008] The invention also relates to a process for producing a carbohydrate composition comprising at least the steps of : i. treating a source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase; ii. obtaining a composition having a total solids concentration of about 25 to 40% oligosaccharides; iii. subjecting the composition to a nanofiltration step after the beta- galactosidase treatment; and iv. concentrating the permeate from the nanofiltration.

[0009] The process of the invention may also include the following optional characteristics considered individually or in any possible combination thereof:

- a step of concentrating a source of lactose to 30 to 75% based on the total weight of dry matter is carried out before the step of treating the source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase. the step of treating the source of lactose with a beta-galactosidase is carried out until a glucose concentration between 10 and 35% based on the total weight of dry matter is obtained. the step of treating the concentrated source of lactose with a beta- galactosidase is carried out until a glucose concentration of 20% based on the total weight of dry matter is obtained. the step of treating the concentrated source of lactose with a beta- galactosidase is carried out between 1 to 8 hours at 45 -70°C. the source of lactose is a deproteinised milk material. the deproteinised milk material is milk ultrafiltration permeate or whey ultrafiltration permeate. the deproteinised milk material is further concentrated to 40 to 75% total solids, most preferable 50% total solids. wherein the nanofiltration step is carried out such as to obtain a permeate containing a total solids content of 0.5 to 5% by weight, relative to the total weight of the permeate. the nanofiltration step is combined with a diafiltration step. the concentration step is carried out by reverse osmosis filtration, evaporation or a combination thereof. the permeated is concentrated to a total solid content of 60 to 75% by weight. a step of subjecting the composition to a heat treatment to inactivate the enzyme is carried out after the step of treating the composition with the beta-galactosidase and before the nanofiltration step. [0010] The invention further relates to a carbohydrate composition obtainable by the above-recited process. [0011 ] The invention relates to a food product, a feed product or a beverage comprising the above recited carbohydrate composition.

[0012] Advantageously, the invention covers a sweet liquid feed product comprising between 10 to 60% of the carbohydrate composition, preferably between 40 to 60% of the carbohydrate composition

[0013] The invention also covers a feed ration of dairy cow comprising between 2 and 5% in dry matter of such sweet liquid feed product.

[0014] The invention also covers a growing-up milk comprising between 10 and 80%, preferably 40 to 70% of a carbohydrate composition. [0015] The invention covers an isotonic sport drink comprising the carbohydrate composition, preferably between 3 to 15% by weight of the carbohydrate composition.

[0016] The invention covers an ice cream comprising the carbohydrate composition, preferably between 1 to 10% by weight of the carbohydrate composition.

[0017] The invention covers a sponge cake comprising the carbohydrate composition, preferably between 1 to 10% by weight of the carbohydrate composition.

[0018] The invention covers a formulation for feed licks for ruminant comprising the carbohydrate composition, preferably between 5 to 35% by weight of the carbohydrate composition.

[0019] The invention covers pellets for animals comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention.

[0020] The invention finally covers a sprayable formulation for pellets for animals comprising the carbohydrate composition.

Brief description of the drawings : - Figure 1 illustrates the relative concentrations of selected odorants determined in wafers with added the carbohydrate composition compared to reference wafer without the carbohydrate composition,

- Figure 2 illustrates the respective contents of lactose, sucrose, galactose and glucose of the sweet feed product of the invention comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention, and

- Figures 3 to 6 illustrate the kinetics of glucose, galactose, lactose, oligosaccharides and dry matter during the enzymatic treatment of the method of the invention for four different samples.

[0021 ] The invention provides a carbohydrate composition having a plurality of sweeteners, and produced from a source of natural milk, and more particularly from cow milk.

A process for the production of the carbohydrate composition

Starting Material:

[0022] The starting material in the process for producing the carbohydrate composition of the invention is a deproteinised milk material, such as milk from which the proteins have been removed, or whey, or any prepared or modified whey material from which the whey proteins have been removed. Such materials include acid whey and sweet whey. Preferred starting materials are milk ultrafiltration permeate and whey ultrafiltration permeate. Alternatively, the starting material may be a reconstituted powder, such as a powdered ultrafiltration permeate.

[0023] The starting material must be a deproteinised product because the presence of proteins during concentration can lead to undesirable Maillard reactions with the reducing sugars present in the composition and browning. The starting material can be deproteinised by any known means, for example, acid precipitation, heat processes or ion exchange. Preferably, however, removal of protein is carried out by ultrafiltration, which also removes lipids from the starting material. [0024] The pH of the starting material may be between 2 and 7.5, although a pH in the range from 5 to 6 is preferred, to help reduce browning reactions. a) Concentration of starting material

[0025] The deproteinized milk material is concentrated to 30 to 75%, preferably 40 to 60%, more preferably to 45 to 55%, most preferably 50% total solids (TS), by any known means. Concentration is preferably carried out at temperatures of 50 to 90°C, more preferably 50 to 75°C. Evaporation is one preferred technique, which is carried out at a pressure of from 80 to 200 mbar. In this method, the temperature preferably does not rise above 60°C. Alternatively, if the starting material is a powder, concentration to the desired level may be achieved by appropriate reconstitution of the powder.

This step of concentration increases the kinetics of the enzymatic reaction and more particularly the polymerization phase of the enzymatic treatment. b) Treating the deoroteinised liquor with β-qalactosidase to produce a liquor comprising β-qalactooliqosaccharides (GOS)

[0026] This is an essential step of the process during which the lactose contained in the milk material is partially hydrolysed by enzymatic reactions, and during which the free galactose produced by the hydrolysis is polymerized by enzymatic reactions. This enzymatic treatment then comprises two complementary steps respectively of hydrolysis and polymerization (transgalactosylation) which are carried out at the same time while the hydrolysis allows to initiate the polymerization. During the hydrolysis, the lactose is partially hydrolysed to form glucose and free galactose. During the polymerization, the free galactose produced during the hydrolysis and the already formed oligosaccharides react with lactose under enzymatic reactions to form oligosaccharides. [0027] Accordingly, the liquor is treated with b-galactosidase before or after concentration of the milk material (step (a)). Any b-galactosidase suitable to involve the both hydrolysis and polymerization may be used. Preferably, the b- galactosidase used is derived from Aspergillus oryzae. Such an enzyme is commercially available as Lactase F from Amano, Japan, or Enzeco® Fungal Lactase Concentrate from Enzyme Development Corporation (EDC), New York, USA. The enzyme activity measured according to the FCCIV method may be between 1 ,000 and 30,000 U/kg of lactose. The enzymatic treatment may be carried out at a pH in the range from 3 to 7, at a temperature between 4 and 70°C on a starting material with a lactose concentration of at least 90 g/100 g total solids (TS) at an enzyme concentration between 0,1-4 g per kg of dry matter.

[0028] Preferably, about 0,3 g enzyme is used per kg dry matter, and the incubation time is between 1 and 8 hours, preferably between 4 to 6 hours at 20- 70°C, preferably at 45-70°C and most preferably at 45-65°C. The incubation time and the incubation temperature have to allow both hydrolysis and polymerization to be achieved. Alternatively or in addition to the incubation time as defined above, the inactivation of the enzyme is carried out when the total solids concentration of glucose is between 10 and 35%, preferably between 15 and 25%. Such a glucose concentration allows both hydrolysis and polymerization to be achieved while avoiding the hydrolyzation of the produced oligosaccharides.

[0029] The enzyme may be inactivated after use by application of heat. Inactivation of the enzyme is not essential because the enzyme is effectively removed from the carbohydrate composition at the step of nanofiltration. In a preferred embodiment however, the enzyme is inactivated by application heat, for a better control of the enzymatic reaction.

[0030] After treatment with the b-galactosidase of a liquor having a TS concentration of 25-50% and about 15-40% lactose, the resulting solution may contain about 25 to 40%, preferably 28 to 38% oligosaccharides, about 20 to 30%, preferably 25 to 35% lactose, about 5 to 15% galactose and about 15 to 30%, preferably 19 to 30% glucose. The presence of such a large amount of oligosaccharides is directly due to the polymerization involved during the enzymatic treatment and constitutes an essential feature of the invention.

[0031 ] Figures 3 to 6 illustrate four examples of kinetics of lactose (reference 1 ), oligosaccharides (reference 2), glucose (reference 3) and galactose (reference 4) during the enzymatic treatment and according to the incubation time (up to 6 hours). The total solid concentration (reference 5) is also indicated. c) Demineralisation Step:

[0032] This step is optional. The liquor may be demineralised by any known means, for example ion exchange, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration or a combination of these processes, to remove cations present in the composition. The material may be passed through a weak cation column and a mixed bed column and/or an anion column, followed by electrodialysis or nanofiltration, for example. This demineralisation step may be carried out at neutral or acidic pH. It may be carried out before or after the hydrolysis step (d). It also may be carried out in part before hydrolysis and in part after hydrolysis.

d) Nanofiltration step

[0033] This step is essential to the process of the invention. Nanofiltration of the liquor allows to concentrate monovalent cations and anions and the sugars, mainly monosaccharides, and to remove most of the oligosaccharides.

[0034] Nanofiltration is carried out by passing the liquor through membranes having a pore size small enough to retain oligosaccharides yet large enough to let monosaccharides pass through. For this purpose, commercial membranes with a molecular weight cut-off in the range of 200-1000 Daltons, known in the art, may be used. Among others one may cite, as a non-limitative example of membranes that may be used, Trisep NF-XN45, GE DL3840C-30D or Nadyr DS NP030. [0035] The nanofiltration step may be carried out before, or after, the optional demineralisation step. However, the nanofiltration step may also serve to demineralise the mother liquor. The nanofiltration step must be carried out after the hydrolysis step. [0036] The nanofiltration step may be combined with a diafiltration step so as to reach the desired monosaccharide content. During the diafiltration step the retentate from nanofiltration is washed several times with an equivalent volume of demineralised water and passed again through the nanofiltration membrane. Typically, the diafiltration step is repeated with 1 -5 volumes of water. [0037] After the nanofiltration step, the combined permeate may contain about

0.5-5% TS, of which 10-20% is lactose, 50-60% glucose, 16-26% galactose, and maximum 10% are oligosaccharides.

[0038] Although the retentate of the nanofiltration step is out of the scope of the present invention, it must be advantageously noticed that such retentate which comprises a large content of oligosaccharides can find many applications, for example in infant formulas, rendering thereby the by-product of the nanofiltration step recoverable. Also advantageously and thanks to the process of the invention, the permeate of the nanofiltration step may comprise a small amount of oligosaccharides that goes through the nanofiltration membrane and that may be useful for applications requiring fibers. e) Concentration step

[0039] The resulting nanofiltrated permeate is a diluted composition. It has to be concentrated to a total solids content to 55-75% to make it shelf stable. The concentration can be carried out by any method known to the person skilled in the art and preferably by reverse osmosis filtration. In a preferred aspect of the method, the nanofiltration permeate is concentrated in two steps. In such case, it is preferably first concentrated to a TS around 15% and then further concentrated to 55-75% TS. When the concentration is done in two steps, the step of concentrating the permeate to around 15% is preferably carried out by reverse osmosis and/or the step of concentrating the permeate from around 15 to 55-75% is preferably carried by evaporation.

The carbohydrate composition

[0040] The carbohydrate composition of the invention obtained by the above described process comprises from 40 to 65 % of glucose, preferably from 45 to 60% of glucose, from 10 to 30% of galactose, preferably from 15 to 30% of galactose, at most 25% of lactose, preferably from 5 to 25% of lactose, most preferable from 5 to 17% of lactose, and at most 10% of oligosaccharide, preferably from 1 to 9% of oligosaccharides, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition.

[0041 ] The carbohydrate composition may comprise some galacto- oligosaccharides which were not removed by the nanofiltration step. The oligosaccharide content may have some variations depending on the state of wear of the nanofiltration membrane which will more or less retain the galacto- oligosaccharides which are derived from the reaction of beta-galactosidase on lactose and which have variable sizes.

[0042] Referring to the enzymatic treatment, the galactose produced during the hydrolysis is consumed during the polymerization, so that the ratio between glucose and galactose in the carbohydrate composition of the invention is greater than 1 :1. Preferably, such ratio is greater than 1 ,5:1 , and most preferably greater than 2:1.

[0043] The carbohydrate composition of the invention has a percentage by weight of dry matter of between 55 and 75%, preferably between 60 and 75%, more preferably 60 to 70%, a calorific value of between 2 and 5 kcal / g of dry matter, a viscosity of between 40 and 300 cP at 20°C, preferably between 60 and 80 cP, a glycemic index for 100% dry matter between 50 and 70, preferably between 60 and 70, and a sweetening power of between 0,2 and 0,5. The carbohydrate of the invention also has a reducing sugar content of between 70 and 95% of the dry matter. Reducing sugars are involved in the Maillard reaction by reacting with amino groups. The Maillard reaction is an essential reaction in the food chemistry that participates in the development of flavors, causes browning and generates compounds exhibiting antioxidant properties.

Applications of the carbohydrate composition of the invention [0044] The carbohydrate composition of the invention finds application in any product intended to confer at least partly a sweetening power. This is particularly the case for products intended for animal feed, but also for products intended for human consumption, including infant formula and growing-up milks.

Feed applications [0045] The carbohydrate composition can be added to any kind of feed like pet food and especially feed for dogs or feed for cows.

Pet food - Feed for dogs

[0046] The carbohydrate of the invention can advantageously be used in pet food and especially feed for dogs. In the main diet of the dog, it is used mainly as a source of energy. Indeed the carbohydrate composition has a high concentration of available carbohydrate, which can be metabolized by the dogs or other kind of pet into usable energy.

[0047] In addition, the carbohydrate of the invention also advantageously undergoes Maillard reaction during the cooking process of the feed leading to roasted flavours very much appreciated by dogs and some browning improving the appearance of the feed. The diversity of sugars present in the carbohydrate composition of the invention advantageously leads to a variety of products formed by Maillard reaction, making the obtained flavour richer.

[0048] The carbohydrate composition of the present invention also advantageously improves the palatability of feed, as dogs or other kind of pet perceive the sweetness well. This is useful for example in feed containing ingredients that have positive nutritional effects but are disliked by dogs or other kind of pet. In such cases, the carbohydrate composition of the present invention is added to improve the palatability and the acceptance of the feed by dogs or other kind of pet. Increase of palatability is also particularly useful in treats, as the sweet taste of such treats comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention will be particularly appreciated by dogs or other kind of pet, thus improving the psychological effect of the treat, for example in dog training. The presence of galactose, which is naturally present in milk is also advantageous over the use of sucrose or synthetic sugars.

Feed for ruminants - Feed for dairy cows

[0049] High in sugars liquid foods are known for increasing the energy density of an animal ration and for stimulating ingestion. This is particularly the case for dairy cows for which silage or forage-based rations can be supplemented by the addition of sugars that are rapidly fermentable in the rumen thus improve microbial protein synthesis in the rumen and increase the degradability of the ration. An increase in the performance of dairy cows is often observed following the intake of sugars. [0050] The carbohydrate composition of the invention can thus be included in a sweet liquid feed to be mixed with the basic ration of dairy cows. For example, the basic ration may consist of corn, grass silage and a concentrate consisting mainly of wheat, barley, beet pulp and rapeseed.

[0051 ] For this purpose, the basic ration may be mixed with between 2 and 5% in dry matter of a liquid feed comprising between 2 and 5% of water by total weight, between 30 and 50% of condensed molasse solubles by total weight, and between 10 and 60% of the carbohydrate composition of the invention by total weight. Micronutrients may also be added to this liquid feed in a content by weight of less than 2%. Such a liquid feed comprises between 50 and 70% of glucose by weight, between 10 and 30% of galactose by weight, between 5 and 20% of lactose by weight, less than 5% of sucrose by weight and less than 2% of fructose by weight.

[0052] The ingestion of the basic ration mixed with the sweetened liquid feed and the associated milk production are monitored for 4 consecutive weeks on eight dairy cows. These data are compared with those obtained for the ingestion of the same basic ration mixed with a known sweetened liquid feed containing between 55 and 75% by weight of dry matter of sugarcane molasse.

[0053] It has been observed that ingestion and milk production are equivalent when the sweetened liquid feed contains molasses and when the sweetened liquid feed contains the carbohydrate composition of the invention. The composition of the milk is also not substantially modified. The carbohydrate composition of the invention can thus form a substitute for sugarcane molasse for producing sweet liquid feeds to be mixed with the basic ration of dairy cows.

Food and beverage applications

[0054] The carbohydrate composition can be added to any kind of food or beverage application. Food products and beverages include all products intended to be consumed orally by human beings, for the purpose of providing nutrition and/or pleasure. Such food and beverage products include nutritional compositions for infants and young children, nutritional compositions for pregnant or lactating women or for women desiring to get pregnant, confectionary products, ice creams and frozen desserts, dairy products, culinary products, cereal products, bakery products , juices, cocoa and malt drinks, coffee and tea, coffee and tea creamers, coffee and tea mixes, sodas, flavoured waters, sport nutrition products, and snacks. In such types of products, the particular sweet honey flavour of the carbohydrate composition of the invention is particularly advantageous, as it brings a pleasant tonality to the product.

[0055] Nutritional composition for infants and/or young children are preferably intended for children from 1 to 7 years of age. In a particular embodiment, the nutritional composition is selected from an infant formula, infant cereals, a follow- up formula, a growing-up milks, a functional milk, an infant or toddler meal, an infant or toddler snack or an infant or toddler medical food, more preferably infant cereals. The carbohydrate composition of the present invention is particularly adapted to those products which are milk-based, as the composition of the invention is from dairy origin and comprise a significant amount of lactose and galactose. This feature of the carbohydrate of the present invention also makes it particularly suitable for other types of dairy products described below.

[0056] Food or beverages for pregnant or lactating women or for women desiring to get pregnant are preferably a milk product for pregnant or lactating women or for women desiring to get pregnant.

[0057] Dairy products include for example fermented milk products, such as chilled or ambient yoghurts, sweetened concentrated milk, ready-to-drink yoghurts, smoothies, milk shakes or other milk drinks, milk-based desserts such as creams or mousse and beverages such as cocoa and malt drinks.

[0058] Ice creams include dairy-based ice creams, as well as sorbets and frozen confectionary.

[0059] Culinary products include for example milk powder, culinary creams, soups, sauces, condiments and spices, culinary aids, spread premixed ingredients for cakes, meat products like sausage type Frankfurt or vegetable products mimicking meat.

[0060] Cereal products include for example breakfast cereals, muesli, breakfast bars and granola. In such product, the carbohydrate composition of the invention can be mixed with other dried ingredients to be processed in an extruder or a batch cooker. Alternatively the carbohydrate composition can be incorporated as a slurry comprising the carbohydrate composition, water and other ingredients for taste and color, in an extruder, batch cooker or as coating for formed breakfast cereal pieces (extrudates of flakes). The carbohydrate can also be incorporated as a binder to bind mix of cereals to other solid ingredients.

[0061 ] Bakery products include for example cakes, madeleines, biscuits, wafers, muffins and tarts.

[0062] Coffee and tea products include hot and cold ready-to drink or powdered coffee and tea beverages, as well as coffee and tea mixes, including coffee or tea and at least one dairy or non-dairy creaming ingredient. Coffee and tea mixes include for example cappuccino, cafe latte and chai tea. Coffee and tea creamers include dairy and non-dairy creamers in liquid or powder form to be added to coffee or tea.

[0063] Sport nutrition products include for example energy bars, energy drink, isotonic sport drink beverages and high protein products.

[0064] Confectionary products include for example chocolate products, chocolate coated biscuits and sugar-based confectionary.

[0065] Chocolate products typically comprise chocolate and/or compound, the latter being made from a combination of cocoa, a cocoa butter replacer (such as vegetable oil) and sweeteners. Preferred chocolate products comprise chocolate, most preferred chocolate products comprise chocolate as legally defined in a major jurisdiction (such as Brazil, EU and/or US).

[0066] The term chocolate product as used herein denotes any foodstuff which comprises chocolate product and optionally also other ingredients and thus may refer to foodstuffs such confections, wafers, cakes and/or biscuits whether the chocolate product comprises a choco-coating and/or the bulk of the product. Chocolate product confectionery may comprise chocolate product in any suitable form for example as inclusions, layers, nuggets, pieces and/or drops. The confectionery product may further contain any other suitable inclusions such as crispy inclusions for example cereals (e.g. expanded and/or toasted rice) and/or dried fruit pieces and/or fillings.

[0067] The chocolate product of the invention may be used to mould a tablet and/or bar, to coat confectionery items and/or to prepare more complex confectionery products.

[0068] In one strongly preferred embodiment of the invention, the chocolate product comprises a substantially solid moulded choco-tablet, choco-bar and/or baked product surrounded by substantial amounts of chocolate product. For such strongly preferred products of the invention, the chocolate product forms a substantial or whole part of the product and/or a thick outside layer surrounding the interior baked product (such as a wafer and/or biscuit laminate).

[0069] A non-limiting list of those possible baked foodstuffs that may comprise chocolate compositions that comprise chocolate product of and/or used in the present invention are selected from: high fat biscuits, cakes, breads, pastries and/or pies; such as from the group consisting of: ANZAC biscuit, biscotti, flapjack, kurabiye, lebkuchen, leckerli, macaroon, bourbon biscuit, butter cookie, digestive biscuit, custard cream, extruded snacks, florentine, garibaldi gingerbread, koulourakia, kourabiedes, Linzer torte, muffin, oreo, Nice biscuit, peanut butter cookie, polvoron, pizzelle, pretzel, croissant, shortbread, cookie, fruit pie (e.g. apple pie, cherry pie), lemon drizzle cake, banana bread, carrot cake, pecan pie, apple strudel, baklava, berliner, bichon au citron and/or similar products. [0070] Most preferably the chocolate product is a multi-layer product comprising chocolate or compound and selected from sandwich biscuit(s), cookie(s), wafer(s), muffin(s), extruded snack(s) and/or praline(s). An example of such a product is a multilayer laminate of baked wafer and/or biscuit layers sandwiched with filling(s) and coated with chocolate.

[0071 ] Another embodiment of a chocolate product comprises a filling surrounded by an outer layer for example a praline, chocolate shell product.

[0072] Sugar-based confectionary includes for example lozenges, candies, tablets, pastilles, jelly candies, gummies and nougat.

The invention will be further described by reference to the following examples

Example 1 - Process to prepare the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[0073] The initial whey at 21 %TS at pH 5, 8-6, 2 is demineralized by a combination of electrodialysis equipment and a weak and strong cationic columns. The solution obtained is at pH 2 - 2,5 at 20% Total Solids (TS); afterward, the solution is submitted to ultrafiltration (UF) in order to concentrate in the retentate the proteins at a volumetric concentration factor (VCF) between 2,5-3; the permeate is collected and further processed as follows.

[0074] 100,000 kg at 16% of Dry Matter of a decationnated (demineralized) UF permeate at pH 2,5 is standardized at pH 5,5 with KOH at 15%; the ratio KOH/100Kg ES is at 2, 0-2, 4%; The standardized decationnated UF permeate is concentrated by evaporator, pasteurized at about 86°C for about 40 seconds, in order to achieve 50%TS±1 and 60°C±1. The pH after concentration is set at 5,4±0,1.

[0075] Afterwards, the concentrated decationnated permeate is stored in the agitated reactor for the enzymatic reaction; the agitation is below 100rpm. The temperature is monitored, but not adjusted during the enzymatic reaction. Also no pH adjustment is required during the enzymatic reaction.

[0076] An amount of 15 600kg of permeate is then enzymatically treated with a beta-galactosidase. The enzyme (powder) is diluted in demineralized water. Enzeco Fungal Lactase concentrate (Enzyme Development Corporation, New York, USA) is added at 0.3 g enzyme dry matter per kg of permeate solids and the mixture is held at 61 °C until a glucose concentration of 20% is obtained. Then the temperature is raised to 92°C for 240 seconds by direct steam injection to inactivate the enzyme.

[0077] After the inactivation, a dilution of the dry matter is done. The dilution factor is adjusted in order to achieve 20%TS. [0078] The obtained composition is then subjected to a nanofiltration step. The filtration is done at a temperature <15°C. The dry matter in the nanofiltration is the most important parameter; the permeate has to be at 2-3% TS. A diafiltration factor is applied to increase the monosaccharides concentration in the permeate; the factor is at 2,3 (v/v) ; the diafiltration is done with soft water.

[0079] After the nanofiltration step, the permeate has a TS close to 2-5%, a lactose content of 15%, a glucose content of 50%, a galactose content of 20%, and 10% of oligosaccharides.

[0080] 7 000kg of Dry Matter is obtained after nanofiltration; the DM is at 2-3%; the concentration is performed by reverse osmosis; the VCF applied is 6; the DM of the permeate is at 15% after concentration; the filtration is at a temperature <10°C.

[0081 ] The concentrated permeate is afterwards further concentrated on an evaporator to achieve a final concentration at 67% ; a heat treatment is applied at about 95°C for about 5 seconds.

[0082] The process was repeated for several batches and variability was observed upon ageing of the membrane used. The final products obtained for the different batches had 67% of Dry Matter and had a composition in the following ranges: 45-60% glucose, 15-30% of galactose, 5-17% lactose and 1 -9% oligosaccharides.

Example 2 - Carbohydrate compositions of the invention

Seven examples of the carbohydrate composition of the invention obtained by the process of of Example 1 are detailed in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Example 3 - Properties of the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[0083] A plurality of parameters of a carbohydrate composition of the invention comprising 13% of lactose, 53.7% of glucose, 21 % of galactose, 4.1 % of oligosaccharide, and 3,5% of total ash, the percentages being defined by weight, based on the total weight of dry matter of the composition, was evaluated in comparison with other known sweeteners.

[0084] Among these parameters, the percentage of dry matter, the content of reducing sugars, the caloric value, the glycemic index, the viscosity, the sweetening power and the sweetening power for 100% of dry matter are evaluated. [0085] Dry matter concentration, sweetening power, calories, percentage of mono-di sugars, percentage of reducing sugars and viscosity are also evaluated to decrease the Water Activityto 0,85 and to decrease the freezing point at -5 ° C. It is known that the reduction of the Water Activity (Aw) to a value less than or equal to 0,85 makes it possible to increase the storage capacity of a food product. It is also known that for ice cream applications, the reduction of the freezing point makes it possible to optimize the creamy texture of the ice. Finally, the sweetness, the calories, the percent of mono-di sugars and the viscosity are evaluated in order to provide a controlled reducing sugar content.

[0086] The results are shown in Table 2 for the carbohydrate composition of the invention, in comparison with known sweetening materials namely sucrose, fructose, dextrose, lactose, sorbitol and a glucose syrup.

NA : non applicable

Table 2 : Properties of the carbohydrate composition of the invention compared to known sweetening materials

[0087] The carbohydrate composition of the invention has therefore advantageous properties for decreasing the Water Activity (Aw) and the freezing point while being low sweetening, rich in reducing sugars, low viscosity with good solubility and a limited calorie intake.

[0088] The carbohydrate composition of the invention can thus be used in applications requiring the appearance of a color, an Aw decrease, a freezing point decrease and/or low viscosity sweeteners, while remaining reasonably unsweetening. [0089] Tests relating to the shelf life of the carbohydrate composition of the invention were conducted. The tests were conducted over a period of 5 to 6 months for carbohydrate compositions of the invention having a solid content between 60 and 72%. The storage temperatures tested are 25 °C and 37 °C. The physicochemical analyses carried out concern thewater activity, the dry matter content, the Brix° (dissolved sugar content of an aqueous solution), the glucose, lactose, and galactose contents, the color, the crystallization and the viscosity . The microbiological analyses carried out concern Total Mesophilic Flora (FMT), yeasts, moulds, thermophilic Flora, Clostridium perfringens, E.coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus Coagulase. The analyses are performed monthly. [0090] The monitoring of these parameters made it possible to show that the carbohydrate composition of the invention is stable over 5 months both from a physicochemical and a microbiological point of view. A shelf life of 3 to 4 months could thus be validated.

Exemple 4 - Sweet liquid feed comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[0091 ] An example of a sweetened liquid feed to be mixed with the basic ration of dairy cows is given in Table 3.

Table 3 : Composition of a sweetened liquid feed comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[0092] The molasse solubles are derived from potassium free and concentrated by-products obtained after fermentation of the sugar beet molasse and sugarcane molasse during the production of yeasts. The oligoelements are composed of a mixture of zinc, manganese and cobalt. The carbohydrate composition of the invention corresponds to the composition 4 of Example 2.

[0093] The respective contents of lactose, sucrose, galactose and glucose of the sweetened liquid feed comprising the carbohydrate composition of the invention are given in FIG. 2. According to the composition of the carbohydrate composition of the invention, the sweetened liquid feed has a large proportion of glucose and galactose resulting from the hydrolysis of lactose and does not comprise any fructose. Example 5 - Impact of the carbohydrate composition on flavour generation in food applications

[0094] This example demonstrates potential of the carbohydrate composition of the invention to improve flavour during wafer baking. A reference wafer without the carbohydrate composition and two wafers containing two different additions of the carbohydrate composition (3.2% and 9.5% per dry matter) were prepared and compared by sensory analysis and by quantitative analysis of selected aroma compounds. [0095] The batters were prepared by mixing of ingredients using an overhead stirrer according following recipes:

[0096] Three wafers (8-10 g each) from each recipe were prepared by baking at 160°C for 110s using a laboratory equipment for production of wafer sheets

(Hebenstreit). The wafers were evaluated by sensory analysis. Selected aroma compounds were quantified by means of instrumental analysis using HS-SPME- GC/MS/MS (methodology described in a separate section). [0097] Significant improvement of organoleptic properties was observed in wafers containing the carbohydrate composition as compared to reference wafer without the carbohydrate composition. Addition of the carbohydrate composition resulted in richer flavour intensity with particularly enhanced biscuity, caramel, and cooked/baked notes. Wafers containing the carbohydrate composition also revealed more intense browning as compared to reference wafer. Intensity of the flavour and the colour well correlated with the carbohydrate composition dosage.

[0098] Relative concentrations (%) of selected odorants determined in wafers with added the carbohydrate composition compared to reference wafer without the carbohydrate composition (100%) are show in Figure 1. Carbohydrate composition addition triggered significant increase of odorants generated by Maillard reaction during wafer baking. Apart from phenylacetaldehyde, increase of odorants correlated well with the carbohydrate composition dosage in the recipe. The highest Figure 1 Relative concentrations (%) of selected odorants determined in wafers with added carbohydrate composition compared to reference wafer without carbohydrate composition (100%) increase was detected for following odorants (increase factor related to 3.2% and 9.5% carbohydrate composition inclusion shown in brackets): 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2/-/)-furanone (caramel, 11.1 and

17.9), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery, 4.5 and 7.7), dimethyltrisulfide (sulphury, 4.3 and

5.9) and 3-methylbutanal (malty, 1.7 and 3.2).

Analysis of aroma compounds

[0099] Content of aroma compounds in wafers was determined using Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction in combination with Gas Chromatography and tandem Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS/MS). Quantification was accomplished by Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA) using corresponding isotopologues of the analysed odorants as internal standards.

[00100] Three wafers from each recipe were crushed and ground using a coffee grinder. 1 g ± 0.002 g of ground sample was weighed into a 20 mL headspace vial. Ultrapure water (10 mL) and methanol solution of internal standards (20μL) were added together with a magnetic stir bar. The vial was closed with a screw cap and the mixture was homogenized by means of a vortex agitator for 5s and afterwards stirred for 15 minutes using a magnetic stirrer. The mixture was then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 minutes and an aliquot of supernatant (3 mL) was transferred into a new 20 mL headspace vial containing 2g sodium chloride and analysed by HS- SPME-GC/MS/MS. Each sample was prepared in duplicates by two independent work-ups.

[00101 ] For HS-SPME, the incubation (10s) and extraction (15 min) were performed at 80 °C. DVB-CAR-PDMS fibre of 2cm (Supelco) was used for the extraction under agitator speed of 500 rpm. The fibre was injected into a GC- MS/MS instrument and aroma compounds were desorbed in split mode (ratio 5:1 ) at 250°C for 1 min. The fibre was then baked out at 250°C for 4 min.

[00102] For GC/MS, an Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph and Agilent 7000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with high sensitivity electron ionization source (HS- El) were used. Gas chromatographic separations were achieved on a DB-624-UI column 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 1.4 μm (J&W Scientific). The temperature program of the oven started at 100 °C; the temperature raised by 15 °C/min to 240 °C and maintained constant for 10.7 min. Helium was used as a carrier gas with a constant flow of 1.0 mL/min.

Example 6 - Growing-up milk containing the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[00103] An example of a growing-up milk containing the carbohydrate composition of the present invention is given below. The example is based on a premium whey- predominant Infant formula (from Nestle, Switzerland) to which the specific oligosaccharides of the invention are added per the amount stated below.

[00104]

Bonakid Declarations with the carbohydrate composition:

1) As obtained by the process of Example 1

2) RE is Retinol Equivalent

3) TE is Tocopherol Equivalent Example 7 - Isotonic Sport drink including the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[00105] Athletes have different daily nutritional requirements. Isotonic sport drinks contain specific amount of carbohydrates, minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus and magnesium) and vitamins (whole group B, vitamin C and vitamin E). Vitamins B play a role in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms. Vitamins C and E have antioxidant functionalities. [00106] Minerals act as follows :

- Potassium: muscle contraction and spread of nerve impulses

- Calcium: muscle contraction, blood coagulation, constitution of bones and teeth, nervous balance, regulation of muscle tone

- Magnesium: propagation of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, protein formation, antibody formation and bone composition

- Sodium: it regulates the quantity and distribution of water in the body.

[00107] In the following example, the carbohydrate composition of the invention is the only carbohydrate source used in the formula of isotonic sport drink. The composition of the carbohydrate composition of the invention is given in the Table below.

[00108] The average content of Vitamin B2 in the carbohydrate composition of the invention is 1.3 mg/100 g of dry matter (876 pg/100 g)(.

[00109] The composition of the sport drink is as follow :

[00110] The nutritional values of the sport drink composition are given in the table below :

[00111 ] The advantages of the carbohydrate composition of the invention in isotonic sport drinks are mainly related to its natural contribution in interesting nutritional elements. For potassium, the natural content of potassium in the carbohydrate composition of the invention allows to claim that the isotonic sport drink is "rich in potassium" without the need to add synthetic minerals. For calcium and magnesium, their natural content in the carbohydrate composition of the invention allow to add smaller amounts of synthetic minerals in the sport drink composition. Concerning the fibers, the presence of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) in the carbohydrate composition of the invention allow to claim that the resulting sport drink composition is a "source of fiber". For simple sugars, as the glycemic index of the carbohydrate composition of the invention is lower than those of glucose syrup, there is a positive effect in the resulting sport drink. Finally, the natural content of Vitamin B2 in the carbohydrate composition of the invention allows to claim that the isotonic sport drink is "rich in Vitamin B2".

Example 8 - Ice cream including the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[00112] In this example, the 39DE atomized glucose usually used in the manufacturing process of ice cream has been replaced by the carbohydrate composition of the invention. The manufacturing process of ice cream is unchanged. As known, such a process comprises three main steps: preparation of an ice cream mix, maturation of the ice cream mix and icing of the matured ice cream mix.

[00113] The composition of the resulting ice cream is given in the Table below in comparison with an ice cream including the 39DE atomized glucose (Reference). Both of these compositions have a theoretical Freezing Depression Point of 2,3°C.

[00114] The characteristics of the ice cream mix of the invention are given in the

Table below in comparison with an ice cream including the 39DE atomized glucose (Reference).

[00115] The stability of the ice cream mixes is evaluated by a visual appreciation on a volume of 100ml in a test tube kept at 20 °C for 24 hours. Both ice cream mixes are stable without any phase separation. [00116] The flow measurement of the ice cream mixes is measured to evaluate the consistency of the mixes. This evaluation is carried out by the measurement of their resistance to flow under specific conditions and for a given time. The Cenco apparatus is a consistometer graduated every 0.5 cm up to 24 cm. The flow is expressed in time (seconds) that the product has set to flow over the length of 24 cm. Both ice cream mixes flow in less than one second.

[00117] The viscosity of both ice cream mixes is measured before and after maturation. Both ice cream mixes have similar viscosities after maturation. [00118] An accelerated aging test is applied on both ice creams with and without the carbohydrate composition of the invention. This test is to generate temperature variations close to those encountered in domestic use in a variable temperature cell. 5 cycles of identical temperature variation are carried out as follows: initial temperature = -18 ° C - temperature increase to -5 ° C - temperature stabilisation at -5 ° C for 30 minutes - temperature decrease up to -18 ° C in storage room. Accelerated aging test makes it possible to know about the physical, rheological and organoleptic evolution of the ice cream.

[00119] The crystalline evolution of both ice creams with and without the carbohydrate composition of the invention and before and after the aging test is evaluated. The samples are taken from the center of the ice cream and observed under a microscope at a temperature of -18 ° C. A measurement of the size of the crystals is carried out. The results are given in the Table below.

[00120] In general, ice cream crystals grow during test aging. It is observed that the average size of the crystals before and after test aging is lower for the ice cream with the carbohydrate composition of the invention.

[00121 ] Penetrometry tests of both ice creams with and without the carbohydrate composition of the invention and before and after the aging test are carried out. The results are given in the Table below.

[00122] The penetrometry test results show significant differences between both ice creams. It is observed that the carbohydrate composition of the invention decreases the hardness of the resulting ice cream after aging test.

[00123] Sensory analyses after aging tests are carried out. According to these analyses and in comparison with the reference ice cream, the ice cream including the carbohydrate of the invention has a more pronounced color, more intense biscuity and milky flavors with a slight honey note, and an improved smooth texture.

[00124] To resume, the ice cream prepared with the carbohydrate composition of the invention has a number of advantages in comparison with the reference ice cream. Especially, the use of the carbohydrate composition of the invention allows a cleaner labelling. Furthermore, the carbohydrate composition of the invention decreases the hardness of the ice cream especially after test aging. The resulting ice cream can therefore be a hard-to-work ice creams like chocolate ice cream. Moreover, the ice cream crystals are thinner when the carbohydrate of the invention is used. The smoothness of the ice is therefore optimized. Advantageously, the carbohydrate composition of the invention provides a yellow to brown color while limiting the use of colouring additives (like vanilla ice creams). Finally, the carbohydrate composition of the invention thanks to its unique flavour profile can help to mask some unwanted tastes.

Example 9 - Sponge cake including the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[00125] Sponge cakes usually comprise glucose syrup and/or glycerol. In this example, the glucose syrup and the glycerol have been respectively and both replaced by the carbohydrate composition of the invention.

[00126] The three tested formulations for sponge cake are given in the Table below in comparison with a reference composition comprising both glucose syrup and glycerol. In the composition 1 , the glucose syrup is replaced by the carbohydrate composition of the invention under a 1 :1 ratio by weight. In the composition 2, the glycerol is replaced by the carbohydrate composition of the invention under a 1 :1 ratio by dry matter. In the composition 3, both glucose syrup (1 :1 ratio by weight) and glycerol (1 :1 ratio by dry matter) are replaced by the carbohydrate composition of the invention.

[00127] The three resulting sponge cakes are submitted to tests in order to determine the feasibility of the glucose syrup and/or the glycerol substitution by the carbohydrate composition of the invention. Before testing, it is observed that the section and the volume of the sponge cakes resulting from compositions 1 , 2 and 3 are similar to those of the sponge cakes resulting from the reference formulation and are in accordance with the requested section and volume for sponge cakes. [00128] The first test is to measure the evolution of the weight of the sponge cakes at ambient temperature until 2 days after preparation. The results given in the Table below are expressed in grams.

[00129] The second test is to measure the evolution of the texture both at 25% and 40% of compression of the sponge cakes at ambient temperature until 2 days after preparation. The results given in the Table below are expressed in Newton.

[00130] The third test is to measure the evolution of the water activity (Aw) of the sponge cakes at ambient temperature until 2 days after preparation. The Aw results given in the Table below.

[00131 ] It is observed that the water activity is less than 0.8 at DO for the sponge cakes resulting from composition 1 and that the water activity stabilises at less than 0.8 at D+2 for the sponge cakes resulting from compositions 2 and 3.

[00132] Visual considerations of the sponge cakes are performed. It is observed that the sponge cakes resulting from compositions 1 , 2 and 3 are softer and spongier and also more colorful with a slight reduction in the color difference between the edges and the center of the sponge cakes compared to the sponge cakes of the reference.

[00133] Finally, sensory tests are performed with a jury of 62 people. It is asked to the jury whether they like or unlike the tested sponge cakes by several criteria. The results given in the Table below are expressed in“like/unlike” ratio.

[00134] All the above results show that the substitution of glucose syrup and/or glycerol by the carbohydrate composition of the invention is successfully performed. Moreover, the replacement of glycerol is particularly advantageous because the E422 glycerol is considered as a food additive and could be restricted or prohibited in some applications. Example 10 - Feed lick bucket for ruminant including the carbohydrate composition of the invention [00135] In this example, molasses resulting from refining sugar beets usually used in mineral lick buckets is totally or partially replaced by the carbohydrate composition of the invention. It is required to reach a level of consumption comparable to the formulations prepared with molasses, a sufficient hardness to regulate the level of ingestion and to obtain a stable product and a good palatability.

[00136] The formulations of the tested lick buckets are given in the Table below.

[00137] The partial or total incorporation of the carbohydrate composition of the invention in the formulation for lick bucket makes it possible to ensure a good hardness of the resulting lick buckets containing minerals. [00138] Preference tests are performed by proposing simultaneously to a cattle farm the formulation 1 with molasses and the formulation 2 with the carbohydrate composition of the invention during a minimal period of 15 days. The same tests are performed by proposing the formulation 3 with molasses and the formulation 4 with the carbohydrate composition of the invention during the same period of time. The buckets are weighed twice a week to determine the consumption of the animals. The order of the buckets is changed randomly so as to avoid any addiction. The results show an equivalent consumption of formulations 1 and 2, and a slight preference for formulation 4 in comparison with formulation 3. The preference and consumption tests did not reveal a disturbance in appetence. Therefore, molasses is successfully partially (at least up to 30%) or totally replace by the carbohydrate composition of the invention in the formulations for mineral lick buckets.

Example 11 - Pellets for animals including the carbohydrate composition of the invention

[00139] The carbohydrate composition of the invention has been incorporated as a granulating component to replace molasses resulting from refining sugar beets or sugarcane. The incorporation rate is equivalent to that of molasses (maximum of 5% by weight) in order to avoid clogging during the pellet manufacturing process due to the caramelization of sugars. This replacement has been successfully carried out, showing equivalent properties and animal acceptance.

[00140] The carbohydrate composition of the invention has been also tested as sprayable formulation on already formed pellets. As known, molasses can be sprayed up to 3.0 % by weight after granulation in order to stick the fine particles and give a glossy appearance to the pellets. Because of its high viscosity, it must first be heated and diluted with water to be sprayed in good conditions (because of the risk of clogging of the spray circuit). However the dilution of the molasses involves its absorption by the pellet and thus limits its coating effect. [00141 ] Comparative tests have been performed with a known formulation of molasses of 2,5% by weight and a formulation of the carbohydrate composition of the invention of 2,5% by weight. The low viscosity of the carbohydrate composition of the invention avoid the adding of water. Thanks to its higher sugar content, the pulverized carbohydrate composition of the invention has shown a better coating function. The pellets on which carbohydrate composition of the invention has been sprayed are brighter. This visual difference is observed at the end of the manufacturing process and confirmed one month after. The use of the carbohydrate composition of the invention in a sprayable formulation at a rate of 2.5% by weight on already formed pellets makes it possible to bond the fine particles on the pellets and gives a brighter appearance to the pellets.