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Title:
COCRYSTALS OF DIMETHYL FUMARATE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/205392
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein are cocrystals of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid or (+)-camphoric acid. Dimethyl fumarate is a prodrug of methyl hydrogen fumarate. The cocrystals have improved physicochemical properties and are used in treating multiple sclerosis and psoriasis.

Inventors:
MAO, Chen (100 North Whisman Rd, Apt. 911Mountain View, California, 94043, US)
CHILDS, Scott (749 Moreland Avenue SE, Suite A201Atlanta, Georgia, 30316, US)
KARABORNI, Sami (11258 Terra Bella Drive, Cupertino, California, 95014, US)
Application Number:
US2014/043483
Publication Date:
December 24, 2014
Filing Date:
June 20, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
XENOPORT, INC. (3410 Central Expressway, Santa Clara, California, 95051, US)
International Classes:
C07C65/05; A61K31/225; A61P17/08; A61P19/02; C07C61/06; C07C69/60
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005023241A12005-03-17
Foreign References:
US20100048651A12010-02-25
CN101318901A2008-12-10
US20070027076A12007-02-01
Other References:
MARKUS MEISSNER ET AL: "Dimethyl fumarate - only an anti-psoriatic medication?", JDDG: JOURNAL DER DEUTSCHEN DERMATOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT, vol. 10, no. 11, 1 November 2012 (2012-11-01), pages 793 - 801, XP055137911, ISSN: 1610-0379, DOI: 10.1111/j.1610-0387.2012.07996.x
VISHWESHWAR P ET AL: "Pharmaceutical co-crystals", JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, US, vol. 95, no. 3, 1 March 2006 (2006-03-01), pages 499 - 516, XP002443334, ISSN: 0022-3549, DOI: 10.1002/JPS.20578
SHAN N ET AL: "The role of cocrystals in pharmaceutical science", DRUG DISCOVERY TODAY, ELSEVIER, RAHWAY, NJ, US, vol. 13, no. 9-10, 1 May 2008 (2008-05-01), pages 440 - 446, XP022649919, ISSN: 1359-6446, [retrieved on 20080422], DOI: 10.1016/J.DRUDIS.2008.03.004
SHEIKH ET AL.: "Safety Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of BG-12 Administered with and without Aspirin, Key Findings from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Healthy Volunteers", POSTER P04.136 PRESENTED AT THE 64TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NEUROLOGY, 21 April 2012 (2012-04-21)
DAWSON ET AL.: "Bioequivalence of BG-12 (Dimethyl Fumarate) Administered as a Single 240 mg Capsule and Two 120 mg Capsules: Findings from a Randomized, Two-period Crossover Study", POSTER P913 PRESENTED AT THE 28TH CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR TREATMENT AND RESEARCH IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, 10 October 2012 (2012-10-10)
WOODWORTH ET AL.: "Pharmacokinetics of Oral BG-12 Alone Compared with BG-12 and Interferon p- a or Glatiramer Acetate Administered Together", STUDIED IN HEALTH VOLUNTEERS, POSTER P04.207 PRESENTED AT THE 62ND ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NEUROLOGY, 10 April 2010 (2010-04-10)
ETTER ET AL.: "The use of cocrystallization as a method of studying hydrogen bond preferences of 2-aminopyridine", J. CHEM. SOC., CHEM. COMMUN., 1990, pages 589 - 591
ETTER ET AL.: "Graph-set analysis of hydrogen-bond patterns in organic crystals", ACTA CRYSTALLOGR., SECT. B, STRUCT. SCI., vol. B46, 1990, pages 256 - 262
ETTER ET AL.: "Hydrogen bond directed co crystallization and molecular recognition properties of diarylgentisic acids", J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 112, 1990, pages 8415 - 8426
CARL HENRIK GORBOTZ; HANS-PETTER HERSLETH: "On the inclusion of solvent molecules in the crystal structures of organic compounds", ACTA CRYST., vol. B56, 2000, pages 625 - 534
SENTHIL KUMAR ET AL.: "Molecular Complexes of Some Mono- and Dicarboxylic Acids with trans-1,4,-Dithiane-1,4-dioxide", AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN, vol. 2, no. 4, 2002, pages 313 - 318
GOODMAN; GILMAN'S: "The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Tenth Edition,", 2001, MCGRAW-HILL PRESS, pages: 155 - 173
E. W. MARTIN: "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sixteenth Edition,", 1980, MACK PUBLISHING CO.
MROWIETZ; ASADULLAH, TRENDS MOL MED, vol. 11, no. 1, 2005, pages 43 - 48
MROWIETZ ET AL., BR J DERMATOLOGY, vol. 141, 1999, pages 424 - 429
TRACEY ET AL., PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, vol. 117, 2008, pages 244 - 279
LOWEWE ET AL., J IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 168, 2002, pages 4781 - 4787
WINGERCHUK, LAB INVEST, vol. 81, 2001, pages 263 - 281
VIRLEY, NEURORX, vol. 2, no. 4, 2005, pages 638 - 649
SCHIMRIGK ET AL., EUR J NEUROLOGY, vol. 13, 2006, pages 604 - 610
WAKKEE; THIO, CURRENT OPINION INVESTIGATIONAL DRUGS, vol. 8, no. 11, 2007, pages 955 - 962
ATREYA ET AL., JLNTERN MED, vol. 263, no. 6, 2008, pages 591 - 596
BARNES, PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS, vol. 56, no. 4, 2004, pages 515 - 548
CAMANDOLA; MATTSON, EXPERT OPIN THER TARGETS, vol. 11, no. 2, 2007, pages 123 - 32
BLANDINI ET AL., MOL. NEUROBIOL., vol. 12, 1996, pages 73 - 94
MARTIN, N ENGL J MED, vol. 340, 1999, pages 1970 - 80
ROWLAND; SCHNEIDER, NENGLJMED, vol. 344, 2001, pages 1688 - 1700
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WORRALL, Timothy A. et al. (POLSINELLI PC, 900 W. 48th Pl. Suite 90, Kansas City Missouri, 64112, US)
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Claims:
Claims:

1. A cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid.

2. The cocrystal of claim 1, having a molar ratio of dimethyl fumarate to gentisic acid of about 1 :2.

3. The cocrystal of any one of claims 1 to 2, having a DSC thermogram peak between about 114 °C and about 118 °C.

4. The cocrystal of any one of claims 1 to 3, which exhibits a characteristic scattering angle (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffractogram measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

5. The cocrystal of any one of claims 1 to 4, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2°, 12.0 ± 0.2°, 21.8 ± 0.2°, 23.8 ± 0.2°, and 27.7 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

6. The cocrystal of any one of claims 1 to 5, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2°, 12.0 ± 0.2°, 21.8 ± 0.2°, 23.8 ± 0.2°, 27.7 ± 0.2°, 16.8 ± 0.2°, 36.5 ± 0.2°, 8.0 ± 0.2°, 26.1 ± 0.2° and 15.9 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

7. The cocrystal of any one of claims 1 to 6, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2°, 12.0 ± 0.2°, 21.8 ± 0.2°, 23.8 ± 0.2°, 27.7 ± 0.2°, 16.8 ± 0.2°, 36.5 ± 0.2°, 8.0 ± 0.2°, 26.1 ± 0.2°, 15.9 ± 0.2°, 23.4 ± 0.2°, 24.4 ± 0.2°, 23.0 ± 0.2°, 31.9 ± 0.2°, 20.7 ± 0.2°, and 29.6 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

8. The cocrystal of any one of claims 1 to 7, which exhibits an X-ray powder diffraction pattern that is substantially same as FIG. 1.

9. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a cocrystal according to any one of claims 1 to 8 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

10. A method of treating a disease in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a cocrystal according to any one of claims 1 to 9.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the disease is selected from the group consisting of adrenal leukodystrophy, AGE-induced genome damage, Alexanders Disease, Alper's Disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, balo concentric sclerosis, Canavan disease, cardiac insufficiency including left ventricular insufficiency, central nervous system vasculitis, Charcott-Marie-Tooth Disease, childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination, chronic idiopathic peripheral neuropathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, diabetic retinopathy, graft versus host disease, hepatitis C viral infection, herpes simplex viral infection, human immunodeficiency viral infection, Huntington's disease, irritable bowel disorder, ischemia, Krabbe Disease, lichen planus, macular degeneration, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, monomelic amyotrophy, multiple sclerosis, myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, neuromyelitis optica, neurosarcoidosis, NF-κΒ mediated diseases, optic neuritis, pareneoplastic syndromes, Parkinson's disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, primary lateral sclerosis, progressive supranuclear palsy, psoriasis, reperfusion injury, retinopathia pigmentosa, Schilders Disease, subacute necrotizing myelopathy, susac syndrome, transplantation rejection, transverse myelitis, a tumor, ulcerative colitis or Zellweger's syndrome.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the disease is multiple sclerosis.

13. The method of claim 11 , wherein the disease is psoriasis.

14. A cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid.

15. The cocrystal of any one of claims 14 to 15, having a DSC thermogram peak between about 77 °C and about 95 °C.

16. The cocrystal of any one of claims 14 to 15, having a DSC thermogram peak between about 80 °C and about 98 °C.

17. The cocrystal of any one of claims 14 to 16, which exhibits a characteristic scattering angle (2Θ) at least at 15.6 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffractogram measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

18. The cocrystal of any one of claims 14 to 17, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.6 ± 0.2°, 15.4± 0.2°, 20.3 ± 0.2°, 16.0 ± 0.2° and 7.8 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffractogram measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

19. The cocrystal of any one of claims 14 to 18, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.6 ± 0.2°, 15.4± 0.2°, 20.3 ± 0.2°, 16.0 ± 0.2°, 7.8 ± 0.2°, 8.2 ± 0.2°, and 18.7 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

20. The cocrystal of any one of claims 14 to 19, which exhibits an X-ray powder diffraction pattern that is substantially same as FIG. 4.

21. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a cocrystal according to any one of claims 14 to 20 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

22. A method of treating a disease in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a cocrystal according to any one of claims 14 to 21.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the disease is selected from the group consisting of adrenal leukodystrophy, AGE-induced genome damage, Alexanders Disease, Alper's Disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, balo concentric sclerosis, Canavan disease, cardiac insufficiency including left ventricular insufficiency, central nervous system vasculitis, Charcott-Marie-Tooth Disease, childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination, chronic idiopathic peripheral neuropathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, diabetic retinopathy, graft versus host disease, hepatitis C viral infection, herpes simplex viral infection, human immunodeficiency viral infection, Huntington's disease, irritable bowel disorder, ischemia, Krabbe Disease, lichen planus, macular degeneration, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, monomelic amyotrophy, multiple sclerosis, myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, neuromyelitis optica, neurosarcoidosis, NF-κΒ mediated diseases, optic neuritis, pareneoplastic syndromes, Parkinson's disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, primary lateral sclerosis, progressive supranuclear palsy, psoriasis, reperfusion injury, retinopathia pigmentosa, Schilders Disease, subacute necrotizing myelopathy, susac syndrome, transplantation rejection, transverse myelitis, a tumor, ulcerative colitis or Zellweger's syndrome.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the disease is multiple sclerosis.

25. The method of claim 23, wherein the disease is psoriasis.

26. The cocrystal of claim 14, having a molar ratio of dimethyl fumarate to (+)- camphoric acid of about 1 :4.

27. The cocrystal of claim 26, having a DSC thermogram peak between about 80 °C and about 96 °C.

28. The cocrystal of either of claims 26 or 27, which exhibits a characteristic scattering angle (2Θ) at least at 15.5 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffractogram measured using Cu-Κα radiation.

29. The cocrystal of any one of claims 26 to 28, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.5 ± 0.2°, 16.1± 0.2°, 20.5 ± 0.2°, 31.2 ± 0.2° and 29.6 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffractogram measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

30. The cocrystal of any one of claims 26 to 29, which exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.5 ± 0.2°, 16.1± 0.2°, 20.5 ± 0.2°, 31.2 ± 0.2°, 29.6 ± 0.2° and 10.1 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Ka radiation.

31. The cocrystal of any one of claims 26 to 30, which exhibits an X-ray powder diffraction pattern that is substantially same as FIG. 8.

32. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a cocrystal according to any one of claims 26 to 31 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

33. A method of treating a disease in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a cocrystal according to any one of claims 26 to 32.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the disease is selected from the group consisting of adrenal leukodystrophy, AGE-induced genome damage, Alexanders Disease, Alper's Disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, balo concentric sclerosis, Canavan disease, cardiac insufficiency including left ventricular insufficiency, central nervous system vasculitis, Charcott-Marie-Tooth Disease, childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination, chronic idiopathic peripheral neuropathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, diabetic retinopathy, graft versus host disease, hepatitis C viral infection, herpes simplex viral infection, human immunodeficiency viral infection, Huntington's disease, irritable bowel disorder, ischemia, Krabbe Disease, lichen planus, macular degeneration, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, monomelic amyotrophy, multiple sclerosis, myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, neuromyelitis optica, neurosarcoidosis, NF-κΒ mediated diseases, optic neuritis, pareneoplastic syndromes, Parkinson's disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, primary lateral sclerosis, progressive supranuclear palsy, psoriasis, reperfusion injury, retinopathia pigmentosa, Schilders Disease, subacute necrotizing myelopathy, susac syndrome, transplantation rejection, transverse myelitis, a tumor, ulcerative colitis or Zellweger's syndrome.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein the disease is multiple sclerosis. The method of claim 34, wherein the disease is psoriasis.

Description:
COCRYSTALS OF DIMETHYL FUMARATE

Cross-reference

[001] This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of U.S.

Provisional Application Serial No. 61/838,016, filed June 21, 2013, and entitled "Cocrystals of Dimethyl Fumarate," which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Field

[002] Disclosed herein are novel cocrystalline forms of dimethyl fumarate.

Background

[003] Dimethyl fumarate refers to the dimethyl ester of fumaric acid. The compound has a molecular weight of 144.13 daltons and the following chemical structure:

[004] This compound is also known by the names Dimethyl (E)-butenedioate

(IUPAC), trans- 1 ,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester and (E)-2-Butenedioic acid dimethyl ester. The compound is also referred to by the acronym DMF. DMF can be synthesized according to the methods described in Chinese Patent Publication CN

101318901 A, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. The compound in crystalline form has a disclosed melting point of between 102 °C and 105 °C. Dimethyl fumarate is rapidly metabolized in vivo to monomethyl fumarate (MMF), and hence DMF is considered to be a prodrug of MMF.

dimethyl fumarate monomethyl fumarate [005] Fumaderm®, an enteric coated tablet containing a mixture of salts of monoethyl fumarate and dimethyl fumarate, was approved in Germany in 1994 for the treatment of psoriasis. Fumaderm® is dosed three times per day with 1-2 grams/day administered for the treatment of psoriasis.

[006] Tecfidera™, formerly called BG-12, is a delayed release (i.e., a capsule containing enteric-coated minitablets) oral dosage form of dimethyl fumarate. Tecfidera™ (dimethyl fumarate) was approved in the USA in 2013, and is dosed two times per day with 480 mg/day administered for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Details concerning the clinical testing of BG-12 are disclosed in Sheikh et al., Safety Tolerability and

Pharmacokinetics of BG-12 Administered with and without Aspirin, Key Findings from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Healthy Volunteers, Poster P04.136 presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, April 21-28, 2012, New Orleans, LA; Dawson et al., Bioequivalence of BG-12 (Dimethyl Fumarate) Administered as a Single 240 mg Capsule and Two 120 mg Capsules: Findings from a Randomized, Two-period Crossover Study, Poster P913 presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, October 10-13, 2012, Lyon, France; and Woodworth et al., Pharmacokinetics of Oral BG-12 Alone Compared with BG-12 and Interferon β-la or Glatiramer Acetate Administered Together, Studied in Health Volunteers, Poster PO4.207 presented at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, April 10-17, 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

[007] Cocrystals are crystals that contain two or more non-identical molecules that form a crystalline structure. The intermolecular interactions between the non-identical molecules in the resulting crystal structures can result in physical and chemical properties that differ from the properties of the individual components. Such properties can include, for example, melting point, solubility, chemical stability, mechanical properties and others.

Examples of cocrystals may be found in the Cambridge Structural Database and in Etter, et al, "The use of cocrystallization as a method of studying hydrogen bond preferences of 2- aminopyridine" J. Chem. Soc, Chem. Commun. (1990), 589-591; Etter, et al, "Graph-set analysis of hydrogen-bond patterns in organic crystals" Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B, Struct. Sci. (1990), B46: 256-262; and Etter, et al, "Hydrogen bond directed cocrystallization and molecular recognition properties of diarylgentisic acids" J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1990), 112: 8415-8426. Additional information relating to cocrystals can be found in: Carl Henrik Gorbotz and Hans-Petter Hersleth, "On the inclusion of solvent molecules in the crystal structures of organic compounds"; Acta Cryst. (2000), B56: 625-534; and Senthil Kumar, et al., "Molecular Complexes of Some Mono- and Dicarboxylic Acids with trans- 1,4, -Dithiane- 1,4-dioxide" American Chemical Society, Crystal Growth & Design (2002), 2(4): 313-318.

SUMMARY

[008] The present disclosure describes cocrystalline forms of dimethyl fumarate having improved physicochemical properties that may be used in pharmaceutical processing and in pharmaceutical compositions and therapeutic methods of treatment.

[009] In a first aspect, a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid, pharmaceutical compositions containing the cocrystal, and methods of administering the cocrystal to a patient for treating a disease, are provided. In a particular embodiment, the cocrystal has dimethyl fumarate to gentisic acid molar ratio of about 1 :2.

[0010] In a second aspect, a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid, pharmaceutical compositions containing the cocrystal, and methods of administering the cocrystal to a patient for treating a disease, are provided.

[0011] In one particular embodiment, the cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)- camphoric acid is of Form 1, which is isolated by a solution method as described herein.

[0012] In another particular embodiment, the cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)- camphoric acid is of Form 2, which is isolated by a milling method as described herein. In a particular embodiment, the cocrystal has dimethyl fumarate to (+)-camphoric acid molar ratio of about 1 :4.

[0013] Additional embodiments and features are set forth in part in the description that follows, and in part will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon examination of the specification, or may be learned by the practice of the embodiments discussed herein. A further understanding of the nature and advantages of certain embodiments may be realized by reference to the remaining portions of the specification and the drawings, which forms a part of this disclosure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014] In addition to the exemplary aspects and embodiments described above, further aspects and embodiments will become apparent by reference to the drawings and by study of the following descriptions.

[0015] FIG. 1 is an X-ray powder diffractogram of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid.

[0016] FIG. 2 is a spectrogram showing the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral pattern of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid.

[0017] FIG. 3 is a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram of dimethyl fumarate (upper), a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid (middle), and gentisic acid (lower).

[0018] FIG. 4 is an X-ray powder diffractogram of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 1 , isolated from solution.

[0019] FIG. 5 is a spectrogram showing the NMR spectral pattern of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 1 , isolated from solution.

[0020] FIG. 6 is a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, measured using a crimped pan, of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 1 , isolated from solution.

[0021] FIG. 7 is a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, measured using an open pan, of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 1 , isolated from solution. [0022] FIG. 8 is an X-ray powder diffractogram of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 2, isolated from milling.

[0023] FIG. 9 is a spectrogram showing the NMR spectral pattern of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 2, isolated from milling.

[0024] FIG. 10 is a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, measured using a crimped pan, of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 2, isolated from milling.

[0025] FIG. 11 is a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, measured using an open pan, of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 2, isolated from milling.

[0026] FIG. 12 is a thermogravimetric (TGA) thermogram, measured using an open pan, of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid.

[0027] FIG. 13 is a thermogravimetric (TGA) thermogram, measured using an open pan, of a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid form 2, isolated from milling.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Definitions

[0028] The present disclosure may be understood by reference to the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the drawings as described above. It is noted that, for purposes of illustrative clarity, certain elements in various drawings may not be drawn to scale, may be represented schematically or conceptually, or otherwise may not correspond exactly to certain physical configurations of embodiments.

[0029] The term "Monomethyl fumarate" refers to the monomethyl ester of fumaric acid. The compound has the following chemical structure: and has a molecular weight of 130.10 daltons. The compound is also commonly referred to as 2(E)-Butenedioic acid 1 -methyl ester, (2E)-4-Methoxy-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid;

Fumaric acid hydrogen 1 -methyl ester; (2E)-2-Butenedioic acid 1 -methyl ester; (E)-2- Butenedioic acid monomethyl ester; Monomethyl trans-ethylene-l,2-dicarboxylate; and methyl hydrogen fumarate. The compound is also referred to herein and elsewhere by the acronyms MMF and/or MHF.

[0030] The term "guest" as described herein refers to a compound other than dimethyl fumarate that is also a component of the cocrystal. Thus, the guest is part of the cocrystalline lattice. The guest is typically a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compound and need not exhibit any therapeutic or pharmacological activity of its own. The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) database is a useful source for toxicology information, and the GRAS list maintained by the RTECS contains about 2,500 relevant compounds that may be used in the generation of one or more cocrystals.

Cocrystals

[0031] Dimethyl fumarate is a prodrug of methyl hydrogen fumarate. Once administered, the compound is metabolized in vivo into an active metabolite, namely, methyl hydrogen fumarate (MHF) which is also referred to herein as monomethyl fumarate (MMF). The in vivo metabolism of dimeth l fumarate to MHF is illustrated below:

Dimethyl fumarate Methyl hydrogen fumarate Methanol

[0032] The present disclosure is directed to cocrystals of dimethyl fumarate. [0033] By cocrystallizing the dimethyl fumarate with a guest, a new crystalline solid form is created having different properties from the dimethyl fumarate or the guest. For example, a cocrystal may have a different melting point, dissolution, solubility,

hygroscopicity, bioavailability, toxicity, crystal morphology, density, loading volume, compressibility, physical stability, chemical stability, shelf life, taste, production costs, and/or manufacturing method than the crystalline prodrug.

[0034] Two different cocrystals of dimethyl fumarate are disclosed herein. The first is a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid. Other names for gentisic acid include 2,5- Dihydroxybenzoic acid (IUPAC); 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid; 5-Hydroxysalicylic acid; Gentianic acid; Carboxyhydroquinone; 2,5-Dioxybenzoic acid; and

Hydroquinonecarboxylic acid. Gentisic acid has the following chemical structure:

Gentisic Acid

[0035] Gentisic acid is a dihydroxybenzoic acid produced by carboxylation of hydroquinone. Gentisic acid is readily oxidized and is used as an antioxidant excipient in some pharmaceutical preparations.

[0036] The second is a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid. Other names for (+)-camphoric acid include (1R, J5)-l,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-l,3-dicarboxylic acid (IUPAC); and acidum camphoricum. (+)-camphoric acid has the following chemical structure:

Camphoric Acid [0037] (+)-Camphoric acid is a white crystallisable substance obtained from the oxidation of camphor. It exists in three optically different forms; the dextrorotatory one is obtained by the oxidation of dextrorotatory camphor and is used in pharmaceuticals as a local antiseptic and to paralyze the nerve endings in sweat glands.

[0038] Two unique but structurally similar polymorph forms, cocrystal Form 1 and cocrystal Form 2, of dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal are isolated using methods described herein.

[0039] The melting points and water solubilities of dimethyl fumarate-gentisic acid cocrystal, crystalline dimethyl fumarate, and gentisic acid are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Melting Point of DMF and Cocrystals of DMF and Gentisic Acid

[0040] As can be seen from the data in Table 1 , the DMF-gentisic acid cocrystals exhibit a higher melting point than crystalline dimethyl fumarate.

[0041] Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. DSC data shows differential heat flow plotted against temperature. As a sample undergoes a thermal event, it is effectively altering the heat flow due to the latent heat associated with the thermal event, which is then reflected as a peak or a shift in baseline. DSC can be used to characterize thermal properties of cocrystals, such as melting temperature or heat of fusion. Therefore, the melting point of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals disclosed herein can be characterized by DSC. [0042] In addition to melting point, there are other techniques that are commonly used to identify a cocrystal. For example, the chemical identity of the components of

13 1

cocrystals can often be determined with solution-state techniques such as "C or H NMR. However, while these solution-state techniques may help identify the prodrug and the guest, they do not provide any information about the cocrystalline solid-state structure. There are, however, several solid-state analytical techniques that can be used to provide information about solid-state structure including, for example, single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-

13

ray diffraction, solid state C NMR, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal techniques. Neither X-ray powder diffraction nor Raman spectroscopy themselves give direct data on the stoichiometry of the components which make up a cocrystal. There are techniques, however, that do provide such information. For example, single crystal X-ray diffraction gives a three- dimensional map of the atoms and bonds in the unit cell, thus directly providing the stoichiometry within the cocrystal and the precise stoichiometry within the unit cell.

Solution-state techniques such as NMR may be used to confirm the molar ratios of the cocrystal component species.

[0043] Single-crystal X-ray diffraction provides three-dimensional structural information about the positions of atoms and bonds in a cocrystal. It is not always possible or feasible, however, to obtain such a structure from a cocrystal due to, for example, insufficient crystal size or difficulty in preparing crystals of sufficient quality for single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural identification information can, however, be obtained from other solid- state techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These techniques are used to generate data on a solid cocrystal. Once that data has been collected on a known cocrystal, that data can be used to identify the presence of that cocrystal in other materials. Thus, these data effectively characterize the cocrystal. For example, an X-ray powder diffraction pattern, or a portion thereof, can serve as a fingerprint which characterizes a cocrystal and differentiates the cocrystal from its component parts (i.e., prodrug and guest) thereby showing that the cocrystal is indeed a new material and not simply a physical mixture of the prodrug and the guest.

[0044] An X-ray powder diffraction plot is an x-y graph with scattering angles 2Θ

(diffraction) on the x-axis and intensity on the y-axis. The peaks within this plot can be used to characterize a cocrystal. Although the peaks within an entire diffractogram can be used to characterize a cocrystal, a subset of the more characteristic peaks can also be used to accurately characterize a cocrystal. The data is often represented by the position of the peaks on the x-axis rather than the intensity of peaks on the y-axis because peak intensity may vary with sample orientation. There is also variability in the position of peaks on the x-axis. There are several sources of this variability, one of which comes from sample preparation. Samples of the same cocrystalline material prepared under different conditions may yield slightly different diffracto grams. Factors such as particle size, moisture content, solvent content, and orientation can affect how a sample diffracts X-rays. Another source of variability comes from instrument parameters. Different X-ray instruments operate using different parameters and these may lead to slightly different diffraction patterns from the same cocrystal.

Likewise, different software packages process X-ray data differently and this also leads to variability. These and other sources of variability are known to those of ordinary skill in the pharmaceutical arts. Due to these sources of variability, it is common to recite X-ray diffraction peaks using the word "about" prior to the peak value in 2Θ. The word "about" incorporates this variability which under most sampling conditions, and most data collection and data processing conditions, leads to a variability in peak position of about plus or minus 0.2 scattering angle (2Θ). Thus, when a peak is said to be at about 10.5 scattering angle (2Θ), under most sampling, data collection, and data processing conditions, that peak will appear anywhere between 10.3 (2Θ) and 10.7 (2Θ). In characterizing the cocrystals disclosed herein, the X-ray diffraction peaks were all measured using Cu-K a radiation and all peaks herein cited refer to peaks diffracted from X-rays with that wavelength.

Dimethyl Fumarate: Gentisic Acid Cocrystal

[0045] One cocrystal disclosed herein is a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid. The cocrystal is prepared from a suspension of DMF and gentisic acid in a mixture of ethyl acetate and heptane. In certain embodiment, the stoichiometry of dimethyl fumarate to gentisic acid is about 1 :3 to about 1 : 1. In certain embodiment, the stoichiometry of dimethyl fumarate to gentisic acid is about 1 :25 to about 1 : 15. In a particular embodiment, the stoichiometry of dimethyl fumarate to gentisic acid is about 1 :2. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of this cocrystal shows a melting point between about 114 °C and about 118 °C, in certain embodiments between about 115 °C and about 117 °C, and in certain embodiments at about 116 °C. [0046] FIG. 1 is an X-ray powder diffractogram showing the diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation of the dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal. Tables 2 and 3 lists the approximate numerical values of the XRPD peak positions of the FIG. 1 diffractogram. While the entire diffractogram of FIG. 1 can be used to characterize the cocrystal, the cocrystal can also be accurately characterized with a subset of that data. For example, the peaks within Table 2, listed in order of their peak height / intensity, are the more unique and thus more characteristic of the dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal.

Table 2: Characteristic XRPD Peaks for dimethyl fumaratergentisic acid cocrystal

[0047] The additional dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal XRPD peaks that may have less characteristic relevance, are listed in Table 3. Table 3: Additional XRPD Peaks for dimethyl fumaratergentisic acid cocrystal

[0048] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal exhibits a characteristic scattering angle (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation.

[0049] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2°, 12.0 ± 0.2°, 21.8 ± 0.2°, 23.8 ± 0.2°, and 27.7 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation.

[0050] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2°, 12.0 ± 0.2°, 21.8 ± 0.2°, 23.8 ± 0.2°, 27.7 ± 0.2°, 16.8 ± 0.2°, 36.5 ± 0.2°, 8.0 ± 0.2°, 26.1 ± 0.2° and 15.9 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation. [0051] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:gentisic acid cocrystal exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 13.0 ± 0.2°, 12.0 ± 0.2°, 21.8 ± 0.2°, 23.8 ± 0.2°, 27.7 ± 0.2°, 16.8 ± 0.2°, 36.5 ± 0.2°, 8.0 ± 0.2°, 26.1 ± 0.2°, 15.9 ± 0.2°, 23.4 ± 0.2°, 24.4 ± 0.2°, 23.0 ± 0.2°, 31.9 ± 0.2°, 20.7 ± 0.2°, and 29.6 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation.

[0052] FIG. 2 is a spectrogram showing the NMR spectrum of the dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid cocrystal. The NMR spectral pattern indicates 1 H NMR (MeOH-<¾, 400 MHz): δ 7.22 (s, 1H), 6.95 (d, 1H), 6.80 (s, 2H), 6.76 (d, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H) for the dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid cocrystal. NMR data shows that the stoichiometry of dimethyl fumarate to gentisic acid is about 1 :2.

[0053] FIG. 3 is a DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid cocrystal.

The thermogram shows the cocrystal has a melting point of about 114 to 118 °C.

[0054] The dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid cocrystal is expected to have a good toxicology profile. Furthermore, under physiological conditions, the cocrystal is expected to enhance super-saturation of dissolved dimethyl fumarate, and thus would have improved absorption and bioavailability over crystalline dimethyl fumarate.

Dimethyl Fumarate: (+)-Camphoric Acid Cocrystal Form 1

[0055] Another cocrystal disclosed herein is a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)- camphoric acid. The cocrystal is isolated by adding heptane to a solution of DMF and (+)- camphoric acid in ethyl acetate.

[0056] In one embodiment, the solution cocrystallization forms large well formed clear rods of cocrystal. In one embodiment, the cocrystal is solvated with solvents of the crystallization. In one embodiment, the ratios of the components of the solvated cocrystal depend on the condition of the solution crystallization. In one embodiment, the cocrystal comprises DMF, (+)-camphoric acid, ethyl acetate and heptanes.

[0057] FIG. 4 is an X-ray powder diffractogram showing the diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation of the dimethyl fumarate :(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1. Table 4 lists the approximate numerical values of the XRPD peak positions of the FIG. 4 diffractogram. While the entire diffractogram of FIG. 4 can be used to characterize the cocrystal, the cocrystal can also be accurately characterized with a subset of that data. For example, the XRPD peak at 15.6 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1.

Table 4: Characteristic XRPD Peaks for dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1

[0058] The additional dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 XRPD peaks that may have less characteristic relevance, are listed in Table 5.

Table 5: Additional XRPD Peaks for dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid Cocrystal

Form 1

Peak Height Peak Relative

Peak Position (°2Θ)

(counts) Intensity (%)

7.5 440 2.5

17.7 213 1.2

30.0 295 1.7

[0059] The XRPD peak at 15.4 °2Θ is another peak that alone or together with the peak at 15.6 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1.

[0060] Likewise, the peak at 20.3 °2Θ is another peak that alone or together with the peaks at 15.6 and/or 15.4 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1.

[0061] Also, the peak at 16.0 °2Θ is another peak that alone or together with the peaks at 15.6 °2Θ. 15.4 °2Θ, and/or 20.3 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1.

[0062] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.6 ± 0.2°, 15.4 ± 0.2°, 20.3 ± 0.2°, 16.0 ± 0.2°, and 7.8 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation.

[0063] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.6 ± 0.2°, 15.4=1= 0.2°, 20.3 ± 0.2°, 16.0 ± 0.2°, 7.8 ± 0.2°, 8.2 ± 0.2°, and 18.7 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Κ α radiation.

[0064] FIG. 5 is a spectrogram showing the NMR spectrum of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1. The NMR spectral pattern indicates 1 H NMR (DMSO- e, 400 MHz): δ 6.78 (s, 0.09H), 3.73 (s, 0.37H), 2.72 (t, 1.04H), 2.35 (m, 1.01H), 1.95 (m, 0.98H), 1.68 (m, 0.98H), 1.35 (m, 1H), 1.18 (s, 3.02H), 1.1 l(s, 3.02H), 0.73 (s, 2.89H) for the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1. [0065] FIG. 6 is a DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 using a crimped pan whereas FIG. 7 is a DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 using an open pan. The thermograms show the cocrystal has melting point between about 77 °C and about 94 °C; when measured in a crimped pan; and the cocrystal has melting point between about 77 °C and about 98 °C; when measured in a open pan.

[0066] In certain embodiments, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of this cocrystal in crimped pan shows a melting point between about 80 °C and about 92 °C, in certain embodiments between about 83 °C and about 90 °C, and in certain embodiments at about 87 °C.

[0067] In certain embodiments, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of this cocrystal in open pan shows a melting point between about 79 °C and about 95 °C, in certain embodiments between about 80 °C and about 90 °C, and in certain embodiments at about 84 °C.

[0068] The dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 is expected to have a good toxicology profile.

Dimethyl Fumarate:(+)-Camphoric Acid Cocrystal Form 2

[0069] Another cocrystal disclosed herein is a cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)- camphoric acid. The cocrystal is isolated by grinding a mixture of DMF and (+)-camphoric acid in a ball mill in the presence of a drop of solvent. NMR data indicates that the stoichiometry of dimethyl fumarate to (+)-camphoric acid is about 1 :4.

[0070] FIG. 8 is an X-ray powder diffractogram showing the diffraction pattern measured using Cu-K a radiation of the dimethyl fumarate :(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2. Table 6 lists the approximate numerical values of the XRPD peak positions of the FIG. 8 diffractogram. Table 6: Characteristic XRPD Peaks for dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2

[0071] The additional dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 XRPD peaks that may have less characteristic relevance, are listed in Table 7.

Table 7: Additional XRPD Peaks for dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid Cocrystal

Form 2

[0072] While the entire diffractogram of FIG. 8 can be used to characterize the cocrystal, the cocrystal can also be accurately characterized with a subset of that data. For example, the peak at about 15.5 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2.

[0073] The XRPD peak at about 16.1 °2Θ is another peak that alone or together with the peak at 15.5 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2.

[0074] Likewise, XRPD peak at about 20.5 °2Θ is another peak that alone or together with the peaks at 15.5 and/or 16.1 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2.

[0075] Also, XRPD peaks at 15.5 °2Θ. 16.1 °2Θ, and/or 20.5 °2Θ characterizes the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2.

[0076] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.5 ± 0.2°, 16.1 ± 0.2°, 20.5 ± 0.2°, 31.2 ± 0.2°, and 29.6 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu- K a radiation.

[0077] In certain embodiments, the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 exhibits characteristic scattering angles (2Θ) at least at 15.5 ± 0.2°, 16.1± 0.2°, 20.5 ± 0.2°, 31.2 ± 0.2°, 29.6 ± 0.2° and 10.1 ± 0.2° in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern measured using Cu-Κ α radiation.

[0078] FIG. 9 is a spectrogram showing the NMR spectrum of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2. The NMR spectral pattern indicates 1H NMR (DMSO-de, 400 MHz): δ 6.76 (s, 1H), 3.75 (s, 6 H), 2.72 (t, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 1.96 (m, 1H), 1.63 (m, 1H), 1.37 (m, 1H), 1.18 (s, 3.02H), 1.09 (s, 3H), 0.74 (s, 3H) for the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2. [0079] FIG. 10 is a DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 using a crimped pan whereas FIG. 11 is a DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 using an open pan. The thermograms show the cocrystal has melting point between about 80 °C and about 96 °C; when measured in a open pan. In certain embodiments, the cocrystal has melting point between about 84 °C and about 92 °C. In certain embodiments, the cocrystal has melting point between about 86 °C and about 90 °C.

[0080] The dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 is expected to have a good toxicology profile.

Pharmaceutical Compositions

[0081] The present disclosure relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a cocrystal disclosed herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier (also known as a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient). The cocrystals disclosed herein have the same pharmaceutical activity as their respective active

pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Pharmaceutical compositions for the treatment of any one or more diseases and disorders contain a therapeutically effective amount of a cocrystal disclosed herein as appropriate for treatment of a patient with the particular disease(s) or disorder(s).

[0082] A "therapeutically effective amount" of a disclosed cocrystal (discussed here concerning the pharmaceutical compositions) refers to an amount sufficient to produce the desired therapeutic effect, for example, an amount that is sufficient to reduce inflammation, an amount that is sufficient to achieve a desired autoimmune response, or an amount sufficient to prevent, kill, or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The actual amount required for treatment of any particular patient will depend upon a variety of factors including the disorder being treated and its severity; the specific pharmaceutical composition employed; the age, body weight, general health, sex and diet of the patient; the mode of administration; the time of administration; the route of administration; the rate of excretion of a disclosed cocrystal; the duration of the treatment; any drugs used in combination or coincidental with the specific compound employed; the discretion of the prescribing physician; and other such factors well known in the medical arts. These factors are discussed in Goodman and Gilman's "The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics", Tenth Edition, A. Gilman, J.Hardman and L.

Limbird, eds., McGraw-Hill Press, 155-173, 2001.

[0083] A pharmaceutical composition may be any pharmaceutical form which maintains the crystalline form of a disclosed cocrystal. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may be selected from a solid form such as a solid oral dosage form, a liquid suspension, an injectable composition, a topical form, and a transdermal form.

[0084] Depending on the type of pharmaceutical composition, the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier may be chosen from any one or a combination of carriers known in the art. The choice of the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier depends upon the pharmaceutical form and the desired method of administration to be used. For a pharmaceutical composition comprising a cocrystal disclosed herein, a carrier should be chosen that maintains the cocrystal. In other words, the carrier should not substantially alter the crystalline form of the cocrystal. For example, a liquid carrier which would dissolve the cocrystal would not be indicated for uses in which it is desired to maintain the cocrystalline forms disclosed herein. Nor should the carrier be otherwise incompatible with a cocrystal, such as by producing any undesirable biological effect or otherwise interacting in a deleterious manner with any other component(s) of the pharmaceutical composition.

[0085] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated in unit dosage forms for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. A "unit dosage form" refers to a physically discrete unit of therapeutic agent appropriate for the patient to be treated. It will be understood, however, that the total daily dosage of a cocrystal and its pharmaceutical compositions will typically be decided by the attending physician within the scope of sound medical judgment.

[0086] Because the crystalline form of a cocrystal disclosed herein is more easily maintained during their preparation, solid dosage forms may be employed in numerous embodiments for the pharmaceutical compositions. In some embodiments, solid dosage forms for oral administration include capsules, tablets, pills, powders, and granules. In such solid dosage forms, the active compound is mixed with at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, such as for example sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate. The solid dosage form may also include one or more of: a) fillers or extenders such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and silicic acid; b) binders such as, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidinone, sucrose, and acacia; c) humectants such as glycerol; d) disintegrating agents such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate; e) dissolution retarding agents such as paraffin; f) absorption accelerators such as quaternary ammonium compounds; g) wetting agents such as, for example, cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; h) absorbents such as kaolin and bentonite clay; and i) lubricants such as talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate. The solid dosage forms may also comprise buffering agents. They may optionally contain opacifying agents and can also be of a composition such that they release the active ingredient(s) only in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sixteenth Edition, E. W. Martin (Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., 1980) discloses various carriers used in formulating pharmaceutical compositions and known techniques for the preparation thereof. Solid dosage forms of pharmaceutical compositions can also be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical formulating art.

[0087] A cocrystal disclosed herein can be in a solid micro-encapsulated form with one or more carriers as discussed above. Microencapsulated forms of a cocrystal may also be used in soft and hard- filled gelatin capsules with carriers such as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

[0088] Also disclosed herein are methods for the treatment of the disorders disclosed herein. The cocrystals, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them, may be administered using any amount, any form of pharmaceutical composition and any route of administration effective for the treatment. After formulation with an appropriate

pharmaceutically acceptable carrier in a desired dosage, as known by those of skill in the art, the pharmaceutical compositions can be administered to humans and other animals orally, rectally, parenterally, intravenously, intracisternally, intravaginally, intraperitoneally, topically (as by powders, ointments, or drops), bucally, as an oral or nasal spray, or the like, depending on the location and severity of the condition being treated. In certain

embodiments, the cocrystals may be administered at dosage levels of about 0.001 mg/kg to about 50 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 25 mg/kg, or from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of subject body weight per day, one or more times a day, to obtain the desired therapeutic effect. It will also be appreciated that dosages smaller than 0.001 mg/kg or greater than 50 mg/kg (for example 50-100 mg/kg) can be administered to a subject.

Therapeutic Uses

[0089] The dimethyl fumarate cocrystals disclosed herein may be used to treat diseases, disorders, conditions, and/or symptoms of any disease or disorder for which DMF and/or MMF is known to provide, or is later found to provide, therapeutic benefit. DMF and MMF are known to be effective in treating psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arthritis. Hence, the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals disclosed herein may be used to treat any one or more of the foregoing diseases and disorders. The underlying etiology of any of the foregoing diseases being treated may have a multiplicity of origins. Further, in certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals may be administered to a patient, such as a human, as a preventative measure against various diseases or disorders. Thus, a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals may be administered as a preventative measure to a patient having a predisposition for and/or history of immunological, autoimmune, and/or inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cardiac insufficiency including left ventricular insufficiency, myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, retinopathia pigmentosa and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy), transplantation rejection, autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemia and reperfusion injury, AGE -induced genome damage, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; and NF-κΒ mediated diseases.

Psoriasis

[0090] Psoriasis is characterized by hyperkeratosis and thickening of the epidermis as well as by increased vascularity and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dermis. Psoriasis vulgaris manifests as silvery, scaly, erythematous plaques on typically the scalp, elbows, knees, and buttocks. Guttate psoriasis occurs as tear-drop size lesions.

[0091] Fumaric acid esters are recognized for the treatment of psoriasis and dimethyl fumarate is approved for the systemic treatment of psoriasis in Germany (Mrowietz and Asadullah, Trends Mol Med (2005), 11(1): 43-48; and Mrowietz et al., Br J Dermatology (1999), 141 : 424-429).

[0092] Efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating psoriasis can be determined using animal models and in clinical trials.

Inflammatory Arthritis

[0093] Inflammatory arthritis includes diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (juvenile idiopathic arthritis), psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, among others. The pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases including inflammatory arthritis is believed to involve TNF and ΝΚ-κΒ signaling pathways (Tracey et al., Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2008), 117: 244-279). Dimethyl fumarate has been shown to inhibit TNF and inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory arthritis, are believed to involve TNF and ΝΚ-κΒ signaling. Therefore, dimethyl fumarate may be useful in treating inflammatory arthritis (Lowewe et al., J Immunology (2002), 168: 4781-4787).

[0094] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating inflammatory arthritis can be determined using animal models and in clinical trials.

Multiple Sclerosis

[0095] Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system caused by an autoimmune attack against the isolating axonal myelin sheets of the central nervous system. Demyelination leads to the breakdown of conduction and to severe disease with destruction of local axons and irreversible neuronal cell death. The symptoms of MS are highly varied, with each individual patient exhibiting a particular pattern of motor, sensible, and sensory disturbances. MS is typified pathologically by multiple inflammatory foci, plaques of demyelination, gliosis, and axonal pathology within the brain and spinal cord, all of which contribute to the clinical manifestations of neurological disability {see e.g., Wingerchuk, Lab Invest (2001), 81 : 263-281; and Virley, NeuroRx (2005), 2(4): 638-649). Although the causal events that precipitate MS are not fully understood, evidence implicates an autoimmune etiology together with environmental factors, as well as specific genetic predispositions. Functional impairment, disability, and handicap are expressed as paralysis, sensory and octintive disturbances, spasticity, tremor, a lack of coordination, and visual impairment, any one of which negatively impacts the quality of life of the individual. The clinical course of MS can vary from individual to individual, but invariably the disease can be categorized in three forms: relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, and primary progressive.

[0096] Studies support the efficacy of fumaric acid esters for treating MS and dimethyl fumarate has been approved in the US for such treatment (Schimrigk et al., Eur J Neurology (2006), 13: 604-610; and Wakkee and Thio, Current Opinion Investigational Drugs (2007), 8(11): 955-962).

[0097] Assessment of MS treatment efficacy in clinical trials can be accomplished using tools such as the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the MS Functional, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, lesion load, biomarkers, and self-reported quality of life.

Animal models of MS shown to be useful to identify and validate potential therapeutics include experimental autoimmune/allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) rodent models that simulate the clinical and pathological manifestations of MS and nonhuman primate EAE models.

[0098] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating MS can be determined using animal models and in clinical trials.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis)

[0099] Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine, and in some cases the small intestine, that includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease, which is characterized by areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining in between, can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. The main gastrointestinal symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, weight loss, and/or weight gain. Crohn's disease can also cause skin rashes, arthritis, and inflammation of the eye. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by ulcers or open sores in the large intestine or colon. The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is typically constant diarrhea with mixed blood of gradual onset. Other types of intestinal bowel disease include collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis, ischaemic colitis, diversion colitis, Behcet's colitis, and indeterminate colitis. [00100] Fumaric acid esters are inhibitors of NF-κΒ activation and therefore may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (Atreya et al, J Intern Med (2008), 263(6): 591-596).

[00101] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating inflammatory bowel disease can be evaluated using animal models and in clinical trials. Useful animal models of inflammatory bowel disease are known.

Asthma

[00102] Asthma is reversible airway obstruction in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with an excessive amount of mucus. Symptoms of asthma include dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, and cough. Asthma episodes may be induced by airborne allergens, food allergies, medications, inhaled irritants, physical exercise, respiratory infection, psychological stress, hormonal changes, cold weather, or other factors.

[00103] As an inhibitor of NF-κΒ activation and as shown in animal studies (Joshi et al., U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0027076) fumaric acid esters may be useful in treating pulmonary diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.

[00104] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating asthma can be assessed using animal models and in clinical trials.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

[00105] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease, is a group of diseases characterized by the pathological limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible, and includes conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, as well as other lung disorders such as asbestosis, pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary neoplasms (see, e.g., Barnes, Pharmacological Reviews (2004), 56(4): 515- 548). The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases. COPD is characterized by a shortness of breath that can last for months or years, possibly accompanied by wheezing, and a persistent cough with sputum production. COPD is most often caused by tobacco smoking, although it can also be caused by other airborne irritants such as coal dust, asbestos, urban pollution, or solvents. COPD encompasses chronic obstructive bronchiolitis with fibrosis and obstruction of small airways, and emphysema with enlargement of airspaces and destruction of lung parenchyma, loss of lung elasticity, and closure of small airways.

[00106] The efficacy of administering the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be assessed using animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in clinical studies. For example, murine models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are known.

Neurodegenerative Disorders

[00107] Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and amyoptrophic lateral sclerosis are characterized by progressive dysfunction and neuronal death. NF-κΒ inhibition has been proposed as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases (Camandola and Mattson, Expert Opin Ther Targets (2007), 11(2): 123-32).

Parkinson's Disease

[00108] Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system characterized by tremor when muscles are at rest (resting tremor), slowness of voluntary movements, and increased muscle tone (rigidity). In Parkinson's disease, nerve cells in the basal ganglia {e.g., the substantia nigra) degenerate, and thereby reduce the production of dopamine and the number of connections between nerve cells in the basal ganglia. As a result, the basal ganglia are unable to control smooth muscle movements and coordinate changes in posture as normal, leading to tremor, incoordination, and slowed, reduced movement (bradykinesia) (Blandini, et al., Mol. Neurobiol. (1996), 12: 73-94).

[00109] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating Parkinson's disease may be assessed using animal and human models of Parkinson's disease and in clinical studies.

Alzheimer's Disease

[00110] Alzheimer's disease is a progressive loss of mental function characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells and the development of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In Alzheimer's disease, parts of the brain degenerate, destroying nerve cells and reducing the responsiveness of the maintaining neurons to neurotransmitters. Abnormalities in brain tissue consist of senile or neuritic plaques (e.g., clumps of dead nerve cells containing an abnormal, insoluble protein called amyloid) and neurofibrillary tangles, twisted strands of insoluble proteins in the nerve cell.

[00111] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating Alzheimer's disease may be assessed using animal and human models of Alzheimer's disease and in clinical studies.

Huntington's Disease

[00112] Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder in which specific cell death occurs in the neostriatum and cortex (Martin, N EnglJ Med (1999), 340: 1970-80). Onset usually occurs during the fourth or fifth decade of life, with a mean survival at age of onset of 14 to 20 years. Huntington's disease is universally fatal, and there is no effective treatment. Symptoms include a characteristic movement disorder

(Huntington's chorea), cognitive dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. The disease is caused by a mutation encoding an abnormal expansion of CAG-encoded polyglutamine repeats in the protein, huntingtin.

[00113] The efficacy of the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating Huntington's disease may be assessed using animal and human models of Huntington's disease and in clinical studies.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

[00114] Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive and specific loss of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord (Rowland and Schneider, N EnglJ Med (2001), 344: 1688-1700). ALS begins with weakness, often in the hands and less frequently in the feet that generally progresses up an arm or leg. Over time, weakness increases and spasticity develops characterized by muscle twitching and tightening, followed by muscle spasms and possibly tremors. The average age of onset is 55 years, and the average life expectancy after the clinical onset is 4 years. The only recognized treatment for ALS is riluzole, which can extend survival by only about three months. [00115] The efficacy the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals for treating ALS may be assessed using animal and human models of ALS and in clinical studies.

Other Diseases

[00116] Other diseases and conditions for which the dimethyl fumarate cocrystals can be useful in treating include: rheumatica, granuloma annulare, lupus, autoimmune carditis, eczema, sarcoidosis, autoimmune diseases including acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Addison's disease, alopecia areata, ankylosing spondylitis, antiphospho lipid antibody syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune inner ear disease, bullous pemphigoid, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, Chagas disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, dermatomyositis, diabetes mellitus type I, endometriosis, Goodpasture's syndrome, Graves' disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Hashimoto's disease, hidradenitis suppurativea, Kawasaki disease, IgA neuropathy, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, interstitial cystitis, lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, morphea, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, narcolepsy, neuromyotonia, pemphigus vulgaris, pernicious anaemia, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, polymyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrena, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, stiff person syndrome, temporal arteritis, ulcerative colitis, vasculitis, vitiligo, Wegener's granulomatosis, optic neuritis, neuromyelitis optica, subacute necrotizing myelopathy, balo concentric sclerosis, transverse myelitis, susac syndrome, central nervous system vasculitis, neurosarcoidosis, Charcott-Marie-Tooth Disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, pareneoplastic syndromes, primary lateral sclerosis, Alper's Disease, monomelic myotrophy, adrenal leukodystrophy,

Alexander's Disease, Canavan disease, childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination, Krabbe Disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Schilders Disease, Zellweger's syndrome, Sjorgren's Syndrome, human immunodeficiency viral infection, hepatitis C viral infection, herpes simplex viral infection and tumors.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Synthesis, Purification and Analysis of Cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and

Gentisic acid

[00117] Cocrystals of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid were prepared as follows.

82.5 mg of dimethyl fumarate and 154.1 mg of gentisic acid were mixed with 1 ml of 1 :3 (v:v) ethyl acetate: heptane. The mixture was sonicated for 5 min. and then stirred for 2 days. The starting concentrations of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid were chosen such that the thermodynamically stable solid phase at equilibrium is the cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid. The crystalline material that formed was isolated by vacuum filtration, and dried to yield the dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid (1 :2) cocrystal. The measured melting points were 103±1 °C for dimethyl fumarate, 206±2 °C for gentisic acid, and 116±2 °C for the cocrystal.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Analysis

[00118] The DSC analysis was conducted using the TA Instruments Q2000 DSC equipped with a refrigerated cooling system. For all DSC analysis, 2-5 mg of sample was loaded into T zero aluminum pans with crimpled lids. A pinhole was made at the center of the lid to avoid any pressure buildup during heating. Samples were equilibrated at 10 °C and heated at a rate of 10 °C per minute under a purge of dry nitrogen gas. The data acquisition was controlled by Thermal Advantage software Release 4.9.1. The data were analyzed with Universal Analysis 2000 software (version 4.5 A).

[00119] The DSC thermogram (FIG. 3) shows that the dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid cocrystal first melts at about 116.54 °C, which is significantly higher than the melting point of crystalline dimethyl fumarate. The melting points of dimethyl fumarate and gentisic acid are 103.16 °C and 206 °C, respectively. The second melting transition with onset temperature at 205.89 °C corresponds roughly to the melting point of gentisic acid, which has a melting point of about 205 °C - 207 °C.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

[00120] The thermal gravimetric analysis was conducted using a TA Instruments

Q5000 thermogravimetric analyzer. For all TGA analysis, 5-10 mg of sample was loaded to a platinum pan and was heated to 250 °C at a rate of 10 °C per minute under a purge of dry nitrogen gas. The data acquisition was controlled by Thermal Advantage software Release 4.9.1. The data was analyzed with Universal Analysis 2000 software (version 4.5A).

[00121] The TGA thermogram (FIG. 12) shows that the dimethyl fumarate: gentisic acid cocrystal undergoes weight loss prior to melting. The thermogram indicates that DMF sublimes from cocrystal lattice prior to melting under N 2 purge; and the 31.55% weight loss suggests the DMF:gentisic acid stoichiometric ratio of about 1 :2.

X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) Analysis

[00122] Powder X-ray diffraction analysis was performed using the PANalytical

X'Pert Pro X-ray diffractometer. The X-ray source was Cu K a radiation (λ = 1.54051 A) with output voltage of 45 kV and current of 40 mA. The instrument adopts a para- focusing Bragg- Brentano geometry with incident divergence and scattering slits set at 1/16° and 1/8° respectively. Large Soller slits (0.04 rad) were used for both incident and diffracted beam to remove axial divergence. A small amount of powder (9-12 mg) was gently pressed onto the single crystal silicon sample holder to form a smooth surface, and samples were subjected to spinning at a rate of two revolutions per second, throughout the acquisition process. The samples were scanned from 2° to 40° in 2Θ with a step size of 0.017° and a scan speed of 0.067 °/sec. The data acquisition was controlled and analyzed by X'Pert Data Collector (version 2.2d) and X'Pert Data Viewer (version 1.2c), respectively.

[00123] The X-ray diffraction pattern for the dimethyl fumarate :gentisic acid cocrystal is shown in FIG. 1. Unless otherwise specified, the experimental data for X-ray powder diffraction were collected at room temperature.

NMR Analysis

[00124] Proton NMR (400 MHz) NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian AS 400

NMR spectrometer equipped with an auto-sampler and data processing software. ΜεΟΗ-ύ¾ (99.8+%) D) was used as solvents unless otherwise noted. The ΜεΟΗ-ύ¾ solvent signals were used for calibration of the individual spectra. The NMR spectral pattern for the dimethyl fumarate :gentisic acid cocrystal is shown in FIG. 2.

Example 2: Synthesis, Purification and Analysis of Cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and

(+)-camphoric acid form 1

[00125] Cocrystals of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid were prepared as follows. 150 mg of dimethyl fumarate and 225 mg of (+)-camphoric acid were dissolved in 3 ml of ethyl acetate with stirring and gentle heating. The clear solution was cooled to room temperature, and 9 ml of heptane were added. The unstirred solution was allowed to stand for 24 hours. The starting concentrations of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid were chosen such that the thermodynamically stable solid phase at equilibrium is the cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid. The crystalline material that formed was isolated by vacuum filtration, and dried to yield the dimethyl fumarate: (+)-camphoric acid (1 : 16, by NMR) cocrystal form 1 (112 mg).

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Analysis

[00126] DSC data were obtained using a TA Instruments differential scanning calorimeter 2920 equipped with a refrigerated cooling system. For all DSC analysis, 2-10 mg of sample was placed into an aluminum DSC pan, and the weight accurately recorded. The samples were run with open pans as well as in crimped pans (no pinhole). The sample cell heated at a rate of 10°C/min, up to a final temperature of 250 °C. Indium metal was used as the calibration standard. The data acquisition was controlled by Thermal Advantage software Release 4.9.1. The data were analyzed with Universal Analysis 2000 software (version 4.5 A).

[00127] DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate :(+)-camphoric acid form 1 is shown in FIG. 6 and FIG. 7.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

[00128] TGA data were obtained using a TA Instruments 2950 thermogravimetric analyzer. For all TGA analysis, 5-10 mg of sample was placed in an aluminum sample pan and inserted into the TGA furnace. The furnace was heated under nitrogen at a rate of 10 °C/min, up to a final temperature of 250 °C. Nickel and Alumel were used as the calibration standards.

X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) Analysis

[00129] Data were collected on a Scintag XI powder diffractometer equipped with a peltier cooled solid state detector. Data were collected between 2.5° and 40° 2-theta using a 0.05° step size and 25 minute total run time. Data were collected using Cu-K a radiation and the tube voltage and amperage were set to 45 kV and 40 mA, respectively. Instrument calibration was performed using a quartz reference standard. [00130] The X-ray diffraction pattern for the dimethyl fumarate :(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 is shown in FIG. 4. Unless otherwise specified, the experimental data for X- ray powder diffraction were collected at room temperature.

NMR Analysis

[00131] 1H NMR spectra were acquired on a Varian INOVA 400 MHz instrument at

25°C, reported in ppm (δ) and referenced to OMSO-de peak (2.50 ppm). The spectra were processed in MestReNova version 6.2.1. Water was present in the DMSO-<i6 used to prepare the samples and this broad peak is located at 3.42 ppm.

[00132] The NMR spectral pattern for the dimethyl fumarate :(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 1 is shown in FIG. 5.

Example 3: Synthesis, Purification and Analysis of Cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and

(+)-camphoric acid form 2

[00133] Cocrystals of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid were prepared as follows. 36 mg of dimethyl fumarate and 200 mg of (+)-camphoric acid were combined in an agate jar with a 4 ml capacity. One drop of 1 :3 (v:v) ethyl acetate: heptane was added along with two agate grinding balls. The mixture was milled for 60 minutes at full power on a Retch mm2 mixer mill. The starting concentrations of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid were chosen such that the thermodynamically stable solid phase at equilibrium is the cocrystal of dimethyl fumarate and (+)-camphoric acid. The crystalline material that formed was isolated to yield the dimethyl fumarate: (+)-camphoric acid (1 :4, by NMR) cocrystal. The measured melting points were 103±1 °C for dimethyl fumarate, 185±2 °C for (+)- camphoric acid, and 88±2 °C for the cocrystal.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Analysis

[00134] DSC data were obtained using a TA Instruments differential scanning calorimeter 2920. The sample was placed into an aluminum DSC pan, and the weight accurately recorded. The samples were run with open pans as well as in crimped pans (no pinhole). The sample cell heated at a rate of 10°C/min, up to a final temperature of 250 °C. Indium metal was used as the calibration standard. [00135] DSC thermogram of the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid form 2 is shown in FIG. 10 and FIG. 11.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

[00136] TGA data were obtained using a TA Instruments 2950 thermogravimetric analyzer. Each sample was placed in an aluminum sample pan and inserted into the TGA furnace. The furnace was heated under nitrogen at a rate of 10 °C/min, up to a final temperature of 250 °C. Nickel and Alumel were used as the calibration standards.

[00137] The TGA thermogram (FIG. 13) shows that the dimethyl fumarate:(+)- camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 undergoes weight loss prior to melting, The thermogram indicates that DMF sublimes from cocrystal lattice; and the 15.27% weight loss suggests the DMF:(+)-camphoric acid stoichiometric ratio of about 1 :4.

X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) Analysis

[00138] Data were collected on a Scintag XI powder diffractometer equipped with a peltier cooled solid state detector. Data were collected between 2.5° and 40° 2-theta using a 0.05° step size and 25 minute total run time. Data were collected using Cu-K a radiation and the tube voltage and amperage were set to 45 kV and 40 mA, respectively. Instrument calibration was performed using a quartz reference standard. All data described herein are in copper wavelength.

[00139] The X-ray diffraction pattern for the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid cocrystal form 2 is shown in FIG. 8. Unless otherwise specified, the experimental data for X- ray powder diffraction were collected at room temperature.

NMR Analysis

[00140] 1 H NMR spectra were acquired on a Varian INOVA 400 MHz instrument at

25°C, reported in ppm (δ) and referenced to DMSO-<i6 peak (2.50 ppm). The spectra were processed in MestReNova version 6.2.1. Water was present in the DMSO-<i6 used to prepare the samples and this broad peak is located at 3.42 ppm. [00141] The NMR spectral pattern for the dimethyl fumarate:(+)-camphoric acid form

2 cocrystal is shown in FIG. 9.

[00142] Having described several embodiments, it will be recognized by those skilled in the art that various modifications, alternative constructions, and equivalents may be used without departing from the spirit of the disclosure. Additionally, a number of well-known processes and elements have not been described in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the embodiments disclosed herein. Accordingly, the above description should not be taken as limiting the scope of the document.

[00143] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the presently disclosed

embodiments teach by way of example and not by limitation. Therefore, the matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings should be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. The following claims are intended to cover all generic and specific features described herein, as well as all statements of the scope of the present method and system, which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall there between.