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Title:
CHIRAL CATALYSTS AND EPOXIDATION REACTIONS CATALYZED THEREBY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1991/014694
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Chiral catalysts for enantioselectively epoxidizing a prochiral olefin are disclosed, together with methods of using such catalysts. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the catalyst is a salen derivative which has general structure (I).

Inventors:
Jacobsen, Eric N.
Zhang, Wei
Application Number:
PCT/US1991/001897
Publication Date:
October 03, 1991
Filing Date:
March 21, 1991
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
RESEARCH CORPORATION TECHNOLOGIES.
International Classes:
C07D301/12; B01J31/18; B01J31/22; C07B53/00; C07B61/00; C07C251/24; C07D303/04; C07D303/48; C07D493/04; C07D493/10; C07F7/08; C07F7/28; C07F9/00; C07F11/00; C07F13/00; C07F15/00; C07F15/02; C07F15/04; C07F15/06; C07F19/00; (IPC1-7): B01J31/00; C07F13/00
Other References:
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Volume 108, No. 9, issued 30 April 1986, SRINIVASAN et al. "Epoxidation of Olefins with Cationic (Salen)MnIII Complexes. The Modulation of Catalytic Activity by Substituents", see entire document.
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, Volume 104, No. 5, issued 03 February 1986 (Columbus, Ohio, US), MASAFUMI et al. "Analysis of the induction period and proposal of mechanism for the catalysis of 3-methylindole oxygenation by two isomers of N,N'-(1,2-cyclohexylene)bis(3-tert-butylsalicyl=ideneaminato)cobalt(II)", see page 513, column 1, Abstract No. 33700x, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1985, 33(6), 2195-203 (Eng.).
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Volume 112, No. 7, issued 28 March 1990, WEI ZHANG et al. "Enantioselective Epoxidation of Unfunctionalized Olefins Catalyzed by (Salen) manganese Complexes", see entire document.
Chemical Society of Japan, Bulletin, Volume 56, issued January 1983, HAJIME KANATOMI "The Dehydrogenation of Nickel(II) Chelates of rac- and meso-2,2'-(1.2,-Diphenylethylene) bis(iminomethylene)=diphenol and related compounds", see pages 99, 103 and 104.
Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 23, No. 16, issued 01 August 1984, MINELLI et al. "95 MoNMR Measurements of Dioxomolybdenum(VI) Complexes. 3. Inverse Halogen Dependence of the Molybdenum Chemical Shifts of (MoO2)2+ Complexes", see entire document.
Chemical Letters, No. 9, issued September 1986, NAKAJIMA et al. "Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides by Organic Hydroperoxides with Optically Active Schiff Base-Oxovanadium(IV) Catalysts", see pages 1483 and 1484. Also see figure 1.
Chemical Society of Japan, Bulletin, Volume 60, issued December 1987, OKAMOTO et al. "Effect of Catalyst on the Oxygenation of Styrene with BH4 and Molecular Oxygen", see entire document.
See also references of EP 0521099A4
Download PDF:
Claims:
WE CLAIM:
1. A chiral catalyst having the following structure: where M is a transition metal ion; where A is an anion; where n is either 0, 1, or 2; where at least one of XI or X.
2. is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, and Y6 are indepen¬ dently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halides, alkyls, aryls, and alkyl. groups bearing hetero atoms; where at least one of Rl, R2, R3 and R4 is selected from a first group consisting of hydrogen, CH3, and primary alkyls; where, if Rl is selected from said first group, then R.
3. and R.
4. re selected from a second group consisting of aryls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and alkyls bearing hetero atoms; where, if R2 is selected.from said first group, then Rl and R4 are selected from said second group; where, if R3 is selected from said first group, then Rl and R4 are selected from said second group; and where, if R4 is selected from said first group, then R2 and R3 are selected from said second group.
5. 2 The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein the transi¬ tion metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V, Ru, and Os.
6. 3 The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein the transi¬ tion metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Co.
7. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein the metal ion is Mn.
8. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein said first group consists of hydrogen and methyl.
9. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein said first group consists of hydrogen.
10. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein said second group consists of tbutyl and phenyl.
11. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein said second group consists of phenyl. 42 .
12. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein Rl is the same as R3 and R2 is the same as R4.
13. The catalyst..of Claim 9 wherein said first group consists of hydrogen and methyl.
14. The catalyst of Claim 9 wherein said second group consists of tbutyl and phenyl.
15. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein XI and X3 are independently selected from the group consisting of t butyl and phenyl.
16. The catalyst of Claim 12 wherein XI and X3 are the same.
17. The catalyst of Claim 1 wherein both XI and X3 are tbutyl.
18. A chiral catalyst having the following structure: where M is a transition metal ion selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V, Ru, and Os; where A is an anion; where XI and X3 are the same and are selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where X2, X4, Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrog _ halides, alkyls, aryls, and alkyl groups bearir_ _etero atoms; where Rl and R4 are the same and are either selected from a first group consisting of H, CH3, C2H5, and primary alkyls, or selected from a second group consisting of aryls, second alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and alkyls bearing hetero atoms; where R2 and R3 are the same and are either selected from said second group if Rl and R4 are selected from said first group, or selected from said first group if Rl and R4 are selected from said second group.
19. The catalyst of Claim 15 wherein the metal ion is manganese.
20. The catalyst of Claim 15 wherein said first group consists of hydrogen.
21. The catalyst of Claim 15 wherein said second group consists of tbutyl and phenyl.
22. The catalyst of Claim 15 wherein said second group consists of phenyl.
23. A chiral catalyst having the following structure: where M is a transition metal ion; where A is an anion; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; and where Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, Zl, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5, Z6, Z7, Z8, Z9, Z10, Zll, and Z12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halides, alkyls, aryls, and alkyl groups bearing hetero atoms.
24. The catalyst of Claim 20 wherein the transi tion metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V, Ru, and Os.
25. The catalyst of Claim 20 wherein the transi¬ tion metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Co.
26. The catalyst of Claim 20 wherein Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, Zl, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5, Z6, Z7, Z8, Z9, Z10, Zll, and Z12 are hydrogen.
27. The catalyst of Claim 20 wherein XI and X3 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
28. The catalyst of Claim 20 wherein XI and X3 are the same.
29. A chiral catalyst having the following structure: where M is a transition metal ion; where A is an anion; where n is either 0, 1, or 2; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Yl or Y2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Y4 or Y5 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where Y3 and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of H and primary alkyl groups; where either one or two of Rl, R2, R3 and R4 is hydrogen; where, if Rl is hydrogen, then R3 is a primary alkyl; where, if R2 is hydrogen, then R4 is a primary alkyl; where, if R3 is hydrogen, then Rl is a primary alkyl; and where, if R4 is hydrogen, then R2 is a primary alkyl.
30. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein the transi¬ tion metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V, Ru, and Os.
31. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein the metal ion is Mn.
32. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein Rl is the same as R3 and R2 is the same as R4.
33. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein XI and X3 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
34. The catalyst of Claim 30 wherein XI and X3 are the same.
35. The catalyst of Claim 30 wherein Yl and Y4 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
36. The catalyst of Claim 32 wherein Yl and Y4 are the same.
37. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
38. The catalyst of Claim 34 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are all the same.
39. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are all tbutyl.
40. The catalyst of Claim 26 wherein Rl and R4 are hydrogen and R2 and R3 are methyl.
41. A chiral catalyst having the following structure: where M is a transition metal ion; where A is an anion; where n is either 3, 4, 5 or 6; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Yl or Y2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Y4 or Y5 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where Y3, and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and primary alkyl groups; where Rl and R4 are trans to each other and at least one of Rl and R4 is selected from the group consisting of primary alkyls and hydrogen; and where the carbons in the (C)n portion have substituents selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, and heteroatoms.
42. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein the transi¬ tion metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V, Ru, and Os.
43. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein the metal ion is Mn.
44. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein Rl is the same as R4 .
45. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein XI and X3 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
46. The catalyst of Claim 42 wherein XI and X3 are the same.
47. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein Yl and Y4 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
48. The catalyst of Claim 44 wherein Yl and Y4 are the same.
49. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
50. The catalyst of Claim 46 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are all the same.
51. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are all tbutyl.
52. The catalyst of Claim 48 wherein Rl and R4 are hydrogen.
53. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein Rl and R4 are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and methyl. 50 .
54. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein Rl and R4 are hydrogen.
55. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein n is 4.
56. A chiral catalyst having the following structure: where M is a transition metal ion; where A is an anion; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Yl or Y2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Y4 or Y5 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where Y3, and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and primary alkyl groups; where Rl and R4 are trans to each other and at least one of Rl and R4 is selected from the group consisting of primary alkyls and hydrogen.
57. The catalyst of Claim 53 wherein the metal ion is Mn.
58. The catalyst of Claim 53 wherein Rl is the same as R4.
59. The catalyst of Claim 55 wherein Rl and R4 are hydrogen.
60. The catalyst of Claim 53 wherein XI and X3 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
61. The catalyst of Claim 57 wherein XI and X3 are the same.
62. The catalyst of Claim 53 wherein Yl and Y4 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
63. The catalyst of Claim 59 wherein Yl and Y4 are the same.
64. The catalyst of Claim 53 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are independently selected from the group consisting of tbutyl and phenyl.
65. The catalyst of Claim 61 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are all the same.
66. The catalyst of Claim 53 wherein XI, X3, Yl and Y4 are all tbutyl.
67. The catalyst of Claim 63 wherein Rl and R4 are hydrogen.
68. The catalyst of Claim 38 wherein Rl and R4 are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and methyl.
69. A method of enantioselectively epoxidizing a prochiral olefin with the use of a chiral catalyst comprising the steps of: providing a prochiral olefin; providing an oxygen atom source; providing the chiral catalyst of Claim 1, 15, 20, 26, 38 or 53, and reacting said olefin, said oxygen atom source, and said chiral catalyst under such conditions and for such time sufficient to epoxidize said olefin.
70. The method of Claim 66 wherein the prochiral olefin is selected from the group consisting of monosubstituted and cis 1,2 disubstituted olefins.
71. The method of Claim 66 wherein the prochiral olefin is a cis disubstituted olefin bearing a primary substituent on one side of the double bond and a secondary, tertiary, or aryl substituent on the other side.
72. The method of Claim 66 wherein the olefin is selected from the group consisting of: cisβmethylstyrene, dihydronaphthalene, 2 cyclohexenyl1,ldioxolane2,2* dimethylchromene, styrene, and propylene.
73. The method of Claim 66 wherein the oxygen atom source is selected from the group consisting of: NaOCl, iodosomesitylene, NaI04, NBu4I04, potassium peroxymonosulfate, magnesium monoperoxyphthalate, and hexacyanoferrate ion.
74. The method of Claim 66 wherein the oxygen atom source is selected from group consisting of: NaOCl and iodosomesitylene.
75. The method of Claim 66 wherein the oxygen atom source is NaOCl.
Description:
CHIRAL CATALYSTS AND EPOXIDATION REACTIONS CATALYZED THEREBY

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

The present application is a continuation-in- part of U.S. Patent Application No. 496,992 filed March 21, 1990 by the same inventors.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of asymmetric catalysis. More particularly, the invention relates to the field of organometallic catalysts useful for enantioselectively epoxidizing prochiral olefins. Several advances in catalysis of asymmetric group transfer have occurred in recent years. One such advance has been the discovery by K.B. Sharpless et al. of the epoxidation of allylic alcohols which provides access to enantiomerically pure synthetic building blocks. Unfortunatelv, Sharpless catalysis requires the presence of a specific functional group, namely an allylic alcohol, on the olefin to be epoxidized. Natu- rally, this requirement severely limits the variety of olefins which can be so epoxidized.

Some success has been achieved in asymmetric catalysis of unfunctionalized olefins. For example, K.B. Sharpless reported in 1988 that certain cinchona alkaloid derivatives were effective ligands in the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric dihydroxylation of trans- stilbene and various other olefins. This method provides a practical route to certain chiral diols, although cis olefins afford poor results.

There currently exists no practical catalytic method for the asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins. Some progress has been made in this area through the use of chiral porphyrin com- plexes. In particular, J.T. Groves et al. reported in 1983 the asymmetric epoxidation of styrene by a chiral iron porphyrin catalyst. Unfortunately, the Groves system suffers several disadvantages, namely, the porphyrin catalyst is relatively difficult to prepare, the system employs an impractical oxidant

(iodosylmesitylene) , proceeds to low substrate conver¬ sion, is limited to styrene derivatives, and achieves enantomeric excess (ee) values of less than about 50 percent. Given the broad synthetic utility of epoxides, a simple, reliable, and practical procedure for asymmetric epoxidation of simple olefins is clearly desirable.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly stated, the present invention is a chiral catalyst as well as a method of using said cata¬ lyst for enantioselectively epoxidizing a prochiral olefin.

In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, the chiral catalyst has the following structure:

wherein M is a transition metal ion, A is an anion, and n is either 0, 1, or 2. At least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of silyls, aryls, secondary alkyls and tertiary alkyls; and at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the same group. Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halides, alkyls, aryl groups, silyl groups, and alkyl groups bearing hetero- atoms such as alkoxy and halide. Also, at least one of Rl, R2, R3 and R4 is selected from a first group consisting of H, CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , and primary alkyls. Fur¬ thermore, if Rl selected from said first group, then R2 and R3 are selected from a second group consisting of aryl groups, heteroatom-bearing aromatic groups, secondary alkyls and tertiary alkyls. If R2 is selected from said first group, then Rl and R4 are selected from said second group. If R3 is selected from said first group, then Rl and R4 are selected from said second group. If R4 is selected from said first group, then R2 and R3 are selected from said second group.

In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, the chiral catalyst has the following struc¬ t re:

wherein M is a transition metal ion and A is an anion; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; and where Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, Zl, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5, Z6,.Z7, Z8, Z9, Z10, Zll, and Z12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halides, alkyls, aryls, and alkyl groups bearing hetero atoms.

In accordance with a third aspect of the invention, the chiral catalyst has the following structure:

where M is a transition metal ion and A is an anion; where n is either 0, 1, or 2; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Yl or Y2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Y4 or Y5 is selected from the

group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where Y3 and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and primary alkyl groups; where either one or two of Rl, R2, R3 and R4 is hydrogen; where, if Rl is hydrogen, then R3 is a primary alkyl; where, if R2 is hydrogen, then R4 is a primary alkyl; where, if R3 is hydrogen, then Rl is a primary alkyl; and where, if R4 is hydrogen, then R2 is a primary alkyl. In accordance with the fourth aspect of the present invention, the chiral catalyst has the following structure:

where M is a transition metal ion and A is an anion; where n is either 3, 4, 5 or 6; where at least one of XI or X2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of X3 or X4 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Yl or Y2 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms; where at least one of Y4 or Y5 is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms;

where Y3, and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and primary alkyl groups; where Rl and R4 are trans to each other and at least one of Rl and R4 is selected from the group consisting of primary alkyls and hydrogen; and where the carbons in the (C) portion have substituents selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, and heteroato s.

In accordance with the method aspect of the invention, the prochiral olefin, an oxygen atom source, and the chiral catalyst of one of the four aspects of the invention are reacted under such conditions and for such time as is needed to epoxidize said olefin.

The present invention has provided certain advantages. First, the catalysts of the present in¬ vention provide a means for catalyzing the enantio- selective epoxidation of mono, di, and tri-substituted olefins without the need for a specialized functional group on the olefin to interact with the catalyst. In other words, the catalysts of the present invention are particularly suited for catalyzing the asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins. This is in contrast to the prior art catalysts, such as the Sharpless catalyst, referred to above. Second, the preferred catalysts of the in¬ vention show remarkable enantioselectivity in catalyzing the epoxidation of cis, disubstituted olefins. See Example 1 below, where an ee of 85% was obtained with cis-β-methylstyrene when catalyzed with the most preferred embodiment of the first aspect. See also, the ee values for Example 12 which uses the most preferred catalyst of the fourth aspect of the present invention. As noted above, prior art catalysts have

not provided ee values over 40% for cis, disubstituted olefins.

Third, the catalysts of the present invention are relatively easy to synthesize, particularly as compared to the porphyrin systems disclosed in the prior art.

The present invention, together with atten¬ dant objects and advantages, will be best understood with reference to the detailed description below read in conjunction with the accompanying figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGURE 1 shows the generalized 2-dimensional structure of a catalyst of the first aspect of the present invention. FIGURE 2 shows the 2-dimensional structure of the most preferred catalyst of the first aspect of the present invention.

FIGURE 3 shows the generalized 2-dimensional structure of the catalyst of the second aspect of the present invention.

FIGURE 4 is a computer generated 3-dimension- al view of the most preferred catalyst of the present invention in its proposed oxo-intermediate state.

FIGURES 5A-5C are views similar to FIGURE 4 illustrating the steric hindrance believed to be re¬ sponsible for the high enantioselectivity observed in the epoxidation of one of the preferred substrates by the preferred catalysts of the present invention.

FIGURE 6 shows the generalized 2-dimensional structure of the catalyst of the third aspect of the present invention.

FIGURE 7 shows the generalized 2-dimensional

structure of a the catalyst of the fourth aspect of the present invention.

FIGURE 8 shows the 2-dimensional structure of the preferred catalyst of the fourth aspect of the present invention.

FIGURE 9 is a 2-dimensional representation of the theorized favored approach of a prochiral olefin to a preferred catalyst of the first aspect of the invention. FIGURE 10 is a 2-dimensional representation of the theorized favored approach of a prochiral olefin to a preferred catalyst of the second aspect of the invention.

FIGURE 11 shows 2-dimensional structures for various embodiments of the present invention with the numbering system used in Examples 8-16.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

As noted above, the present invention is a chiral catalyst as well as a method of using said cata- lyst for enantioselectively epoxidizing prochiral olefins.

The First Aspect of the Invention

FIGURE 1 shows the structure of the preferred chiral catalyst of.the first aspect of the present invention.

The preferred catalysts of the present inven¬ tion are salen derivative-based complexes of a metal ion. The term "salen" is used herein to refer to those ligands typically formed through a condensation reac- tion of two molecules of a salicylaldehyde derivative with one molecule of a diamine derivative. While salen

ligands are formed from ethylenediamine derivatives, propyl and butyl diamines may also be used to give analogous salpn and salbn derivatives. Salen deriva¬ tives are preferred and their general structure is shown in FIGURE 1 where n is 0 and is shown in FIG¬ URE 2.

As seen in FIGURE 1, the two nitrogens and the two oxygens are oriented toward the center of the salen ligand and thus provide a complexing site for the transition metal ion M. Preferably, this metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Ti, V, Ru, and Os. More preferably, the transition metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Co. Most preferably, the metal ion is Mn.

The selection of the anion. A, is not seen to be critical to the performance of the catalyst. Pre¬ ferably, the anion is selected from the group consist¬ ing of PF 6 , (aryl) 4 , BF 4 ,B(aryl) 4 , halide, acetate, triflate, tosylate, with halide or PF 6 being more preferred, and chloride being most preferred.

FIGURE 1 also shows the many sites available for substitution on the salen ligand. Of these sites, it is believed that Rl, R2, R3, R4, and XI, X2, X3, X4, Y3 and Y6 are the most important in this first aspect of the invention.

According to the first aspect of the invention, at least one of the XI and X2 sites, and at least ne of the X3 and X4 sites include a substituent selected from the group consisting of secondary or tertiary alkyl groups, aryl groups, silyl groups, and alkyl groups bearing heteroatom substituents such as alkoxy or halide. For reasons to be discussed below,

these will be referred to as "blocking" substituents. Preferably, it is the XI and X3 sites which bear one of these blocking substituents. More preferably, XI and X3 bear the same substituent, which substituent is most preferably a tertiary alkyl group, such as tertiary butyl. Preferably, When XI and X3 bear the blocking substituent, then X2 and X4 can be selected from a group of non-blocking substituents such as H, CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , and primary alkyls, most preferably, H. Alternatively, either three or four of XI, X2, X3, and X4 can be selected from the group of blocking substituents.

According to this first aspect of the invention, at least one and no more than two of Rl, R2, R3 and R4 are selected from a first group consisting of H, CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , and primary alkyls. For convenience, and consistent with the present theory to be discussed below, this first group will be referred to as the non- blocking group. If Rl is selected from the non- blocking group, then R2 and R3 are selected from a second group consisting of aryls, secondary alkyls, and tertiary alkyls. This second group will be referred to as the blocking group. If R2 is selected from the non- blocking group, then Rl and R4 are selected from the blocking group. Likewise, if R3 is selected from the non-blocking group, then Rl and R4 are selected from the blocking group. Finally, if R4 is selected from the non-blocking group, then R2 and R3 are selected from the blocking group.

Stated in other terms, this first aspect of the invention requires that, of the four sites available for substitution on the two carbon atoms adjacent to nitrogen, either one or two of these will include a substituent from the non-blocking group.

The invention also requires that the remaining sites include a substituent from the blocking group. In addition, it is a requirement that there not be two non-blocking substituents on the same carbon, and that there not be two non-blocking substituents on the same side on the two different carbons, i.e. not cis across the nitrogen.

Stated in yet another way, if there is only one non-blocking substituent, that non-blocking sub- stituent can be on any one of the four substitution sites, Rl, R2, R3, and R4, and the other three sites must include a blocking substituent. If, on the other hand, there are two non-blocking substituents, then they must be on different carbon atoms, and they must be trans to each other.

Preferably, the non-blocking substituent is either hydrogen or methyl, most preferably, hydrogen. Preferably, the blocking substituent is either a phenyl group or a tertiary butyl group, most preferably a phenyl group.

The substituents on the Y3 and Y6 sites af¬ fect the conformation of the ligand and thus have an influence on enantioselectivity in the epoxidation. Preferably, Y3 and Y6 are hydrogen, methyl, alkyl, or aryl. More preferably, they are hydrogen or methyl. Most preferably, they are hydrogen.

The Yl, Y2, Y4, and Y5 sites are seen to be less critical. Preferably, these sites are occupied by hydrogen, although these sites may also be occupied by substituents independently selected from the group con¬ sisting of hydrogen, Halides, alkyls, aryls, alkoxy groups, nitro groups.

FIGURE 2 shows the structure of the most pre¬ ferred catalyst of this first aspect of the present invention. As can be seen, the most preferred substituent at XI and X3 is a t-butyl group. Also, it is most preferred for the Rl and R4 sites to have the same blocking group, namely a phenyl group. In addition, it is most preferred to have the R2 and R3 sites occupied by a hydrogen. Finally, it is most preferred that the X2, X4, Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, and Y6 sites are also all occupied by a hydrogen.

While not wishing to be bound by any particu¬ lar theory, the following mechanism has been proposed to explain the remarkable enantioselectivity of the catalysts of the first aspect of the present invention. Referring to FIGURE 4, which is a 3-dimensional view of the R,R enantiomer of the most preferred catalyst in its proposed oxo-intermediate state, it is seen that, with important exceptions, the salen ligand assumes a generally planar conformation with the oxygen atom 11 being complexed with the Manganeses ion 13 and aligned on an axis generally perpendicular to this plane. The exceptions are the tert-butyl blocking groups attached at the XI and X3 sites 15 and 17 respectively, and the phenyl blocking groups attached at the Rl and R3 sites 21 and 23 respectively. Although hard to depict in two dimensions, the phenyl blocking group 23 at R4 is be¬ hind the phenyl blocking group 21 at Rl, while the R4 phenyl blocking group 23 is substantially above the plane of the catalyst and the Rl phenyl blocking group 21 is substantially below the plane of the cata¬ lyst.

FIGURES 5A-5C show the different transition orientations possible for a cis-disubstituted olefin.

namely cis-methyl styrene, which are possible during epoxidation of the double bond.

FIGURE 5A shows the favored orientation, i.e. the orientation with the least steric hindrance between the olefin and the blocking groups of the catalyst.

This orientation results when the double bond approach¬ es the oxygen atom from the front (as shown) . This orientation results in the formation of the 1R,2S enantiomer of the cis-β-methyl styreneoxide. FIGURE 5B shows an orientation wherein methyl styrene has been rotated 180 degrees thus bringing the phenyl group of the styrene closer to the t-butyl groups 15 and 17 at the XI and X3 positions. It is expected that steric hindrance between the phenyl group of the styrene 25 and the t-butyl groups 15 and 17 would disfavor this orientation.

FIGURE 5C shows an orientation resulting from the double bond approaching the oxygen atom from behind (as shown). This orientation results in the formation of the 1S,2R enantiomer of the cis-β-methyl styreneoxide. In this orientation the phenyl group of the styrene 25 is closer to the phenyl group 23 on the R4 site. Steric hindrance between these two phenyl groups would thus disfavor this approach from behind the oxygen atom, and thus disfavor synthesis of the 1S,2R enantiomer.

In contrast, the orientation shown in FIGURE 5A results from an approach from the front, i.e. the side where the Rl phenyl group 21 is below the plane of the catalyst, and thus not in the way. For this rea¬ son, the approach depicted in FIGURE 5A is sterically favored, and thus synthesis of the 1R,2S enantiomer is favored.

It should be borne in mind that, although the above-described mechanism accurately predicts the high degree of enantioselectivity observed in the catalysts of the present invention, the mechanism is at present only a theory. As such, the proposed mechanism should in no way limit the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

It is noted that synthesis of the 1S,2R enantiomer of the cis-β-methyl styreneoxide is favored by using the S,S enantiomer of the catalyst.

It is also noted that this most preferred catalyst has C 2 symmetry, i.e. it is identical when rotated 180 degrees. Consequently, whether the oxygen atom is aligned on the top of the catalyst as shown, or the bottom of the catalyst, the result is exactly the same.

In alternative embodiments, the catalyst has only approximate C 2 symmetry. In particular, as per the rules described above, the groups are positioned on R1-R4 so that when rotated 180°, the blocking groups are in the same place and the non-blocking groups are in the same place. Consequently, the enantioselectivity of the catalyst is maintained be¬ cause the oxygen can be complexed to either side of the catalyst while achieving roughly the same steric hin¬ drances which favor the approach of the prochiral olefin from one side.

In other alternative embodiments, the cata¬ lyst has only one non-blocking group. As a result, there is a favored approach only when the oxygen is aligned on one side of the catalyst. Thus, the enantioselectivity of the catalyst is maintained.

The Second Aspect of the Invention

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention, the chiral catalyst is made with a binapthyl diamine and has the following general structure (see also FIGURE 3) :

In this binapthyl embodiment, the transition metal ion M and the anion A are preferably selected from the same group as that discussed above with FIG¬ URE 1. Also as above, it is required that at least one of XI and X2 together with at least one of X3 and X4 are occupied by a group, selected group of blocking substituents consisting of secondary or tertiary alkyl groups, aryl groups, silyl groups, and alkyl groups bearing heteroatom substituents such as alkoxy or ha- lide. Preferably, it is the XI and X3 sites which bear one of these substituents. More preferably, XI and X3 bear the same substituent, which substituent is most preferably a tertiary alkyl group, such as tertiary butyl. The substituents on the Y3 and Y6 sites af¬ fect the conformation of the ligand and thus have an influence on enantioselectivity in the epoxidation. Preferably, Y3 and Y6 are hydrogen, methyl, alkyl, or aryl. More preferably, they are hydrogen or methyl. Most preferably, they are hydrogen.

The substituents Zl and Z2 affect the differ¬ entiation between the faces of the proposed metal oxo and thus have an influence on enantioselectivity in the epoxidation. Preferably, Zl and Z2 are hydrogen, ethyl, alkyl, silyl, or aryl. More preferably, they are alkyl or aryl groups.

The Yl, Y2, Y4, and Y5 sites on the catalyst of this second aspect are also seen to be less critical. As above, these sites are preferably occupied by hydrogen, although these sites may also be occupied by substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, Halides, alkyls, aryls, alkoxy groups, nitro groups.

As can be visualized, this binapthyl alterna- tive embodiment effects the same enantioselectivity as that of the preferred catalysts shown in the other fig¬ ures. In particular, the configuration of the binapthyl ligand provides for one of the napthyl groups to be above the plane of the catalyst and the other napthyl group to be below the plane of the catalyst, thereby favoring approach to the oxygen atom from one side.

The Third Aspect of the Invention

FIGURE 6 shows the structure of the third aspect of the present invention. In accordance with this aspect, the chiral catalyst has the following structure:

As with the first and second aspects, M is a transition metal ion selected from the group mentioned above, with Mn being the most preferred.

Likewise, A is an anion selected from the group mentioned above, with Cl being most preferred.

Also, n can be either 0, 1, or 2, with 0 being the most preferred.

As with the first and second aspects, there is a blocking substituent on either XI, X2 or both. This blocking substituent is selected from the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms. There is also a blocking substituent selected from the same group on either X3, X4 or both. Preferably, the blocking substituent are at XI and X3, more preferably they are the same group, most preferably tert-butyl.

As a point of difference with the first aspect, the third aspect requires a blocking substituent located at at least one of Yl and Y2, and at least one of Y4 and Y5. These blocking substituents are selected from the group as those for Xl-4, namely the group consisting of aryls, primary alkyls, secondary alkyls, tertiary alkyls, and hetero atoms. The importance of these "side" blocking substituents will be discussed below.

In this third aspect, substituents Y3 and Y6 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and primary alkyl groups. Preferably, Y3 and Y6 are hydrogen. Also in this third aspect, at least one of

Rl, R2, R3 and R4 is hydrogen. Where Rl is hydrogen.

R3 is a primary alkyl. Where R2 is hydrogen, R4 is a primary alkyl. Where R3 is hydrogen, Rl is a primary alkyl. Finally, where R4 is hydrogen, R2 is a primary alkyl. Preferably, Rl and R4 are both hydrogen and R2 and R3 are a primary alkyl. Most preferably, R2 and R3 are methyl.

As can be seen, the catalyst of this third aspect is similar to the catalyst of the first aspect with the exception that the third aspect requires blocking substituents at the side positions of the catalyst, i.e. on the Yl and/or Y2, and Y4 and/or Y5 sites. Also, either one or two of Rl, R2, R3 and R4 is required to be an hydrogen, with the remaining substituents at the R sites required to be primary alkyls in the defined arrangement. The importance of this configuration and the proposed mechanism for the catalyst of the third aspect is discussed below in connection with FIGURE 10.

The Fourth Aspect of the Invention FIGURE 7 shows the structure of a catalyst of the fourth aspect of the invention. This catalyst has the following structure:

In this embodiment, the transition metal, M, and the anion. A, are selected from the same groups as above with the same preferences.

Likewise, the substituents at XI, X2, X3, X4, Yl, Y2, Y4, and Y5 are selected from the same groups as in the third aspect described above with the same preferences. In other words, this embodiments requires blocking substituents at the "bottom" and "sides" as does the third aspect. Most preferably, XI, X3, Yl, and Y4 are all t-butyl.

The requirements and preferences for Y3 and Y6 are the same as with the third aspect. Preferably, Y3 and Y6 are hydrogen.

As can be seen, this catalyst of the fourth aspect of the invention includes a ring attached to the two nitrogen atoms, which ring is n+2 carbons long. In this catalyst, n can be 3, 4, 5 or 6. The carbons in the C n portion can have substituents selected from hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, and hetero atoms. Preferably, the substituents on the carb : s in the C portion are hydrogen.

In this fourth aspect, Rl and R4 are configured so as to be trans to each other. Also, Rl and R4 are selected from the g- up consisting of primary alkyls and hydrogen. Preferably, Rl and R4 are the same. Most preferably, both are Rl and R4 are hydrogen.

Conceptually, the carbons in the ring which are adjacent the carbons which in turn are adjacent the nitrogen atoms are attached to what were shown as the R2 and R3 sites in the third aspect (FIGURE 6). Thus, this fourth aspect is, in some respects, a subset of the third aspec w th the two ends of the n carbon

chain (a primary alkyl) being attached to the R2 and R3 sites.

One distinction between the third and fourth aspect is that the catalyst of the fourth aspect has Rl and R4 which can be either hydrogen or a primary alkyl.

FIGURE 8 shows a preferred catalyst made according to this fourth aspect of the invention. As can be seen, in this embodiment, the ring is a six- membered ring, that is, n=4. Also, Rl and R4, which are trans to each other, are hydrogen. XI, X3, Yl, and Y4 are all t-butyl. All other substituents are hydrogen.

FIGURES 9 and 10 illustrate the distinction between the mechanism proposed for the first and second aspects of the invention and the proposed mechanism for the third and fourth aspects.

FIGURE 9, representing the first and second aspects of the invention, shows the proposed favored approach of the prochiral olefin. Approach c is believed to be disfavored by the bulky t-butyl groups. Approach d is similarly unfavorable, due to the steric bulk of the phenyl groups on the catalyst. Approaches a and b are differentiated by the dissymmetry of the catalyst. As shown in the depicted embodiment, because the phenyl to the left is below the page and the phenyl to the right is above the page, it is predicted that approach b will be less favorable due to steric interactions between the olefin and the phenyl group. In the context of the more favored approach from the left (approach a), it is predicted that the more favorable approach of the olefin to the oxo group is such that the larger substituent on the olefin is oriented away from the t-butyl groups on the catalyst.

FIGURE 10, representing the third and fourth aspects of the invention, shows the proposed favored approach of the olefin when the catalyst has side blocking groups. It is believed that, because of the side t-butyl groups at Yl and Y4, the approaches a from the left and b from the right are disfavored. Likewise, because of the bottom blocking groups at XI and X3, the approach c from the bottom is also disfavored. Thus, approach d from the top is favored. In addition, because of the chirality of the catalyst, the orientation of the prochiral olefin is also influenced. As shown in this depicted embodiment, because of greater steric hindrance on right, the olefin is predicted to orient itself with the larger group on the left.

Because approach d is theorized to be the favored approach, the groups at Rl and R4 are limited to hydrogen and primary alkyls. In other words, it is believed that larger groups would block the approach d. It should be noted that, although the above discussion is consistent with the observed results, the proposed mechanism for all four aspects of the invention is only theorized at this point. Consequently, the explanation is not to be viewed as limiting the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

The preferred route to prepare the chiral catalysts of the present invention is a condensation reaction with the substituted salicylaldehyde and the substituted diamine. In general, quantities of these compounds are reacted in a 2 to 1 molar ratio in abso¬ lute ethanol. The solutions are refluxed typically for

1 hour, and the salen ligand is either precipitated in analytically pure form by addition of " water, or the metal complex is generated directly by addition of the metal as its acetate, halide, or triflate salt.

The following procedure is general for the preparation of:

The salen ligand is redissolved in hot absolute ethanol to give a 0.1 M solution. Solid Mn(OAc) 2 *4H 2 0 (2.0 equivalents) is added in one portion and the solution is refluxed for 1 h. Approximately 3 equivalents of solid LiCl are then added and the mixture is heated to reflux for an additional 0.5 h. Cooling the mixture to 0°C affords the Mn(III) complex 1 as dark brown crystals which are washed thoroughly with H 2 0 and isolated by filtration in =75% yield. An additional crop of material can be obtained by dropwise addition of H 2 0 to the mother liquor. Combined yields of catalyst are 89-96% for this step, and 81-93% overall from the optically pure 1,2-diphenylethylene diamine. Acceptable C, H, N, Cl, and Mn analyses of each of the catalysts have been obtained (±0.4%), although these vary according to the extent of water and ethanol incorporation in the powdery product. Enantioselectivities in the epoxidation reactions are invariant with different batches of a given catalyst, indicating that the solvent content of the catalysts

-23- does not influence its effectiveness.

Another example of the method of preparing the catalyst is described as follows: Most preferably, the starting diamine is R,R- or S,S-l,2-diamino-l,2- diphenylethane and the starting salicylaldehyde is 3- tert-butylsalicylaldehyde.

A solution of 2.0 mmol of 3-tert- butylsalicylaldehyde in 3 ml of absolute ethanol is added dropwise to a solution of 1.0 mmol of (R,R)-1,2- diamino-l,2-diphenylethane in 5 ml of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated to reflux for 1 h and then 1.0 mmol of Mn(0Ac) 2 4H 2 0 is added in one portion to the hot (60°C) solution. The color of the solution immediately turns from yellow to brown upon addition. It is refluxed for an additional 30 min and then cooled to room temperature. A solution of 10% NaCl (5ml) is then added dropwise and the mixture stirred for 0.5h. The solvents are then removed in vacuo and the residue is triturated with 50 ml of CH 2 C1 2 and 50 ml of H 2 0. The organic layer is separated and the brown solution was washed with saturated NaCl. Separation of the organic phase and removal of solvent resulted in a crude material which was recrystallized from C 6 6/C6-H,14. to give 0.938 mmol of 1 (93.8%). In accordance with the epoxidation method aspect of the invention, the prochiral olefin, an oxy¬ gen atom source, and the chiral catalyst are reacted under such conditions and for such time as is needed to epoxidize said olefin. The prochiral olefin can be selected from mono-substituteα, 1,1-disubstituted, cis-1,2-disubsti¬ tuted, trans-1,2-disubstituted, trisubstituted, and tetrasubstituted. Of these, the monosubstituted and

cis-l,2-disubstituted have shown the highest ee values. Preferably, the prochiral olefin to be epox¬ idized is selected from the group consisting of cis- disubstituted olefins, including cyclic olefins, bear- ing a sterically demanding substituent on one end and a smaller substituent on the other end. More preferably, the prochiral olefin is a cis disubstituted olefin with a primary substituent on one side of the double bond and a secondary, tertiary, or aryl substituent on the other side.

The prochiral olefin can also be selected from the group consisting of enamines, enols, and alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyls. More preferably, the prochiral olefin is selected from the group con- sisting of cis-β-methylstyrene, dihydronaphthalene, 2- cyclohexenyl-l,l-dioxolane, propylene, styrene and 2,2- dimethylchromene. Most preferably, the prochiral olefin is cis-β-methylstyrene.

The oxygen atom source used in the epoxida- tion reaction should be an oxidant which is relatively unreactive toward olefins under mild conditions. Pre¬ ferably, the oxygen atom source is selected from the group consisting of NaOCl, iodosylmesitylene, NaI0 4 , NBu 4 I0 4 , potassium peroxymonosulfate, magnesium mono- peroxyphthalate, and hexacyanoferrate ion. More pre¬ ferably, the oxygen atom source is selected from the group consisting of NaOCl and iodosomesitylene. For economic reasons, the most preferred oxygen atom source is NaOCl. The most preferred method uses NaOCl as the oxygen atom source. For convenience this method will be designated METHOD A. The most preferred details of METHOD A are as follows:

A solution of 0.05 M Na 2 B 4 0 7 10H 2 O (1.0ml) is added to a 2.5 ml solution of undiluted commercial household bleach (Chlorox) . The pH of the resulting buffered solution is approximately 9.5, and it is ad- justed to a pH of about 10.5 by addition of a few drops of 1 M NaOH solution. To this solution is added a so¬ lution of 0.02 mmol of the preferred catalyst and 1.0 mmol of cis B methylstyrene in 2.0 ml of CH 2 C1 2 . The two-phase mixture is stirred at room temperature and the reaction progress is monitored by capillary gas chromatography. After approximately 3 hours, 10 ml of CH 2 C1 2 is added to the mixture and the brown organic phase is separated, washed twice with 10 ml H 2 0 and once with 10 ml saturated NaCl solution, and then dried for 15 minutes over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 . The solution is filtered and solvent is removed under vacuum. The res¬ idue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel using a 20:80 mixture of CH 2 Cl.:hexane as the eluting solvent. Pure epoxide is isolated as a colorless liq- uid in 70% yield (0.70 mmol) by combination of the product-containing fractions and removal of solvent under vacuum. The optical purity of this material is determined to be 85% ee by the method described below. In a slightly less preferred embodiment, iodosylmesitylene is used as the oxygen atom source.

For convenience, this method is designated as METHOD B and has the following preferred details: A solution of 1.0 mmol of olefin, 8 ml CH 2 C1 2 and 0.04 mmol of the catalyst are stirred at room temperature as solid iodosomesitylene is added in 0.3 mmol portions at 15-30 minute intervals. Disappearance of starting olefin is complete after addition of 6 portions (1.8 mmol) of total iodosylmesitylene. Solvent is removed in vacuo.

the residue is extracted with hexane, and the mixture was filtered through Celite to remove catalyst and oth¬ er solids. Pure epoxide was obtained by flash chromatography (lOg Si0 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 /hexane 20:80 eluent) . Enantiomeric excesses are determined by IH NMR using Eu(hfc) 3 as a chiral shift reagent, or in the case of stilbene oxide by direct separation by HPLC on a com¬ mercial (Regis) covalently-bound leucine Pirkle column. Absolute configurations were assigned by comparison of άD with accepted literature values.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are provided by way of explanation and illustration. As such, these examples are not to be viewed as limiting the scope of the in- vention as defined by the appended claims.

Preparation of the Catalysts

Procedures for the Preparation of Chiral Salen Based Catalysts

Preparation of

(R,R)-l,2-Diphenyl-l,2-bis(3-ter-butylsalicylideamino)- ethane (2) .

A solution of 360.5 mg (-2.0mmol) of 3-ter- butylsalicylaldehyde in 3 ml of EtOH was added dropwise to a solution of 212.3 mg (1.0 mmol) of (R,R)-1,2- diamino-l,2-diphenylethane in 5 ml of EtOH. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 1 h and water (5 ml) was added. The oil that separated solidified upon standing. Recrystallization from MeOH/H 2 0 gave 485.8 mg (91%) of yellow powder, mp 73-4°C. IH NMR (CDC1 3 ) δ 1.42 (s, 18H, CH 3 ) , 4.72(s,2H, CHN=C, 6.67-7.27 (m, 16H, ArH) , 8.35 (s,2H, CH=N), 13.79 (s, 2H, ArOH) ppm; 13C NMR (CDC1 3 ) δ 29.3, 34.8, 80.1, 117.8, 118.5, 127.5, 128.0, 128.3, 129.6 130.1, 137.1, 139.5, 160.2, 166.8 ppm. Anal. Calcd. for C 36 H 4() N 2 0 2 . C, 81.17;H, 7.57; N, 5.26. Found: C,81.17; H, 7.60; N, 5.25.

((R,R)-1,2-Diphenyl-l,2-bis(3-tert-butylsalicylideamin- o)ethane)-manganese(II) Complex (3).

Under strictly air-free conditions, a solution of 64.0 mg (1.6 mmol) of NaOH in 2 ml of MeOH was added dropwise to a solution of 426. 1 mg (0.8 mmol) of (2) in 5 ml of EtOH with stirring under an atmosphere of nitrogen. A solution of 196.1 mg (0.8 mmol) of Mn(OAc) 2 -4H 2 0 in 3 ml of MeOH was added rapidly and the orange mixture was stirred for 24 hr. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was stirred with 5 ml of benzene and filtered to remove NaOAe. The filtrate was concentrated to about 1 ml and 3 ml of hexane was added. The mixture was cooled to - 30°C and the precipitate was collected by filtration to give 410.2 mg (87%) of orange powder. Anal. Calcd. for C 36 H 38 MnN 2 O 2 -(CH 3 OH)0.5; C,72.86; H, 6.70; N, 4.66. Found: C, 73.05; H, 6.76; N,4.39.

((R,R)-l,2-Diphenyl-l,2-bis(3-tert-butylsalicyliάe- amino)ethane)-manganese(III) Hexafluorophosphate ((R,R)-1).

A solution of 165.5 mg (0.5 mmol) of ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate in 2 ml of CH 3 CN was added dropwise to a solution of 292.8 mg (0.5 mmol) of (3) in 3 ml of CH 3 CN under N 2 . The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was triturated with 5 ml of hexane and filtered. The solid was then washed with hexane until the filtrate was colorless and dried under vacuum to give 360.5 mg (93%) of 1 as a brown powder. IR CH 2 C1 2 ) 2955, 1611, 1593, 1545, 1416, 1389, 1198, 841 cm-1. Anal. Calcd. for C 36 H 3B F 6 MnN 2 0 2 P«(H 2 0)1.5» (CH 3 CN)0.5: C, 56.93; II, 5.30; N, 4.57. Found; C, 57.11; H, 5.50; N, 4.50.

Preparation of:

The salicylaldedyde derivative (4) was prepared by the following sequence using well-established procedures in each step:

(R,R)-l,2-Diphenyl-l,2-bis(3-diphenylmetlylsilylsalic- ylideamino)ethane (5).

A solution of 348.3 mg (1.09 mmol) of (4) and 116.0 mg (0.546 mmol) of (R,R)-l,2-diamino-l,2- diphenylethane in 5 ml of ethanol was heated to reflux for 0.5 h. A bright yellow oil separated from the solution and it solidified upon standing. The mixture was filtered and the yellow solid was washed with 2 x 5 ml ethanol. The isolated yield of product pure by 1HNMR analysis was 416 mg (97%). 1HNMR (CDC1 3 ) 80.95 (s, 3H), 4.68 (s, 2H), 6.72-7.55 (m, 36H, ArH) , 8.37 (s,WH), 13.34 (s, 2H) ppm.

((R,R)-1,2-Diphenyl-l,2-bis(3-diphenylmetlylsilylsalic- ylideamino)ethane)-manganese(II) Complex (6) . Under strictly air-free conditions, a solution of 32.0 mg (0.48 mmol) of KOH in 2 ml of ethanol was added dropwise to a suspension of 195 mg (0.24 mmol) of (5) in 3 ml of ethanol with stirring. The heterogeneous mixture was stirred for 20 min, and solution of 51.5 mg (0.24 mmol) of Mn(OAc) 2* 4H 2 0 in 3 ml of MeOH was then added rapidly and the yellow- orange mixture was stirred for 8 hr. at room temperature then refluxed under N 2 for 4 hr. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was washed 5 ml of methanol, 5 ml of ethanol, and isolated by filtration. Yield of orange product was 188 mg (90%). This material was used in the next step without any further purification or analysis.

((R,R)-l 2-Diphenyl-l,2-bis(3-diphenylmetlylsilylsalic- ylideamino)ethane)-manganese(III) Hexafluorophosphate ((R,R)-1.

A solution of 72 mg (0.217 mmol) of ferro- cenium hexafluorophosphate in 2 ml of __H 3 CN was added dropwise to a solution of 188 mg (0.217 mml) of (6) in 3 ml of CH 3 CN under N 2 . ..The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The solid residue was then washed with hexane until the filtrate was colorless. The brown powder was dried under vacuum to give 201.3 mg (92%) of 7. Anal. Calcd. for C 54 H 46 F 6 MnN 2 0 2 PSi 2 »(CH 3 CN)1.5(H 2 0); C, 62.77; II, 4.85; N, 4.50. Found: C, 62.89; H, 4.47; N, 4.57.

Preparation of:

2,2*-Bis(3-tert-Butylsalicylideamino)-1,1'-Binaphthyl.

A solution of 725 mg (4.0mmol) of 3-tert- butyl-salicylaldehyde in 6 ml of EtOH was added dropwise to a solution of 569 mg (2.0 mmol) of (+)- 2,2'diamino-l,l-binaphthyl in 5 ml of EtOH. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 8 h and then volatile materials were removed under vacuum. The res¬ idue was purified by flash chromatography on 80 g Si02, using 20% CH 2 C1 2 in hexane as eluent. The mobile yel

low fraction was collected and solvents were removed under vacuum to give 725 mg (1.20 mmol, 59% yield) of the diimine as a yellow powder.

1,1'-Binaphthyl-2,2•-bis(3-tert-Butylsalicylideamino) manganese(II) Complex.

Under strictly air-free conditions, a solution of 2 mmol of KOH in 2 ml of MeOH is added dropwise to a solution of 1 mmol of 2,2'-bis(3-tert- butylsalicylideamino)-l,l'-binaphthyl in 5 ML of EtOH with stirring under an atmosphere of nitrogen. A solution of 1 mmol of Mn(OAc) 2 «4H 2 0 in 3 ml of MeOH is added rapidly and the orange mixture is stirred for 24 hr. The solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue was stirred with 5 ml of benzene and filtered to remove KOAc. The filtrate is concentrated to dryness to afford the Mn(II) complex as an orange powder.

1,1'-Binaphthyl-2,2*-bis(3-tert-Butylsalicylideamino)— manganese(III) Hexafluorophosphate.

A solution of 165.5 mg (0.5 mmol) of ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate in 2 ml of CH 3 CN is added dropwise to a solution of 0.5 mmol of 1,1'- Binaphthyl-2,2' bis(3-tert Butylsalicylideamino)- manganese(II) Complex in 3 ml in vacuo. The residue is triturated with 5 ml of hexane and filtered. The solid is then washed with hexane until the filtrate is colorless and dried under vacuum to give the Mn(III) salt as a deep green powder.

(d) Preparation of:

No precautions to exclude air or moisture were necessary in this procedure. A solution of 360.5 mg (2.0 mmol) of 3-tert butylsalicylaldehyde in 3 ml of absolute ethanol was added dropwise to a solution of 212.3 mg (1.0 mmol) of (R,R)-l,2-diamino 1,2-diphenylethane in 5 ml of ethanol. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 1 h and then 245.1 mg (1.0 mmol) of Mn(OAc) 2 *4H 2 0 was added in one portion to the hot (60°C) solution. The color of the solution immediately turned from yellow to brown upon addition. It was refluxed for an additional 30 min and then cooled to room temperature. A solution of 10% NaCl (5 ml) was then added dropwise and the mixture stirred for 0.5 h. The solvent was then removed in vacuo and the residue was triturated with 50 ml of CH 2 C1 2 and 50 ml of H 2 0. The organic layer is separated and the brown solution was washed with saturated NaCl. Separation of the organic phase and removal of solvent afforded crude material which was recrystallized from C 6 H 6 /C 6 H 14 to give 591 mg (0.938 mmol) of the chloride salt of 1 (94%). Anal. Calcd. for C 36 H 38 ClMnN 2 O 2 «(H 2 O)0.5: C, 68.63; H, 6.24; N, 4.45. Found: C, 69.01; H, 6.26; N, 4.38.

Procedure for the preparat_on of the most preferred catalyst of the fourth"aspect

(R,R)- and (S,S)-l,2,-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylide- a ino)eye1ohexane

(S.S) (BΛ

3,5-Di-t-butylsalicylaldehyde (2.0 equivalents) was added as a solid to a 0.2 M solution of (R,R) or (S,S) 1,2 diaminocyclohexane (1.0 equivalent) in absolute ethanol. The mixture was heated to reflux for 1 hr. and then H 2 0 was added dropwise to the cooled bright yellow solution. The resulting yellow crystalline solid was collected by filtration and washed with a small portion of 95% ethanol. The yield of analytically pure salen ligan obtained in this manner was 90-97%. Spectroscopic and analytical data for the salen ligand: X H NMR (CDC1 3 ) δ 13.72 (s, 1 H) , 8.30 (S, IH) , 7.30 (d, J « 2.3 Hz, IH), 6.98 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, IH) , 3.32 *(m, IH), 2.0-1.8 (m, 2H), 1.8-1.65 (m, IH) , 1.45 (m, IH) , 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.24 (s, 9H) . 13 C NMR (CDC1 3 ) : δ 165.8,, 158.0, 139.8, 136.3, 126.0, 117.8, 72.4, 34.9, 33.0, 31.4, 29.4, 24.3. Anal. Calcd for C J_ c oH5_,4N2O2: C, 79.07;

H, 9.95; N, 5.12. Found: C, 79.12; H, 9.97; N, 5.12.

(R,R)- and (S,S)-[l,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylide- amino)cyclohexane]-manganese(III) chloride.

The salen ligand immediately above is redissolved in hot absolute ethanol to give a 0.1 M solution. Solid Mn(OAc) 2 »4H 2 0(2.5 equivalents) is added in one portion and the solution is refluxed for 1 hr. Approximately 5 equivalents of solid LiCl are then added and the mixture is heated to reflux for an additional 0.5 hr. Cooling the mixture to 0°C and addition of a volume of water equal to the volume of the brown ethanolic solution to afford the Mn(III) complex as a dark brown powder which are washed thoroughly with H 2 0, and isolated by filtration in 81- 93% yield. Acceptable C, H, N, Cl, and Mn analyses of the catalyst have been obtained (±0.4%), but these vary according to the extent of water and ethanol incorporation in the powdery product.

Enantioselectivities in the epoxidation reactions are invariant with different batches of a given catalyst, indicating that the solvent content of the catalyst does not influence its effectiveness. Analytical data for this catalyst:

Anal. Calculated for C 36 H 52 ClMnN 2 0 2 *C 2 H.OH: C 67.19; H 8.31; Cl,5.22; Mn 8.09; N 4.12; Observed C 67.05; H 8.34; Cl 5.48; Mn 8.31; N 4.28.

Procedures for the Asymmetric Epoxidation of Olefins

Method A (NaOCl as oxygen atom source) :

A solution of 0.05 M Na 2 B4O7«10H 2 O (1.0 ml) is added to a 2.5 ml solution of undiluted commercial household bleach (Chlorox) . The pH of the resulting buffered solution is approximately 9.5, and it is adjusted to a pH of 10.5 by addition of a few drops of

1 M NaOH solution. To this solution is added a solution of 0.005 to 0.02 mmol of the " catalyst and 1.0 mmol of olefin in 2.0 ml of CH 2 C1 2 . The two-phase mixture is stirred at room temperature and the reaction progress is monitored by capillary gas chromatography. Reactions are complete within approximately 1-5 hours. After progress of the reaction is complete, 10 ml of CH 2 C1 2 is added to the mixture and the brown organic phase is separated, washed twice with 10 ml H 2 0 and once with 10 ml saturated NaCl solution, and then dried for 15 min over anhydrous Na 2 S04. The solution is filtered and solvent is removed under vacuum. The residue is purified by standard procedures using flash chromatography on lOg of silica gel using a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 /hexane as the eluting solvent. Pure epoxide is isolated by combination of the product-containing fractions and removal of solvent under vacuum. The optical purity of this material is determined by the method described below.

Method B (iodosylmesitylene as oxygen atom source)

A solution of 1.0 mmol of olefin, 8 ml CH 2 C1 2 and 0.04-0.08 mmol of the catalyst is stirred at room tem¬ perature as solid iodosomesitylene is added in 0.3 mmol portions at 15-30 minute intervals. Disappearance of starting olefin is complete after addition of 4 10 por¬ tions (1.2 to 3 equivalents) of total iodosylmesitylene. Solvent is removed in vacuo, the residue is extracted with hexane, and the mixture was filtered through Celite to remove catalyst and other solids. Pure epoxide is obtained by flash chromatography (lOg Si0 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 /hexane eluent) .

Enantiomeric excesses are determined by IH NMR using Eu(hfc) 3 as a chiral shift reagent, or in the case of stilbene oxide by direct separation by HPLC on a com¬ mercial (Regis) covalently-bound leucine Pirkle column. Absolute configurations were assigned by comparison of [α]D with accepted literature values.

Asymmetric Epoxidation of Representative Olefins with the most preferred catalyst of the first aspect.

Confiσ- Entry Olefin 8 Catalyst YieltT(%) ee(%) uration METHOD

"Reactions were run at 25°C unless otherwise noted. Isolated yields based on olefin.

*|τhe sign corresponds to that of [ α ]D.

Tleaction run at 5°C.

"Absolute configuration " not known.

The table above shows that the best enantiomeric excess values were observed with Examples 4, 5, and 6, i.e. cis disubstituted olefins. In con¬ trast. Example 7, a 1,1 disubstituted olefin, had the lowest ee values. Example 1, a trans disubstituted olefin, and Examples 2 and 3, monosubstituted olefins, had intermediate ee values.

Asymmetric Epoxidation of Representative Olefins with Catalysts from the first and fourth aspects of the invention.

T^e following Examples 8-16 were run the same as Examples _.-7, except that different catalysts were used. The key to the catalyst numbering system is found in FIGURE 11. As can be seen. Example 8 was made according to the most preferred embodiment of the first aspect. Examples 9-16 were made according to the fourth aspect, with the catalyst used in Examples 12-16 being the most preferred embodiment of the fourth aspect. It is also noted that all of Examples 8-16 were run with method B described above.

"Reactions were run at 0°C Isolated yields based on olefin. determined by T_ NMR analysis in the presence of Eu(hfc) 3 and by capillary GC using a commercial shiral column (J & W Scientific Cyclodex-B column, 30 m x 0.25 mm I.D. , 0.25 μm film) . All reactions were run in duplicate with both enantiomers of each catalyst. Reactions carried out with (R,R)-5 afforded epoxideβ with absolute configurations opposite to those in the table and with the same ee ' s (± 2%) . The sign corresponds to that of [α]D.

As shown in Examples 12-15 , the most preferred catalyst of the fourth aspect catalyzes the epoxidation of cis-di substituted olefins with excellent enantioselectiveness .

It should be noted that, although much of the discussion has involved the use of salen derivatives (made from ethylenediamines), salpn derivatives (made from propylenediamines) and salbn derivatives (made from butylenediamines) are also within the scope of the present invention. Certainly, these are considered to lie within the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.