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Title:
CLADDING ELEMENT AND DAM HAVING SUCH CLADDING ELEMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/088836
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Cladding element and dam having such cladding element Cladding element for a dam to protect it against erosion by the water against which the water dam forms a barrier, wherein the cladding element comprises a head part, a foot part and, located therebetween, a body part, wherein the head part and the foot part have a non-circular cross-section, viewed in a plane at right angles to a body axis X-X through the cladding element, wherein the or each unround cross section has at least one greatest inscribed dimension or long axis A1, and at least one smallest inscribed dimension or short axis A2, wherein the head part and the foot part are placed with respect to each other such that viewed in top plan view the long axes A1,A2 of the respective cross sections include an angle.

Inventors:
HJELDE, Hans, Gerardus (3826 PA Amersfoort, NL)
HUIS IN 'T VELD, Menno (3356 LK Papendrecht, NL)
Application Number:
NL2018/050728
Publication Date:
May 09, 2019
Filing Date:
October 31, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
VOLKERWESSELS INTELLECTUELE EIGENDOM B.V. (Podium 9, 3826 PA Amersfoort, NL)
BAGGERMAATSCHAPPIJ BOSKALIS B.V. (Rosmolenweg 20, 3356 LK Papendrecht, NL)
International Classes:
E02B3/14
Domestic Patent References:
WO1995032338A11995-11-30
WO2011108931A12011-09-09
Foreign References:
FR2678965A11993-01-15
US3990247A1976-11-09
NL2019840A2017-10-31
NL2019985A2017-11-27
NL2004345C22011-09-09
NL2011206C22015-01-27
US20020002523A12002-01-03
US5556230A1996-09-17
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JENSEN, C.M. (V.O, Carnegieplein 5, 2517 KJ Den Haag, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A cladding element for a dam to protect it against erosion by the water against which the dam forms a barrier, wherein the cladding element comprises a head part (101), a foot part (102) and, located therebetween, a body part (103), wherein the head part (101) and the foot part (102) have a non-circular cross section, viewed in a plane at right angles to a body axis X-X through the cladding element (100), wherein the or each unround cross section has at least one greatest inscribed dimension or long axis Ai, and at least one smallest inscribed dimension or short axis A2, wherein the head part (101) and the foot part (102) are placed with respect to each other such that viewed in top plan view the long axes Ai, A2 of the respective cross section include an angle.

2. The cladding element according to claim 1, wherein the body part (103) between the head part (101) and the foot part (102) has a double- curved surface (105) which preferably adjoins the unround cross sections of the head part (101) and the foot part (102).

3. The cladding element according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the body part between the head part (101) and the foot part (102) has at least one body cross section (106) which is substantially circular and has a diameter which is smaller than the length of the long axis Ai, A2 of at least one and preferably each of the cross sections of the head part (101) and the foot part (102), and is preferably greater than the length of the short axis of at least one and preferably each of the cross sections of the head part (101) and the foot part (102).

4. The cladding element according to claim 3, wherein the surface of the body cross section (106) is approximately equal to or smaller than the surface of the cross section of at least one of and preferably both of the cross sections of the head part (101) and the foot part (102).

5. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the outside surface (105), from each of the head part (101) and the foot part (102), has a concave curvature in the direction of a central portion of the body part (103), such that the cladding element has a waisted pillar shape.

6. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the cladding element has an upper and a lower end face, wherein a height of the cladding element measured between the end faces is

approximately equal to or greater than the length of the longest of the long axes of the cross sections of the head part (101) and the foot part (102).

7. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the head part (101) and the foot part (102) have a respective axial height Hioi and H102, and the body part has an axial height H103, wherein said axial heights H101 and/or H102 are 0 cm or more, and wherein the axial height H103 of the body part (103) is preferably considerably greater than the heights H101 and H102, for example, at least five times the sum of the heights H101 and H102 and/or, for example, at least ten times the greatest of those two heights H101 and H102.

8. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the head part (101) and the foot part (102) have a substantially elliptical or oval cross section and/or wherein the cross sections of the head part (101) and the foot part (102) are approximately equal to each other.

9. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the long axis Ai(ioi) of the cross section of the head part (101) and the long axis Ai(io2) of the foot part (102) mutually include an angle a, such that they are not parallel, wherein the angle a is preferably between for example 30 and 150 degrees, more particularly between 45 and 135 degrees and more particularly is about 90 degrees.

10. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the body part (103) has an outside surface (105) which smoothly connects the head part (101) with the foot part, and is preferably slightly waisted in side view.

11. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the cladding element is shaped such that two or more of such cladding elements, by at least the head parts (101) and/or the foot parts (102), can be placed closely against each other, preferably against each other, while of two cladding elements (100) arranged next to each other the outside surfaces (105) of the body parts (103) thereof extend at a small distance from each other or lie against each other along at least a bent line. 12. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the cladding element (100) is shaped such that in a condition placed against each other a foot part (102) of a pillar (100) is situated, viewed in a direction parallel to the body axis X-X, under at least one head part (101) of a pillar (100) arranged next to it, and preferably under at least two head parts.

13. The cladding element according to claim 12, wherein the cladding element is shaped such that if, with rows of cladding elements (100) placed closely against each other, a cladding element (100) is pushed and/or pulled up in axial direction, the foot part (102) of the respective cladding element (100) will be clamped between at least the outside surfaces (105) bending towards each other of two pairs of cladding elements (100) placed against the respective cladding element, the respective pillar (100) being thereby hindered from moving further up.

14. The cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein in placed condition in rows of cladding elements on a flank (202) of a dike body the body axis X-X extends approximately at right angles to the respective flank, so that the body axis X-X is inclined with respect to a horizontal plane V, as a result of which the cladding elements (100) are pressed against each other by gravity.

15. A dam equipped with the cladding element according to any one of the preceding claims, in particular a first cladding (3) substantially built up from cladding elements (100) according to any one of the preceding claims.

16. The dam according to claim 15, wherein the first cladding is arranged on a lower part of a flank (202A) of the dam, wherein an upper part of the flank (202A) is at least partly provided with a second cladding (4) which comprises rings (301) arranged in and/or on the surface of the cladding.

17. Cladding built up using a set of cladding elements according to any one of claims 1-14.

18. A method for making the dam according to claim 15, wherein the dam is equipped with cladding elements according to any one of claims 1- 14.

Description:
Title: Cladding element and dam having such cladding element

This patent application claims the right of priority from

NL2019840 and NL2019985, incorporated herein by reference.

This invention relates to a cladding element for a dam, such as a sea dike. A dike cladding which consists of a large number of such cladding elements is especially intended for protecting the dike body against erosion which is caused by water waves beating on the dike, in addition it can provide protection against erosion by water flow. The invention furthermore relates to a dike cladding comprising such cladding elements and a method for the formation of a dike cladding.

Dikes usually comprise a dike body, having a top surface and two flanks, at least one of which faces a body of water. At least this one flank facing the body of water is usually at least partly clad with a dike cladding which can consist of one or more cladding elements or at least can comprise such cladding elements. The or each flank then extends substantially between a toe and a crest of the dike, that is, between a lower end, near the water bed, and an upper end or top of the dike. The side or flank of the dike facing the body of water is exposed to wash and flow load from the body of water and should therefore be protected, for example against erosion. At least for this purpose, the dike cladding is applied.

A cladding element is for instance known from NL2004345 (Hill) or NL2011206 (Hill), with an angular shape of the cross section.

US2002/0025231 discloses a unit of attenuating elements with common base part. As a result, this unit cannot be handled by hand and does not conform to the shape of the underlying dike body. US5556230 discloses the alternate placement against each other of identical cladding elements which interlock by projections at different levels, so that moving up of an individual cladding element is hindered by its neighbours.

Traditionally, the dike cladding or part thereof may be formed from series of identical cladding elements placed next to and behind one another, whose top surfaces form a regular, for example sloping or inclined dike surface, with or without projections upwards. The top surfaces of the cladding elements may be more or less adjoining so that a closed dike surface is formed. It is preferred, however, for ample interspaces to be present between the top surfaces of the cladding elements to allow water to flow easily into and out of the dike cladding, so that the dike body functions better.

Traditional cladding elements have a complex shape which entails high production costs.

An important load to which a dike cladding must offer resistance is water pressure from below, which seeks to lift the dike cladding off the dike body. A widely applied remedy is to ensure there is sufficient open space between the cladding elements. This space can be wholly or partly filled with bulk filling material, such as hard core.

The object of the invention is many-sided and concerns, for example, one or more of the following points: optimum protection against water waves; low cost manufacture; long life; to be placed at the location of use simply and accurately one by one and/or in a unit of a large number of loose, identical cladding elements in a, for example two- or more- dimensional, pattern; provides an attractive appearance to the upper surface of the dike body; saving on material use; a dike cladding of low weight; optimum use of the green strength during production; use of the interlocking action of the cladding elements to provide resistance to upwardly directed forces acting in the height direction of the cladding element; suitable for making a dike cladding from set cladding elements, preferably in a repetitive regular, for example two- or more-dimensional pattern; suitable for making a dike cladding which in extreme situations, such as hurricane, possibly in combination with spring tide, is directly loaded by the blows of waves beating against the dike cladding; optimum capacity of settling, for example through minimization of friction with the substrate, for example slope; suitable for making a damage-tolerant dike cladding.

The cladding element is dimensionally stable and preferably made of initially form -free, preferably stony, material, such as concrete, preferably without reinforcement. The stony material preferably contains one or more of: binder, such as mineral binder (for example, cement) or polymer binder; aggregate, such as mineral aggregate, such as sand and/or gravel; a hardener; a plasticizer. The cladding element is preferably made by bringing hardenable, initially form-free material into the desired shape, preferably by pressing, for example, by pressing moist mortar in a mould. An alternative is to pour or dump the form-free material into a mould and, after hardening, to remove it from the mould. Pressing is preferred since the moulded article can be removed from the mould directly or virtually directly to harden further outside the mould, so that optimum use is made of the green strength.

The dike body can consist, for example, of loosely dumped earthy or stony material. The free upper surface of the dike body, or at least of the or each waterbody -facing flank directly exposed to the influence of the water, is preferably at least substantially formed by the upper surface of the dike cladding, in particular the upper sides of the cladding elements which protect the dike body against erosion by the waves. The cladding elements preferably clad the dike flank facing the body of water, preferably the portion of the dike flank that extends in the area which the rolling waves beat against during a heavy storm or hurricane and/or high tide or spring tide. The relevant portion of the dike flank preferably has an inclination of at least 10 (1:6) or 12.5 (1:5) or 15 (1:4) or 20 (1:3) degrees and/or at most 30 (1:2) or 35 (1: 1.5) or 45 (1: 1) degrees, for example about 20 (1:3) or 25 (1:2.5) or 30 (1:2) degrees with respect to the horizontal or an inclination of at least 1: 1.5 or 1:2 and/or at most 1:3 or 1:3.5 or 1:4 or 1:5 or 1:6, for example about 1:2 or 1:2.5 or 1:3 (x:y means: x units up, y units horizontally, so e.g. 1:2 means: 1 meter up per 2 meters horizontally).

The cladding elements can rest on a suitable support layer, such as a filter layer which contains, for example, a filter cloth and/or a hard core. Under the support layer which preferably runs parallel to the dike cladding is the dike body.

The cladding element is preferably columnar or pillar-shaped, for example, has a height that is greater than the width at the base and/or creates, viewed in height direction, an elongate or slender impression.

Preferably, it comprises a head part and a foot part and therebetween a body part. One or more of head part, foot part and body part, or height part thereof, can, in one or more of surface area of the cross section

perpendicular to the height direction, length or width, be as great as, greater or smaller, for example by at least 3% or 5% or 10%, and/or at most 10% or 15% or 20% or 30%, respectively, than the other one or two of these parts in the relevant dimension, which preferably applies to the head part with respect to the foot part or the body part, or height part thereof, with respect to the head part and/or the foot part. Head part and foot part, or lower half and upper half, can, in one or more of cross section, top plan view, side view, preferably be substantially identical in dimension and/or shape and/or symmetrical and/or be turned relative to each other, for example through at least 20 degrees, preferably substantially 90 degrees, preferably around the ascending body axis of the cladding element. In use of the cladding elements, the body axis may extend at an angle to a vertical line or may extend substantially vertically.

Preferably, the cladding element has one or more of the following: one or more of head part, body part and foot part has an elongate, such as rectangular or polygonal, oval or elliptical, main shape in top plan view or cross section with possibly flattened or truncated ends; the body part has a height part of substantially circular shape or square shape or a polygonal circle-like shape or an at least 10% or 25% less elongate, such as oval or elliptical, shape, which height part is situated preferably at the half height and/or which height part falls preferably within the length and/or within or outside the width of head part and/or foot part, preferably by at least 5% or 10% and/or at most 20% or 30%; two or more of head part, body part and foot part have a mutually substantially identical shape and/or dimension in cross section; a twisted or turned main shape, preferably through

substantially 90 degrees; one or both of head part and foot part has/have a horizontal surface, so that the inclination or slope of the top face of the dike cladding is substantially parallel to that of the top face of the dike body and, respectively, the cladding element stands with its height axis substantially perpendicular to the inclination or slope of the top face of the dike body on which the cladding element is placed; forms joints with neighbouring cladding elements in the unit; the joints are filled with incoherent filling material, preferably stony, such as broken stone, preferably of fine grading, may by way of alternative be filled with coherent material, such as bitumen bound aggregate; the joint has a non-prismatic shape; one or more of head part, foot part and body part pass substantially smoothly into each other and/or have a substantially smooth shape; a smooth or non-angular shape of the cross section; a substantially hourglass shape, viewed from the side and/or an upwardly narrowing and/or widening shape, depending on the horizontal viewing direction; a rectihnear body axis; in the dike cladding the body axis is substantially perpendicular to the substrate surface, such as the slope; at least 5 or 20 or 30 or 40 or 50 and/or at most 100 or 150 or 200 centimeters high, for example about 60 centimeters high; weight at least 40 or 60 or 80 and/or at most 120 or 140 or 160 kg, as about 115 kg; the head part has an upwardly upstanding edge, preferably peripheral, by which the cladding element can be seized by a laying machine; two or three of head part, body part and foot part run mutually parallel; one or more of the head part, body part and foot part have a substantially prismatic part, preferably at least 2 or 3 centimeters and/or at most 10 or 20 centimeters high;

a specific weight of at least 1400 or 2000 kg/m 3 , for example about 2400 kg/m 3 such as the specific weight of concrete; of the long axis of the oval, the length is at least 1.5 or 1.6 or 1.7 and/or at most 1.8 or 1.9 or 2, as

approximately 1.73 (the square root of 3) times the length of the short axis; the surface of the cross section is substantially constant along the height, while, in case a height part, for example of the head part and/or foot part, is truncated, the surface of the cross section of this height part is smaller by the sum of the surfaces of the omissions due to the truncation than that of a non-truncated height part, such as the circle at the half -height; viewed in height direction, the axial outside surface of the foot part passes via bent lines running in height direction into the head part, this holds preferably for any turned position of the sectional plane running in height direction, around the height axis of the pillar; the axial outside surface of the pillar is formed by surfaces curved in two directions (both in height direction and in lateral direction). The alternatives mentioned in this paragraph should not be construed as limiting in any way.

Possibly, head part and foot part are not parallel, for instance so that the height of the cladding element varies. The head part and/or foot part may be bevelled. In the case of non-parallel or bevelled, the dimensions and shapes mentioned here preferably relate to the head part and/or foot part as if parallel or as if not bevelled.

Cladding elements according to the invention are preferably placed side by side, as in rows and columns or a like pattern, with the cladding elements standing relatively close to each other. The shape of the cladding element ensures that an individual cladding element is retained by its neighbours, as a result of which its moving up out of the dike cladding is at least largely hindered. Preferably, loss of an individual cladding element, for example due to breakage, during heavy wave load will not lead to

progressive failure and the cladding elements will be able to partly take up the space cleared by the lost cladding element through an effect which resembles subsidence. The joint form between cladding elements preferably prevents filling material therebetween washing out readily and/or

preferably prevents a water flow between the cladding elements parallel to the flank, possibly apart from leakage losses, so that the water flow inside the dike cladding formed by the cladding elements preferably takes place exclusively or virtually exclusively in height direction of the cladding elements. The filling material, such as hard core, in the joints can increase the frictional force between the cladding elements, for counteracting their being pushed up by the water.

Being twisted or turned, at least, the pillar's creating the impression thereof, pertains for example to the characteristic axes of the cross section. For example, an oval or ellipse has a main axis and a subaxis and if turned 90 degrees the main axis of an oval head part runs parallel to the subaxis of an oval foot part. Being twisted or creating such an

impression pertains, for example, to a smooth or even transition from the head part, via the body part, to the foot part.

In the dike cladding formed with cladding elements according to the invention, preferably one or more of the following points apply: the cladding elements closely adjoin each other along their height so that the formation of a flow channel for water that runs parallel to the local dike surface is avoided; water can flow from above parallel to the height direction of the cladding elements along them and into and out of the space between the cladding elements; formed between the cladding elements are flow channels running in height direction which are substantially sealed with respect to each other and terminate at the top surface; a cladding element surrounded by neighbouring cladding elements on all sides front, back and side, bounds at one or more of the levels of its head part, foot part, body part or height part thereof, with its outer edge, around itself, at least four, five or six interspaces of essential dimension, each together with at least two or exactly three or four, neighbouring cladding elements; these interspaces are polygonal or star-shaped (polygonal and star-shaped are mutually

interchangeable terms here) with at least or exactly three or four angles or points (angles and points are mutually interchangeable terms here) and/or curved sides which are preferably curved towards the interior of the interspace; each interspace is part of a flow channel for water extending in height direction which is bounded by the outside surface of the cladding elements; a flow channel has a polygonal or star-shaped profile form with at least three or four angles or points and/or curved sides which are preferably curved towards the interior of the interspace; viewed downwards from the top surface of the dike cladding, two flow channels, preferably each of polygonal, as triangular, shape, meet in a common flow channel of preferably polygonal shape with a larger number of angles or points, preferably at least quadrangular shape, while preferably this common flow channel, viewed in downward direction towards the bottom face of the dike cladding, divides into two flow channels, preferably each of polygonal shape with smaller number of angles or points, such as triangular shape; a flow channel varies in profile form along the height of the cladding element from an initial polygon to a polygon with more or fewer angles or points and possibly then to the initial polygon again; a flow channel has a symmetrical shape, viewed in height direction, preferably with the plane of symmetry at the half-height of the cladding element, possibly with one half turned, as the head part with respect to the foot part; a flow channel has a gradually changing profile form, viewed in height direction; two for example

triangular and/or three-pointed flow channels which, viewed in height direction, pass into a common flow channel, face each other with an angle or point; a flow channel has, at the head part, a shape which has been turned around an ascending axis through at least 20 degrees, preferably

substantially 90 degrees and/or identical to the turned position of the head part with respect to the foot part, with respect to the foot part; two cladding elements which are next to each other adjoin each other seamlessly along substantially the entire height and/or support against each other, preferably make line contact via a preferably non-straight or bent contact line; the cladding elements are placed in parallel rows with preferably the adjacent row shifted in row length direction over at least 10% and/or at most 70%, preferably substantially 50%, of the length of a cladding element, or the head part or foot part thereof, in row length direction; the cladding elements, by one or more of their head part, foot part, body part or height part thereof, support against each other, preferably directly, so, for example, without intervention of joint material; the free space between the foot parts is substantially as great as that between the head parts; the cladding element is in an area which is above the average water line with calm weather and at most 4 or 5 or 6 meters above it and/or below an

intermediate berm which is above the level of the average waterline and below the level of the dike crest.

Height direction concerns the rectilinear direction from the head part to the foot part.

An embodiment not limiting the patent protection is represented in the accompanying drawing, in which:

Figs. 1 and 1A show in part a dam in a cross-sectional side view and in perspective view;

Fig. IB shows a perspective view of a test setup of a portion of a dam, in particular a dike;

Fig. 2 shows an elevation in perspective of a first exemplary embodiment of the cladding element;

Fig. 3 shows the representation of Fig. 2 halved;

Fig. 4 shows a second exemplary embodiment;

Fig. 5 shows a top plan view of the first exemplary embodiment;

Fig. 6 shows a detail of Fig. 2; Figs. 7-9 show a stretch of dike cladding in perspective, in each case represented from a different viewing angle;

Fig. 10 shows in top plan view the central plane of Fig. 7;

Fig. 11 shows an alternative to Fig. 10;

Figs. 12- 14 show a detail of Fig. 7;

Figs. 15- 17 show, in the representation of Figs. 12- 14, the detail for an alternative cladding element;

Fig. 18 shows a stretch of dike cladding in perspective, made from an alternative cladding element;

Fig. 19 shows in perspective the upper part of the dam of Figs. 1 and 1A;

Fig. 20 shows a detail of Fig. 19;

Fig. 21 is a photographic representation of a detail of the dike cladding based on Fig. 19;

Fig. 22 shows a view in perspective of an alternative dike cladding according to the invention;

Fig. 23 shows an individual ring in perspective;

Fig. 24 shows an alternative ring in perspective;

Fig. 25 shows various ring types in side view;

Fig. 26 shows two ring types as placed on the slope, in side view;

Fig. 27 shows in top plan view three rings in the dike cladding;

Fig. 28 shows a top plan view of an element for the stone setting;

Fig. 29 shows a top plan view of an alternative to the element shown in Fig. 28;

Fig. 30 shows a top plan view of a part of the dike cladding;

Fig. 31 shows a top plan view of alternative shapes of the ring; and Fig. 32 shows a portion of dike cladding in top plan view. In this description, the same or corresponding parts have the same or corresponding reference numerals. The embodiments shown and described are for illustration only and should not be construed as limiting the invention in any way. Many variants on them are possible.

In this description, wording such as 'substantially' and the like is to be understood to mean that small deviations are also covered thereby, such as, for example, though not limited to, at least deviations up to 20%, more particularly up to 15%, more particularly up to 10% of a given size or measure, also falling within the definition.

Figs. 1 and 1A show schematically a dam 200 in the form of a dike, further also called dike 200. In particular, Figs. 1 and 1A show a flank 202A facing a body of water 201. The dam comprises a dike body or dam body 203, made in a known manner from, for example, at least sand, clay and the like, and has on either side a flank 202A, 202B, of which one flank 202A faces the body of water 201.

The flank 201 A facing the water includes in the example shown a horizontal berm portion 1, for example approximately halfway the height H of the part of the dike 200 situated above the average waterline 2 of the body of water 201. The flank below this berm portion 1 is struck in

particular during storm by breaking waves and is covered by a cladding layer 3 of columnar or pillar-shaped cladding elements 100, herein also referred to as pillar 100. The flank 202A above the berm portion 1 is especially intended to prevent water overtopping the dike 200, so that no pillars are needed here and possibly a different type of cladding layer 4 can be applied, for example, with rings 301 to be further described hereinafter. Also shown are the toe 5 and the crest 6 of the dike 200. For example, the berm portion 1 is five meters and the crest 6 nine meters above the toe construction 5 which is at or below the level of the average waterline 2.

Fig. IB shows a photographic representation of a test setup on scale of a portion of a dam 200 according to the invention, in particular a flank 202A with berm 1, toe 5 and crest 6 and cladding layers 3 and 4. A cladding element or pillar 100 according to the invention preferably has a head part 101, a foot part 102 and an intermediate body part 103. A body axis X-X extends through the head part 101, foot part 102 and body part 103, and preferably intersects the head part 101 and foot part 102 in approximately the centre thereof. In Figs. 2-4, for example, the head part 101 and the foot part 102 have an axial height Hioi and H102,

respectively, and the body part has an axial height H103. In embodiments, the heights H101 and/or H102 can be 0 cm or more. If the heights H101 and/or H102 is/are 0 (zero) cm, the respective head part and/or foot part is formed by the respective upper and/or lower end face 120, 121. The height H103 of the body part 103 is preferably considerably greater than the heights H101 and H102, for example, at least five times the sum of those heights and/or, for example, at least ten times the greater of those two heights H101 and H102.

Generally, a cladding element or pillar 100 according to the invention is preferably characterized in that at least one of the head part 101 and the foot part 102, and preferably both, has a non-circular cross section, viewed in a plane at right angles to the body axis X-X. The or each unround cross section has at least one greatest inscribed dimension or long axis Ai, and at least one smallest inscribed dimension or short axis A2, as schematically drawn in Fig. 5 for elliptical or oval cross sections of a head part 101 and a foot part 102. In a cladding element 100 according to the invention the longest axis Ai(ioi) of the cross section of the head part 101 and the long axis Ai(io2) of the foot part 102 mutually include an angle a, such that they are not parallel. The angle a is preferably in a range between 30 and 150 degrees, more particularly between 45 and 135 degrees and more

particularly it is about 90 degrees, as shown in Fig. 5. The body part 103 has an outside surface 105 which smoothly connects the head part 101 with the foot part, and is preferably slightly waisted in side view. In embodiments, the body part 103, viewed axially between the head part 101 and the foot part 102, in particular approximately axially midway between the head part 101 and the foot part 102, can have an approximately circular cross section 106, transversely to the body axis X-X with a diameter or longest axis D which is shorter than the long axis Ai of at least one of the head part 101 and foot part 102, preferably shorter than each of those long axes Ai(ioi) and Ai(io2). Preferably, the diameter D is moreover longer than at least one of the short axes A2 and preferably each of the short axes A2(ioi)) and A2(io2) of head part 101 and foot part 102. A part 103A of the pillar 100 above said cross section 106 can be called an upper height part 103A, the part located below it the lower height part 103B.

As will be further elucidated hereinafter, the cladding elements or pillars 100 are preferably shaped such that they, as shown for example in Fig. 7, at least by the head parts 101 and/or the foot parts 102 thereof, can be placed closely against each other, preferably against each other, while two juxtaposed pillars 100 have the outside surfaces 105 of their body parts 103 extending at a small distance from each other or abutting against each other along at least a curved line. As is visible, for example, in Fig. 5 and Figs. 7-9 and 12- 18, this means that in placed condition a foot part 102 of a pillar 100 is situated, viewed in a direction parallel to the body axis X-X, under at least one head part 101 of an adjacent pillar 100, and preferably under at least two head parts.

As shown, for example, in Fig. 13, it holds that if a pillar 100 is pushed and/or pulled up in axial direction, in the direction as designated by the arrow P in Fig. 13, the foot part 102 of the pillar 100 will be clamped between at least the outside surfaces 105 bending towards each other of two pairs of pillars 100 placed against the respective pillar, thereby hindering the respective pillar 100 from being able to move further up.

During use, the pillars are preferably placed on a flank 202A of the dike body with their respective body axis X-X approximately at right angles to the respective flank, so that the body axis X-X is inclined with respect to a horizontal plane V. As a result, the pillars 100 are pressed against each other by gravity. The pillars can be placed loosely on a flank 101. Clearly, the pillars or cladding elements 100 can also be applied to substantially horizontal surfaces or bent surfaces, for example for cladding driving surfaces, such as roads or a berm 1 or crest 6.

The pillars 100 can for instance be placed in a layer of hard core or the like or directly on a substrate.

Fig. 2 shows such a pillar 100 and Fig. 3 shows the pillar 100 of Fig. 2 in cross section along a sectional plane running in height direction, that is, in the direction parallel to the body axis X-X, that is, in axial direction, which sectional plane comprises the body axis X-X and which, for example, also comprises the longest axis Ai(ioi) of the head part 101, so that a pillar halved along its height is visible. Viewed in height direction, the axial outside surface 107 of the foot part 102 passes into the head part 101 via bent lines running in height direction; this holds for every turned position of the sectional plane running in height direction, around the height axis X-X of the pillar 100. Consequently, the axial outside surface of the body part 103 of the pillar 100 is substantially formed by surfaces curved in two directions (both in height direction and in lateral direction). In other words, in every vertical cross section of the pillar 100 through the body axis X-X, the sectional plane (surface) V is bounded on two opposite sides by a bent line 105A, resulting in a double-curved outside surface 105.

Fig. 4 shows an alternative pillar of which the foot part 102 has a smaller dimension in comparison with that of the head part 103. The obverse is also possible. The cross section of the head part 101 of Fig. 4 has dimensions Ai(ioi) and A2(ioi) which are, for example, equal to those of Fig. 1, while the foot part 102 has smaller dimensions Ai(io2) and/or A2(io2), for example, the length is 5% shorter (Ai(io2))while, for example, the width (A2(io2)) is identical to that in Fig. 2.

Figs. 2-4 are on scale and the figures concern units of length, for example, centimeters. Thus, in Fig. 2, for example, the long axis Ai can be about 122 cm and the short axis A2 can be about 72 cm, while the height H100 of the pillar between the end faces 120, 121 can be, for example, about 120 cm. These dimensions merely serve for illustration and should not be construed as limiting in any way.

Fig. 5 schematically shows the top plan view of the pillar of Fig. 2.

The inscribed circle 106 is the shape of the cross section 106 of the pillar 100 at a height between the head part 101 and the foot part 102, for example in particular at about the half-height, while the ellipses 130, 131 respectively represent the cross section of the head part 101 and the foot part 102. The diameter D of the circle 106 is greater than the short axis A2 and smaller than the long axis Ai of the ellipse 107, 108 of the head and foot part 101, 102. The surface of the circle is, for example, approximately as great as the surface of the ellipses 130 and/or 131. Fig. 5 shows the full ellipse. In embodiments, the long ends, that is, the apex of the ellipse at the ends of the long axes Ai(ioi) and/or Ai(io2), are truncated as shown, for example, in Fig. 2. In the case where the ellipse is truncated, the surface of the ellipse can be smaller than that of the circle at the half-height, by an amount being the sum of the surfaces of the deletions through the truncation.

As Figs. 2-4 show, in the embodiment shown therein, adjoining the top and bottom surface 110, 111, respectively, are a head and foot part 101, 102 of a constant shape, so prismatic in shape, adjoining which, viewed in the direction of the half -height, that is, the axial middle 106 of the pillar 100, is a body part 103 with a double-curved surface 105 so that from the ellipse a smooth transition to the circular cross section 106 halfway the height is provided. The upper height portion 103A of the pillar 100 above the level halfway the height is preferably practically identical in shape and dimension to the lower height portion 103B below said level, though turned through 90 degrees around the ascending body axis X-X of the pillar.

Clearly, the included angle a can also be smaller or greater than 90 degrees. The pillar 100 is preferably substantially symmetrical according to two planes of symmetry extending mutually perpendicularly and parallel with the ascending body axis X-X, however, the lower half is turned 90 degrees relative to the upper half.

Fig. 6 shows the ascending curved line 105A which describes the outside surface 105 of the pillar 100 along the shortest path from halfway along the long outer side of the ellipse, that is, an end of the short axis A2(ioi) of the head part 101 to the outer side of the foot part 102 straight under it, seen in side view.

Fig. 7 gives an impression of the relative positioning of the pillars.

The associated circles 106 which describe the pillar shape at half height are also inscribed. Note that in this embodiment the pillars are mutually in contact throughout their height along an ascending contact line 105B. At the head and foot parts 101, 102 the pillars 100 bound between themselves star-shaped interspaces 111 with three points 112 and inwardly bent sides 113, and at the half height 106 they are star-shaped interspaces 114 with four points 115 and inwardly bent sides 116. These interspaces 111, 114 form upwardly extending flow channels 117 for water, which are sideways sealed from each other by the pillars 100, apart from relatively minor leakage gaps because of the pillars 100 not adjoining each other perfectly. Note how two three-pointed star-shape interspaces 111, proceeding towards the level at half-height 106, meet in the single four-pointed star-shaped interspace 114.

The pillars in the shown embodiment in for instance Fig. 7 stand in parallel, straight rows next to each other, along the long axis Ai of the head part 101. Each row in this embodiment has been shifted relative to an adjacent row, in the row direction, over one half of the long axis Ai of the head part 101. As a result of settling, the pattern may deviate somewhat from the straight line. While Fig. 7 shows a representation with a viewing direction oblique to the row direction, for Fig. 8 a viewing direction along the row direction has been used. For Fig. 9 yet another viewing direction has been applied.

Fig. 10 shows the pattern of the circular profile 106 halfway the height of the cladding elements 100 of the dike cladding of Figs. 7-9. At the top, left, in the drawing, a square has been inscribed whose angular points coincide with the centres of four circles grouped around a star-shaped interspace 114 with four points, which centres preferably coincide with the body axis X-X of each pillar 100. This applies to the whole pattern. Fig. 11 shows an alternative pattern according an equilateral triangle instead of a square. The relative positioning of head and foot parts 101, 102 changes accordingly.

Fig. 12 shows the cladding element 100 of Fig. 2 in the position turned through 90 degrees around the ascending body axis X-X. Fig. 13 shows the cladding element 100 of Fig. 12 surrounded by identical cladding elements 100 (only partly shown) as in the dike cladding of Figs. 7-9. Fig. 14 is the same representation as Fig. 13, but the cladding elements 100 have been omitted and the interspaces 111, 114 between the cladding elements 100 are now represented as bodies. From Figs. 13 and 14 together, the shape and the course of the interspaces 111, 114 is apparent. In height direction, a three-pointed star-shaped interspace 111 changes into a four- pointed star-shaped interspace 114, at a height between the head part 101 and the foot part 102, for example at the half -height 106 (only half of this four-pointed star is shown) which proceeds to divide into two mutually substantially parallel three-pointed star-shaped interspaces 111 (only one half of these two three-pointed stars is shown).

From Figs. 13 and 14 it is also apparent how the flow channel 117 formed by the interspaces and running in height direction has been turned at the head part 101 with respect to the foot part, as the head part 101 has been turned relative to the foot part 102. Figs. 15-17 show an alternative cladding element 100 with a recess 118 in the upper end face 110, for example in the shape of an oval or ellipse. At least, a ring 119 has been provided on or at the end face 110. Figs. 16 and 17 show representations comparable to Figs. 13 and 14, and the interspaces have a shape and course comparable to Figs. 13 and 14.

The representation of Fig. 18 relates to pillars whose circular cross section 106 at the half-height has a smaller diameter D in comparison with the pillar of Figs. 2-9, there is no line contact between the pillars 100 throughout the height now.

A pillar 100 according to the invention can be manufactured in any suitable manner, such as, for example, by casting, pressing or the like, and can be manufactured from any suitable material, such as, for example, concrete, concrete mixtures and the like, or from stone, or other water- and erosion-resistant materials.

In Figs. 19-32 a cladding 4 according to the invention for an upper part of a flank 202A of a dike body 200 is shown, which can be used in cooperation with the dike cladding 3, for example formed by cladding elements 100 as have been described hereinabove in particular with reference to Figures 2-18 for a lower part of the flank 202A, located proximal to the toe 5. The upper part of the flank 202A extends, for example, between the berm 1 and the crest 6 of the dike 200. This portion of the dike 200 is especially intended to prevent water overtopping the dike 200, and here a type of cladding layer 4 according to the invention is used. Also shown is the crest 6.

Fig. 19 shows in particular the upper part of the dam or dike 200, along which wave tongues wash and which is equipped with an upper dike cladding 4 according to the invention. The arrow L indicates the length direction of the dam 200, being the direction in which the dam 200 extends along the water 201. In Fig. 1 this is the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper. As Figs. 20 and 21 show, the upper dike cladding 4 comprises rings 301 which project above a stone setting 302 in which and/or on which the rings 301 are set. The rings 301 in this implementation keep a distance to all directly adjacent rings 301. In the embodiment shown in Figs. 20 and 21, the rings 301 are in mutually parallel, straight rows next to each other. The rows extend in the length direction L of the dam 200. The directly adjacent row in each case is shifted relative to an adjacent row in the direction of the row by one half of the diameter D301 of the rings 301. The row which, viewed from a row, is the second directly adjacent row, has the rings 301 in register again. As a result of settling, the pattern may deviate somewhat from the straight line.

In this description, ring 301 should be taken at least in the usual sense as a body formed by an edge 31 extending wholly or partly around an opening 313, which edge 31 encloses the opening 313 preferably at least through an angle of at least 200 degrees, more particularly at least 270 degrees and preferably between 270 and 360 degrees or wholly. A ring 301, as shown in the figures, can have a substantially circular shape, but may also be, for example, oval or elliptical, or may be, for example, polygonal, as shown, for example, in Fig. 31. A ring 301 according to the invention preferably has no bottom, though a bottom may be provided in

embodiments.

In the dike cladding 4 shown in Figs. 20 and 21, each ring 301, except at the boundaries of the dike cladding 4, is surrounded all around by six directly adjacent rings 301. This is also shown in Fig. 32, which shows three parallel rows of rings of the dike cladding, and the rings 301

designated with A are each surrounded all around by six directly adjacent rings 301. Clearly, other arrangements are possible, such as shown, for example, in Fig. 22 or differently still, for example, in staggered regular or irregular patterns. Fig. 22 shows an alternative where the rings 301, viewed in top plan view, form rows extending in length direction L of the dike body 200, within which the rings 301 keep a distance to each other, while each ring 301 of a row adjoins a single ring 301 of a directly adjacent row, so that with such an adjoining ring 301 an interspace is lacking or is so small as to entail a negligible influence on the flow of the wave tongue.

While Fig. 23 shows a ring 301 with a straight top 310, that is, having an upper surface 310 which is substantially at right angles to a central axis Y of the ring 301, Fig. 24 shows a ring 301 with bevelled top, that is, an upper surface 310 which is substantially at an angle 6 to the central axis Y of the ring, for example an angle between 90 and 30 degrees, more particularly between 87 and 45 degrees. The central axis Y is preferably approximately at right angles to the plane of the flank 202A on which the respective ring 301 is arranged. Fig. 25 shows different types of rings 301 which can be applied in the invention, with different angles of inclination of the upper surface 310 with respect to the axis Y. As is visible in Fig. 25, the ring 301 may be provided at the underside 311 with legs 312 by which the ring can be set in or on the flank 202A. However, the

underside may also be implemented without such legs.

If rings 301 are used with an inclined upper surface 310, preferably a high side of the ring 301 is placed farthest from the body of water 201, as in Fig. 26 the upper one of the two rings 301. Rings having differently- inclined upper surfaces 310 and/or inclined or non-inclined upper surfaces 310 may be combined in a dike cladding 4, as shown, for example, in Figs. 25 and 26.

Fig. 26 shows the rings 301 which are placed loosely on the substrate or flank 202A. The same preferably also applies to the stone setting 302 in which the rings 301 are embedded. The bottom surface formed by the bottoms of the rings 301 and stone setting 302 may be projectionless, as the projectionless, inclined upper surface of the dike body, which forms the dike flank 202A on which the dike cladding 4 has been placed.

In this description, stone setting should be understood to mean a covering of at least a relevant part of a surface of a flank 202A and/or B with stones 303, as for instance shown for illustration in Figs. 19, 20, 22 and 27-30, on which and/or in which the rings 301 have been placed. The stones 303 of such a stone setting may for instance have been laid loosely on the surface mentioned and lie against each other. The stone setting may for instance have been arranged on a filter layer on the flank, as schematically shown in Fig. 26.

The measurements given in Figs. 27-29 are in millimeters. These are shown for illustration only and should not be construed as limiting in any way. Fig. 27 shows circular rings 301, having, for example, an inside diameter (the diameter of the opening 313) of 1500 mm, and an outside diameter (the diameter of the outer circumference of the edge 314) of

1850 mm, which have been set down at a pitch (centre-to-centre) of 2325 mm. The rings 301 can have a height of, for example, between 50 and 600 mm, for example between 100 and 400 mm. These dimensions and measurements are mentioned for illustration only and should not be taken as limiting in any way.

Figs. 28 and 29 show, by way of illustration, examples of possible stones that can be used in a stone setting 302. The stone 303 of Fig. 28 is intended for inside the rings 301, in the opening 313, the stone 303A of Fig. 29 for in-between the rings 301. The stone 303 is, for example, to some extent pizza wedge-shaped and so large that, for example, six of such stones fill up a lower part of the opening 313, as shown in Fig. 30. Clearly, other dimensions may also be chosen, so that more or fewer stones can be placed in the opening 313. The stone 303A of Fig. 29 is substantially pentagonal in top plan view, having three substantially straight sides and two curved sides, so that between three rings 301 as shown in Fig. 27, three such stones 303A can be laid down in a closed relative arrangement. Clearly, in a similar manner, stones 303A can be shaped to fit between rings which have been laid down in a different relative arrangement. The stones can be formed from any suitable material, in any suitable manner, such as, for example, though not exclusively, by pressing from concrete.

Fig. 30 shows in a top plan view three rings 301 as in Fig. 27, with stones 303 in an opening 313 and a ring of stones 303A around one of the rings 301 and a part of such a ring of stones 303A around the other rings 301, from which it can be seen that, for example, two stones 303A are part of a second one of such rings of stones 303A. In this embodiment, the stones 303A are formed slightly differently, such that each flank thereof is provided with at least one notch, so that between flanks of the stones laid against each other an opening or channel is created.

Fig. 30 shows three rings 301 and a part of the stone setting 302 formed from stones 303, 303A. Fig. 31 very schematically shows an oval ring 301 which is not closed in circumferential direction, a quadrangular ring

301 and a hexagonal ring 301, as alternatives to the substantially circular ring of, for example, Figs. 19-29. Many shapes can be used for a ring 301 according to the invention, also including, for example, rings in rings.

The rings 301 according to the invention are preferably made of a relatively hard, erosion- and water-resistant material, such as, for example, concrete, and can be manufactured in any suitable manner, as, for example, by casting in a mould, by pressing or by a material-removing technique or combinations thereof.

In advantageous embodiments, the rings 301 and the stone setting

302 have been loosely formed and placed on the flank 202, that is, without use of adhesion means and the like. Due to their being placed on an inclined flank, the rings 301 and stones 303, 303A will be pressed against each other under the influence of gravity and, as a result, be firmly retained. As is apparent from the figures, a part of the stone setting, such as, for example, between and in the rings, may become grown.

Without wishing to be bound to any theory, it seems the rings 301 on the dike body, in particular on the flank 202A, offer the advantage that waves, in particular wave tongues that pass the lower part of the flank and the berm 1, are ruptured by their flowing into and out of, and between the relatively coarse, rough surface, formed by the rings 301, of the dike cladding 4. This takes the speed out of the water flowing in upward direction along the dike cladding 4 and simply and effectively hinders the water overtopping the dike, even at high water and storm. The water will flow over the edges 314 into and out of the openings 313 so that it is slowed down, and will also flow over the stone setting 302 between the rings 301. In this way, moreover, the effect that seems to occur is that backwash water is slowed down in the backwash direction and influences, in particular slows down, a new wave tongue.

In a dike according to the invention, a lower part of the flank 202A will preferably be clad with a dike cladding 3 that is well-resistant to fierce beating of the waves and wave load and erosion. In an advantageous further embodiment such a dike cladding 3 can comprise a setup of cladding elements or pillars 100, as described above, which can be set up in a relatively close packing, on a flank 202 or, for example, on a stone setting 302, which may for instance be implemented as described hereinbefore or in a different manner.

In a dam 200 according to the invention, on a flank 202A, preferably near a lower end thereof, that is, near the water surface 2, a first cladding 3 has been applied, substantially formed with cladding elements 100 which are placed relatively closely against each other, and, located higher on the flank, for example between the first cladding 3 and the crest 6, at least a second cladding 4 has been provided, built up using the rings 301 and preferably a stone setting 302. The measures disclosed herein can be individually taken together in any other conceivable combination and permutation to provide an

alternative to the invention. Also encompassed are technical equivalents and genera or generalizations of the disclosed measures. A measure of an example is also generally applicable within the framework of the invention. A measure disclosed herein, for instance from an example, may be straightforwardly generalized for inclusion in a general definition of the invention, for example to be found in a patent claim. For example, a shape may be angular instead of smooth or sloping.




 
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