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Title:
CAUSING THE DISPLAY OF A TIME DOMAIN VIDEO IMAGE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/081528
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method comprising determining a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item, determining a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item, determining a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame, determining a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item, determining a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame, and causing display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point is disclosed.

Inventors:
WANG, Kongqiao (28-83-5A, Wuyi Garden Mudan Yuan,,Tongzhou District, Beijing 7, 101117, CN)
Application Number:
CN2013/088612
Publication Date:
June 11, 2015
Filing Date:
December 05, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY (Karaportti 3, Espoo, Espoo, FI)
NOKIA (CHINA) INVESTMENT CO., LTD. (Nokia China Campus, No. 5 Donghuan Zhonglu, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, Daxing District, Beijing 6, 100176, CN)
International Classes:
H04N5/91; H04N5/262
Foreign References:
CN102893595A2013-01-23
CN1116804A1996-02-14
JP5037425B22012-09-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KING & WOOD MALLESONS (20th Floor, East Tower World Financial Center,,No. 1 Dongsanhuan Zhonglu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 0, 100020, CN)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS :

1. An apparatus, comprising:

at least one processor;

at least one memory including computer program code, the memory and the computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform at least the following:

determination of a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item, the time domain video image being a

representation of the video media item such that a spatial axis of the image represents a spatial characteristic of a frame comprised by the video media item and a temporal axis of the image represents a temporal characteristic of the video media item such that a position along the temporal axis corresponds with a timestamp of the frame in the video media item;

determination of a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item;

determination of a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame;

determination of a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item;

determination of a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame; and

causation of display of the time domain video image, a

representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at a first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at a second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item. The apparatus of Claim 1 , wherein the temporal axis of the image fails to represent another spatial characteristic of the frame.

The apparatus any of Claims 1-2, wherein the memory includes computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform:

receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become further from the second frame index point; causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis; and

determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

The apparatus of any of Claims 1-2, wherein the memory includes computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform:

receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become closer to the second frame index point; causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis; and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

5. The apparatus of any of Claims 1-2, wherein the memory includes computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform:

determination of a third frame index point that corresponds with another frame in the video media item; and

causation of display of a representation of the third frame index point, such that the representation of the third frame index point is at a third position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the other frame in the video media item.

6. The apparatus of Claim 5, wherein the memory includes computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform:

receipt of information indicative of a frame index point removal input associated with the third frame index point; and

causation of termination of display of the representation of the third frame index point based, at least in part, on the frame index point removal input.

7. The apparatus of any of Claims 1-2, wherein the memory includes computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform:

receipt of information indicative of a video media item segment duplication input corresponding with a video media item segment, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame corresponding with the first frame index point and a frame corresponding with the second frame index point;

generation of a copy of the video media item segment;

determination of a different time domain video image that includes a representation of the video media item segment and a representation of the copy of the video media item segment; and

causation of display of the different time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at the first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at the second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

8. The apparatus of any of Claims 1-2, wherein the memory includes computer program code configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform determination of a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises the video media item segment and the copy of the video media item segment.

9. The apparatus of any of Claims 1-8, wherein the apparatus comprises a display.

10. A method comprising: determining a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item, the time domain video image being a representation of the video media item such that a spatial axis of the image represents a spatial characteristic of a frame comprised by the video media item and a temporal axis of the image represents a temporal characteristic of the video media item such that a position along the temporal axis corresponds with a timestamp of the frame in the video media item;

determining a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item;

determining a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame;

determining a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item;

determining a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame; and

causing display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at a first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at a second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

11. The method of Claim 10, wherein the temporal axis of the image fails to represent another spatial characteristic of the frame.

12. The method of any of Claims 10-1 1, further comprising:

receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become further from the second frame index point; causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis; and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

13. The method of any of Claims 10-1 1, further comprising:

receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become closer to the second frame index point; causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis; and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

The method of any of Claims 10-1 1, further comprising: determination of a third frame index point that corresponds with another frame in the video media item; and

causation of display of a representation of the third frame index point, such that the representation of the third frame index point is at a third position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the other frame in the video media item.

The method of Claim 14, further comprising:

receipt of information indicative of a frame index point removal input associated with the third frame index point; and

causation of termination of display of the representation of the third frame index point based, at least in part, on the frame index point removal input.

The method of any of Claims 10-1 1, further comprising:

receipt of information indicative of a video media item segment duplication input corresponding with a video media item segment, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame corresponding with the first frame index point and a frame corresponding with the second frame index point;

generation of a copy of the video media item segment;

determination of a different time domain video image that includes a representation of the video media item segment and a representation of the copy of the video media item segment; and

causation of display of the different time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at the first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at the second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

17. At least one computer-readable medium encoded with instructions that, when executed by a processor, perform:

determining a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item, the time domain video image being a representation of the video media item such that a spatial axis of the image represents a spatial characteristic of a frame comprised by the video media item and a temporal axis of the image represents a temporal characteristic of the video media item such that a position along the temporal axis corresponds with a timestamp of the frame in the video media item;

determining a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item;

determining a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame;

determining a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item;

determining a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame; and

causing display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at a first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at a second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

18. The medium of Claim 17, further encoded with instructions that, when executed by a processor, perform: receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become further from the second frame index point; causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis; and

determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

The medium of Claim 17, further encoded with instructions that, when executed by a processor, perform:

receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become closer to the second frame index point; causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis; and

determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

The medium of Claim 17, further encoded with instructions that, when executed by a processor, perform:

receipt of information indicative of a video media item segment duplication input corresponding with a video media item segment, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame corresponding with the first frame index point and a frame corresponding with the second frame index point;

generation of a copy of the video media item segment;

determination of a different time domain video image that includes a representation of the video media item segment and a representation of the copy of the video media item segment; and

causation of display of the different time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at the first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at the second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

Description:
CAUSING THE DISPLAY OF A TIME DOMAIN VIDEO IMAGE

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present application relates generally to causing the display of and interaction with a time domain video image.

BACKGROUND

[0002] As electronic apparatuses have become more popular, more users have become dependent upon their electronic apparatuses for recording video media items, viewing video media items, sharing video media items, editing video media items, etc. In many circumstances, it may be difficult for a user to view and/or modify a video media item to suit their viewing desires. It may be desirable to provide for a simple, convenient, and intuitive manner for a video media item to be viewed and/or modified.

SUMMARY

[0003] Various aspects of examples of the invention are set out in the claims.

[0004] One or more embodiments may provide an apparatus, a computer readable medium, a non-transitory computer readable medium, a computer program product, and a method for determining a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item, the time domain video image being a representation of the video media item such that a spatial axis of the image represents a spatial characteristic of a frame comprised by the video media item and a temporal axis of the image represents a temporal characteristic of the video media item such that a position along the temporal axis corresponds with a timestamp of the frame in the video media item, determining a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item, determining a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame, determining a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item, determining a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame, and causing display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at a first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at a second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

[0005] One or more embodiments may provide an apparatus, a computer readable medium, a computer program product, and a non-transitory computer readable medium having means for determining a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item, the time domain video image being a representation of the video media item such that a spatial axis of the image represents a spatial characteristic of a frame comprised by the video media item and a temporal axis of the image represents a temporal characteristic of the video media item such that a position along the temporal axis corresponds with a timestamp of the frame in the video media item, means for determining a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item, means for determining a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame, means for determining a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item, means for determining a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame, and means for causing display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at a first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at a second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

[0006] In at least one example embodiment, a frame index point identifies a position along the temporal axis that corresponds with an identified frame of the video media item.

[0007] In at least one example embodiment, the temporal axis of the image fails to represent another spatial characteristic of the frame.

[0008] In at least one example embodiment, adjacent positions along the temporal axis correspond with at least one of different frames of the video media item or identical frames of the video media item.

[0009] In at least one example embodiment, a span along the temporal axis between the first position and the second position indicates a playback duration between a first frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a second frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0010] In at least one example embodiment, a span along the temporal axis between the first frame index point and the second frame index point indicates a playback duration between a first frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a second frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0011] In at least one example embodiment, at least a portion of the video media item that is bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point is a video media item segment.

[0012] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis, causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis such that a span along the temporal axis between the different position and the second position indicates a playback duration between a first frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a second frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and determination of a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises the first frame and the second frame such that a time between a timestamp of the first frame and a timestamp of the second frame corresponds with the time span.

[0013] In at least one example embodiment, the input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis is a drag input from a position that corresponds with the position of the representation of the first frame index point to a position that corresponds with the different position of the representation of the first frame index point.

[0014] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become further from the second frame index point, causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis, and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0015] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different video media item is performed such that a playback duration in the different video media item between a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point is greater than a playback duration in the video media item between the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0016] One or more example embodiments further perform generation of at least one intermediate frame that corresponds with a time between the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, such that the different video media item indicates a timestamp for the intermediate frame that is between a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0017] In at least one example embodiment, the difference between the playback duration of the video media item segment and the different video media item segment is proportional to a distance between the first position and the different position.

[0018] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become closer to the second frame index point, causation of display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis, and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point. [0019] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different video media item is performed such that a playback duration in the different video media item between a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point is less than a playback duration in the video media item between the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0020] One or more example embodiments further perform identification of at least one intermediate frame comprised by the video media item that corresponds with a timestamp between a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, wherein the determination of the different video media item is performed such that the different video media item fails to comprise the intermediate frame.

[0021] In at least one example embodiment, the difference between the playback duration of the video media item segment and the different video media item segment is proportional to a distance between the first position and the different position.

[0022] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of input indicative of movement of the second frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis, causation of display of the representation of the second frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis such that a span along the temporal axis between the first position and the different position indicates a playback duration between a first frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a second frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and determination of a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises the first frame and the second frame such that a time between a timestamp of the first frame and a timestamp of the second frame corresponds with the time span.

[0023] In at least one example embodiment, the input indicative of movement of the second frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis is a drag input from a position that corresponds with the position of the representation of the second frame index point to a position that corresponds with the different position of the representation of the second frame index point.

[0024] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of input indicative of movement of the second frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the second frame index point has become further from the first frame index point, causation of display of the representation of the second frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis, and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0025] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different video media item is performed such that a playback duration in the different video media item between a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point is greater than a playback duration in the video media item between the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0026] One or more example embodiments further perform generation of at least one intermediate frame that corresponds with a time between the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, such that the different video media item indicates a timestamp for the intermediate frame that is between a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0027] In at least one example embodiment, the difference between the playback duration of the video media item segment and the different video media item segment is proportional to a distance between the second position and the different position.

[0028] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of input indicative of movement of the second frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the second frame index point has become closer to the first frame index point, causation of display of the representation of the second frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis, and determination of a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, and the different video media item segment is at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0029] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different video media item is performed such that a playback duration in the different video media item between a frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the second frame index point is less than a playback duration in the video media item between the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point.

[0030] One or more example embodiments further perform identification of at least one intermediate frame comprised by the video media item that corresponds with a timestamp between a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point, wherein the determination of the different video media item is performed such that the different video media item fails to comprise the intermediate frame.

[0031] In at least one example embodiment, the difference between the playback duration of the video media item segment and the different video media item segment is proportional to a distance between the second position and the different position.

[0032] One or more example embodiments further perform determination of a third frame index point that corresponds with another frame in the video media item, and causation of display of a representation of the third frame index point, such that the representation of the third frame index point is at a third position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the other frame in the video media item.

[0033] One or more example embodiments further perform determination of another motion start frame, wherein determination of the third frame index point comprises

determination of the third frame index point to correspond with the other motion start frame. [0034] One or more example embodiments further perform determination of another motion stop frame, wherein determination of the third frame index point comprises

determination of the third frame index point to correspond with the other motion stop frame.

[0035] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of information indicative of a frame index point removal input associated with the third frame index point, and causation of termination of display of the representation of the third frame index point based, at least in part, on the frame index point removal input.

[0036] In at least one example embodiment, the frame index point removal input is a swipe input at a position that corresponds with a position of the representation of the third frame index point.

[0037] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of information indicative of a frame index point designation input, the frame index point designation input corresponding with a third position along the temporal axis of the time domain video image, determination of a designated frame that corresponds with a timestamp associated with the third position, determination of a third frame index point that corresponds with the designated frame, and causation of display of a representation of the third frame index point, such that the representation of the third frame index point is at the third position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the designated frame in the video media item.

[0038] One or more example embodiments further perform receipt of information indicative of a video media item segment duplication input corresponding with a video media item segment, wherein the video media item segment is at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame corresponding with the first frame index point and a frame corresponding with the second frame index point, generation of a copy of the video media item segment, determination of a different time domain video image that includes a representation of the video media item segment and a representation of the copy of the video media item segment, and causation of display of the different time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point, such that the representation of the first frame index point is at the first position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion start frame in the video media item and the representation of the second frame index point is at the second position on the temporal axis that corresponds with the timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item. [0039] One or more example embodiments further perform causation of termination of display of the time domain video image based, at least in part, on determination of the different time domain video image.

[0040] One or more example embodiments further perform determination of a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises the video media item segment and the copy of the video media item segment.

[0041] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different video media item comprises determination of the different video media item to include the copy of the video media item segment adjacent to the video media item segment.

[0042] In at least one example embodiment, the video media item segment is bounded by the motion start frame and the motion stop frame within the video media item, and the copy of the video media item segment is adjacent to the motion start frame of the video media item segment.

[0043] In at least one example embodiment, the video media item segment is bounded by the motion start frame and the motion stop frame within the video media item, and the copy of the video media item segment is adjacent to the motion stop frame of the video media item segment.

[0044] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image to include the representation of the copy of the video media item segment adjacent to at least one of the first frame index point or the second frame index point.

[0045] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image to include the representation of the copy of the video media item segment adjacent to the video media item segment.

[0046] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image such that the copy of the video media item segment is bounded by a third frame index point and the first frame index point.

[0047] In at least one example embodiment, determination of the different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image such that the copy of the video media item segment is bounded by the second frame index point and a third frame index point.

[0048] In at least one example embodiment, the video media item segment duplication input is a tap input at a position that corresponds with a position within the representation of the video media item segment.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0049] For a more complete understanding of embodiments of the invention, reference is now made to the following descriptions taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:

[0050] FIGURE 1 is a block diagram showing an apparatus according to at least one example embodiment;

[0051] FIGURES 2A-2F are diagrams showing video media items and time domain video images according to at least one example embodiment;

[0052] FIGURES 3A-3B are diagrams showing copying of a video media item segment according to at least one example embodiment;

[0053] FIGURES 4A-4B are diagrams showing determination of a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment;

[0054] FIGURE 5 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with displaying of a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment;

[0055] FIGURE 6 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with terminating display of a representation of a frame index point according to at least one example embodiment;

[0056] FIGURE 7 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with determination of a different video media item according to at least one example embodiment;

[0057] FIGURE 8 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with determination of a different video media item according to at least one example embodiment; and

[0058] FIGURE 9 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with determination of a different video media item according to at least one example embodiment. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0059] An embodiment of the invention and its potential advantages are understood by referring to FIGURES 1 through 9 of the drawings.

[0060] Some embodiments will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which some, but not all, embodiments are shown. Various embodiments of the invention may be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will satisfy applicable legal requirements. Like reference numerals refer to like elements throughout. As used herein, the terms "data," "content," "information," and similar terms may be used interchangeably to refer to data capable of being transmitted, received and/or stored in accordance with embodiments of the present invention. Thus, use of any such terms should not be taken to limit the spirit and scope of embodiments of the present invention.

[0061] Additionally, as used herein, the term 'circuitry' refers to (a) hardware-only circuit implementations (e.g., implementations in analog circuitry and/or digital circuitry); (b) combinations of circuits and computer program product(s) comprising software and/or firmware instructions stored on one or more computer readable memories that work together to cause an apparatus to perform one or more functions described herein; and (c) circuits, such as, for example, a microprocessor(s) or a portion of a microprocessor s), that require software or firmware for operation even if the software or firmware is not physically present. This definition of 'circuitry' applies to all uses of this term herein, including in any claims. As a further example, as used herein, the term 'circuitry' also includes an implementation comprising one or more processors and/or portion(s) thereof and accompanying software and/or firmware. As another example, the term 'circuitry' as used herein also includes, for example, a baseband integrated circuit or applications processor integrated circuit for a mobile phone or a similar integrated circuit in a server, a cellular network apparatus, other network apparatus, and/or other computing apparatus.

[0062] As defined herein, a "non-transitory computer-readable medium," which refers to a physical medium (e.g., volatile or non-volatile memory device), can be differentiated from a "transitory computer-readable medium," which refers to an electromagnetic signal.

[0063] FIGURE 1 is a block diagram showing an apparatus, such as an electronic apparatus 10, according to at least one example embodiment. It should be understood, however, that an electronic apparatus as illustrated and hereinafter described is merely illustrative of an electronic apparatus that could benefit from embodiments of the invention and, therefore, should not be taken to limit the scope of the invention. While electronic apparatus 10 is illustrated and will be hereinafter described for purposes of example, other types of electronic apparatuses may readily employ embodiments of the invention. Electronic apparatus 10 may be a personal digital assistant (PDAs), a pager, a mobile computer, a desktop computer, a television, a gaming apparatus, a laptop computer, a tablet computer, a media player, a camera, a video recorder, a mobile phone, a global positioning system (GPS) apparatus, a refrigerator, and automobile, a kiosk, an electronic table, and/or any other types of electronic systems. Moreover, the apparatus of at least one example embodiment need not be the entire electronic apparatus, but may be a component or group of components of the electronic apparatus in other example embodiments. For example, the apparatus may be an integrated circuit, a set of integrated circuits, and/or the like.

[0064] Furthermore, apparatuses may readily employ embodiments of the invention regardless of their intent to provide mobility. In this regard, even though embodiments of the invention may be described in conjunction with mobile applications, it should be understood that embodiments of the invention may be utilized in conjunction with a variety of other applications, both in the mobile communications industries and outside of the mobile communications industries. For example, the apparatus may relate to, at least part of, a non-carryable apparatus, such as a large screen television, a refrigerator, a kiosk, an automobile, and/or the like.

[0065] In at least one example embodiment, electronic apparatus 10 comprises processor 1 1 and memory 12. Processor 1 1 may be any type of processor, controller, embedded controller, processor core, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, processor 1 1 utilizes computer program code to cause an apparatus to perform one or more actions. Memory 12 may comprise volatile memory, such as volatile Random Access Memory (RAM) including a cache area for the temporary storage of data and/or other memory, for example, non-volatile memory, which may be embedded and/or may be removable. The non-volatile memory may comprise an EEPROM, flash memory and/or the like. Memory 12 may store any of a number of pieces of information, and data. The information and data may be used by the electronic apparatus 10 to implement one or more functions of the electronic apparatus 10, such as the functions described herein. In at least one example embodiment, memory 12 includes computer program code such that the memory and the computer program code are configured to, working with the processor, cause the apparatus to perform one or more actions described herein.

[0066] The electronic apparatus 10 may further comprise a communication device 15. In at least one example embodiment, communication device 15 comprises an antenna, (or multiple antennae), a wired connector, and/or the like in operable communication with a transmitter and/or a receiver. In at least one example embodiment, processor 1 1 provides signals to a transmitter and/or receives signals from a receiver. The signals may comprise signaling information in accordance with a communications interface standard, user speech, received data, user generated data, and/or the like. Communication device 15 may operate with one or more air interface standards, communication protocols, modulation types, and access types. By way of illustration, the electronic communication device 15 may operate in accordance with second- generation (2G) wireless communication protocols IS- 136 (time division multiple access

(TDMA)), Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), and IS-95 (code division multiple access (CDMA)), with third-generation (3G) wireless communication protocols, such as

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), CDMA2000, wideband CDMA

(WCDMA) and time division-synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA), and/or with fourth-generation (4G) wireless communication protocols, wireless networking protocols, such as 802.1 1 , short- range wireless protocols, such as Bluetooth, and/or the like. Communication device 15 may operate in accordance with wireline protocols, such as Ethernet, digital subscriber line (DSL), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and/or the like.

[0067] Processor 1 1 may comprise means, such as circuitry, for implementing audio, video, communication, navigation, logic functions, and/or the like, as well as for implementing embodiments of the invention including, for example, one or more of the functions described herein. For example, processor 1 1 may comprise means, such as a digital signal processor device, a microprocessor device, various analog to digital converters, digital to analog converters, processing circuitry and other support circuits, for performing various functions including, for example, one or more of the functions described herein. The apparatus may perform control and signal processing functions of the electronic apparatus 10 among these devices according to their respective capabilities. The processor 1 1 thus may comprise the functionality to encode and interleave message and data prior to modulation and transmission. The processor 1 may additionally comprise an internal voice coder, and may comprise an internal data modem. Further, the processor 1 1 may comprise functionality to operate one or more software programs, which may be stored in memory and which may, among other things, cause the processor 1 1 to implement at least one embodiment including, for example, one or more of the functions described herein. For example, the processor 1 1 may operate a connectivity program, such as a conventional internet browser. The connectivity program may allow the electronic apparatus 10 to transmit and receive internet content, such as location-based content and/or other web page content, according to a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Post Office Protocol (POP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Wireless Application Protocol (WAP),

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and/or the like, for example.

[0068] The electronic apparatus 10 may comprise a user interface for providing output and/or receiving input. The electronic apparatus 10 may comprise an output device 14. Output device 14 may comprise an audio output device, such as a ringer, an earphone, a speaker, and/or the like. Output device 14 may comprise a tactile output device, such as a vibration transducer, an electronically deformable surface, an electronically deformable structure, and/or the like.

Output device 14 may comprise a visual output device, such as a display, a light, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, the apparatus causes display of information, the causation of display may comprise displaying the information on a display comprised by the apparatus, sending the information to a separate apparatus that comprises a display, and/or the like. The electronic apparatus may comprise an input device 13. Input device 13 may comprise a light sensor, a proximity sensor, a microphone, a touch sensor, a force sensor, a button, a keypad, a motion sensor, a magnetic field sensor, a camera, and/or the like. A touch sensor and a display may be characterized as a touch display. In an embodiment comprising a touch display, the touch display may be configured to receive input from a single point of contact, multiple points of contact, and/or the like. In such an embodiment, the touch display and/or the processor may determine input based, at least in part, on position, motion, speed, contact area, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, the apparatus receives an indication of an input. The apparatus may receive the indication from a sensor, a driver, a separate apparatus, and/or the like. The information indicative of the input may relate to information that conveys information indicative of the input, indicative of an aspect of the input indicative of occurrence of the input, and/or the like. [0069] The electronic apparatus 10 may include any of a variety of touch displays including those that are configured to enable touch recognition by any of resistive, capacitive, infrared, strain gauge, surface wave, optical imaging, dispersive signal technology, acoustic pulse recognition or other techniques, and to then provide signals indicative of the location and other parameters associated with the touch. Additionally, the touch display may be configured to receive an indication of an input in the form of a touch event which may be defined as an actual physical contact between a selection object (e.g., a finger, stylus, pen, pencil, or other pointing device) and the touch display. Alternatively, a touch event may be defined as bringing the selection object in proximity to the touch display, hovering over a displayed object or approaching an object within a predefined distance, even though physical contact is not made with the touch display. As such, a touch input may comprise any input that is detected by a touch display including touch events that involve actual physical contact and touch events that do not involve physical contact but that are otherwise detected by the touch display, such as a result of the proximity of the selection object to the touch display. A touch display may be capable of receiving information associated with force applied to the touch screen in relation to the touch input. For example, the touch screen may differentiate between a heavy press touch input and a light press touch input. In at least one example embodiment, a display may display two- dimensional information, three-dimensional information and/or the like.

[0070] In embodiments including a keypad, the keypad may comprise numeric (for example, 0-9) keys, symbol keys (for example, #, *), alphabetic keys, and/or the like for operating the electronic apparatus 10. For example, the keypad may comprise a conventional QWERTY keypad arrangement. The keypad may also comprise various soft keys with associated functions. In addition, or alternatively, the electronic apparatus 10 may comprise an interface device such as a joystick or other user input interface.

[0071] Input device 13 may comprise a media capturing element. The media capturing element may be any means for capturing an image, video, and/or audio for storage, display or transmission. For example, in at least one example embodiment in which the media capturing element is a camera module, the camera module may comprise a digital camera which may form a digital image file from a captured image. As such, the camera module may comprise hardware, such as a lens or other optical component(s), and/or software necessary for creating a digital image file from a captured image. Alternatively, the camera module may comprise only the hardware for viewing an image, while a memory device of the electronic apparatus 10 stores instructions for execution by the processor 1 1 in the form of software for creating a digital image file from a captured image. In at least one example embodiment, the camera module may further comprise a processing element such as a co-processor that assists the processor 1 1 in processing image data and an encoder and/or decoder for compressing and/or decompressing image data. The encoder and/or decoder may encode and/or decode according to a standard format, for example, a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard format.

[0072] FIGURES 2A-2F are diagrams showing video media items and time domain video images according to at least one example embodiment. The examples of FIGURES 2A-2F are merely examples and do not limit the scope of the claims. For example, time domain video image configuration may vary, frame count may vary, frame correspondence may vary, time domain video image axis assignment may vary, video media item format may vary, frame index point representations may vary, temporal axis positions may vary, and/or the like.

[0073] FIGURE 2 A is a diagram showing a video media item according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 2A, video media item 200 is associated with frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218. For example, video media item 200 may comprise frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218, may comprise information indicative of frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218, and/or the like.

[0074] In many circumstances, a user of electronic apparatuses may desire to view and/or interact with visual content by way of the user's electronic apparatus. For example, a user may desire to view visual content via the user's electronic apparatus, may desire to manipulate visual content by way of the user's electronic apparatus, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, the visual content is a video media item. A video media item may be a movie, a video clip, a sequence of still images, a set of frames, and/or the like. For example, a video media item may be a video of a performance, a clip of a conversation, and/or the like. For example, a video media item may be an audio video interleave (AVI) file, a movie picture experts group (MPEG) file, a Windows media video (WMV) file, a Flash video (FLV) file, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, a video media item comprises a set of frames. A frame may be an image captured during a known time, an image associated with a timestamp, a still image comprised by a video media item, and/or the like. [0075] In some circumstances, it may be desirable to allow for display of a video media item such that the video media item is represented in a static manner. For example, a video media item may be rendered in a dynamic manner such that a representation of the video media item is displayed in a progressive animation. In some circumstances, a user may desire to view the video media item such that the video media item is represented by a series of static images, represented by a set of frames, and/or the like. For example, a video media item comprising a set of individual frames may be represented by displaying of each of the individual frames that comprises the video media item. In the example of FIGURE 2A, video media item 200 may comprise frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218. In such an example, video media item 200 may be represented by display of frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218. In at least one example embodiment, display of a frame comprises display of a representation of the frame. A

representation of a frame may, for example, be a visual representation of a frame, an image indicative of a frame, and/or the like.

[0076] In at least one example embodiment, the ordering of frames comprised by a video media item is indicative of a chronological relationship between the frames. For example, a frame that precedes another frame may occur before the other frame. Similarly, and a frame that follows another frame may occur after the other frame. In at least one example embodiment, a frame comprised by a video media item is associated with a timestamp. A timestamp may, for example, relate to a time associated with playback of the video media item, rendering of the video media item, a chronological position within the video media item, and/or the like. In the example of FIGURE 2A, frame 210 precedes frame 212 in video media item 200. As such, a timestamp associated with frame 210 may be earlier than a timestamp associated with frame 212. In the example of FIGURE 2A, frame 214 follows frame 212 in video media item 200. As such, a timestamp associated with frame 214 may be later than a timestamp associated with frame 212. In at least one example embodiment, a frame that is arranged between two other frames is an intermediate frame. An intermediate frame may be a frame that occurs at a time chronologically between a frame and another frame. In the example of FIGURE 2A, frame 216 is an

intermediate frame between frames 214 and 216. Similarly, frames 212 and 214 are intermediate frames between frames 210 and 216.

[0077] In some circumstances, it may be desirable to display a subset of the frames comprised by the video media item. For example, a video media item may comprise thousands of frames. In such an example, it may be desirable to avoid display of thousands of representations of frames in order to facilitate review of the video media item, simplify viewing of the frames associated with the video media item, and/or the like. For example, it may be desirable to display representations of frames that correspond with a predetermined interval, to display representations of frames that correlate with a time duration, to display representations of frames based, at least in part, on frame content, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, a video media item may be represented by display of a set of key frames associated with the video media item. A key frame, for example, is a frame that represents at least a portion of a video media item. For example, every fifth frame of a video media item may be identified as a key frame, each frame corresponding with a thirty second time interval may be identified as a key frame, and/or the like. In the example of FIGURE 2A, each of frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218 may be a key frame. As such, video media item 200 may comprise frames in addition to frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218. For example, video media item may comprise intermediate frames that occur at a time chronologically before frame 210, between frames 214 and 216, and/or the like.

[0078] In some circumstances, it may be desirable to identify a portion of a video media item. For example, a user may desire to identify a particular section of a video, a particular portion of a movie, a specific set of frames within a video, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, a portion of a video media item that is bounded by a frame and a different frame is a video media item segment. In the example of FIGURE 2A, a portion of video media item 200 bounded by frames 212 and 214 may be a video media item segment comprising frames 212 and 214, a video media item segment comprising intermediate frames between frames 212 and 214, and/or the like.

[0079] In many circumstances, a user may desire to view a more granular or more detailed representation of a video media item, may desire to view a static representation of a video media item in an intuitive and convenient manner, and/or the like. For example, a user may desire to view a representation of a video media item by way of an electronic apparatus. Such an electronic apparatus may be associated with display constraints such as a reduced display capacity, a limited display size, and/or the like. For example, a video media item may be associated with thousands of frames, thousands of key frames, and/or the like. In such an example, due to the display constraints associated with the user's electronic apparatus, a user may desire to avoid displaying of representations of thousands of frames, countless key frames, and/or the like. In such an example, a user may desire to view a representation of at least part of the video media item in such a way that the user is able to easily understand various

characteristics associated with the video media item, readily distinguish content associated with the video media item, quickly recognize events occurring over time in the video media item, effectively locate interesting video media item segments associated with the video media item, and/or the like.

[0080] In at least one example embodiment, a video media item is represented by way of a time domain video image. In at least one example embodiment, a time domain video image is a representation of the video media item such that the time domain video image is associated with a spatial axis and a temporal axis. The spatial axis of the time domain video image may, for example, represent a spatial characteristic of a frame comprised by the video media item. For example, a position along the spatial axis may correspond with a spatial characteristic associated with a corresponding position within a specific frame of the video media item. The temporal axis of the time domain video image may, for example, represent a temporal characteristic of the video media item. For example, a position along the temporal axis may correspond with a timestamp of a corresponding frame in the video media item. In at least one example embodiment, a temporal axis of the image fails to represent another spatial characteristic of the frame. For example, a spatial axis of a time domain video image may represent a spatial characteristic associated with frames of a video media item, such as height, and a temporal axis of the time domain video image may fail to represent another spatial characteristic associated with the frames of the video media item, such as width.

[0081] In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a time domain video image based, at least in part, on a video media item. For example, a frame associated with a video media item may be projected in a vertical line. In such an example, each pixel associated with a row of pixels comprised by the frame may be averaged together such that a single averaged pixel is projected in the vertical line. As such a video media item is transformed into a two-dimensional time domain video image such that each column of pixels comprised by the time domain video image is associated with a corresponding frame in the video media item. In such an example, a height of the time domain video image may be proportional to a height of the frames comprised by the video media item. In such an example, a width of the time domain video image may be proportional to a number of frames comprised by the video media item, a duration of the video media item, and/or the like.

[0082] For example, a video media item may comprise three hundred frames that are each one hundred pixels tall and two hundred pixels wide. An apparatus may determine a time domain video image associated with the video media item to be an image one hundred pixels wide, corresponding with the height of the frames, and three hundred pixels wide, corresponding with the number of frames comprised by the video media item. In such an example, a frame occurring chronologically first within the video media item may be projected into a single pixel wide vertical line. For example, an average pixel may be determined for each of the frame's one hundred horizontal rows of pixels such that a single pixel wide vertical line representative of the frame is determined. An average pixel may, for example, relate to an average pixel color, an average pixel saturation, an average pixel contrast, and/or the like. In such an example, a position along the temporal axis of the time domain video image corresponds with a frame associated with the video media item. For example, a column of pixels comprised by the time domain video image that occurs spatially first from left to right may correspond with a frame of the video media item occurring chronologically first. Similarly, for example, a column of pixels comprised by the time domain video image occurring spatially last from left to right may correspond with a frame of the video media item that occurs chronologically last. A position along the temporal axis may correspond with a particular frame of the video media item. In at least one example embodiment, adjacent positions along the temporal axis correspond with at least one of different frames of the video media item or identical frames of the video media item. Adjacent frames may relate to directly adjacent frames within the video media item, adjacent frames occurring at a predetermined interval within the video media item, adjacent key frames occurring within the video media item, and/or the like. Although the preceding example describes a horizontal temporal axis and a vertical spatial axis, the temporal axis may be vertical and the spatial axis may be horizontal. For example, the temporal axis may be vertical and the pixels may be averaged into a horizontal row rather than a vertical column.

[0083] In the example of FIGURE 2B, time domain video image 202 is associated with spatial axis 242 and temporal axis 244. Time domain video image 202 is a time domain video image representation of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. Time domain video image 202 is depicted as a greyscale average of frames comprised by video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. For example, each of frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218 of FIGURE 2A may be represented as vertical lines within time domain video image 202. In the example of FIGURE 2B, a position along temporal axis 244 closest to spatial axis 242 may correspond with a frame occurring first chronologically within video media item 200, and a position along temporal axis 244 furthest from spatial axis 242 may correspond with a frame occurring last chronologically within video media item 200. In the example of FIGURE 2B, each vertical row of pixels comprised by time domain video image 202 may relate to a specific frame comprised by video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A.

[0084] In some circumstances, it may be desirable to allow for identification of specific positions along the temporal axis of a time domain video image. For example, a user may desire to mark a specific chronological point associated with the time domain video image, may desire to identify a specific frame within the video media item by way of the time domain video image, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, a frame index point identifies a position along the temporal axis that corresponds with an identified frame of the video media item. For example, a frame index point may identify a position along the temporal axis that corresponds with a frame and another frame index point may identify another position along the temporal axis that corresponds with another frame. In such an example, the portion of the video media item that is bounded by the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and the other frame that corresponds with the other frame index point may be a video media item segment. Such a video media item segment may be inclusive of the frame and the other frame, may be exclusive of the frame and the other frame, and/or the like. A span along the temporal axis between the position and the other position may indicate a playback duration between the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and the other frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. A playback duration may, for example, relate to a duration associated with playback of a particular video media item segment comprised by a video media item. A playback duration, in seconds, may be determined by dividing a number of frames to be rendered by a frame rate, in frames per second. For example, a video media item may comprise three hundred frames and may be rendered at a rate of sixty frames per second. Thus, a playback duration associated with rendering of the entirety of the video media item may be five seconds, a playback duration associated with rendering of a video media item segment associated with one hundred and twenty frames may be two seconds, a playback duration associated with rendering of a video media item segment associated with sixty frames may be one second, and/or the like. If the same video media item is instead rendered at a rate of thirty frames per second, a playback duration associated with rendering of the entirety of the video media item may be ten seconds, a playback duration associated with rendering of a video media item segment associated with one hundred and twenty frames may be four seconds, a playback duration associated with rendering of a video media item segment associated with sixty frames may be two second, and/or the like.

[0085] In the example of FIGURE 2B, representation 232 is a representation of a frame index point located at position 222 along temporal axis 244. The frame index point associated with representation 232 may correspond with frame 212 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. For example, a time associated with position 222 along temporal axis 244 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 212 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. In the example of FIGURE 2B, representation 236 is a representation of a frame index point located at position 226 along temporal axis 244. The frame index point associated with representation 236 may correspond with frame 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. For example, a time associated with position 226 along temporal axis 246 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. In the example of FIGURE 2B, span 220 may indicate a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A.

[0086] In some circumstances, a user may desire to have particular frames of a video media item identified, a specific video media item segment identified, and/or the like. For example, a video media item may contain visual content that may be particularly interesting to the user, may contain visual content that may be associated with higher levels of excitement, and/or the like. For example, a user may desire to identify one or more portions of a video media item that indicates motion of one or more objects. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item, and determines a frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item, and determines a frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. As such, an apparatus determines a video media item segment, bounded by the motion start frame and the motion stop frame. The video media item segment may, for example, be a portion of the video media item determined to contain motion, determined to contain motion above a certain threshold, determined to contain more motion than another video media item of the video media item, and/or the like.

[0087] In order to facilitate user interaction with a time domain video image, it may be desirable to display the time domain video image and associated representations of frame index points. For example, a user may desire displaying of the time domain video image in order to facilitate identification of interesting portions of a video media item, location of objects within the video media item, characterization of scene changes within the video media item, identifying of motion within the video media item, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus may cause display of a time domain video image. In such an example embodiment, an apparatus may cause display of a representation of a frame index point, such that the

representation of the frame index point is at a position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of a motion start frame in the video media item. In such an example embodiment, an apparatus may cause display of another representation of another frame index point, such that the representation of the other frame index point is at another position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the motion stop frame in the video media item.

[0088] In the example of FIGURE 2B, representation 232 is associated with a frame index point corresponding with frame 212 and representation 236 is associated with another frame index point corresponding with frame 216. Frame 212 and 216 of FIGURE 2B correspond with frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 in FIGURE 2A. In the example of FIGURE 2B, frame 212 may relate to a motion start frame and frame 216 may relate to a motion stop frame, such that a video media item segment bounded by frame 212 and frame 216 relates to a video item segment determined to contain motion, determined to contain motion above a certain threshold, determined to contain more motion than another video media item of the video media item, and/or the like. For example, in FIGURE 2B, frame 210 depicts a representation of an empty scene and frame 212 depicts a representation of a man entering the scene from the right side of the representation. As such, frame 212 may be determined to be a motion start frame. In the example of FIGURE 2B, frame 216 depicts a representation of a man exiting the scene to the left and frame 218 depicts a representation of an empty scene. As such, frame 216 may be determined to be motion start frame. Intermediate frames between frames 212 and 216, such as frame 214 depicted in FIGURE 2A, may be determined to contain motion such that the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 contains a portion of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A containing motion, containing more motion that another portion of the video media item, and/or the like.

[0089] In some circumstances, a user may desire to designate an additional frame index point. For example, the additional frame index point may correspond with a motion start frame of a video media item, a motion stop frame of a video media item, a different frame of a video media item, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus receives information indicative of a frame index point designation input. The frame index point designation input may, for example, correspond with a designated position along the temporal axis of the time domain video image. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a designated frame that corresponds with a timestamp associated with a designated position. In such an example embodiment, the apparatus may determine a frame index point that corresponds with the designated frame and may cause display of a representation of the frame index point, such that the representation of the frame index point is at the designated position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the designated frame in the video media item. In the example of FIGURE 2B, representation 234 may have been caused to be displayed based, at least in part, on receipt of a frame index point designation input. Representation 234 is displayed at position 224 along temporal axis 244 and corresponds with a frame of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A, represented by time domain video image 202.

[0090] In some circumstances, an apparatus may determine more than two frame index points associated with a time domain video image. For example, an apparatus may determine a frame index point associated with a motion start frame, another frame index point associated with a motion stop frame, and a third frame index point associated with another frame in a video media item. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines of a third frame index point that corresponds with another frame in a video media item, and causes display of a representation of the third frame index point. In such an example embodiment, the

representation of the third frame index point may be displayed such that the representation of the third frame index point is at a position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of the other frame in the video media item. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus may determine another motion start frame. In such an example embodiment, determination of the third frame index point may comprise determination of the third frame index point to correspond with the other motion start frame. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus may determine another motion stop frame. In such an example embodiment, determination of the third frame index point may comprise determination of the third frame index point to correspond with the other motion stop frame. In the example of FIGURE 2B, the frame index point represented by representation 232 may correspond with a motion start frame and the frame index point represented by representation 236 may correspond with a motion stop frame. In the example of FIGURE 2B, the frame index point represented by representation 234 may

correspond with another motion start frame, another motion stop frame, a different frame, and/or the like. For example, time domain video image 202 may represent video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. In such an example, although frame 210 depicts a representation of an empty room, an additional frame comprised by video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A that corresponds with position 224 may be determined to be a motion start frame, a motion stop frame, and/or the like.

[0091] In some circumstances, a user may desire to remove a frame index point associated with a time domain video image. For example, the frame index point may have been determined in error, may have been designated in error, may bound a video media item segment that the user finds less desirable, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus receives information indicative of a frame index point removal input associated with a frame index point. In such an example embodiment, the apparatus may cause termination of display of the representation of the frame index point based, at least in part, on the frame index point removal input. The frame index point removal input, for example, may be a swipe input at a position that corresponds with a position of the representation of the frame index point. A swipe input may, for example, be associated with receipt of an input at a position and movement of the position associated with the input subsequent to termination of the input. For example, a user may contact a touch surface, drag his or her finger across the touch surface, and terminate contact with the touch surface. In the example of FIGURE 2B, display of representation 234 may be caused to be terminated based, at least in part, on receipt of a frame index point removal input. Such an input may, for example, be a swipe input beginning a starting position that corresponds with representation 234 and ending at a position roughly vertical to the starting position, a position that is above the starting position, a position that is below the starting position, and/or the like.

[0092] In some circumstances, a user may desire to modify and/or manipulate a video media item. For example, a user may desire to manipulate an aspect of a video media item, modify a characteristic of a video media item segment of a video media item, and/or the like, by way of the user's electronic apparatus. For example, a user may desire to modify a playback duration associated with a particular video media item segment. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus receives input indicative of movement of a frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis. In such an example embodiment, the apparatus may cause display of the representation of the frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis such that a span along the temporal axis between the different position and another position associated with another frame index point indicates a playback duration between a frame that corresponds with the frame index point and another frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. In such an example embodiment, the apparatus may determine a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises the frame and the other frame such that a time between a timestamp of the frame and a timestamp of the other frame corresponds with the time span. The input indicative of movement of the frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis may, for example, be a swipe input from a position that corresponds with the position of the representation of the frame index point to a position that corresponds with the different position of the representation of the frame index point.

[0093] In the example of FIGURE 2C, time domain video image 202A is associated with spatial axis 242 and temporal axis 244. Time domain video image 202A is a time domain video image representation of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. Time domain video image 202A is depicted as a greyscale average of frames comprised by video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. For example, each of frames 210, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, and 218 of FIGURE 2D may be represented as vertical lines within time domain video image 202A. In the example of FIGURE 2C, a position along temporal axis 244 closest to spatial axis 242 may correspond with a frame occurring first chronologically within video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D, and a position along temporal axis 244 furthest from spatial axis 242 may correspond with a frame occurring last chronologically within video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. In the example of FIGURE 2C, each vertical row of pixels comprised by time domain video image 202A may relate to a specific frame comprised by video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. In the example of FIGURE 2C, representation 232 is a representation of a frame index point located at position 222 along temporal axis 244. The frame index point associated with representation 232 may correspond with frame 212 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. For example, a time associated with position 222 along temporal axis 244 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 212 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. In the example of FIGURE 2C, representation 236A is a representation of a frame index point that has been moved from position 226 to position 226A along temporal axis 244. The frame index point associated with representation 236A may correspond with frame 216 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D. For example, a time associated with position 226A along temporal axis 246 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 216 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D.

[0094] In the example of FIGURE 2C, a frame index point represented by

representation 236A may correspond with the frame index point represented by representation 236 in FIGURE 2B. In the example of FIGURE 2C, movement of representation 236A from position 226 to position 226A caused a span between a frame index point represented by representation 232 and the frame index point represented by representation 236A to change from span 220 in FIGURE 2B to span 220A. In the example of FIGURE 2C, span 220A may indicate a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D that is different from a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A.

[0095] In some circumstances, a user may desire to add a slow motion effect to a particularly interesting video media item segment of a video media item. In such an example, the user may desire to highlight the interesting video media item segment in order to facilitate viewing of the video media segment clearly and in full detail. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus receives input indicative of movement of a frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the frame index point has become further from another frame index point. In such an example embodiment, the apparatus may cause display of the representation of the frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item. The video media item segment may, for example, be at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the frame index point and a frame that corresponds with another frame index point. The different video media item segment may, for example, be at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. For example, determination of the different video media item may be performed such that a playback duration in the different video media item between a frame that corresponds with the frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the other frame index point is greater than a playback duration in the video media item between the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. In at least one example embodiment, the difference between the playback duration of the video media item segment and the different video media item segment may be proportional to a distance between the position of the frame index point and the different position of the frame index point. For example, a small proportional change in distance along the temporal axis may correlate to a small increase in playback duration and a large proportional change in distance along the temporal axis may correlate to a large increase in playback duration.

[0096] FIGURE 2C is a diagram showing a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 2C, movement of representation 236A from position 226 to position 226A caused span 220A between a frame index point represented by representation 232 and the frame index point represented by representation 236A to increase with respect to span 220 in FIGURE 2B. In the example of FIGURE 2C, span 220A may indicate a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D that is greater than a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. For example, the playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A may be five seconds, and the playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D may be ten seconds. In this manner, the playback duration of the portion of video media item 200A of FIGURE 2D related to a man walking across the frame of view has been increased based, at least in part, on movement of representation 236A to position 226A. In effect, the playback duration may be increased such that the portion of the video related depicting the man walking across the frame of view is caused to be rendered in slow motion.

[0097] FIGURE 2D is a diagram showing a video media item according to at least one example embodiment. In order to facilitate increasing of a playback duration associated with a video media item segment, it may be desirable to increase the number of frames associated with the video media item segment. For example, a video media item segment may be associated with sixty frames and may be played back at a constant frame rate of thirty frames per second, such that the video media item segment playback duration is two seconds. In such an example, a user may desire to increase the playback duration of the video media item segment to four seconds. In such an example, the user may cause movement of a frame index point such that the frame index point is moved to a position further from another frame index point. In effect, the user may double the size of the representation of the video media item segment in relation to a time domain image. In such an example, in order to increase the playback duration to four seconds, the number of frames associated with the video media item segment may double to one- hundred and twenty frames. In such an example, a playback duration associated with playback of one-hundred and twenty frames at a constant frame rate of thirty frames per second is four seconds. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus generates least one intermediate frame that corresponds with a time between a frame that corresponds with a frame index point and a frame that corresponds with another frame index point. In such an embodiment, a different video media item may indicate a timestamp for the intermediate frame that is between a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. Generation of intermediate frames may be based on frame interpolation according to a given frame rate, motion estimation based, motion estimation, frame averaging, frame duplication, and/or the like.

[0098] In the example of FIGURE 2D, video media item 200A corresponds with video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. Video media item 200A comprises frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218, which correspond with frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218 of FIGURE 2A, respectively. Video media item 200A also comprises frames 213 and 215. In the example of FIGURE 2D, span 220A corresponds with span 220 of FIGURE 2A, such that both spans indicate a playback duration of a video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216. In the example of FIGURE 2D, frames 213 and 215 may be intermediate frames generated based, at least in part, on movement of representation 236A from position 226 to position 226A. As shown in the example of FIGURE 2D, frame 213 is situated chronologically intermediate to frames 212 and 214 and depicts a scene that falls between frames 212 and 214. Frame 213 depicts the man slightly further to the left than depicted in frame 212. As shown in the example of FIGURE 2D, frame 215 is situated chronologically intermediate to frames 214 and 216 and depicts a scene that falls between frames 214 and 216. Frame 213 depicts the man slightly further to the left than depicted in frame 212. In the example of FIGURE 2D, the playback duration associated with playback of the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 in video media item 200A is greater than a playback duration associated with playback of the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 in video media item 200. As depicted in FIGURE 2D, the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 in video media item 200A depicts the motion of the man walking across the frame in enhanced clarity, such that a user may view every moment of the process in slower motion.

[0099] FIGURE 2E is a diagram showing a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 2E, time domain video image 202B is associated with spatial axis 242 and temporal axis 244. Time domain video image 202B is a time domain video image representation of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. Time domain video image 202B is depicted as a greyscale average of frames comprised by video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. For example, each of frames 210, 212, 216, and 218 of FIGURE 2F may be represented as vertical lines within time domain video image 202B. In the example of FIGURE 2E, a position along temporal axis 244 closest to spatial axis 242 may correspond with a frame occurring first chronologically within video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F, and a position along temporal axis 244 furthest from spatial axis 242 may correspond with a frame occurring last chronologically within video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. In the example of FIGURE 2E, each vertical row of pixels comprised by time domain video image 202B may relate to a specific frame comprised by video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. In the example of FIGURE 2E, representation 236 is a representation of a frame index point located at position 226 along temporal axis 244. The frame index point associated with representation 236 may correspond with frame 216 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. For example, a time associated with position 226 along temporal axis 244 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 216 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. In the example of FIGURE 2E, representation 232A is a representation of a frame index point that has been moved from position 222 to position 222A along temporal axis 244. The frame index point associated with representation 232A may correspond with frame 212 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F. For example, a time associated with position 222A along temporal axis 246 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 212 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F.

[00100] In the example of FIGURE 2E, a frame index point represented by

representation 232A may correspond with the frame index point represented by representation 232 in FIGURE 2B. In the example of FIGURE 2E, movement of representation 232A from position 222 to position 222A caused a span between a frame index point represented by representation 236 and the frame index point represented by representation 232A to change from span 220 in FIGURE 2B to span 220B. In the example of FIGURE 2E, span 220B may indicate a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F that is different from a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A.

[00101] In some circumstances, a user may desire to speed up playback of a video media item segment of a video media item that the user does not find particularly interesting. In such an example, the user may desire to reduce a playback duration associated with the less interesting video media item segment in order to enhance viewing of a more interesting video media segment, in order to arrive at the more interesting video media segment more rapidly, and/or the like. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus receives input indicative of movement of a frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the frame index point has become closer to another frame index point. In such an example embodiment, the apparatus may cause display of the representation of the frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item. The video media item segment may, for example, be at least a portion of the video media item bounded by a frame that corresponds with the frame index point and a frame that corresponds with another frame index point. The different video media item segment may, for example, be at least a portion of the different video media item bounded by the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. For example, determination of the different video media item may be performed such that a playback duration in the different video media item between a frame that corresponds with the frame index point and a frame that corresponds with the other frame index point is less than a playback duration in the video media item between the frame that corresponds with the frame index point and the frame that corresponds with the other frame index point. In at least one example embodiment, the difference between the playback duration of the video media item segment and the different video media item segment may be proportional to a distance between the position of the frame index point and the different position of the frame index point. For example, a small proportional change in distance may relate to a small decrease in playback duration and a large proportional change in distance may relate to a large decrease in playback duration.

[00102] FIGURE 2E is a diagram showing a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 2E, movement of representation 232A from position 222 to position 222A caused span 220B between a frame index point represented by representation 236 and the frame index point represented by representation 232A to increase with respect to span 220 in FIGURE 2B. In the example of FIGURE 2E, span 220B may indicate a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F that is less than a playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. For example, the playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A may be three seconds, and the playback duration between frames 212 and 216 of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F may be two seconds. In this manner, the playback duration of the portion of video media item 200B of FIGURE 2F related to a man walking across the frame of view has been decreased based, at least in part, on movement of representation 232A to position 222A. In effect, the playback duration may be decreased such that the portion of the video related depicting the man walking across the frame of view is caused to be rendered in fast motion.

[00103] FIGURE 2F is a diagram showing a video media item according to at least one example embodiment. In order to facilitate decreasing of a playback duration associated with a video media item segment, it may be desirable to decrease the number of frames associated with the video media item segment. For example, a video media item segment may be associated with sixty frames and may be played back at a constant frame rate of thirty frames per second, such that the video media item segment playback duration is two seconds. In such an example, a user may desire to decrease the playback duration of the video media item segment to one second. In such an example, the user may cause movement of a frame index point such that the frame index point is moved to a position closer to another frame index point. In effect, the user may half the size of the representation of the video media item segment in relation to a time domain image. In such an example, in order to decrease the playback duration to one second, the number of frames associated with the video media item segment may decrease to thirty frames. In such an example, a playback duration associated with playback of the thirty frames at a constant frame rate of thirty frames per second is one seconds. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus identifies at least one intermediate frame comprised by the video media item that corresponds with a timestamp between a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the first frame index point and a timestamp of the frame that corresponds with the second frame index point. In such an example embodiment, determination of a different video media item may be performed such that the different video media item fails to comprise the intermediate frame. For example, the apparatus may generate a different video media item based, at least in part, on removal of one or more intermediate frames from a video media item segment of the video media item such that a playback duration associated with the video media item segment is reduced.

[00104] In the example of FIGURE 2F, video media item 200B corresponds with video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. Video media item 200B comprises frames 210, 212, 216, and 218, which correspond with frames 210, 212, 216, and 218 of FIGURE 2A, respectively. Video media item 200B fails to comprise frame 21 of FIGURE 2A. In the example of FIGURE 2F, span 220B corresponds with span 220 of FIGURE 2A, such that both spans indicate a playback duration of a video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216. In the example of FIGURE 2F, removal of intermediate frame 214 may be based, at least in part, on movement of representation 232A from position 222 to position 222A. As shown in the example of FIGURE 2F, frame 212 is situated adjacent to frame 216 based, at least in part, on video media item 200B failing to comprise frame 214 of FIGURE 2A. In the example of FIGURE 2F, the playback duration associated with playback of the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 in video media item 200B is less than a playback duration associated with playback of the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 in video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. As depicted in FIGURE 2F, the video media item segment bounded by frames 212 and 216 in video media item 200B depicts the motion of the man walking across the frame at an increased speed, such that a user may minimize the playback duration associated with depiction of the man.

[00105] FIGURES 3A-3B are diagrams showing copying of a video media item segment according to at least one example embodiment. The examples of FIGURES 3A-3B are merely examples and do not limit the scope of the claims. For example, time domain video image configuration may vary, frame count may vary, frame correspondence may vary, time domain video image axis assignment may vary, video media item format may vary, frame index point representations may vary, temporal axis positions may vary, video media item segments may vary, and/or the like.

[00106] FIGURE 3 A is a diagram showing a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 3 A, time domain video image 302 is associated with spatial axis 342 and temporal axis 344. Time domain video image 302 is a time domain video image representation of video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. Time domain video image 302 is depicted as a greyscale average of frames comprised by video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. For example, each of frames 210, 212, 214, 216, 212A, 214A, 216A, and 218 of FIGURE 3B may be represented as vertical lines within time domain video image 302. In the example of FIGURE 3 A, a position along temporal axis 344 closest to spatial axis 342 may correspond with a frame occurring first chronologically within video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B, and a position along temporal axis 344 furthest from spatial axis 342 may correspond with a frame occurring last chronologically within video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. In the example of FIGURE 3 A, each vertical row of pixels comprised by time domain video image 302 may relate to a specific frame comprised by video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. In the example of FIGURE 3 A, representation 332 is a representation of a frame index point located at position 322 along temporal axis 344. The frame index point associated with representation 332 may correspond with frame 212 of video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. For example, a time associated with position 322 along temporal axis 344 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 212 of video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. In the example of FIGURE 3B, the frame index point represented by representation 332 may correspond with the frame index point representation by representation 232 in FIGURE 2B. In the example of FIGURE 3A, representation 336 is a representation of a frame index point located at position 326 along temporal axis 344. The frame index point associated with representation 336 may correspond with frame 216 of video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. For example, a time associated with position 326 along temporal axis 344 may correspond with a timestamp associated with frame 216 of video media item 350 of FIGURE 3B. In the example of FIGURE 3B, the frame index point represented by representation 336 may correspond with the frame index point

representation by representation 236 in FIGURE 2B.

[00107] In some circumstances, a user may desire to manipulate a video media item such that a specific video media item segment of the video media item is repeated within the video media item. For example, a user may find a specific video media item segment to be particularly entertaining, interesting, and/or the like. In such an example, the user may desire to have a different media item containing two instances of the video media item segment. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus receives information indicative of a video media item segment duplication input corresponding with a video media item segment. In such an example, the video media item segment may be at least a portion of the video media item bound by a frame corresponding with a frame index point and a frame corresponding with another frame index point. The video media item segment duplication input may, for example, be a tap input at a position that corresponds with a position within the representation of the video media item segment. A tap input may, for example, be associated with receipt of an input at a position and termination of the input at substantially the same position. For example, a user may contact a touch surface and terminate contact with the touch surface at substantially the same position. At tap input may be a single tap, a double tap, and/or the like. For example, as depicted in the example of FIGURE 3 A, an apparatus may receive a tap input corresponding with a region of time domain video image 302 between representation 332 and representation 336. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus generates generation of a copy of a video media item segment based, at least in part, on receipt of an video media item segment duplication input associated with the video media item segment. Generation of a copy of the video media item segment of a video media item may relate to duplication of one or more frames associated with the video media item segment, copying of a corresponding portion of the video media item, and/or the like. In the example of FIGURE 3A, an apparatus may generate a copy of frames 212, 214, and 216, which correspond with the video media item segment bounded by frame 212 and frame 216. The generated copy may comprise other frames in addition to frames 212, 214, and 216, may comprise intermediate frames between frames 212 and 216, and/or the like. [00108] In some circumstances, a user may desire to view a different time domain video image reflecting any modifications made to a time domain video image. For example, an apparatus receives input indicating duplication of a video media item segment, a user viewing the time domain video image may desire the apparatus to display a different time domain video image reflecting the duplication and insertion of the video media item segment. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a different time domain video image that includes a representation of a video media item segment and a representation of a copy of the video media item segment. In at least one example embodiment, determination of a different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image to include a representation of a copy of a video media item segment adjacent to a representation of the video media item segment. In the example of FIGURE 3 A, a representation of video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B is displayed in a region of time domain video image 302 bounded by representation 332 and representation 336. In the example of FIGURE 3A, a representation of a copy of video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B is displayed in a region of time domain video image 302 bounded by representation 336 and representation 338, and adjacent to the representation of video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B. For example, video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B contains visual content depicting a man crossing a scene. As depicted in time domain video image 302, a representation of video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B and a representation of a copy of video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B are adjacent to one another within time domain video image 302.

[00109] In at least one example embodiment, determination of a different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image to include a representation of a copy of a video media item segment adjacent to a representation of a frame index point associated with the video media item segment. For example, as depicted in FIGURE 3 A, a representation of a copy of a video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B is displayed in in a region of time domain video image 302 bounded by representation 336 and representation 338. A representation of video media item segment 360 is associated with and bounded by representation 332 and representation 336 in relation to the display of time domain video image 302. As such, the representation of the copy is displayed adjacent to a representation of a frame index point associated with video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B. [00110] In at least one example embodiment, determination of a different time domain video image comprises determination of the different time domain video image such that a copy of the video media item segment is bound by a frame index point and another frame index point. For example, as depicted in FIGURE 3A, a representation of a copy of a video media item segment 360 of FIGURE 3B is displayed in in a region of time domain video image 302 bounded by representation 336 and representation 338. Representation 336 is associated with a frame index point that corresponds with frame 216 and representation 338 is associated with another frame index point that corresponds with frame 216A.

[00111] In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus causes display of a different time domain video image, a representation of a frame index point, and a representation of another frame index point. In such an example embodiment, the representation of the frame index point may be at a position on a temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of a motion start frame in a video media item and the representation of the other frame index point may be at another position on the temporal axis that corresponds with a timestamp of a motion stop frame in the video media item. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus may cause termination of display of a time domain video image based, at least in part, on

determination of a different time domain video image. For example, an apparatus displaying a time domain video image may determine a different time domain video image, cause termination display of the time domain video image, and cause display of the different time domain video image.

[00112] In order to facilitate modification and/or manipulation of a video media item, a user may desire generation of a different video media item reflecting the aforementioned duplication of a video media item segment of the video media item. In at least one example embodiment, an apparatus determines a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises a video media item segment and a copy of the video media item segment. In at least one example embodiment, determination of a different video media item comprises determination of the different video media item to include a copy of a video media item segment adjacent to the video media item segment. For example, the video media item segment may be bounded by a motion start frame and a motion stop frame within a video media item, and the copy of the video media item segment may be adjacent to the motion start frame of the video media item segment, the motion stop frame of the video media item segment, and/or the like. [00113] FIGURE 3B is a diagram showing a video media item and a video media item segment according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 3B, video media item 350 corresponds with video media item 200 of FIGURE 2A. Video media item 350 comprises frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218, which correspond with frames 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218 of FIGURE 2A, respectively. In the example of FIGURE 3B, video media item segment 360 is associated with frames 212, 214, and 216. In the example of FIGURE 3B, video media item 350 comprises video media item segment 360 and a copy of video media item segment 360. In the example of FIGURE 3B, the copy of video media item segment is depicted as frames 212A, 214A, and 216A, which correlate to frames 212, 214, and 216, respectively. In the example of FIGURE 3B, video media item 350 may comprise frames 212A, 214A, and 216A based, at least in part, on receipt of a video media item segment duplication input associated with duplication of video media item segment 350.

[00114] FIGURES 4A-4B are diagrams showing determination of a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. The examples of FIGURES 4A-4B are merely examples and do not limit the scope of the claims. For example, time domain video image configuration may vary, stripe count may vary, stripe orientation may vary, stripe configuration may vary, time domain video image orientation may vary, and/or the like.

[00115] FIGURE 4A is a diagram showing determination of a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In some circumstances, a time domain video image may be determined such that motion within an associated video media item is easily identifiable, readily discernible, and/or the like. In the example of FIGURE 4A, a frame of a video media item is projected onto a vertical line. In the example of FIGURE 4A, stripes 402, 404, 406, and 408 may be associated with the depicted regions of frame 400. Regions 412, 414, 416, and 418 correspond with stripes 402, 404, 406, and 408, respectively. Regions 412, 414, 416, and 418 are stacked horizontally such that a column is formed, as depicted in the example of FIGURE 4A. The pixels of the stacked regions 412, 414, 416, and 418 are then projected onto a single line 420, similar as may described regarding FIGURE 2B.

[00116] FIGURE 4B is a diagram showing a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In the example of FIGURE 4B, time domain video image 430 is a time domain video image determined by way of the process described in relation to FIGURE 4A. For example, a video media item may comprise a set of frames. Each frame of the video media item may be projected onto a single line, such that time domain video image comprises a series of vertical lines, each line representative of a frame of the video media item. As depicted in the example of FIGURE 4B, motion can be easily identified on time domain video image 430 as an object in motion moves from one stripe of a frame to another stripe of another frame. As the stripes are stacked into a column, as shown in FIGURE 4A, movement across the frame correlates to easily detectable vertical travel of a representation of an object within time domain video image 430. The example of FIGURE 4B represents a video media item in which a man crosses a scene from left to right, pauses, and then crosses the scene from right to left.

[00117] FIGURE 5 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with displaying of a time domain video image according to at least one example embodiment. In at least one example embodiment, there is a set of operations that corresponds with the activities of FIGURE 5. An apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , or a portion thereof, may utilize the set of operations. The apparatus may comprise means, including, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , for performance of such operations. In an example embodiment, an apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , is transformed by having memory, for example memory 12 of FIGURE 1 , comprising computer code configured to, working with a processor, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , cause the apparatus to perform set of operations of FIGURE 5.

[00118] At block 502, the apparatus determines a time domain video image based on a video media item. The determination, the time domain video image, and the video media item may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00119] At block 504, the apparatus determines a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item. The determination, the motion start frame, the object motion, and the beginning of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00120] At block 506, the apparatus determines a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. The determination, the first frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00121] At block 508, the apparatus determines a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item. The determination, the motion stop frame, and the termination of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00122] At block 510, the apparatus determines a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame. The determination, the second frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00123] At block 512, the apparatus causes display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point. The representation of the first frame index point, the representation of the second frame index point, and the causation of display of the time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00124] FIGURE 6 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with terminating display of a representation of a frame index point according to at least one example embodiment. In at least one example embodiment, there is a set of operations that corresponds with the activities of FIGURE 6. An apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , or a portion thereof, may utilize the set of operations. The apparatus may comprise means, including, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , for performance of such operations. In an example embodiment, an apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , is transformed by having memory, for example memory 12 of FIGURE 1 , comprising computer code configured to, working with a processor, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , cause the apparatus to perform set of operations of FIGURE 6.

[00125] As previously discussed, in some circumstances, a user may desire to remove a frame index point from a time domain video image. For example, the frame index point may have been determined in err, may have been accidentally added to the time domain video image, may not identify a desirable position within the time domain video image, and/or the like.

[00126] At block 602, the apparatus determines a time domain video image based on a video media item. The determination, the time domain video image, and the video media item may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00127] At block 604, the apparatus determines a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item. The determination, the motion start frame, the object motion, and the beginning of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00128] At block 606, the apparatus determines a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. The determination, the first frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00129] At block 608, the apparatus determines a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item. The determination, the motion stop frame, and the termination of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00130] At block 610, the apparatus determines a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame. The determination, the second frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00131] At block 612, the apparatus determines a third frame index point that corresponds with another frame in the video media item. The determination, the third frame index point, the other frame in the video media item, and the correspondence with the other frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00132] At block 614, the apparatus causes display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, a representation of the second frame index point, and a representation of the third frame index point. The representation of the first frame index point, the representation of the second frame index point, the representation of the third frame index point, and the causation of display of the time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, the representation of the second frame index point, and the representation of the third frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00133] At block 616, the apparatus receives information indicative of a frame index point removal input associated with the third frame index point. The receipt, the frame index point removal input, the information indicative of the frame index point removal input, and the association of the frame index point removal input with the third frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F. [00134] At block 618, the apparatus causes termination of display of the representation of the third frame index point based, at least in part, on the frame index point removal input. The termination, the causation of termination, and the display of the representation of the third frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F.

[00135] FIGURE 7 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with determination of a different video media item according to at least one example embodiment. In at least one example embodiment, there is a set of operations that corresponds with the activities of FIGURE 7. An apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , or a portion thereof, may utilize the set of operations. The apparatus may comprise means, including, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , for performance of such operations. In an example embodiment, an apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , is transformed by having memory, for example memory 12 of FIGURE 1 , comprising computer code configured to, working with a processor, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , cause the apparatus to perform set of operations of FIGURE 7.

[00136] As previously discussed, in some circumstances, a user may desire increase a playback duration associated with a video media item segment. For example, the user may desire to increase a time associated with rendering of the video media item segment, may desire to have the video media item segment rendered in slow motion, and/or the like.

[00137] At block 702, the apparatus determines a time domain video image based on a video media item. The determination, the time domain video image, and the video media item may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00138] At block 704, the apparatus determines a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item. The determination, the motion start frame, the object motion, and the beginning of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00139] At block 706, the apparatus determines a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. The determination, the first frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00140] At block 708, the apparatus determines a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item. The determination, the motion stop frame, and the termination of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00141] At block 710, the apparatus determines a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame. The determination, the second frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00142] At block 712, the apparatus causes display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point. The representation of the first frame index point, the representation of the second frame index point, and the causation of display of the time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00143] At block 714, the apparatus receives input indicative of movement of the second frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the second frame index point has become further from the first frame index point. The receipt, the input, the movement of the second frame index point, the different position, the temporal axis, and the second frame index point becoming further from the first frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00144] At block 716, the apparatus causes display of the representation of the second frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis. The display of the

representation of the second frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis and the causation of display may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and

FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00145] At block 718, the apparatus determines a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is greater than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item. The determination, the different video media item, the different video media item segment, the playback duration of the different video media item segment, the video media item segment, the playback duration of the video media item segment, and the playback duration of a different video media item segment being greater than the playback duration of a video media item segment may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B. [00146] FIGURE 8 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with determination of a different video media item according to at least one example embodiment. In at least one example embodiment, there is a set of operations that corresponds with the activities of FIGURE 8. An apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , or a portion thereof, may utilize the set of operations. The apparatus may comprise means, including, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , for performance of such operations. In an example embodiment, an apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , is transformed by having memory, for example memory 12 of FIGURE 1 , comprising computer code configured to, working with a processor, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , cause the apparatus to perform set of operations of FIGURE 8.

[00147] As previously discussed, in some circumstances, a user may desire decrease a playback duration associated with a video media item segment. For example, the user may desire to decrease a time associated with rendering of the video media item segment, may desire to have the video media item segment rendered at high speed, and/or the like.

[00148] At block 802, the apparatus determines a time domain video image based on a video media item. The determination, the time domain video image, and the video media item may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00149] At block 804, the apparatus determines a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item. The determination, the motion start frame, the object motion, and the beginning of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00150] At block 806, the apparatus determines a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. The determination, the first frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00151] At block 808, the apparatus determines a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item. The determination, the motion stop frame, and the termination of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00152] At block 810, the apparatus determines a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame. The determination, the second frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00153] At block 812, the apparatus causes display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point. The representation of the first frame index point, the representation of the second frame index point, and the causation of display of the time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00154] At block 814, the apparatus receives input indicative of movement of the first frame index point to a different position along the temporal axis such that the first frame index point has become closer to the second frame index point. The receipt, the input, the movement of the first frame index point, the different position, the temporal axis, and the first frame index point becoming closer to the second frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00155] At block 816, the apparatus causes display of the representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis. The display of the

representation of the first frame index point at the different position along the temporal axis and the causation of display may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00156] At block 818, the apparatus determines a different video media item such that a playback duration of a different video media item segment in the different video media item is less than a playback duration of a video media item segment in the video media item. The determination, the different video media item, the different video media item segment, the playback duration of the different video media item segment, the video media item segment, the playback duration of the video media item segment, and the playback duration of a different video media item segment being less than the playback duration of a video media item segment may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00157] FIGURE 9 is a flow diagram illustrating activities associated with determination of a different video media item according to at least one example embodiment. In at least one example embodiment, there is a set of operations that corresponds with the activities of FIGURE 9. An apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , or a portion thereof, may utilize the set of operations. The apparatus may comprise means, including, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , for performance of such operations. In an example embodiment, an apparatus, for example electronic apparatus 10 of FIGURE 1 , is transformed by having memory, for example memory 12 of FIGURE 1 , comprising computer code configured to, working with a processor, for example processor 1 1 of FIGURE 1 , cause the apparatus to perform set of operations of FIGURE 9.

[00158] As discussed previously, in some circumstances, a user may desire to duplicate a portion of a video media item. For example, a user may desire to duplicate a specified video media item segment, may desire to produce a copy of the specified video media item segment for subsequent modification, may desire a video media item containing more than one instance of the video media item segment, and/or the like.

[00159] At block 902, the apparatus determines a time domain video image based on a video media item. The determination, the time domain video image, and the video media item may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00160] At block 904, the apparatus determines a motion start frame in which object motion begins in the video media item. The determination, the motion start frame, the object motion, and the beginning of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00161] At block 906, the apparatus determines a first frame index point that corresponds with the motion start frame. The determination, the first frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00162] At block 908, the apparatus determines a motion stop frame in which object motion terminates in the video media item. The determination, the motion stop frame, and the termination of object motion may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00163] At block 910, the apparatus determines a second frame index point that corresponds with the motion stop frame. The determination, the second frame index point, and the correspondence with the motion start frame may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B. [00164] At block 912, the apparatus causes display of the time domain video image, a representation of the first frame index point, and a representation of the second frame index point. The representation of the first frame index point, the representation of the second frame index point, and the causation of display of the time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00165] At block 914, the apparatus receives information indicative of a video media item segment duplication input corresponding with a video media item segment. The receipt, the video media item segment duplication input, the information indicative of the video media item segment duplication input, the video media item segment, and the correspondence with the video media item segment may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F, FIGURES 3A-3B, and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00166] At block 916, the apparatus generates a copy of the video media item segment. The generation and the copy of the video media item segment may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F, FIGURES 3A-3B, and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00167] At block 918, the apparatus determines a different time domain video image that includes a representation of the video media item segment and a representation of the copy of the video media item segment. The determination, the different time domain video image, the representation of the video media item segment, the representation of the copy of the video media item segment, and the inclusion of the representation of the video media item segment and the representation of the copy of the video media item segment may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F, FIGURES 3A-3B, and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00168] At block 920, the apparatus causes display of the different time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point. The display, the causation of display, and the display of the different time domain video image, the representation of the first frame index point, and the representation of the second frame index point may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F, FIGURES 3A-3B, and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00169] At block 922, the apparatus determines a different video media item such that the different video media item comprises the video media item segment and the copy of the video media item segment. The determination, the different video media item, and the comprisal of the video media item segment and the copy of the video media item segment may be similar as described regarding FIGURES 2A-2F, FIGURES 3A-3B, and FIGURES 4A-4B.

[00170] Embodiments of the invention may be implemented in software, hardware, application logic or a combination of software, hardware, and application logic. The software, application logic and/or hardware may reside on the apparatus, a separate device, or a plurality of separate devices. If desired, part of the software, application logic and/or hardware may reside on the apparatus, part of the software, application logic and/or hardware may reside on a separate device, and part of the software, application logic and/or hardware may reside on a plurality of separate devices. In an example embodiment, the application logic, software or an instruction set is maintained on any one of various conventional computer-readable media.

[00171] If desired, the different functions discussed herein may be performed in a different order and/or concurrently with each other. For example, block 506 of FIGURE 5 may be performed after block 508 of FIGURE 5. Furthermore, if desired, one or more of the above- described functions may be optional or may be combined. For example, block 916 of FIGURE 9 may be optional and/or combined with block 918 of FIGURE 9.

[00172] Although various aspects of the invention are set out in the independent claims, other aspects of the invention comprise other combinations of features from the described embodiments and/or the dependent claims with the features of the independent claims, and not solely the combinations explicitly set out in the claims.

[00173] It is also noted herein that while the above describes example embodiments of the invention, these descriptions should not be viewed in a limiting sense. Rather, there are variations and modifications which may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims.