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Title:
CHEMIGENETIC VOLTAGE INDICATORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/102577
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Provided herein are a voltage indicator and a method of measuring voltage. The voltage indicator includes a membrane-localized voltage-sensitive protein coupled to a capture protein. The method of measuring voltage includes administering a voltage indicator including a membrane-localized voltage-sensitive protein coupled to a capture protein, and determining changes in fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorescent dye captured by the capture protein.

Inventors:
SCHREITER, Eric R. (43835 Eagle Bend Square, Unit 102Leesburg, Virginia, 20176, US)
LAVIS, Luke D. (42990 Mill Race Terrace, Leesburg, Virginia, 20176-6867, US)
ABDELFATTAH, Ahmed (19795 Helix Drive, Apt. 220Ashburn, Virginia, 20147, US)
Application Number:
US2017/063998
Publication Date:
June 07, 2018
Filing Date:
November 30, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HOWARD HUGHES MEDICAL INSTITUTE (4000 Jones Bridge Road, Chevy Chase, Maryland, 20815-6789, US)
International Classes:
C07K14/47; G01N21/64; G01N33/50; G01N33/68
Foreign References:
US20150301029A12015-10-22
Other References:
BEDBROOK, CN ET AL.: "Genetically Encoded Spy Peptide Fusion System to Detect Plasma Membrane-Localized Proteins In Vivo", CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 8, 20 August 2015 (2015-08-20), pages 1108 - 1121, XP055513743
GRIMM, JB ET AL.: "Bright Photoactivatable Fluorophores for Single-Molecule Imaging", NATURE METHODS, vol. 13, no. 12, 24 October 2016 (2016-10-24), pages 985 - 988, XP055513749
MURATA, Y ET AL.: "Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Activity Coupled to an Intrinsic Voltage Sensor", vol. 435, no. 7046, 18 May 2005 (2005-05-18), pages 1239 - 1243, XP055513761
JING, C ET AL.: "Chemical Tags for Labeling Proteins Inside Living Cells", ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, vol. 44, no. 9, 31 August 2011 (2011-08-31), pages 784 - 792, XP055228715
YANG, HH ET AL.: "Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators: Opportunities and Challenges", THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 36, no. 39, 28 September 2016 (2016-09-28), pages 9977 - 9989, XP055513771
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DECKER, Mandy W. et al. (PLLC400 West Market Street,Suite 180, Louisville Kentucky, 40202, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A voltage indicator comprising a membrane-localized voltage-sensitive protein coupled to a capture protein.

2. The voltage indicator of claim 1, wherein the capture protein is arranged and disposed to capture small-molecule fluorescent dyes.

3. The voltage indicator of claim 2, wherein the fluorescent dyes include azetidine- containing Janelia Fluor™ dyes.

4. The voltage indicator of claim 3, wherein the Janelia Fluor™ dyes are selected from the group consisting of Janelia Fluor™505, Janelia Fluor™525, Janelia Fluor™549, Janelia Fluor™585, Janelia Fluor™646, and combinations thereof.

5. The voltage indicator of claim 1, wherein the voltage sensitive protein is an opsin.

6. The voltage indicator of claim 5, wherein the opsin is a microbial opsin.

7. The voltage indicator of claim 6, wherein the microbial opsin is selected from the group consisting of QuasAr2, Ace2N, or a combination thereof.

8. The voltage indicator of claim 1, wherein the voltage sensitive protein includes at least one voltage-sensing domain selected from the group consisting of a Ciona intestinalis voltage- sensing domain (CiVSD), Danio rerio voltage-sensing domain (DrVSD), Gallus gallus voltage- sensing domain (GgVSD), and a combination thereof.

9. The voltage indicator of claim 1, wherein the capture protein is a covalent capture protein.

10. The voltage indicator of claim 9, wherein the covalent capture protein is selected from the group consisting of HaloTag, SNAP -tag, TMP-tag, pLac-tag, CLIP -tag, or a combination thereof.

11. The voltage indicator of claim 1, wherein the capture protein is a non-covalent capture protein.

12. The voltage indicator of claim 11, wherein the non-covalent capture protein is selected from the group consisting of TMP-tag, biotin-avidin, and a combination thereof.

13. A method of measuring voltage, the method comprising administering the voltage indicator of claim 1 and determining changes in fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorescent dye covalently captured by the covalent capture protein.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein changes in fluorescence are observed with a microscope.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein the voltage indicator further comprises a linker between the voltage-sensitive protein and the capture protein.

16. The method of claim 15, further comprising modifying a length of the linker.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein modifying the length of the linker includes removing at least one amino acid residue.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein removing at least one amino acid residue includes removing between 1 and 22 amino acid residues.

19. The method of claim 16, wherein modifying the length of the linker modifies the size of a fluorescence response.

20. The method of claim 13, further comprising determining changes in voltage based upon changes in fluorescence.

Description:
CHEMIGENETIC VOLTAGE INDICATORS

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No.

62/428,066, filed November 30, 2016, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by this reference.

SEQUENCE LISTING

[0002] This application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted in ASCII format via EFS-Web and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. The ASCII copy of the Sequence Listing, which was created on November 30, 2017, is named 18074N-16049.txt and is 112 kilobytes in size.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003] The presently-disclosed subject matter generally relates to voltage indicators and methods of use thereof. More specifically, the presently-disclosed subject matter relates to chemigenetic voltage indicators and methods of measuring voltage using chemigenetic voltage indicators.

BACKGROUND

[0004] Optical imaging of membrane potential allows direct visualization of the rapid electrical signals that neurons use to communicate. Because electrical signals in neurons are fast, current optical methods are limited by the number of photons that can be collected by an imaging camera for each image of a movie. 1 Therefore, voltage indicators that emit more photons during each image, and that do so over more images before irreversible photobleaching occurs, produce qualitative improvements in the accuracy and duration of voltage measurements.

[0005] The current collection of small-molecule voltage indicator dyes are bright and produce large changes in fluorescence with changes in cell membrane potential. However, they cannot easily be targeted to specific neurons, which limits their in vivo utility because all cell membranes are stained with the dye and no individual neurons can be seen clearly. Conversely, protein-based indicators (genetically encoded voltage indicators, GEVIs) can be targeted to individual neurons or specific populations of neurons, but have limited brightness and photostability.

[0006] Accordingly, there remains a need for targeted voltage indicators that produce increased brightness and photostability.

SUMMARY

[0007] The presently-disclosed subject matter meets some or all of the above-identified needs, as will become evident to those of ordinary skill in the art after a study of information provided in this document.

[0008] This Summary describes several embodiments of the presently-disclosed subject matter, and in many cases lists variations and permutations of these embodiments. This

Summary is merely exemplary of the numerous and varied embodiments. Mention of one or more representative features of a given embodiment is likewise exemplary. Such an

embodiment can typically exist with or without the feature(s) mentioned; likewise, those features can be applied to other embodiments of the presently-disclosed subject matter, whether listed in this Summary or not. To avoid excessive repetition, this Summary does not list or suggest all possible combinations of such features.

[0009] In some embodiments, the presently-disclosed subject matter is directed to a voltage indicator. In some embodiments, the voltage indicator includes a membrane-localized voltage- sensitive protein coupled to a capture protein. In some embodiments, the capture protein is arranged and disposed to capture small-molecule fluorescent dyes. In one embodiment, the fluorescent dyes include azetidine-containing Janelia Fluor™ dyes. In another embodiment, the Janelia Fluor™ dyes are selected from the group consisting of Janelia Fluor™505, Janelia Fluor™525, Janelia Fluor™549, Janelia Fluor™585, Janelia Fluor™646, and combinations thereof.

[0010] In some embodiments, the voltage sensitive protein is an opsin, such as, but not limited to, a microbial opsin. Suitable microbial opsins include, but are not limited to, QuasAr2, Ace2N, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the voltage sensitive protein includes at least one voltage-sensing domain selected from the group consisting of a Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing domain (CiVSD), Danio rerio voltage-sensing domain (DrVSD), Gallus gallus voltage-sensing domain (GgVSD), and a combination thereof.

[0011] In some embodiments, capture protein is a covalent capture protein. In one embodiment, the covalent capture protein is selected from the group consisting of HaloTag, SNAP -tag, TMP-tag, pLac-tag, CLIP -tag, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the capture protein is a non-covalent capture protein. In one embodiment, the non-covalent capture protein is selected from the group consisting of TMP-tag, biotin-avidin, and a combination thereof.

[0012] In some embodiments, the presently-disclosed subject matter is directed to a method of measuring voltage, the method comprising administering a voltage indicator including a membrane-localized voltage-sensitive protein coupled to a capture protein, and determining changes in fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorescent dye captured by the capture protein. In some embodiments, the changes in fluorescence are observed with a microscope. In some embodiments, the method further comprises determining changes in voltage based upon changes in fluorescence.

[0013] In some embodiments, the voltage indicator further comprises a linker between the voltage-sensitive protein and the capture protein. In some embodiments, the method further comprises modifying a length of the linker. In one embodiment, modifying the length of the linker includes removing at least one amino acid residue. In another embodiment, removing at least one amino acid residue includes removing between 1 and 22 amino acid residues. In a further embodiment, modifying the length of the linker modifies the size of a fluorescence response.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014] The novel features of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments, in which the principles of the invention are used, and the accompanying drawings of which:

[0015] FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of the chemigenetic voltage indicators according to an embodiment of the disclosure.

[0016] FIGS. 2A-F show chemical structures of various fluorescent dye-ligands according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The structures include JFsos-HaloTag ligand (FIG. 2A), JF 5 25-HaloTag ligand (FIG. 2B), JF 54 9-HaloTag ligand (FIG. 2C), JFsss-HaloTag ligand (FIG. 2D), JF 6 35-HaloTag ligand (FIG. 2E), and JF 54 9-SNAP-Tag ligand (FIG. 2F).

[0017] FIGS. 3A-B show graphs comparing fluorescence brightness (A) and fluorescence photobleaching rates (B) of ASAP1, Ace2N-mNeonGreen, and Ace2N-HaloTag-JF 5 49 in rat hippocampal neurons in culture.

[0018] FIG. 4 shows a graph illustrating size of the fluorescence response of QuasAr2- HaloTag voltage indicators with different sized linkers connecting QuasAr2 and HaloTag.

Fluorescence response measured relative to ASAP1.

[0019] FIGS. 5A-B shows graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr-HaloTag labeled with JF549. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing QuasAr-HaloTag labeled with JF549. (B)

Fluorescence traces from three regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons.

[0020] FIGS. 6A-B shows graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr2-HaloTag-16 labeled with JF549. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing QuasAr2-HaloTag-16 labeled with JF549. (B)

Fluorescence traces from four regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons.

[0021] FIGS. 7A-B shows graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr-cpHaloTag labeled with JF549. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing QuasAr-cpHaloTag labeled with JF549. (B)

Fluorescence traces from three regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons. [0022] FIGS. 8A-B shows graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr2-SNAP-Tag labeled with JF549. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing QuasAr2-SNAP-Tag labeled with JF549. (B)

Fluorescence traces from three regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced action potentials of the neurons.

[0023] FIGS. 9A-B shows graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing HaloTag-QuasAr2 labeled with JF549. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing HaloTag-QuasAr2 labeled with JF549. (B)

Fluorescence traces from one region within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons.

[0024] FIGS. 10A-D show graphs and images illustrating in vivo voltage imaging in zebrafish larvae (6 days post-fertilization). (A) Fluorescence micrograph of fluorescence from neurons in the larval zebrafish ventral midbrain expressing Ace2N-HaloTag and labeled with JF525. A light sheet microscope with 488 nm excitation was use. (B) Same as (A) except with regions of interest overlayed that correspond to fluorescence traces in (C) and (D). (C) The status of a visual stimulus displayed to the fish and electrophysiological recording showing the fish's intended swimming (top), with fluorescence traces from 12 individual neurons shown in (B). (D) Zoom-in of (C) at the region indicated.

[0025] FIG. 11 shows a graph illustrating fluorescence response to voltage steps (inset) of Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF525 in rat hippocampal neurons in culture.

[0026] FIGS. 12A-C show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF505. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF505. (B) Fluorescence versus voltage for cells like in (A). (C) Fluorescence (top) compared with voltage (bottom, as measured with a whole-cell patch clamp pipette) from neurons like in (A) showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations.

[0027] FIGS. 13A-C show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF525. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF525. (B) Fluorescence versus voltage for cells like in (A). (C) Fluorescence (top) compared with voltage (bottom, as measured with a whole-cell patch clamp pipette) from neurons like in (A) showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations.

[0028] FIGS. 14A-C show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF549. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF549. (B) Fluorescence versus voltage for cells like in (A). (C) Fluorescence (top) compared with voltage (bottom, as measured with a whole-cell patch clamp pipette) from neurons like in (A) showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations.

[0029] FIGS. 15A-C show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JFsss. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JFsss. (B) Fluorescence versus voltage for cells like in (A). (C) Fluorescence (top) compared with voltage (bottom, as measured with a whole-cell patch clamp pipette) from neurons like in (A) showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations.

[0030] FIGS. 16A-C show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (B) Fluorescence versus voltage for cells like in (A). (C) Fluorescence (top) compared with voltage (bottom, as measured with a whole-cell patch clamp pipette) from neurons like in (A) showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations.

[0031] FIGS. 17A-B show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing CiVSD-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing CiVSD-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (B)

Fluorescence traces from six regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons.

[0032] FIGS. 18A-B show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing CiVSD-cpHaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing CiVSD-cpHaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (B)

Fluorescence traces from three regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons. [0033] FIGS. 19A-B show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing DrVSD-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing DrVSD-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (B)

Fluorescence traces from four regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons.

[0034] FIGS. 20A-B show graphs and images illustrating fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron expressing GgVSD-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of rat hippocampal neurons in culture expressing GgVSD-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35. (B)

Fluorescence traces from five regions within the image from (A) showing voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons.

DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

[0035] The details of one or more embodiments of the presently-disclosed subject matter are set forth in this document. Modifications to embodiments described in this document, and other embodiments, will be evident to those of ordinary skill in the art after a study of the information provided in this document. The information provided in this document, and particularly the specific details of the described exemplary embodiments, is provided primarily for clearness of understanding and no unnecessary limitations are to be understood therefrom. In case of conflict, the specification of this document, including definitions, will control.

[0036] While the terms used herein are believed to be well understood by those of ordinary skill in the art, certain definitions are set forth to facilitate explanation of the presently-disclosed subject matter.

[0037] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which the invention(s) belong.

[0038] All patents, patent applications, published applications and publications, GenBank sequences, databases, websites and other published materials referred to throughout the entire disclosure herein, unless noted otherwise, are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0039] Where reference is made to a URL or other such identifier or address, it understood that such identifiers can change and particular information on the internet can come and go, but equivalent information can be found by searching the internet. Reference thereto evidences the availability and public dissemination of such information. [0040] As used herein, the abbreviations for any protective groups, amino acids and other compounds, are, unless indicated otherwise, in accord with their common usage, recognized abbreviations, or the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (see, Biochem. (1972) 11(9): 1726-1732).

[0041] Although any methods, devices, and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the presently-disclosed subject matter, representative methods, devices, and materials are described herein.

[0042] The present application can "comprise" (open ended) or "consist essentially of the components of the present invention as well as other ingredients or elements described herein. As used herein, "comprising" is open ended and means the elements recited, or their equivalent in structure or function, plus any other element or elements which are not recited. The terms "having" and "including" are also to be construed as open ended unless the context suggests otherwise.

[0043] Following long-standing patent law convention, the terms "a", "an", and "the" refer to "one or more" when used in this application, including the claims. Thus, for example, reference to "a cell" includes a plurality of such cells, and so forth.

[0044] Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, properties such as reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about". Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in this specification and claims are approximations that can vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the presently-disclosed subject matter.

[0045] As used herein, the term "about," when referring to a value or to an amount of mass, weight, time, volume, concentration or percentage is meant to encompass variations of in some embodiments ±20%, in some embodiments ±10%, in some embodiments ±5%, in some embodiments ±1%, in some embodiments ±0.5%, and in some embodiments ±0.1% from the specified amount, as such variations are appropriate to perform the disclosed method.

[0046] As used herein, ranges can be expressed as from "about" one particular value, and/or to "about" another particular value. It is also understood that there are a number of values disclosed herein, and that each value is also herein disclosed as "about" that particular value in addition to the value itself. For example, if the value " 10" is disclosed, then "about 10" is also disclosed. It is also understood that each unit between two particular units are also disclosed. For example, if 10 and 15 are disclosed, then 11, 12, 13, and 14 are also disclosed.

[0047] As used herein, "optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event or circumstance does or does not occur and that the description includes instances where said event or circumstance occurs and instances where it does not. For example, an optionally variant portion means that the portion is variant or non-variant.

[0048] The presently-disclosed subject matter includes voltage indicators and methods of measuring voltage with voltage indicators. In some embodiments, the voltage indicators include membrane-localized voltage-sensitive proteins coupled to enzymes engineered to capture small- molecule fluorescent dyes (FIG. 1). In one embodiment, these voltage indicators combine the brightness and photostability of small-molecule dyes with the genetic targetability of proteins. In another embodiment, these voltage indicators are formed from any suitable combination of dyes, voltage sensitive proteins, and capture proteins. In a further embodiment, the voltage indicators include different inter-domain linker lengths, topological variations, or combinations thereof. The various combinations allow for modulation of fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the dye, kinetics of the covalent capture protein, and kinetics of the voltage sensitive protein.

[0049] Suitable small-molecule fluorescent dyes include, but are not limited to, one or more fluorophore dyes. In one embodiment, the fluorophore dye includes a fluorophore containing one or more cyclic amine substituents. In another embodiment, the fluorophore dye includes an azetidine-containing Janelia Fluor™ dye. In a further embodiment, the Janelia Fluor™ dye includes one or more four-membered azetidine rings in place of the ubiquitous dimethylamino groups of existing fluorophores, forming small, cell-permeable fluorophores having increased brightness and photostability. Such Janelia Fluor™ dyes include, but are not limited to, Janelia Fluor™505, Janelia Fluor™525, Janelia Fluor™549, Janelia Fluor™585, Janelia Fluor™635, and combinations thereof (FIGS. 2A-F).

[0050] Suitable voltage sensitive proteins include, but are not limited to, one or more opsins, one or more other molecules including a voltage-sensing domain, or a combination thereof. For example, in one embodiment, the voltage sensitive protein includes a microbial opsin, such as, but not limited to, QuasAr2, Ace2N. In another embodiment, the voltage sensitive protein includes a Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing domain (CiVSD), Danio rerio voltage-sensing domain (DrVSD), Gallus gallus voltage-sensing domain (GgVSD), or a combination thereof.

[0051] Suitable capture proteins include any protein configured to bind a desired ligand. For example, in one embodiment, the capture protein includes a covalent capture protein. In another embodiment, the covalent capture protein includes, but is not limited to, HaloTag (FIGS. 2A-E), SNAP -tag (FIG. 2F), or a combination thereof. Other suitable covalent capture proteins include, but are not limited to, TMP-tag, pLac-tag, CLIP-tag, or a combination thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the capture protein may include a non-covalent capture proteins which capture, or bind, the desired ligand with non-covalent interactions. Suitable non-covalent capture proteins include, but are not limited to, certain TMP-tag, biotin-avidin, or a combination thereof.

[0052] The dyes, voltage sensitive proteins, and capture proteins discussed above

demonstrate the modularity and generality of the instant voltage indicator design. In some embodiments, this allows for modulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission

wavelengths of the dye, the chemical nature of the linker connecting the dye to the capture protein, the kinetics of the capture protein, and/or the kinetics of the voltage sensitive protein. For example, in one embodiment, the voltage sensitive protein QuasAr2 may be combined with the HaloTag or SNAP -tag capture protein, along with any suitable dye. In another embodiment, the voltage sensitive protein Ace2N may be combined with the HaloTag or SNAP -tag capture protein, along with any suitable dye. As will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art, the dyes, voltage sensitive proteins, and capture proteins discussed above are for illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the instant disclosure. Accordingly, voltage indicators including any suitable dye, voltage sensitive protein, and/or capture protein substitute are expressly contemplated herein.

[0053] The presently-disclosed subject matter also includes methods of measuring voltage using the voltage indicators. In some embodiments, the methods include administering the voltage indicators and measuring changes in fluorescence of the dye by any suitable method. The changes in fluorescence may be measured through any suitable method such as, but not limited to, observation with a microscope, image capture, video recording, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, the voltage indicators disclosed herein are substantially brighter and more photostable than existing GEVIs (FIGS. 3A-B). In another embodiment, the amplitude of the indicator response may be increased by shortening or eliminating the linker peptide between the voltage sensitive protein and the covalent capture protein. In further embodiment, shortening the linker peptide includes removing at least one amino acid residue therefrom. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the number of amino acid residues removed may be determined by the desired amplitude and/or the specific linker peptide. In certain embodiments, the number of amino acid residues removed is at least 1, up to all but 1, between 1 and 22, between 2 and 22, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18, 20, 22, or any suitable combination, sub-combination, range, or sub-range thereof.

[0054] The presently-disclosed subject matter is further illustrated by the following specific but non-limiting examples. The following examples may include compilations of data that are representative of data gathered at various times during the course of development and

experimentation related to the presently-disclosed subject matter.

EXAMPLES

[0055] The following examples describe properties of various chemigenetic voltage indicators according to the instant disclosure.

[0056] EXAMPLE 1

[0057] This example compares the fluorescence response of various QuasAr2-HaloTag voltage indicators having different length linkers connecting QuasAr2 and HaloTag. To form the different lengths, amino acid residues were removed from the linker. A total of 8 voltage indicators with different linker lengths were formed, including QuasAr2 -HaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 2), QuasAr2-HaloTag-4 (SEQ ID NO: 3 and SEQ ID NO: 4), QuasAr2- HaloTag-8 (SEQ ID NO: 5 and SEQ ID NO: 6), QuasAr2-HaloTag-12 (SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO: 8), QuasAr2-HaloTag-16 (SEQ ID NO: 9 and SEQ ID NO: 10), QuasAr2-HaloTag-18 (SEQ ID NO: 11 and SEQ ID NO: 12), QuasAr2-HaloTag-20 (SEQ ID NO: 13 and SEQ ID NO: 14), and QuasAr2-HaloTag-22 (SEQ ID NO: 15 and SEQ ID NO: 16). The number at the end of each voltage indicator reflects the number of amino acid residues that were removed from the linker. For example, QuasAr2-HaloTag-4 is a voltage indicator where 4 amino acid residues were removed from the linker, while QuasAr2-HaloTag-12 is a voltage indicator where 12 amino acid residues were removed from the linker.

[0058] The fluorescence of these voltage indicator was measure relative to ASAP1. As illustrated in FIG. 4, each different linker length provided a different size fluorescence response. [0059] EXAMPLE 2

[0060] In this example, the fluorescence of various JF549 labeled QuasAr2 containing voltage indicators was measured in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. In particular, FIGS. 5A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr-HaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 2) labeled with JF549 (FIG. 5A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons (FIG. 5B). FIGS. 6A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr2-HaloTag-16 (SEQ ID NO: 9 and SEQ ID NO: 10) labeled with JF549 (FIG. 6A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons (FIG. 6B). FIGS. 7A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr-cpHaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 17 and SEQ ID NO: 18) labeled with JF549 (FIG. 7A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons (FIG. 7B). FIGS. 8A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing QuasAr2-SNAP-Tag (SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO: 20) labeled with JF549 (FIG. 8A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons (FIG. 8B). FIGS. 9A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing HaloTag- QuasAr2 (SEQ ID NO: 21 and SEQ ID NO: 22) labeled with JF549 (FIG. 9A) and voltage- dependent fluorescence changes resulting from field electrode-induced depolarization of the neurons (FIG. 9B).

[0061] EXAMPLE 3

[0062] In this example, the fluorescence of Ace2N-HaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 23 and SEQ ID NO: 24) voltage indicators labeled with various fluorescent dyes was measured. As discussed below, changes in the cell membrane potential produced changes in the fluorescence of the dye when the indicators were tested in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and live zebrafish larvae.

[0063] In one study, the sensors disclosed herein were used to image fluorescence voltage signals from 12 neurons simultaneously in an awake, behaving larval zebrafish for several minutes continuously. More specifically, FIGS. 10A-D show the fluorescence from neurons in zebrafish larvae expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF525. FIG. 11 shows fluorescence response to voltage steps of Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF525 in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. FIGS. 12A-C show fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF505 (FIG. 12A), fluorescence versus voltage (FIG. 12B), and fluorescence compared with voltage showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations (FIG. 12C). FIGS. 13A-C show fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF525 (FIG. 13A), fluorescence versus voltage (FIG. 13B), and fluorescence compared with voltage showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations (FIG. 13C). FIGS. 14A-C show fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF549 (FIG. 14 A), fluorescence versus voltage (FIG. 14B), and fluorescence compared with voltage showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations (FIG. 14C). FIGS. 15A-C show fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JFsss (FIG. 15A), fluorescence versus voltage (FIG. 15B), and fluorescence compared with voltage showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations (FIG. 15C). FIGS. 16A-C show fluorescence of rat hippocampal neuron in culture expressing Ace2N-HaloTag labeled with JF 6 35 (FIG. 16A), fluorescence versus voltage (FIG. 16B), and fluorescence compared with voltage showing action potential spikes and subthreshold depolarizations (FIG. 16C).

[0064] EXAMPLE 3

[0065] In this example, the fluorescence of JF 6 35 labeled HaloTag voltage indicators was measured with various different voltage sensitive proteins. More specifically, FIGS. 17A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing CiVSD-HaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 25 and SEQ ID NO: 26) labeled with JF 6 35 (FIG. 17A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons (FIG. 17B). FIGS. 18A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing CiVSD-cpHaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 27 and SEQ ID NO: 28) labeled with JF 6 35 (FIG. 18A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons (FIG. 18B). FIGS. 19A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing DrVSD-HaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 29 and SEQ ID NO: 30) labeled with JF 6 35 (FIG. 19A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons (FIG. 19B). FIGS. 20A-B show the fluorescence of rat hippocampal neurons expressing GgVSD-HaloTag (SEQ ID NO: 31 and SEQ ID NO: 32) labeled with JF 6 35 (FIG. 20A) and voltage-dependent fluorescence changes resulting from spontaneous action potentials of the neurons (FIG. 20B).

[0066] All publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference, including the references set forth in the following list:

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[0067] It will be understood that various details of the presently disclosed subject matter can be changed without departing from the scope of the subject matter disclosed herein.

Furthermore, the foregoing description is for the purpose of illustration only, and not for the purpose of limitation.