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Title:
CASSAVA STARCH BASED BAKED FOOD PRODUCT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/177277
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a process for preparing a novel cassava starch based baked food product, more specifically to a process for preparing a cassava starch based baked food product having a substantially controlled expansion and unique texture. The present invention also relates to the cassava starch based baked food product having a substantially controlled expansion and unique texture, and obtainable by the process of the invention.

Inventors:
DE PADUA CHICARONI, Everton (Avenida Sampaio Vidal, 344-A Apto. 82, -020 Marília - São Paulo, 17500, BR)
MOR, Aline Lucena (Trav. Alfredo Le Pera 31, -002 Santo Amaro - São Paulo, 04738, BR)
COE, Stephen (28 Hambleton Grove, Knaresborough Yorkshire HG5 0DB, GB)
LOPEZ LEGARRETA, Elisa (15 Jacobs Court, Trinity Lane, York Yorkshire YO1 6LL, GB)
Application Number:
EP2015/061250
Publication Date:
November 26, 2015
Filing Date:
May 21, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NESTEC S.A. (CT-IAM, Av. Nestlé 55, Vevey, CH-1800, CH)
International Classes:
A23L1/00; A21D13/00; A23L1/0522; A23L1/105
Domestic Patent References:
WO2014035470A12014-03-06
Foreign References:
US2394791A1946-02-12
JP2004248532A2004-09-09
JPH119176A1999-01-19
US4923709A1990-05-08
US20130040016A12013-02-14
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KIRK, Martin (CT-IAM, Avenue Nestlé 55, Vevey, CH-1800, CH)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A process for the production of a cassava starch based baked food product comprising the steps of a) preparing a mixture comprising at least a cassava starch based ingredient and water and b) baking the mixture between at least two heated baking surfaces.

2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the at least two heated baking surfaces consist of a wafer baking mould.

3. A process according to claim 1 or 2 wherein in step a) the oil is added to the mixture at a temperature below 60° C, preferably below 40°C.

4. A process according to anyone of claims 1 to 3 wherein in step a) water is added at a temperature below 90°C, preferably below 25° C, more preferably below 20°C.

5. A process according to anyone of preceding claims wherein in step b) the mixture is baked between at least two heated baking surfaces at a temperature comprised between 130 and 190°C, more preferably between 140 and180°C.

6. A process according to anyone of preceding claims wherein in step b) the mixture is baked between at least two heated baking surfaces for a time comprised between 1 and 6 minutes, preferably 2 and 5 minutes.

7. Use of at least two baking heated surfaces to produce a cassava starch based product having a substantially controlled expansion and unique texture.

8. A cassava starch based baked food product obtainable according to the process described in anyone of claims 1 to 6.

9. A cassava starch based baked food product according to claim 8, which is obtainable from a mixture comprising 30 to 50% w/W of at least one cassava starch based ingredient.

10. A cassava starch based baked food product according to claim 8 or 9, which is obtainable from a mixture comprising 20 to 70% w/W of water.

Description:
CASSAVA STARCH BASED BAKED FOOD PRODUCT

The present invention relates to a process for preparing a novel cassava starch based baked food product, more specifically to a process for preparing a cassava starch based baked food product having a substantially controlled expansion and unique texture. The present invention also relates to the cassava starch based baked food product having a substantially controlled expansion and unique texture, and obtainable by the process of the invention. Background Art

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important subsistence crop in many tropical areas including, for example, Asia, Africa and Latin America. The cassava roots are a major source of carbohydrates such as starch. This starch from the cassava root can be extracted to produce cassava starch also known as tapioca starch or tapioca flour. It is well known in the art that cassava flour is made by cooking, drying and grinding cassava root to a fine powder. This is different to cassava starch which is made from the starch of the cassava plant whereas the cassava flour is the ground root.

Various varieties of cassava exist, for example cassava may be categorised by the content of toxic cyanogenic compounds present in the fresh root. These cyanogenic compounds occur naturally in the fresh roots containing cyanogenic glucosides such as linamarin and lotaustralin. The contents of cyanogenic compounds in the cassava root may vary, depending on cassava variety, harvest time, environmental conditions and farm practices. The low cyanide or sweet cassava is typically used for direct consumption as a staple food, whereas the medium toxic cyanide is detoxified by various processes such as cooking, boiling and fermenting for example and then processed to chips, pellets and starch for various industrial applications.

Thus, it is commonly known in the art that there are two main types of cassava starch, 'sour cassava starch' wherein the cassava starch requires further processing typically a fermenting step and 'sweet cassava starch' wherein no further processing is needed as aforementioned.

The production of cassava starch based food products is highly desirable in many countries, such as Brazil.

Wheat flour is typically the mainstay of baked goods, but it contains gluten which can be to a certain extent undesired. Many consumers wish to decrease the amount of gluten in their diets and so there is a growing demand for gluten-free food products. The cassava starch is gluten free which provides additional nutritional benefits to the consumer. For many applications it is desired that gluten- free food products also provide the desired texture, mouth-feel and taste that consumers are accustomed to.

For example the 'Biscoito de Polvilho' a popular product made from sour cassava starch, is one of the most commonly consumed snacks in Brazil. This product has a characteristic flavour and crunchy texture. Another popular Brazilian sour cassava starch product is the bread-like 'Pao de Queijo'.

Current cassava starch baked products are made from traditional recipes known in the art using conventional processes involving mixing the cassava starch with water and oil, both heated to high temperatures followed by baking using conventional heat treatments. For example, the traditional process for making 'Polvilho' products such as the popular 'Biscoito de Polvilho' involves water heated to very high temperatures, usually 90 degrees Celsius, which is then typically added slowly to the Cassava Starch. In addition to the limitations such process may pose to industrial applicability due to the high temperatures employed, such typical 'Polvilho' products are often associated with an intrinsic fragility which causes them to break or deform when stored or transported when packaged. Furthermore the highly expansive properties of cassava starch when mixed with water results in products baked with uncontrolled expansion, leading to variable and irregular shaped products.

GB 484 468 discloses a process wherein a dough consisting of tapioca flour and water is prepared, which is then further cooked using boiling oil to give a product that swells significantly to many times its original size. Furthermore, the aforementioned process requires the use of oil heated to very high temperatures. US 4 923 709 discloses a method for producing a new cassava flour from the starch product and processes for producing products from cassava flour; the aforementioned process does not disclose producing baked products directly from sour cassava starch, nor it describes baking of a mixture between at least two heated baking surfaces.

2006-BR-0003223 discloses a process to make a polvilho cookie involving the use of boiling water and fat.

The high expansion capabilities of cassava starch when mixed with water makes its processing difficult. Typical processing conditions include having to heat up the water to a very high temperature, usually up to 90°C or the boiling point of water. In addition the oil used in the traditional recipe is also heated to high temperatures typically 60°C. The processing of the batter thus requires very slow addition of heated water and oil to the cassava starch and long baking times, for example, traditional 'Biscoito de polvilho' recipies require baking times of 20 minutes, which make it commercially not viable. Additionally, the products obtained are of undefined shape which is normally not appealing for a customer.

Accordingly there is a need to identify a process which would be able to deliver a cassava starch based baked food product, having substantially controlled expansion and which could be easily and conveniently applied in industry for example by use of standard equipment and avoidance of high temperatures during processing of the batter and long baking times.

Furthermore, there is a need to develop a cassava starch based baked food product with unique texture and defined shape which would be appealing for the consumer, the product also resulting in having nutritional advantages for some consumers as it is gluten-free. Summary of invention

The present invention provides a process for making a cassava starch based baked food product comprising the steps of a) preparing a mixture comprising at least a cassava starch based ingredient and water and b) baking the mixture between at least two heated baking surfaces.

It was surprisingly found that baking a mixture comprising at least one cassava starch based ingredient and water between at least two heated baking surfaces gave cassava starch based baked food products endowed with defined shape given by controlled expansion and endowed with a unique texture and properties. Advantageously, it was also found that according to the present invention water could be added to the mixture at a significantly lower temperature than required in the traditional recipes and in the state of the art, specifically at a temperature much lower than the boiling point of water.

The present invention also relates to the products obtainable according to the process of the invention.

It was surprisingly found that by carrying out the baking process according to the present invention; a cassava starch based baked food product was formed having, advantageously, a substantially controlled expanded shape with a unique texture and properties. As a consequence, the products according to the present invention are evenly shaped, thicker in appearance and less likely to break and/or deform in the packaging than other products already known in the art.

It is further commonly understood in the art for example, in Manley's technology of biscuits and crackers and cookies, Fourth edition' it is described therein that flour with very low protein will give weak and fragile wafers. According to the present invention, it was surprisingly found that the cassava starch baked wafers produced according to the process of the present invention were thicker, and less fragile than standard wafers known in the art.

Additional features are described herein and will be apparent from the following detailed description and the figures, which are not intended to be limiting the scope of the invention. Brief description of the figures

Figure 1a and 1b are front and side views of samples obtained according Example 1 Figure 2a and 2b are front and side views of samples obtained according to Example 2 Figure 3 is an image the traditional product made from cassava starch'b/sco/io de polvilho '

Detailed description of the Invention and Preferred Embodiments

According to the present invention the term 'cassava starch based ingredient' includes any ingredient containing starch deriving from cassava and known in the art such as any commercially available 'cassava starch' or industrial fermented cassava starch (known as 'sour cassava starch') or artisanal cassava starch or partially or completely gelatinized cassava starch, dried or dehydrated cassava starch product including tapioca starch or tapioca flour or sweet cassava starch and any combinations thereof.

In a preferred embodiment, the cassava starch based ingredient is cassava starch. In more a preferred embodiment, the cassava starch based ingredient is industrial fermented cassava starch or 'sour' cassava starch.

Within the context of the present invention, the term "baked food product" identifies a product which has been subject to heat treatment. Non limiting examples of baked food products according to the present invention are: biscuits, wafers, crackers, snacks and the like. In a preferred embodiment, the baked food product is a wafer food product.

Within the context of the present invention the term "cassava starch based baked food product" identifies a baked food product according to the definition above reported and which is obtained from a mixture comprising a cassava starch based ingredient.

In a preferred embodiment, the cassava starch based baked food product is a wafer product obtained from a mixture comprising cassava starch, preferably sour cassava starch.

In one preferred embodiment, the cassava starch based ingredient in the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention is present in an amount of 20 to 70% by weight of such composition. Preferably, the cassava starch based ingredient is present in such mixture in an amount of 30 to 50% weight.

In one preferred embodiment, water in the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention is present in an amount of 20 to 70% by weight of such composition. Preferably, water is present in such mixture in an amount of 20 to 50% weight, more preferably in an amount of 30 to 40% weight. In one preferred embodiment, water is added to the mixture prepared according to step a) of the present invention at a temperature below 90°C, more preferably below 25°C, even more preferably below 20°C. Other ingredients may be included in the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention. For example, milk powder may be added to improve quality in an amount typically between 3 to 5%, by weight of the dry mix. Whey powder may also be included typically in an amount of 0 to 3 %. Other additives commonly used in the food industry such as salt may be added as a flavour enhancer in an amount typically between 0 to 1 %, by weight of the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention. Leavening agents such sodium bicarbonate or ammonium bicarbonate may also be included in the composition in an amount typically between 0 to 2%, by weight of the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention.

Egg and fat may be added as release agents, because without fats there would be a strong tendency for wafers to stick to the hot surface of the wafer plates. Preferably, fats are represented by oils which include but are not limited to any liquid oil such as vegetable oil, for example groundnut oil, cotton seed oil or sunflower oil or soy oil. In a preferred embodiment, the oil is included in the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention in an amount of 0 to 20% w/W more preferably 0 to 15%w/W of such mixture. In one preferred embodiment, the oil is soy oil. In another embodiment, the oil may be replaced with a solid fat.

In one preferred embodiment, oil is added to the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention at a temperature lower than at a temperature below 60°C, more preferably below 40°C.

In another embodiment of the invention an emulsifier is included in the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention in an amount of, typically, 0 to 3% w/W of such mixture. Preferably, said emulsifier includes lecithin preferably soya lecithin in an amount of 0 to 1 % by weight of the mixture.

In a preferred embodiment, soya lecithin is added to the oil wherein the temperature of the oil is 40°C , in an amount of 0 to 1 % by weight of the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the invention. In another embodiment of the invention, eggs may also be added, eggs are a source of both fat and emulsifier and may impart a better quality to the wafer and improve shelf life. In one preferred embodiment, a dry-mix can be prepared in step a) by first mixing powdery components to obtain a dry-mix wherein said dry-mix may be mixed together with a liquid or fluid components prior to baking. According to the invention when oil is added to the dry-mix, the temperature of the oil is preferably lower than 60°C, preferably lower than 40°C.

A cassava starch baked product having substantially controlled expansion and unique texture according to the present invention is obtainable by a process according to the invention and preferred embodiments thereof.

In one preferred embodiment, the process according to the present invention provides for the preparation of a mixture according to step a) which comprises 30 to 50% cassava starch, 20 to 50% water, 0 to 1 % salt, 0 to 2% sodium bicarbonate, 0 to 12% oil, 3 to 5 % milk powder, and 0 to 3% whey powder.

Common formulations of the mixture prepared in step a) according to the process of the present invention may also comprise at least one of the following ingredients: fat and/or oil, an emulsifier such as lecithin, sugar, whole egg, salt, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, milk, milk powder e.g skimmed milk powder, fruit powders, cocoa powder, malt extract, flavouring and/or colouring agents, soy flour, leavening agents. The ingredient mix may further comprise pieces edible material. Examples of such pieces can consist of parts of nuts, nut paste, almonds, sugar, chocolate, crunchy material, and aerated material amongst others. Accordingly the present invention allows for a great variability in the recipe. According to the invention the said mixture is then baked between at least two heated baking surfaces. In one embodiment, the at least two heated baking surfaces consist of a wafer baking mould as below described.

A cassava starch based baked food wafer type product according to the invention may be prepared by known wafer baking methods. In preferred embodiment a cassava starch based wafer product is prepared by a process comprising the steps of making a batter by mixing at least flour and water and baking between at least two heated baking surfaces. In a common method of wafer manufacture, the batter mixture is fed by pumping to a series of wafer baking moulds corresponding to the type of wafer desired, each wafer baking mould consisting of two heated engraved metal plates, also known as baking irons having upper and lower sections arranged to open and close, one of which may be moved relative to the other. The baking moulds are disposed one after the other, continuously circulating through a wafer oven by travelling from one end to the other and which are opened and closed in the front entrance of the wafer oven for the depositing of the batter and removal of the individual wafers. The wafer baking moulds pass through a baking oven for a determined time at a certain temperature, for instance 1 -3 minutes at 140°C to 180°C, to produce large flat wafer sheets. Preferably, the baking process step b) is carried out at a temperature comprised between 1 10°C to 150°C, more preferably between 120°C to 145°C.

Preferably, in the baking process step b), the mixture is baked for a time comprised between 1 and 6 minutes, preferably 2 to 5 minutes.

The surfaces of the wafers are precisely formed, following the surface shape of the plates between which they were baked. They often carry a pattern on one surface or on both. After cooling, the wafers are processed according to the requirements of the final product.

A cassava starch based baked food product according to the present invention can be presented to the consumer in the form of a simple item such as, for example, a wafer or a biscuit or a cracker, but it can also be further processed to form a composite confectionery or savoury food product.

The confectionery food product may comprise suitable food materials such as for example chocolate, jelly, compound chocolate, ice-cream, sorbet, nut paste, cream-based products, cake, mousse, nougat, caramel, praline, jam, wafer rework or any combination thereof.

Savoury food products incorporating the cassava starch based baked food product may comprise suitable food materials such as for example fish or meat paste, cheese-based materials or vegetable puree.

The cassava starch based baked food product, according to the present invention may be used as the centre or part of the centre of a confectionery or savoury product as above described.

The cassava starch baked product may be enrobed or moulded in the coating material which can be any of the traditional confectionery coatings, for example a chocolate, compound, icing, caramel or any combinations thereof.

[Examples

The following examples are illustrative of the products and methods of making the same falling within the scope of the present invention. They are not to be considered in any way limitative of the invention. Changes and modifications can be made with respect to the invention. That is the skilled person will recognise many possible variations in these examples covering a wide range of compositions, ingredients, processing methods and mixtures and can adjust the naturally occurring levels of the compounds of the invention for a variety of applications. A cassava starch baked product was made according to the following recipe which comprises in percentage, based on the weight of the batter mixture.

Example 1

The ingredients were mixed in the same way as traditional batter; water at a temperature of 15°C was transferred into the mixing vessel, then all of the ingredients (except for the cassava starch) were added while the mixer was running, and finally the cassava starch was added while the mixer was running. The pre-mix was mixed for another 30 to 60 seconds after the whole cassava starch was added and until the mixture was homogenous..The mixture was deposited onto the wafer baking mould. The wafers were prepared by baking the batters for 2 minutes on a single wafer mould heated at 145°C.

The products obtained displayed unique texture, with defined flat wafer shape (See Fig. 1 a and 1 b for a front and side view of the product obtained according to the procedure of Example 1 ).

[Example 2

The ingredients were mixed in the same way as traditional batter; all the dry ingredients were dry-mixed in a standard kitchen mixer. The oil was heated to 40°C and the soy lecithin was added to the heated oil. This oil mixture was then added to the dry-ingredients while the mixer was running, the water at a temperature of 15°C was added while the mixer was running. This mixture was then mixed for a further 2 minutes and until the mixture was homogenous. The pre-mix was then deposited onto the wafer baking plate. The wafers were prepared by baking the batters for 5 minutes in a kitchen scale single wafer plate oven between two metal plates heated to 120°C.

The products obtained displayed unique texture, with defined flat wafer shape (See Fig. 2a and 2b for a front and side view of the product obtained according to the procedure of Example 2).




 
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