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Title:
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS WITH PERFLUOROARYL GROUPS THAT CAN FACILITATE POST-SYNTHESIS FUNCTIONALIZATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/116151
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Techniques regarding chemical compounds comprising perfluoroaryl groups that can facilitate post-synthesis functionalization are provided. For example, one or more embodiments described herein can comprise a chemical compound. The chemical compound can comprise a molecular backbone. The chemical compound can also comprise a pendent functional group bonded to the molecular backbone. The pendent functional group can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

Inventors:
PARK, Nathaniel (IBM Corporation, 650 Harry RoadAlmaden Research Cente, San Jose California, 95120-6099, US)
HEDRICK, James (IBM Corporation, 650 Harry RoadAlmaden Research Cente, San Jose California, 95120-6099, US)
JONES, Gavin (IBM Corporation, 650 Harry RoadAlmaden Research Cente, San Jose California, 95120-6099, US)
Application Number:
IB2018/059556
Publication Date:
June 20, 2019
Filing Date:
December 03, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION (New Orchard Road, Armonk, New York, 10504, US)
IBM UNITED KINGDOM LIMITED (PO Box 41, North Harbour, Portsmouth Hampshire PO6 3AU, PO6 3AU, GB)
IBM (CHINA) INVESTMENT COMPANY LIMITED (25/F, Pangu PlazaNo.27, Central North 4th Ring Road,Chaoyang District, Beijing 1, 100101, CN)
International Classes:
C08F251/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009009251A12009-01-15
WO2016049123A12016-03-31
Foreign References:
US20130102728A12013-04-25
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GASCOYNE, Belinda (IBM United Kingdom Limited, Intellectual Property LawHursley Park, Winchester Hampshire SO21 2JN, SO21 2JN, GB)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A chemical compound comprising:

a molecular backbone; and

a pendent functional group bonded to the molecular backbone, the pendent functional group comprising a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

2. The chemical compound of claim 1 , wherein the molecular backbone comprises a structure selected from a group consisting of a carbonate structure, a urethane structure, an amide structure, an ester structure, an ether structure, an acrylate structure and a styrene structure.

3. The chemical compound of claim 2, wherein the pendent functional group is a perfluorobenzyl group.

4. The chemical compound of claim 3, wherein the molecular backbone can further comprise a second structure selected from a second group consisting of an alkyl structure and an aryl structure.

5. The chemical compound of claim 4, wherein the chemical compound is selected from a third group consisting of a monomer and a polymer.

6. A polymer comprising:

a molecular backbone comprising a polycarbonate structure; and

a pendent functional group covalently bonded to the molecular backbone, the pendent functional group comprising a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

7. The polymer of claim 6, wherein the polymer is selected from a group consisting of a homopolymer, a triblock copolymer and a diblock copolymer.

8. The polymer of claim 7, wherein the polymer further comprises a functional group covalently bonded to the molecular backbone, and wherein the functional group is selected from another group consisting of an alkyl group and an aryl group.

9. The polymer of claim 8, wherein the pendent functional group is covalently bonded to the molecular backbone by a linkage group.

10. The polymer of claim 9, wherein the pendent functional group is a perfluorobenzyl group.

11. A polymer comprising: a molecular backbone comprising a polyurethane structure; and

a pendent functional group covalently bonded to the molecular backbone, the pendent functional group comprising a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

12. The polymer of claim 11, wherein the molecular backbone further comprises a carbamate group.

13. The polymer of claim 12, wherein the pendent functional group is covalently bonded to an amino group of the polyurethane structure.

14. The polymer of claim 13, wherein the pendent functional group is a perfluorobenzyl group.

15. The polymer of claim 14, wherein the carbamate group is derived from an isocyanate.

16. A method comprising:

functionalizing a chemical compound by covalently bonding a trimethylsilyl protected thiol to a pendent functional group of the chemical compound in a presence of a catalyst, the pendent functional group comprising a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

17. The method of claim 16, further comprising:

dissolving the chemical compound, the trimethylsilyl protected thiol, and the catalyst in a solvent to form a solution.

18. The method of claim 17, further comprising:

stirring the solution at a temperature greater than or equal to 10 degrees Celsius (°C) and less than or equal to 150°C for a period of time greater than or equal to 2 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the catalyst is a basic salt.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the pendent functional group is a perfluorobenzyl group, wherein the chemical compound comprises a molecular backbone, and wherein the molecular backbone comprises a structure selected from a group consisting of a polycarbonate structure and a polyurethane structure.

21. A method comprising:

functionalizing a chemical compound by covalently bonding a trimethylsilyl protected thiol to a pendent perfluoroaryl group of the chemical compound, the chemical compound comprising a molecular backbone, and the molecular backbone comprising the pendent perfluoroaryl group bonded to an electron-withdrawing structure.

22. The method of claim 21 , wherein the electron-withdrawing structure is selected from a group consisting of an amide structure and a sulphonamide structure.

23. The method of claim 22, further comprising:

contacting the chemical compound with the trimethylsilyl protected thiol to form a composition.

24. The method of claim 23, further comprising:

heat treating the composition to facilitate the functionalizing.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the pendent perfluoroaryl group is a perfluorophenyl group.

Description:
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS WITH PERFLUOROARYL GROUPS THAT CAN FACILITATE

POST-SYNTHESIS FUNCTIONALIZATION

BACKGROUND

[0001] The embodiments relate to one or more chemical compounds comprising perfluoroaryl groups, and more specifically, to one or more chemical compounds containing perfluoroaryl groups that can be functionalized post synthesis of the one or more chemical compounds.

SUMMARY

[0002] The following presents a summary to provide a basic understanding of one or more embodiments of the invention. This summary is not intended to identify key or critical elements, or delineate any scope of the particular embodiments or any scope of the claims. Its sole purpose is to present concepts in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later. In one or more embodiments described herein, methods and/or compositions regarding chemical compounds with perfluoroaryl groups are described.

[0003] According to an embodiment, a chemical compound is provided. The chemical compound can comprise a molecular backbone. The chemical compound can also comprise a pendent functional group bonded to the molecular backbone. The pendent functional group can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

[0004] According to another embodiment, a polymer is provided. The polymer can comprise a molecular backbone comprising a polycarbonate structure. The polymer can also comprise a pendent functional group covalently bonded to the molecular backbone. The pendent functional group can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

[0005] According to another embodiment, polymer is provided. The polymer can comprise a molecular backbone comprising a polyurethane structure. The polymer can also comprise a pendent functional group covalently bonded to the molecular backbone. The pendent functional group can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

[0006] According to an embodiment, a method is provided. The method can comprise functionalizing a chemical compound by covalently bonding a trimethylsilyl protected thiol to a pendent functional group of the chemical compound in a presence of a catalyst. The pendent functional group can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group.

[0007] According to an embodiment, a method is provided. The method can comprise functionalizing a chemical compound by covalently bonding a trimethylsilyl protected thiol to a pendent perfluoroaryl group of the chemical compound. The chemical compound can comprise a molecular backbone. Also, the molecular backbone can comprise the pendent perfluoroaryl group bonded to an electron-withdrawing structure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] FIG. 1 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting chemical structure that can characterize one or more monomers in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0009] FIG. 2 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting chemical-forming scheme that can facilitate generating one or more monomers in accordance with the one or more embodiments described herein.

[0010] FIG. 3 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting chemical structures that can characterize one or more polymers in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0011] FIG. 4 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting polymerization schemes that can facilitate generating one or more polymers in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0012] FIG. 5 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting chart that can depict structural characteristics of one or more polymers in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0013] FIG. 6 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting graph that can depict structural characteristics of one or more polymers in accordance with the one or more embodiments described herein.

[0014] FIG. 7 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting polymerization scheme that can facilitate generating one or more polymers in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0015] FIG. 8 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting method that can facilitate post-synthesis functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0016] FIG. 9 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting functionalization schemes that can facilitate post synthesis functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0017] FIG. 10 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting graph that can depict structural characteristics of one or more polymers in accordance with the one or more embodiments described herein.

[0018] FIG. 11 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting functionalization scheme that can facilitate post synthesis functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0019] FIG. 12 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting functionalization scheme that can facilitate post synthesis functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0020] FIG. 13 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting chemical compounds that can be generated by post-synthesis functionalization in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. [0021] FIG. 14 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting method that can facilitate surface functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

[0022] FIG. 15 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting surface functionalization scheme that can facilitate post-synthesis functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0023] The following detailed description is merely illustrative and is not intended to limit embodiments and/or application or uses of embodiments. Furthermore, there is no intention to be bound by any expressed or implied information presented in the preceding Background or Summary sections, or in the Detailed Description section.

[0024] One or more embodiments are now described with reference to the drawings, wherein like referenced numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a more thorough understanding of the one or more embodiments. It is evident, however, in various cases, that the one or more embodiments can be practiced without these specific details.

[0025] The post-synthesis modification of polycarbonates can be important for the development of functional materials for therapeutic applications. With the appropriate choice of pendant functional groups, polycarbonates can be readily diversified into a myriad of biomedical applications ranging from injectable hydrogels for therapeutic delivery to antimicrobial polymers with high efficacy. Unfortunately, not all functional groups are compatible with the ring-opening polymerization process used to prepare polycarbonates. Additionally, de novo monomer synthesis can be synthetically tedious, making scale up a challenging endeavor. Thus, in order to enable a broader diversity of functional groups to be incorporated into polycarbonate platforms, one or more handles for further

functionalization of polycarbonate scaffolds have been utilized. These handles have been extensively utilized for the incorporation of additional functional groups in a synthetically convergent manner, facilitating a diverse array of biomedical applications.

[0026] However, in some cases, extended reaction times, elevated temperatures, or use of stoichiometric amounts of base are required to achieve high degrees of functionalization of the polycarbonate backbone. While effective, these conditions have the potential to compromise the backbone integrity and broaden the molecular weight distribution— particularly when more basic reagents are used. Additionally, some instances of post synthesis modification of polycarbonates involves the use of azide-alkyne click chemistry. While effective, the use of hazardous azide reagents and problem of residual copper retained in the polymer matrix render this approach less desirable for the preparation of materials for therapeutic applications. [0027] One approach to post-synthesis modification can involve the use of nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) on a highly activated aryl electrophile. SNAr reactions have the advantage of being compatible with an array of functional groups and nucleophiles, depending on the reaction conditions utilized. Unfortunately, standard reaction conditions for SNAr usually require excess base, elevated temperature, extended reaction times, and produces a stoichiometric salt byproduct, which can necessitate removal in subsequent purification steps. As such, the typical conditions for SNAr could be incompatible with the more sensitive polycarbonate backbones.

[0028] Various embodiments described herein can regard one or more conditions that can enable catalytic SNAr under mild reaction conditions. For example, one or more chemical compounds (e.g., monomers and/or polymers), schemes, and/or method described herein can regard the use of perfluoroaryls in combination with thiols ("SuFex reactions”). SuFex reactions can be utilized in a number of different applications including peptide stapling and post-synthesis modification of polymers. In order to overcome the requisite need for stoichiometric base, catalytic conditions for the one or more SuFex reactions described herein can rely on the use of trimethylsilyl protected thiols. The modification rendered by the one or more SuFex reactions described herein can exhibit a dramatic increase of reactivity and be amenable for producing new condensation polymers that can be easily purified as the primary byproduct is a gas. Thus, one or more embodiments described herein can comprise post-synthesis functionalization of polycarbonate scaffolds with minimal degradation of backbone while giving a high degree of control over polymer functionalization.

[0029] FIG. 1 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting chemical formula 100 that can characterize one or more cyclic monomers that can be used to create one or more perfluoroaryl polycarbonates. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity.

[0030] As shown in FIG. 1 , one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 can comprise one or more carbonate groups. The one or more carbonate groups can be covalently bonded to a molecular backbone 102. The "M” shown in FIG. 1 can represent the molecular backbone 102. The molecular backbone 102 can be a central chain of covalently bonded atoms that form the primary structure of the one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100. In various embodiments described herein, the one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 can comprise side chains formed by bonding one or more functional groups to the molecular backbone 102.

[0031] The molecular backbone 102 can comprise a plurality of covalently bonded atoms. The plurality of atoms can be bonded in any desirable formation, including, but not limited to: chain formations, ring formations, and/or a combination thereof. The molecular backbone 102 can comprise one or more chemical structures including, but not limited to: alkyl structures, aryl structures, alkenyl structures, aldehyde structures, ester structures, carboxyl structures, carbonyl structures, amine structures, amide structures, phosphide structures, phosphine structures, a combination thereof, and/or the like. One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the number of atoms that can comprise the molecular backbone 102 can vary depending of the desired function of the one or more cyclic monomers.

[0032] The one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 can also comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104. As shown in FIG. 1 , the "R” can represent one or more pendent functional groups 104. The one or more pendent functional groups 104 can be covalently bonded to the molecular backbone 102. Further, the one or more pendent functional groups 104 can comprise one or more perfluoroaryl groups and/or one or more methylene groups. For example, one or more methylene groups can serve to link the one or more perfluoroaryl groups to the molecular backbone 102. The one or more perfluoroaryl groups can comprise one or more aryls with a various number of ring members ranging from greater than or equal to four ring members and less than or equal to 10 ring members. For example, the one or more pendent functional groups 104 can be perfluorobenzyl groups.

[0033] FIG. 2 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting compound-forming scheme 200 that can facilitate generating one or more cyclic monomers (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) that can be characterized by chemical formula 100. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. While one or more particular monomer reactants (e.g., monomer reactant 204), perfluoroaryl alcohols, solvents, and/or catalysts are depicted; additional embodiments of compound-forming scheme 200 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanism of compound-forming scheme 200 can be applied to other monomer reactants (e.g., carbonate monomer), perfluoroaryl alcohols, solvents, and/or catalysts in accordance with the various features described herein.

[0034] As shown in FIG. 2, compound-forming scheme 200 can depict reacting one or more monomer reactants (e.g., monomer reactant 204) with one or more perfluoroaryl alcohols to form one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202). The one or more monomer reactants can be cyclic carbonates. Additionally, the one or more monomer reactants can comprise a perfluoroaryl group directly bonded to a molecular backbone. For example, monomer reactant 204 comprises a perfluorophenyl group directly bonded to its molecular backbone. The one or more perfluoroaryl alcohols can comprise a perfluoroaryl group covalently bonded to one or more hydroxyl groups. For example, the perfluoroaryl alcohol can be pentafluorobenzyl alcohol, as shown in FIG. 2.

[0035] The one or more monomer reactants (e.g., one or more monomer reactants 204) and the one or more perfluoroaryl alcohols (e.g., one or more pentafluorobenzyl alcohols) can be dissolved in a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. The solvent can be an organic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). Additionally, the catalyst can be an organocatylst such as tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF). For example, the catalyst can be present in a molar percent ranging from 5 molar percent to 20 molar percent. Additionally, the reaction of compound-forming scheme 200 can be facilitated by stirring the one or more monomer reactants (e.g., one or more monomer reactants 204), the one or more perfluoroaryl alcohols (e.g., one or more pentafluorobenzyl alcohols), the solvent, and/or the catalyst at a temperature greater than or equal to 10 degrees Celsius (°C) and less than or equal to 150°C for a period of time ranging from two minutes to 48 hours.

[0036] For example, the cyclic carbonate monomer 202 can be formed in accordance with compound-forming scheme 200 under the following exemplary conditions. A 250 milliliter (mL) curved bottom flask can be equipped with a magnetic stir-bar and charged with: 6.5 grams of monomer reactant 204 at 19.9 millimoles (mmol), 4.5 grams of pentafluorobenzyl alcohol at 22.7 mmol, and 30 mL of THF. Further, 2.0 mL of TBAF at 2 mmol and/or 1 moles per liter (M) can be added. The reaction mixture can be stirred at room temperature (RT) for 24 hours. The solvent can then be removed with the aid of a rotary evaporator, and the crude residue can be purified by column chromatography to afford the desired product as a white solid. The cyclic carbonate monomer 202 can further be purified via recrystallization from an ethyl acetate-hexane mixture.

[0037] FIG. 3 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting chemical formulas that can characterize polymers with perfluoroaryl groups in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. Chemical formula 300 can characterize one or more polycarbonate polymers with one or more perfluoroaryl groups. Chemical formula 302 can characterize one or more polyurethane polymers with one or more perfluoroaryl groups. As shown in FIG. 3, "n” can represent an integer greater than or equal to two and less than or equal to one thousand. The one or more polymers that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 and/or chemical formula 302 be homopolymers and/or copolymers, such as, but not limited to: alternate copolymers, random copolymers, block copolymers (e.g., deblock copolymers and/or triblock copolymers), and/or the like.

[0038] As shown in FIG. 3, one or more polymers that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 can comprise a plurality of carbonate groups covalently bonded to a molecular backbone 102 (e.g., represented by "M” in FIG. 4). Further, one or more polycarbonates that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 can comprise one or more pendent functional group 104 (e.g., represented by "R”). As described with reference to FIG. 1 , the one or more pendent functional groups 104 can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group. For example, the one or more pendent functional groups 104 can be perfluorobenzyl groups.

[0039] The one or more pendent functional groups 104 can be bonded to the molecular backbone 102 by one or more linkage group 306. The one or more linkage groups 306 can comprise alkyl and/or aryl structures. For example, the one or more linkage groups 306 can comprise, but are not limited to: carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, ester groups, ether groups, ketone groups, amine groups, phosphine groups, urea groups, carbonate groups, alkenyl groups, hydroxyl groups, a combination thereof, an/or the like. [0040] Furthermore, one or more polycarbonate polymers that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 can comprise one or more functional groups 308 covalently bonded to the molecular backbone 102 (e.g., via one or more carbonate groups). As shown in FIG. 3, "R 1 ” can represent the one or more functional groups 308. The one or more functional groups 308 can comprise alkyl and/or aryl structures. For example, the one or more functional groups 308 can comprise, but are not limited to: carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, ester groups, ether groups, ketone groups, amine groups, phosphine groups, urea croups, carbonate groups, alkenyl groups, hydroxyl groups, a combination thereof, an/or the like. For example, the functional groups 308 can be derived from ITIPEGSK, mPEG-ioK, and/or benzyl alcohol.

[0041] As shown in FIG. 3, one or more polymers that can be characterized by chemical formula 302 can comprise a plurality of urethane groups. The plurality of urethane groups can be covalently bonded to a molecular backbone 102 (e.g., represented by "M” in FIG. 3). Further, the one or more polyurethane polymers that can be characterized by chemical formula 302 can comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104 (e.g., represented by "R” in FIG. 3). As described with reference to FIG. 1 , the one or more pendent functional groups 104 can comprise a perfluoroaryl group and a methylene group. For example, the one or more pendent functional groups 104 can be perfluorobenzyl groups. The one or more pendent functional groups 104 can be bonded to one or more amine groups of the one or more urethane structures (e.g., as shown in FIG. 3).

[0042] FIG. 4 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting polymerization scheme 400 that can facilitate generating one or more polycarbonate polymers (e.g., first polycarbonate 402, second polycarbonate 404, and/or third polycarbonate 406) that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. As shown in FIG. 4, "n” can represent an integer greater than or equal to two and less than or equal to one thousand; and "Me” can represent a methyl group. While one or more particular reactants (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) are depicted; additional embodiments of polymerization scheme 400 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanism of polymerization scheme 400 can be applied to other reactants (e.g., monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100) in accordance with the various features described herein.

[0043] Polymerization scheme 400 can facilitate generating homopolymers (e.g., first polycarbonate 402) and/or copolymers (e.g., diblock polymers such as second polycarbonate 404 and/or triblock polymers such as third polycarbonate 406). Polymerization scheme 400 comprises polymerizing a cyclic monomer that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) with an initiator, in the presence of a catalyst, to form a polycarbonate that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 (e.g., first polycarbonate 402, second polycarbonate 404, and/or third polycarbonate406). For example, the polymerization scheme 400 can comprise a ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) with one or more initiators to form a polymer and/or copolymer, wherein the functional group 308 (e.g., represented by "R 1 ” in FIG. 4) can be derived from the one or more initiators. Additionally, polymerization scheme 400 can facilitate copolymerizing the one or more cyclic monomers that can be characterized by chemical formula 100 (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) with additional cyclic monomers, such as cyclic carbonate monomers that are not characterized by chemical formula 100 (e.g., benzyl carbonate monomers), to form one or more copolymers (e.g., the diblock copolymer, second polycarbonate 404).

[0044] The one or more initiators can be microinitiators. Further, the one or more initiators can be block polymers and comprise a water-soluble block. For example, the one or more initiators can comprise polyethylene glycol) (PEG) with various molecular weights. For example, the one or more initiators can comprise PEG with a molecular weight ranging from 4,800 grams per mole (g/mol) to 5,500 g/mol (ITIPEGSK). In another example, the one or more initiators can comprise PEG with a molecular weight ranging from 9,500 g/mol to 10,500 g/mol (mPEG-iox)· Moreover, the one or more initiators can comprise a functional group, such as a hydroxy group, to facilitate the polymerization. Additionally, the catalyst can be an organocatylst such as, but not limited to: 1,8- diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU); trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH); a potassium salt of TU (TU-A). For example, the catalyst can be present in a molar percent ranging from 5 molar percent to 20 molar percent.

[0045] To facilitate the polymerization (e.g., the ROP) the polymerization scheme 400 can comprise dissolving the one or more cyclic monomers (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202), the one or more initiators, and/or the catalyst in a solvent. The solvent can be an organic solvent such as 1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl)-3- cyclohexyl-2-thiourea (TU). Further, the polymerization of polymerization scheme 400 can be facilitated by stirring the one or more cyclic monomers (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202), the one or more initiators, the catalyst, and/or the solvent at a temperature greater than or equal to 10 degrees Celsius ( ° C) and less than or equal to 150 ° C for a period of time ranging from two minutes to 48 hours.

[0046] For example, the first polycarbonate 402 can be formed in accordance with polymerization scheme 400 under the following exemplary conditions. In a nitrogen-filled glovebox, a 20 mL scintillation vial equipped with a magnetic stir-bar can be charged with: 500 mg of hydroxyl ITIPEGSK at 0.10 mmol; 340 mg of cyclic carbonate monomer 202 at 1.0 mmol; 18.7 mg of TU at 0.05 mmol; and I .OmL of CH2CI2. The reaction mixture can be stirred at RT until all the solids had dissolved. Additionally, 7.5 micro liters mI_ of DBU at 0.05 mmol can be added to initiate the polymerization. After stirring at RT for 15 min, the vial can be removed from the glovebox and quenched with excess benzoic acid. The polymer can be precipitated twice from 40 mL of diethylether to afford the desired material as a white solid. Moreover, the polymer can be further purified by dialysis against 1 :1 acetonitrileiisopropyl alcohol. [0047] FIG. 5 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting chart 500 that can depict polymerization conditions for various polymerizations in accordance with polymerization scheme 400 and/or structural characteristics for various polycarbonates (e.g., that can be characterized by chemical formula 300) that can be formed as a result of said polymerization conditions. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity.

[0048] The first column 502 of chart 500 can depict the polycarbonate sample subject to evaluation. The second column 504 of chart 500 can depict the initiator utilized in the subject polymerization. The third column 506 of chart 500 can depict the catalyst utilized in the subject polymerization. The fourth column 508 of chart 500 can depict a ratio ([l]:[M]) of initiator ([I]) to cyclic monomer ([M]). Regarding the sixth and/or seventh polycarbonate samples, the fourth column 508 can depict a ration ([l]:[Mi]:[M2]) of initiator ([I]) to a first cyclic monomer ([Mi]) (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) and to a second cyclic monomer ([M2]) (e.g., 5-methyl-5-benzyloxycarbonyl-1 ,3- dioxan-2-one). The fifth column 510 of chart 500 can depict the duration of the subject polymerization. The sixth column 512 of chart 500 can depict the percent of cyclic monomers converted to polycarbonates. The conversion percentage of the sixth column 512 can be determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H 1 NMR). The seventh column 514 of chart 500 can depict a degree of polymerization (Dp) for the subject polymerization. The eighth column 516 of chart 500 can depict a number average molecular weight (M n ) in g/mol of the subject polycarbonate sample as analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The ninth column 518 of chart 500 can depict M n in g/mol of the subject polycarbonate sample as analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

The tenth column 520 of chart 500 can depict molecular weight distribution/dispersity (D) of the subject polycarbonate sample. As evident from chart 500, an analysis of M n versus conversion percentage of the cyclic monomer (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) can indicate a high level of control over the polymerization and resulting molecular weights facilitated by polymerization scheme 400.

[0049] FIG. 6 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting graph 600 that can depict various structural characteristics of polycarbonate samples illustrated in chart 500. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. Graph 600 can plot conversion of the cyclic monomer (e.g., cyclic carbonate monomer 202) versus M n and a polydispersity index (PDI). Graph 600 can regard a polymerization performed in accordance with polymerization scheme 400, wherein benzyl alcohol can be used as the initiator, TU can be used as the solvent, and 5 mol% of DBU can be used as the catalyst.

[0050] FIG. 7 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting polymerization scheme 700 that can facilitate generating one or more polyurethane polymers (e.g., first polyurethane 702) that can be characterized by chemical formula 302. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. While one or more particular reactants (e.g., urethane reactant 704) and/or isocyanates are depicted; additional embodiments of polymerization scheme 700 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanism of polymerization scheme 700 can be applied to other reactants (e.g., urethane monomers comprising a pendent functional group 104) and/or isocyanates in accordance with the various features described herein. As shown in FIG. 7, "n” can represent an integer greater than or equal to two and less than or equal to one thousand.

[0051] Polymerization scheme 700 can comprise polymerizing one or more urethane monomers comprising a pendent functional group 104 (e.g., urethane reactant 704) with one or more isocyanates (e.g., first isocyanate 706) to form one or more polyurethane polymer that can be characterized by chemical formula 302 (e.g., first polyurethane 702). The one or more polyurethane polymers generated by polymerization scheme 700 can be copolymers (e.g., alternating copolymers, random copolymers, and/or block copolymers). The one or more isocyanates (e.g., first isocyanate 706) can comprise alkyl and/or aryl structures. Further, the one or more isocyanates can be diisocyanates. Polymerization of the one or more urethane monomers (e.g., urethane reactant 704) with the one or more isocyanates (e.g., first isocyanate 706) can form a polyurethane polymer (e.g., first polyurethane 702) comprising one or more carbamate groups (e.g., as shown in FIG. 7).

[0052] The polymerization of polymerization scheme 700 can be facilitated by dissolving the one or more urethane monomers (e.g., urethane reactant 704), the one or more isocyanates (e.g., first isocyanate 706), and/or a catalyst in a solvent to form a mixture. The catalyst can be an organocatalyst such as DBU (e.g., a catalyst system comprising a mole percent of DBU greater than or equal to one percent and less than or equal to twenty-five percent). The solvent can be an organic solvent such as TU, dichloromethane, a combination thereof, and/or the like. Additionally, the mixture can be stirred at a temperate greater than or equal to 10°C and less than or equal to 150 °C (e.g., room temperature (RT)) for a period of time greater than or equal to 5 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours (e.g., 18 hours). For example, the polymerization scheme 700 can facilitate generating the first polyurethane 702 having a number average molecular weight (M n ) of 60,413 g/mol, a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 92,430 g/mol, and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.52.

[0053] In one or more embodiments, the urethane reactant 704 that can be utilized in accordance with polymerization scheme 700 can be prepared under the following exemplary conditions, and/or like conditions. A 250 mL curved bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stir-bar can be charged with: 1.45 mL of diethanolamine at 15 mmol; 2.9 grams of potassium carbonate at 21 mmol; and 40mL of acetonitrile. Further, 2.26 mL of pentafluorobenzyl bromide at 15 mmol can be added, and the reaction mixture can be stirred for 36 hours at RT. The reaction mixture can be filtered and concentrated with the aid of a rotary evaporator. The crude residue can be filtered through a silica gel plug eluting with 10% acetone in hexane.

[0054] The first polyurethane 702 can be formed in accordance with polymerization scheme 700 under the following exemplary conditions and/or like conditions. In a nitrogen-filled glovebox a 20 mL scintillation vial can be charged with: 285 milligrams (mg) of one or more urethane monomers comprising one or more pendent functional groups 104 (e.g., urethane reactant 704) at 1.0 mmol; 209 microliters (mI_) of isopherone diisocyanate at 1.0 mmol; and 1 mL of dichloromethane. Also, 3 mI_ of DBU at 0.02 mmol can be added, and the reaction mixture can be stirred for 18 hours at RT. The reaction mixture can then be removed from the glovebox and the polymer can be precipitated twice from hexanes to afford and off-white solid. This material can be further purified via dialysis 1 :1 acetonitrilelsopropyl alcohol to afford a light yellow film.

[0055] FIG. 8 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting method 800 that can facilitate post-synthesis functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. For example, method 800 can be utilized to functionalize monomers that can comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104. In another example, method 800 can be utilized to functionalize polycarbonates that can be characterized by chemical formula 300. In another example, method 800 can be utilized to functionalize polyurethanes that can be characterized by chemical formula 302.

[0056] At 802, the method 800 can comprise dissolving a chemical compound (e.g., characterized by chemical formula 300 and/or 302) and one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols in a solvent to form a mixture. The chemical compound can comprise one or more monomers and/or one or more polymers (e.g., characterized be chemical formula 300 and/or 302), which can comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104 (e.g., perfluorobenzyl groups). For example, the chemical compound can comprise first polycarbonate 402, second polycarbonate 404, third polycarbonate 406, first polyurethane 702, a combination thereof, and/or the like. The one or more pendent functional groups 104 comprising the chemical compound can serve as a handle to facilitate functionalization via method 800.

[0057] The one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can comprise a functional group, which can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol. The solvent can be an organic solvent. Example solvents can include, but are not limited to: dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a combination thereof, and/or the like.

[0058] In one or more embodiments, the mixture at 802 can be catalyst-free. Flowever, wherein the mixture is catalyst-free, the functionalization achieved by method 800 can depend on the synthesis method of the chemical compound. For example, wherein the chemical compound is prepared via an acid-catalyzed ROP (e.g., first polycarbonate sample in shown in chart 500), method 800 can achieve little conversion of the chemical compound's pendent functional groups 104. In another example, wherein the chemical compound is prepared via base- catalyzed polymerization conditions (e.g., second polycarbonate sample shown in chart 500), method 800 can achieve high reactivity between the chemical compound and the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols, thereby rendering high conversion percentages. In various embodiments, a catalyst can be added to the mixture 802 to facilitate functionalization via method 800. The catalyst can be a basic salt, such as but, not limited to, DBU-based salts and/or potassium benzoate salts.

[0059] At 804, the method 800 can comprise stirring the mixture at a temperature greater than or equal to 10°C and less than or equal to 150°C for a period of time greater than or equal to 2 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours. For example, at 804 the method 800 can comprise stirring the mixture at RT for five minutes.

[0060] At 806, the method 800 can comprise functionalizing the chemical compound by covalently bonding the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols to one or more pendent functional groups 104 of the chemical compound in the presence of a catalyst. For example, the chemical compound can be characterized by chemical formula 300. In another example, the chemical compound (e.g., comprising a polymer or monomer) can be characterized by chemical formula 302. In another example, the chemical compound can comprise a molecular backbone bonded to one or more pendent functional groups 104, wherein the molecular backbone can comprise: one or more carbonate structures, one or more urethane structures, one or more amide structures, one or more ester structures, one or more ether structures, one or more acrylate structures, and/or one or more styrene structures. The catalyst can originate from an addition to the mixture at 802 and/or from a synthesis reaction that generated the chemical compound. The functionalization at 806 can generate mono-substituted products and/or poly-substituted products. As used herein "mono-substituted” can refer to the substitution of a single fluoride of a subject pendent functional group 104. For example, mono-substituted products generated at 806 can comprise a pendent functional group 104 covalently bonded to a single trimethylsilyl protected thiol. As used herein "poly-substituted” can refer to the substitution of multiple fluorides of a subject pendent functional group 104. For example, poly-substituted products generated at 806 can comprise a pendent functional group 104 covalently bonded to a plurality of trimethylsilyl protected thiols. Also, as used herein“bi-substituted” can refer to the substitution of two fluorides of a subject pendent functional group 104. Further, as used herein“tri-substituted” can refer to the substitution of three fluorides of a subject pendent functional group 104.

[0061] As shown in Table 1 , presented below, the amount of catalyst in the mixture at 802 (e.g., originating from an addition of catalyst and/or residual catalyst from a synthesis reaction) can affect the functionalization at 806. For example, Table 2 can regard a chemical compound prepared via an acid-catalyzed ROP (e.g., first polycarbonate sample in shown in chart 500), wherein DBU and/or a benzoate catalyst is added to the mixture at 802 in various mole percentages (mol%). As described above, without the addition of DBU and/or benzoate catalysts, the chemical compound evaluated by Table 1 would exhibit little to no functionalization at 806. Flowever, with even a small amount of DBU and/or a benzoate catalyst (e.g., 0.5 mol%), the chemical compound can be effectively functionalized at 806. [0062] Additionally, the amount of catalyst in the mixture at 802 (e.g., originating from an addition of catalyst and/or residual catalyst from a synthesis reaction) can affect the number of mono-substituted products and/or poly- substituted products generated by the functionalization at 806. In Table 1 , "I” can represent mono-substituted products and/or "II” can represent poly-substituted products.

Table 1

The ratio of mono-substituted products to poly-substituted products, as shown in Table 1 , can be determined by fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (F NMR). Additionally, DBLTPhCC^H can represent a salt of DBU and benzoic acid. As shown in Table 1 , an increased presence of catalyst can directly increase the number of substitutions (e.g., the number of poly-substituted products) achieved by the functionalization at 806.

[0063] FIG. 9 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting functionalization schemes that can facilitate functionalization of one or more polycarbonates (e.g., that can be characterized by chemical formula 300) in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein (e.g., method 800). Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. While one or more particular reactants (e.g., first polycarbonate 402) are depicted; additional embodiments of the functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanisms of the functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9 can be applied to other reactants (e.g., other polycarbonates that can be characterized by chemical formula 300) in accordance with the various features described herein. As shown in FIG. 9, "n” can represent an integer greater than or equal to two and less than or equal to one thousand. [0064] In each of the functionalization schemes of FIG. 9, one or more polycarbonates that can be characterized by chemical formula 300, one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols, and/or a catalyst can be dissolved in a solvent to form a mixture. The catalyst can be an organocatalyst and comprise a basic salt, such as a DBU-based salt.

The solvent can be organic and/or polar. Example solvents include, but are not limited to DMF, NMP, a combination thereof, and/or the like. To facilitate functionalization, the mixture can be stirred at a temperate greater than or equal to 10°C and less than or equal to 150 °C (e.g., RT) for a period of time greater than or equal to 2 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours (e.g., 5 minutes).

[0065] The first functionalization scheme 900 can depict a functionalization of a polycarbonate that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 (e.g., first polycarbonate 402) with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols (represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 9), which can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 9), to form a mono-substituted product (e.g., fourth polycarbonate 904). The second functional group 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol.

[0066] The second functionalization scheme 906 can depict a functionalization of a polycarbonate that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 (e.g., first polycarbonate 402) with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols (represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 9), which can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 9), to form a bi-substituted product (e.g., fifth polycarbonate 908). The second functional group 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol.

[0067] The third functionalization scheme 910 can depict a functionalization of a polycarbonate that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 (e.g., first polycarbonate 402) with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols (represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 9), which can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 9), to form another bi-substituted product (e.g., sixth polycarbonate 912). The second functional group 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol. [0068] The fourth functionalization scheme 914 can depict a functionalization of a polycarbonate that can be characterized by chemical formula 300 (e.g., first polycarbonate 402) with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols (represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 9), which can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 9), to form a tri-substituted product (e.g., seventh polycarbonate 916). The second functional group 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol.

[0069] For example, a functionalized polycarbonate can be functionalized in accordance with the

functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9 and/or method 800 under the following exemplary conditions and/or like conditions. In a nitrogen filled glovebox, an 8 mL vial equipped with a magnetic stir-bar can be charged with: 25 mg of first polycarbonate 402 at 0.024 mmol; 0.25 mL of NMP; and/or 5 mί of DBL>PhC02FI at 13.2 mg/mL stock solution in NMP and 1 mol % per perfluoroaryl unit catalyst loading. The reaction mixture can be stirred until the solids are dissolved. 17 mg of trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol at 0.062 mmol can be added, and the reaction mixture can be stirred at RT for 5 min. The vial can be removed from the glovebox and an aliquot of the reaction mixture was analyzed by F NMR to determine the conversion. The sample was recovered and the crude material was purified via dialysis (1 :1 acetonitrile: isopropyl alcohol).

[0070] FIG. 10 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting graph 1000 that can depict structural characteristics of various polycarbonates functionalized in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein (e.g., method 800 and/or one or more of the functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9). Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. Graph 1000 can show a F NMR spectra for the first polycarbonate 402.

[0071] FIG. 11 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting functionalization scheme 1100 that can facilitate functionalizing one or more polyurethanes (e.g., that can be characterized by chemical formula 302) in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein (e.g., method 800). Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. While one or more particular reactants (e.g., first polyurethane 702) are depicted; additional embodiments of functionalization scheme 1100 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanisms of functionalization scheme 1100 can be applied to other reactants (e.g., other polyurethanes that can be characterized by chemical formula 302) in accordance with the various features described herein. As shown in FIG. 11 , "n” can represent an integer greater than or equal to two and less than or equal to one thousand. [0072] Functionalization scheme 1100 can depict a functionalization of one or more polyurethane that can be characterized by chemical formula 302 (e.g., first polyurethane 702) with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols (represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 11), which can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 11), to form a functionalized polyurethane polymer (e.g., second polyurethane 1102). Similar to the functionalization of one or more polycarbonates, which have a structure that can be characterized by chemical formula 300, can generate mono-substituted products (e.g., fourth polycarbonate 904) and/or poly- substituted products (e.g., fifth polycarbonate 908, sixth polycarbonate 912, and/or seventh polycarbonate 916); the functionalization scheme 1100 can generate mono-substituted polyurethanes (e.g., second polyurethane 1102) and/or poly-substituted polyurethanes (not shown).

[0073] The one or more second functional groups 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol.

[0074] To facilitate functionalization, the one or more polyurethanes that can be characterized by chemical formula 302, the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols, and/or a catalyst can be dissolved in a solvent to form a mixture. The catalyst can be an organocatalyst and comprise a basic salt, such as a DBU-based salt and/or sodium dodecanoate. The solvent can be organic and/or polar. Example solvents include, but are not limited to DMF, NMP, a combination thereof, and/or the like. To facilitate functionalization, the mixture can be stirred at a temperate greater than or equal to 10°C and less than or equal to 150 °C (e.g., RT) for a period of time greater than or equal to 2 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours (e.g., 5 minutes).

[0075] For example, second polyurethane 1102 can be generated in accordance with functionalization scheme 1100 and method 800 under the following exemplary conditions. On a benchtop, an 8 mL vial equipped with a magnetic stir-bar an be charged with: 50 mg of first polyurethane 702 at 0.120 mmol perfluorobenzyl groups); 5.4 mg of sodium dodecanoate at 20 mol % catalyst loading per perfluorobenzyl group; and 0.050 mL of DMF. The reaction mixture can be stirred until all of the solids are dissolved. Also, 40 mg of trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol at 0.144 mmol, 1.2 equivalent per perfluorobenzyl unit can be added and the reaction mixture can be stirred at RT for 5 min. An aliquot can be removed and analyzed by F NMR to determine conversion (e.g., >95%). The remainder of reaction mixture can be purified by dialysis (e.g., 20% water in MeOFI for 24 hours with the solvent changed twice).

[0076] FIG. 12 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting functionalization scheme 1200 that can facilitate functionalizing one or more chemical compounds (e.g., that can comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104), that can be a polymer and/or monomer, in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein (e.g., method 800). Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. While one or more particular reactants (e.g., monomer reactant 1202) are depicted; additional embodiments of functionalization scheme 1200 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanisms of functionalization scheme 1200 can be applied to other reactants (e.g., other monomers comprising a pendent functional group 104) in accordance with the various features described herein. Reactants that can be functionalized in accordance with functionalization scheme 1200 can include monomers and/or polymers that can comprise a molecular backbone bonded to one or more pendent functional groups 104, wherein the molecular backbone can comprise: one or more carbonate structures, one or more urethane structures, one or more amide structures, one or more ester structures, one or more ether structures, one or more acrylate structures, and/or one or more styrene structures.

[0077] Functionalization scheme 1200 can depict a functionalization of one or more monomers that can comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104 (e.g., monomer reactant 1202) with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols (represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 12), which can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 12), to form a functionalized monomer (e.g., first functionalized monomer 1204). Functionalization scheme 1200 can generate mono-substituted functionalized monomers (e.g., first functionalized monomer 1204) and/or poly-substituted functionalized monomers.

[0078] The one or more second functional groups 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol.

[0079] To facilitate functionalization, the one or more monomer reactants that can comprise one or more pendent functional groups 104 (e.g., monomer reactant 1202), the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols, and/or a catalyst can be dissolved in a solvent to form a mixture. The solvent can be organic and/or polar. Example solvents include, but are not limited to DMF, NMP, a combination thereof, and/or the like. To facilitate

functionalization, the mixture can be stirred at a temperate greater than or equal to 10°C and less than or equal to 150 °C (e.g., RT) for a period of time greater than or equal to 2 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours (e.g., 5 minutes).

[0080] Table 2, presented below, regards functionalization of monomer reactant 1202 in accordance with functionalization scheme 1200 with a variety of catalysts. Table 2

Additionally, experiments utilizing pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate as a catalyst resulted in zero conversion. In various embodiments, the catalysts of Table 2 are also applicable with method 800, the functionalization schemes of FIG. 9, and/or functionalization scheme 1200.

[0081] FIG. 13 illustrates a diagram of example, non-limiting functionalized polycarbonates that can be generated in accordance with method 800 and/or the functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. For example, eighth polycarbonate 1302 can be an embodiment of fourth polycarbonate 904. Also, ninth polycarbonate 1304 can be generated from second polycarbonate 404 in accordance with method 800 and/or the functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9. Additionally, tenth polycarbonate 1306 can be generated from third polycarbonate 406 in accordance with method 800 and/or the functionalization schemes shown in FIG. 9. Thus, it is evident from the examples shown in FIG. 13 that the functionalizing described herein (e.g., with reference to method 800, the functionalization schemes of FIG. 9, and/or functionalization scheme 1100) can be performed on polymers (e.g., homopolymers) and/or copolymers (e.g., alternating copolymers, random copolymers, and/or block copolymers).

[0082] FIG. 14 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting method 1400 that can facilitate surface functionalization of one or more chemical compounds in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. In various embodiments, method 1400 can be utilized to functionalize perfluoroaryl coated surfaces.

[0083] At 1402, the method 1400 can comprise contacting a chemical compound with one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols to form a composition. The chemical compound can comprise one or more monomers and/or one or more polymers (e.g., homopolymers, alternating copolymers, random copolymers, and/or block copolymers). For example, the chemical compound can be located on a surface of an article and the contacting can comprise dispersing (e.g., spraying and/or coating) the chemical compound covered surface with the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols.

[0084] At 1404, the method 1400 can comprise treating the composition to facilitate functionalizing the compound. The treating can comprise one or more heat treatments and/or one or more chemical treatments. For example, the composition can be heated to a curing temperature (e.g., a temperature greater than or equal to 150°C and less than or equal to 300°C).

[0085] At 1406, the method 1400 can comprise functionalizing the chemical compound by covalently bonding the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols to a pendent perfluoroaryl group of the chemical compound. The chemical compound can comprise a molecular backbone comprising one or more pendent perfluoroaryl groups covalently bonded to one or more electron-withdrawing structures. For example, the one or more pendent perfluoroaryl groups can be pendent perfluorophenyl groups. The functionalizing at 1406 can generate mono- substituted products and/or poly-substituted products. The low surface energy of fluorine can enable preferential orientation of the one or more perfluoroaryl groups away from a surface, making the chemical compound more accessible for substitution by nucleophiles.

[0086] Unlike the pendent functional groups 104 that can comprise chemical compounds that can be characterized by chemical formula 100, 300, and/or 302, which bond a perfluoroaryl group to a molecular backbone and/or linkage group 306 via a methylene group; the chemical compound of method 1400 can comprise one or more pendent perfluoroaryl groups bonded directly to a molecular backbone without one or more intermediate methylene groups. Additionally, the one or more pendent perfluoroaryl groups can be bonded directly to one or more electron-withdrawing structures. Example electron-withdrawing structures can include, but are not limited to, amide structures and/or sulphonamide structures. Thus, the one or more pendent perfluoroaryl groups can be electron deficient.

[0087] At 1408, the method 1400 can optionally comprise removing biproducts of the functionalization at 1406. For example, the surface can be rinsed and/or otherwise washed to remove salt biproducts, thereby rendering a functionalized surface free of contaminants.

[0088] FIG. 15 illustrates a diagram of an example, non-limiting functionalization scheme 1500 that can facilitate functionalizing one or more chemical compound in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein (e.g., method 1400). Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. While one or more particular reactants (e.g., reactant 1502) are depicted; additional embodiments of functionalization scheme 1500 are also envisaged. For example, the principal mechanisms of functionalization scheme 1500 can be applied to other reactants (e.g., other chemical compounds comprising a pendent perfluoroaryl group bonded to an electron-withdrawing structure) in accordance with the various features described herein.

[0089] Functionalization scheme 1500 can facilitate generating one or more functionalized chemical compounds in accordance with method 1400. For example, the functionalization can comprise functionalizing one or more perfluoroaryl groups of one or more chemical compounds with one or more trimethylsilyl thiols (e.g., represented by "TMSS” in FIG. 15). The one or more perfluoroaryl groups (e.g., perfluorophenyl groups) can be directly bonded to one or more electron-withdrawing structures (e.g., comprising an amide group and/or a sulphonamide group), thereby rendering the one or more perfluoroaryl groups electron deficient. The one or more trimethylsilyl thiols can comprise one or more second functional group 902 (e.g., represented by "R 2 ” in FIG. 15). The second functional group 902 can comprise: alkyl structures, aryl structures, carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, ether groups, ester groups, ketone groups, hydroxyl groups, alkenyl groups, aldehyde groups, alkene groups, a combination thereof, and/or the like. For example, the one or more second functional groups 902 can be undecane, thereby the one or more trimethylsilyl protected thiols can be trimethylsilyl protected dodecanethiol.

[0090] The functionalization depicted by functionalization scheme 1500 can be catalyst-free. Additionally, the functionalization can generate mono-substituted functionalized chemical compounds (e.g., first functionalized compound 1504) and/or poly-substituted functionalized chemical compounds (e.g., second functionalized compound 1506). Moreover, the functionalization depicted by functionalization scheme 1500 can be: facilitated by a solvent (e.g., NMP); performed at a temperature greater than or equal to 10°C and less than or equal to 150°C (e.g., RT); and can comprise a reaction duration greater than or equal to 2 minutes and less than or equal to 48 hours (e.g., 18 hours).

[0091] In addition, the term "or” is intended to mean an inclusive "or” rather than an exclusive "or.” That is, unless specified otherwise, or clear from context, "X employs A or B” is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B, then "X employs A or B” is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. Moreover, articles "a” and "an” as used in the subject specification and annexed drawings should generally be construed to mean "one or more” unless specified otherwise or clear from context to be directed to a singular form. As used herein, the terms "example” and/or "exemplary” are utilized to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. For the avoidance of doubt, the subject matter disclosed herein is not limited by such examples. In addition, any aspect or design described herein as an "example” and/or "exemplary” is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs, nor is it meant to preclude equivalent exemplary structures and techniques known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

[0092] What has been described above include mere examples of systems, compositions, and methods. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of reagents, products, solvents, and/or articles for purposes of describing this disclosure, but one of ordinary skill in the art can recognize that many further combinations and permutations of this disclosure are possible. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms "includes,” "has,” "possesses,” and the like are used in the detailed description, claims, appendices and drawings such terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term "comprising” as "comprising” is interpreted when employed as a transitional word in a claim. The descriptions of the various embodiments have been presented for purposes of illustration, but are not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the embodiments disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope of the described embodiments. The terminology used herein was chosen to best explain the principles of the embodiments, the practical application or technical improvement over technologies found in the marketplace, or to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the embodiments disclosed herein.