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Title:
CODE RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR UPLINK DATA REPETITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/160464
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
According to some embodiments, a method is performed by a wireless device for transmitting uplink data. The method comprises determining a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The method further comprises determining a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The method further comprises transmitting the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

Inventors:
WIKSTRÖM, Gustav (Arrendevägen 23, Täby, 187 30, SE)
SUNDBERG, Mårten (Sköntorpsvägen 63, Årsta, 120 53, SE)
Application Number:
SE2019/050048
Publication Date:
August 22, 2019
Filing Date:
January 24, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL) (164 83 Stockholm, 164 83, SE)
International Classes:
H04L1/08; H04L1/18; H04L5/00; H04L27/26
Other References:
QUALCOMM INCORPORATED: "UL Design for Shortened TTI", vol. RAN WG1, no. Lisbon, Portugal; 20161010 - 20161014, 9 October 2016 (2016-10-09), XP051150033, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20161009]
ERICSSON: "On UL DMRS for short TTI", vol. RAN WG1, no. Prague, Czech Republic; 20171009 - 20171013, 29 September 2017 (2017-09-29), XP051351548, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170929]
POTEVIO: "Uplink DMRS Design for 2-symbol sPUSCH", vol. RAN WG1, no. Hangzhou; 20170515 - 20170519, 14 May 2017 (2017-05-14), XP051273728, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170514]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ERICSSON (Patent Development, Torshamnsgatan 21-23, Stockholm, 164 80, SE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A method performed by a wireless device for transmitting uplink data, the method comprising:

determining (510) a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data;

determining (520) a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data; and

transmitting (530) the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration, and wherein the one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

2. The method of Claim 1, wherein determining the reference signal cyclic shift is based on the predetermined configuration.

3. The method of any of Claims 1-2, wherein the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than a number of the one or more repetitions.

4. The method of any of Claims 1-3, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and a starting position of the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions within a time interval.

5. The method of any of Claims 1-4, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and where the transmission of the uplink data and one or more repetitions begins within a frame structure.

6. The method of any of Claims 1-5, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on information signaled from the network node.

7. The method of any of Claims 1-6, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on received signaling comprising information that can be used to derive the predetermined configuration.

8. The method of any of Claims 1-7, wherein the predetermined configuration is chosen from a set of transmission pattern configurations.

9. The method of any of Claims 1-8, wherein:

the predetermined configuration is chosen from a set of transmission pattern configurations; and

the predetermined configuration is uniquely identifiable out of the set of transmission pattern configurations by the network node receiving the transmitted uplink data.

10. The method of any of Claims 1-9, further comprising removing one of the one or more reference signals from the transmitted uplink data based on the presence of a sounding reference signal in a subslot used for the transmission.

11. The method of any of Claims 1-10, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

12. The method of any of Claims 1-11, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

13. The method of any of Claims 1-12, wherein the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

14. The method of any of Claims 1-13, wherein transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions to the network node comprises transmitting N number of data symbols, wherein N is equal to or greater than a guaranteed number.

15. The method of any of Claims 1-14, wherein transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions to the network node comprises transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions with a code rate equal to or less than a guaranteed code rate.

16. The method of any of Claims 1-15, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted consecutively in time.

17. The method of any of Claims 1-15, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are not transmitted consecutively in time.

18. The method of any of Claims 1-17, wherein the one or more reference signals are aligned within the uplink data and the one or more repetitions, wherein the alignment is not based on the cyclic shift determined for the one or more reference signals.

19. A wireless device (110, 200, 330, 491, 492, 530) comprising memory (130, 215, 390-1, 390-2) operable to store instructions and processing circuitry (120, 201, 360, 538) operable to execute the instructions, whereby the wireless device is operable to:

determine a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data;

determine a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data; and

transmit the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node (160, 330, 412, 520), wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration, and wherein the one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

20. The wireless device of Claim 19, wherein determining the reference signal cyclic shift is based on the predetermined configuration.

21. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-20, wherein the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than a number of the one or more repetitions.

22. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-21, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions a starting position of the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions within a time interval.

23. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-22, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and where the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions begins within a frame structure.

24. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-23, wherein the predetermined configuration is based on information signaled from the network node.

25. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-24, wherein predetermined configuration is signaling received by the wireless device, the signaling comprising information that can be used to derive the predetermined configuration.

26. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-25, wherein the predetermined configuration is chosen from a set of transmission pattern configurations.

27. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-26, wherein:

the predetermined configuration is chosen from a set of transmission pattern configurations; and

the predetermined configuration is uniquely identifiable out of the set of transmission pattern configurations by the network node receiving the transmitted uplink data.

28. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-27, wherein the wireless device is further operable to remove one of the one or more reference signals from the transmitted uplink data based on the presence of a sounding reference signal in a subslot used for the transmission.

29. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-28, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

30. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-29, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

31. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-30, wherein the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

32. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-31, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions transmitted to the network node comprises N number of data symbols, wherein N is equal to or greater than a guaranteed number.

33. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-32, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions is transmitted with a code rate equal to or less than a guaranteed code rate.

34. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-33, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted consecutively in time.

35. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-33, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are not transmitted consecutively in time.

36. The wireless device of any of Claims 19-35, wherein the one or more reference signals are aligned within the uplink data and the one or more repetitions, wherein the alignment is not based on the cyclic shift determined for the one or more reference signals.

37. A computer program product comprising a non-transitory computer readable medium (130, 215, 390-1, 390-2) storing computer readable program code, the computer readable program code comprises:

program code for determining a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data;

program code for determining a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data; and program code for transmitting the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration, and wherein the one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

38. A method performed by a network node for receiving uplink data, the method comprising:

receiving (1910) uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data from a wireless device, wherein one or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to a predetermined configuration, and wherein the one or more references signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift; and

determining (1920) an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals.

39. The method of Claim 38, further comprising configuring one or more cyclic shifts to be applied by the wireless device to the one or more reference signals.

40. The method of any of Claims 38-39, wherein the cyclic shift is based on the predetermined configuration of uplink data and the one or more repetitions.

41. The method of any of Claims 38-40, further comprising determining (1930) the predetermined configuration for the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

42 The method of any of Claims 38-41, further comprising determining a starting subslot of the received uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

43. The method of Claim 42, wherein determining the starting subslot comprises: detecting the presence of the one or more reference signals; and determining a current repetition index based on the detection of the presence of the one or more reference signals.

44. The method of any of Claims 38-43, further comprising combining the one or more repetitions of the uplink data with the uplink data into a single data set.

45. The method of any of Claims 38-44, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

46. The method of any of Claims 38-45, wherein the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than the number of the one or more repetitions.

47. The method of any of Claims 38-46, wherein determining the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and a starting position of the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions within a time interval.

48. The method of any of Claims 38-47, wherein determining the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and where the transmission of the uplink data and one or more repetitions begins within a frame structure.

49. The method of any of Claims 38-48, further comprising transmitting, to the wireless device, information enabling the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration.

50. The method of any of Claims 38-49, further comprising signalling, to the wireless device, the information that enables the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration before receiving the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

51. The method of any of Claims 38-50, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

52. The method of any of Claims 38-51, wherein the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

53. The method of any of Claims 38-52, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are received consecutively in time.

54. The method of any of Claims 38-52, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are not received consecutively in time.

55. The method of any of Claims 38-54, further comprising determining the cyclic shift of the one or more reference signals to determine the predetermined configuration of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions.

56. A network node (160, 330, 412, 520) comprising memory (180, 390-1, 390-2) operable to store instructions and processing circuitry (170, 360, 528) operable to execute the instructions, whereby the network node is operable to:

receive uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data from a wireless device (110, 200, 330, 491, 492, 530), wherein one or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to the predetermined configuration, and wherein the one or more references signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift; and

determine an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals.

57. The method of Claim 56, wherein the network node is operable to configure one or more cyclic shifts to be applied by the wireless device to the one or more reference signals.

58. The network node of any of Claims 56-59, wherein the cyclic shift is based on the predetermined configuration of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions.

59. The network node of any of Claims 56-58, wherein the network node is further operable to determine the predetermined configuration for the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

60. The network node of any of Claims 56-59, wherein the network node is further operable to determine a starting subslot of the received uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

61. The network node of Claim 60, wherein to determine the starting subslot, the network node is operable to:

detect the presence of the one or more reference signals; and

determine a current repetition index based on the detection of the presence of the one or more reference signals.

62. The network node of any of Claims 56-61, wherein the network node is further operable to combine the one or more repetitions of the uplink data with the uplink data into a single data set.

63. The network node of any of Claims 56-62, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

64. The network node of any of Claims 56-63, wherein the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than the number of the one or more repetitions.

65. The network node of any of Claims 56-64, wherein the network node is operable to determine the predetermined configuration based on a number of the one or more repetitions and a starting position of the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions within a time interval.

66. The network node of any of Claims 56-65, wherein the network node is operable to determine the predetermined configuration based on a number of the one or more repetitions and where the transmission of the uplink data and one or more repetitions begins within a frame structure.

67. The network node of any of Claims 56-66, wherein the network node is further operable to transmit, to the wireless device, information that enables the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration.

68. The network node of any of Claims 56-67, wherein the network node is further operable to signal the information that enables the wireless to determine the predetermined configuration to the wireless device before receiving the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

69. The network node of any of the Claims 56-68, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

70. The network node of any of Claims 56-69, wherein the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

71. The network node of any of Claims 56-70, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are received consecutively in time.

72. The network node of any of Claims 56-70, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are not received consecutively in time.

73. The network node of any of Claims 56-72, wherein the network node is further configurable to determine the cyclic shift of the one or more reference signals to determine the reference signal pattern configuration of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions.

74. A computer program product comprising a non-transitory computer readable medium (180, 390-1, 390-2) storing computer readable program code, the computer readable program code comprises:

program code for receiving uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data from a wireless device, wherein one or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions, wherein the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to the predetermined configuration, and wherein the one or more references signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift; and

program code for determining an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals.

Description:
CODE RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR UPLINK DATA REPETITION

TECHNICAL FIELD

Certain embodiments of the present disclosure relate, in general, to wireless communications and, more particularly, to reducing overhead in signals including repetitions of data.

BACKGROUND

Generally, all terms used herein are to be interpreted according to their ordinary meaning in the relevant technical field, unless a different meaning is clearly given and/or is implied from the context in which it is used. All references to a/an/the element, apparatus, component, means, step, etc. are to be interpreted openly as referring to at least one instance of the element, apparatus, component, means, step, etc., unless explicitly stated otherwise. The steps of any methods disclosed herein do not have to be performed in the exact order disclosed, unless a step is explicitly described as following or preceding another step and/or where it is implicit that a step must follow or precede another step. Any feature of any of the embodiments disclosed herein may be applied to any other embodiment, wherever appropriate. Likewise, any advantage of any of the embodiments may apply to any other embodiments, and vice versa. Other objectives, features and advantages of the enclosed embodiments will be apparent from the following description.

1. Long Term Evolution (LTE)

LTE uses OFDM in the downlink and discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-spread OFDM in the uplink. In the time domain, LTE downlink transmissions are organized into radio frames of 10 milliseconds (ms), each radio frame consisting of ten equally-sized subframes of length T subframe = 1 ms.

Furthermore, the resource allocation in LTE is typically described in terms of resource blocks (RB), where a resource block corresponds to one slot (0.5 ms) in the time domain and 12 contiguous subcarriers in the frequency domain. A pair of two adjacent resource blocks in time direction (1.0 ms) is known as a resource block pair. This is also denoted as a TTI (Transmission Time Index).

Downlink transmissions are dynamically scheduled, i.e., in each subframe, the base station transmits control information about to which terminals data is transmitted and upon which resource blocks the data is transmitted, in the current downlink subframe. This control signaling is typically transmitted in the first 1, 2, 3 or 4 OFDM symbols in each subframe and the number n=l,2,3 or 4 is known as the Control Format Indicator (CFI) indicated by the physical CFI channel (PCFICH) transmitted in the first symbol of the control region. The control region also contains physical downlink control channels (PDCCH) and possibly also physical HARQ indication channels (PHICH) carrying ACK/NACK for the uplink transmission.

The downlink subframe also contains common reference symbols (CRS), which are known to the receiver and used for coherent demodulation, e.g., of the control information. A downlink system with CFI=3 OFDM symbols as control signaling is illustrated in Figure 2. In a Rel-8 TTI, one such portion of the DL transmission is termed as one TTI.

In uplink, the data channel is sent (PUSCH) as well as the (short) physical uplink control channel ((S)PUCCH).

2. Short Transmission Time Index (TTI)

DL and UL transmission can also be carried out when configured to operate with the short TTI feature. The feature introduces two new basic transmission durations over the air interface (in addition to 1 ms duration), either of slot length or of subslot length.

A slot is defined by 7 OFDM symbols duration (defined as one LTE Rel-8 slot), while,

A subslot is defined by either 2 OFDM symbols or 3 OFDM symbols duration. The reason to have varying length of the subslot across the subframe is the split of a subframe into 14 symbols, and the design principle that a subslot is not to cross a slot boundary (leaving a slot of 7 symbols to be split into an integer number of subslots)

Due to the PDCCH region in the beginning of the first slot, the second slot will have more resources available for data.

The DL subslot pattern is dependent on the first symbol in the DL the PDSCH is allowed to map to, while the UL subslot pattern is fixed, see Figure 3. The subslot number per subframe is denoted 0 to 5. In some DL subframes there might only be 5 subslots available for data transmission (in which case the subslot number is defined from 1 to 5). 3. Repetitions in Uplink (UL)

In typical operation, one subframe/slot/subslot transmission is transmitted per dynamic grant or per configured semi-persistent scheduling (SPS) configuration. Retransmissions are based on HARQ (feedback from the receiving end) after round-trip time after the first transmission.

An alternative to this operation is to configure K-l repetitions. That is, the UE will instead send K transmissions without any feedback from the receiving end. These repetitions are typically, but not necessarily, configured to be transmitted consecutively in time.

4. Flexible Demodulation Reference Signal (DMRS)

A shorter transmission duration for PUSCH implies larger overhead of reference signals and lower spectral efficiency. To reduce the DMRS overhead for subslot based PUSCH transmission, DMRS sharing and DMRS multiplexing are supported. More specifically, when the same UE is scheduled on multiple consecutive subslots, DMRS sharing is supported to reduce the DMRS overhead by not transmitting DMRS within each subslot, as depicted in Figure 4. Up to three consecutive subslots within a slot can share the same DMRS position. For instance, the DMRS is included in the first subslot and the following 2 subslots only contain data symbols. To guarantee phase coherency between the subslots sharing the same DMRS, the same bandwidth and same power should be used for all subslots sharing the DMRS.

In case different UEs are scheduled in consecutive subslots, the DMRS position can be shared between those consecutive subslots, as depicted in Figure 4.

The following DMRS placement options exist for subslot-PUSCH. The DMRS placement can be indicated by an UL grant in subslot #n-x which schedules subslot-PUSCH in subslot n, where x is processing time configured for a PUCCH group.

Table 1: UL DMRS placements for subslot PUSCH

Note:“I” denotes the boundary of subslot n

Based on the patterns listed in Table 1, different configurations of DMRS sharing can be achieved by, e.g., scheduling PUSCH transmissions in subslots 0, 1 and 2 to the same UE with patterns RDD, DD and DD, respectively; or scheduling PUSCH transmissions in subslots 0 and 1 to the same UE with patterns DDR and DD, respectively.

In case of semi-persistent scheduling (SPS), the possible DMRS positions are based on Table 2.

Table 2: UL DMRS placements for subslot PUSCH and SPS

There currently exist certain challenges. The current solution is designed for transmission of one sTTI per dynamic grant. Unless dynamic indication is used for every repetition, the presence of DMRS can’t be controlled. Thus, for configured or indicated repetition of the same data K times, multiple DMRS will be inserted, at least one for each repetition, adding to the overhead and making the code rate higher than necessary.

Viewing Table 1 as a baseline, one can see that for any given subslot scheduled, the lowest number of data symbols will be one. That is, if a UE is scheduled a single subslot, there will only be one data symbol, since DMRS must also be included. Looking at the table for multiple blind repetitions, the corresponding number of symbols for two and three transmissions in total (i.e. one or two blind repetitions) is 3 and 4 data symbols. This is still substantial overhead that impacts the reliability of the data transmission.

Certain aspects of the present disclosure and their embodiments may provide solutions to these or other challenges. For example, a set of DMRS patterns may be defined for which may be pre-configured or dynamically indicated for data repetition in UL. In some embodiments, the presence and position of DMRS in the sTTI may be used to infer the sequence number in the repetition. There are, proposed herein, various embodiments which address one or more of the issues disclosed herein. According to one embodiment, a wireless device may determine a reference signal pattern for data repetition in an uplink. The wireless device may transmit uplink data to a network node with K-l repetitions. One or more reference signals are included in the transmitted uplink data according to the determined reference signal pattern. K is an integer equal to or greater than 2. According to another embodiment, a base station may receive uplink data from a wireless device with K-l repetitions. One or more reference signals are included in the received uplink data according to a reference signal pattern. The base station may determine an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals. K is an integer equal to or greater than 2.

Certain embodiments may provide one or more of the following technical advantages. For example, in certain embodiments, the code rate can be reduced without increasing overhead, which enables data transmissions with low block error rate (BLER). As another example, the proportion of data symbols may be increased, thereby allowing for guaranteed transfer rate even with the repetition sequence. As yet another example, overhead may be reduced by reducing DMRS overhead. Further, certain embodiments may allow a network node to find the sequence index of the transmission, which may help in finding the rest of the sequence.

SUMMARY

According to an embodiment, a method is performed by a wireless device for transmitting uplink data. The method comprises determining a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The method further comprises determining a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The method further comprises transmitting the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

According to another embodiment, a wireless device comprises memory and processing circuitry. The memory is operable to store instructions. The processing circuitry is operable to execute the instructions. The wireless device is operable to determine a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The wireless device is further operable to determine a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The wireless device is further operable to transmit the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

According to yet another embodiment, a computer program product comprises a non- transitory computer readable medium storing computer readable program code. The computer readable program code comprises program code for determining a predetermined configuration according to which to transmit uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The computer readable program code further comprises program code for determining a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data. The computer readable program code further comprises program code for transmitting the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more references signals to a network node. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted according to the predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted according to the cyclic shift.

The above-described method, wireless device, and/or computer program code may include various other features, including any one or more of the following:

In particular embodiments, determining the reference signal cyclic shift is based on the predetermined configuration.

In particular embodiments, the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than a number of the one or more repetitions.

In particular embodiments, the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and a starting position of the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions within a time interval.

In particular embodiments, the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and where the transmission of the uplink data and one or more repetitions begins within a frame structure. In particular embodiments, the predetermined configuration is based on information signaled from the network node.

In particular embodiments, the predetermined configuration is based on received signaling comprising information that can be used to derive the predetermined configuration.

In particular embodiments, the predetermined configuration is chosen from a set of transmission pattern configurations.

In particular embodiments, the predetermined configuration is chosen from a set of transmission pattern configurations. The predetermined configuration is uniquely identifiable out of the set of transmission pattern configurations by the network node receiving the transmitted uplink data.

In particular embodiments, the method/wireless device/computer program product further comprises removing one of the one or more reference signals from the transmitted uplink data based on the presence of a sounding reference signal in a subslot used for the transmission.

In particular embodiments, the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

In particular embodiments, the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

In particular embodiments, the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

In particular embodiments, transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions to the network node comprises transmitting N number of data symbols, wherein N is equal to or greater than a guaranteed number.

In particular embodiments, transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions to the network node comprises transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions with a code rate equal to or less than a guaranteed code rate.

In particular embodiments, the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted consecutively in time.

In particular embodiments, the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are not transmitted consecutively in time. In particular embodiments, the one or more reference signals are aligned within the uplink data and the one or more repetitions, wherein the alignment is not based on the cyclic shift determined for the one or more reference signals.

According to an embodiment, a method is performed by a network node for receiving uplink data. The method comprises receiving uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data from a wireless device. One or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to a predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift. The method further comprises determining an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals.

According to another embodiment, a network node comprises memory and processing circuitry. The memory is operable to store instructions. The processing circuitry is operable to execute the instructions. The network node is operable to receive uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data from a wireless device. One or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to a predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift. The network node is further operable to determine an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals.

According to yet another embodiment, a computer program product comprises a non- transitory computer readable medium storing computer readable program code. The computer readable program code comprises program code for receiving uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data from a wireless device. One or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to a predetermined configuration. The one or more references signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift. The computer readable program code further comprises program code for determining an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals. The above-described method, network node, and/or computer program code may include various other features, including any one or more of the following:

In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises configuring one or more cyclic shifts to be applied by the wireless device to the one or more reference signals.

In particular embodiments, the cyclic shift is based on the predetermined configuration of uplink data and the one or more repetitions.

In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises determining the predetermined configuration for the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises determining a starting subslot of the received uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

In particular embodiments, determining the starting subslot comprises detecting the presence of the one or more reference signals and determining a current repetition index based on the detection of the presence of the one or more reference signals.

In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises combining the one or more repetitions of the uplink data with the uplink data into a single data set.

In particular embodiments, the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

In particular embodiments, the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than the number of the one or more repetitions.

In particular embodiments, determining the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and a starting position of the transmission of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions within a time interval.

In particular embodiments, determining the predetermined configuration is based on a number of the one or more repetitions and where the transmission of the uplink data and one or more repetitions begins within a frame structure.

In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises transmitting, to the wireless device, information enabling the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration. In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises signalling, to the wireless device, the information that enables the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration before receiving the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device.

In particular embodiments, the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

In particular embodiments, the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

In particular embodiments, the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are received consecutively in time.

In particular embodiments, the uplink data and the one or more repetitions are not received consecutively in time.

In particular embodiments, the method/network node/computer program code further comprises determining the cyclic shift of the one or more reference signals to determine the predetermined configuration of the uplink data and the one or more repetitions.

Certain embodiments of the present disclosure may provide one or more technical advantages. For example, certain embodiments provide reference signal pattern configurations for transmissions with one or more repetitions which include a reduced number of reference signals. In this manner, uplink transmissions with repetitions may be provided without increasing overhead. In particular, the code rate of an uplink transmission may be reduced, enabling data transmissions with low block error rate (BLER). As another example, the proportion of data symbols may be increased, thereby allowing for guaranteed transfer rate even with the repetition sequence. As yet another example, certain embodiments allow a network node to determine the reference signal pattern configuration, which enables the network node to determine which uplink transmissions are associated with the sequence of transmissions, enabling the use of repetitions without increased overhead.

Certain embodiments may have none, some, or all of the above-recited advantages. Other advantages may be readily apparent to one having skill in the art. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the disclosed embodiments and their features and advantages, reference is now made to the following description, taking in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 illustrates an example time-domain structure for LTE, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 2 illustrates an example subframe structure for downlink systems, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 3 illustrates an example subslot layout, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 4 illustrates an example of Demodulation Reference Signal (DMRS) sharing and DMRS multiplexing, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 5 illustrates an example wireless network, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 6 illustrates an example user equipment, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 7 illustrates an example virtualization environment, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 8 illustrate an example telecommunication network connected via an intermediate network to a host computer, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 9 illustrates an example host computer communicating via a base station with a user equipment over a partially wireless connection, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 10 is a flowchart illustrating an example method implemented in a communication system, in accordance certain embodiments;

FIGURE 11 is a flowchart illustrating a second example method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 12 is a flowchart illustrating a third method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 13 is a flowchart illustrating a fourth method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with certain embodiments; FIGURE 14 illustrates an example method performed by a wireless device, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 15 illustrates an example method performed by a network node, such as a user equipment, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 16 illustrates a schematic block diagram of a first example apparatus in a wireless network, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 17 illustrates a schematic block diagram of a second example apparatus in a wireless network, in accordance with certain embodiments;

FIGURE 18 illustrates another example method performed by a wireless device, in accordance with certain embodiments; and

FIGURE 19 illustrates another example performed by a network node, in accordance with certain embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Some of the embodiments contemplated herein will now be described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings. Other embodiments, however, are contained within the scope of the subject matter disclosed herein, the disclosed subject matter should not be construed as limited to only the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided by way of example to convey the scope of the subject matter to those skilled in the art.

For a given configuration of K={2,3,4} repetitions the UE may add DMRS according to a predefined pattern. Accordingly, the number of data symbols in the sequence of repetitions may be higher or equal to a guaranteed number, thereby ensuring a certain code rate. Further, the position and presence of DMRS may be used by a network node serving the UE, such as a base station (BS), to infer the sequence index of a certain transmission.

In certain embodiments, the UE is provided with a pattern, out of a set of possible patterns either by RRC signaling, or by dynamic signaling in the DCI.

Example configurations are given in tables 3-7 for K=2-4. It should be understood that the provided tables are just examples and that a specification need not necessarily implement the configuration as a table. Following for example table 4, the transmission could also be described as starting with a DMRS followed by data symbols, filling up the sequence of sub-slots configured. In certain embodiments the UE adapts the sequence based on whether sounding reference signal (SRS) is the last symbol of subslot #5, so that it may remove the DMRS from subslot #5 when SRS is present, to ensure a certain number of data symbols. Note that the last symbol of the subframe is preferably not a DMRS as this symbol may be used by SRS.

Table 3. K=2 with 3 guaranteed data symbols, and 1-2 DMRS in a sequence (first subslot number shown in bold). Alternative 1.

Table 4. K=2 with 3 guaranteed data symbols, and 1 DMRS in the start of a repetition sequence. Alternative 2.

Table 5. K=3 with 5 guaranteed data symbols, and 1-2 DMRS in a sequence, alt 1.

Table 6. K=3 with 5 guaranteed data symbols, and 1-2 DMRS in a sequence, alt 2.

Table 7. K=4 with 7 guaranteed data symbols, and 2-3 DMRS in a sequence.

In case the network does not know when the UE starts to transmit the repetition sequence, it need to detect the starting sub-slot. This happens for example in case of semi- persistent scheduling, where the network configures reoccurring grants to the UE, but it will not be in control of when the UE transmits the data. For a given value of K, the network node serving the UE, such as a BS, can then search for the presence and position of the 1 to 3 DMRS configured, and thereby detect where in the repetition sequence the transmission is. The network node serving the UE can use this information to decode previous or subsequent transmissions given the sequence index.

As one example, K=3, and alternative 1 is used as in Table 5. If the network node serving the UE detects a DMRS in the subslot #2 it knows that it should combine the data of subslot #2 with that of #3 and #4.

In one embodiment, the repetition sequence can be determined by the placement of the DMRS. In table 6 for example, there is only a single DMRS placement in each sub-slot number for each sequence.

In another embodiment, the DMRS is different depending on the sequence of repetitions carried out. Assuming the DMRS design from LTE, one sequence could use cyclic shift 0 while another sequence could use cyclic shift 1. In this case, it could be of benefit (compared to the above embodiment) if the placement of the DMRS is aligned (since they are in theory orthogonal).

In yet another embodiment for the cases where one DMRS positions map to multiple sequences, different DMRS sequences is used to discriminate between the sequences.

Although the subject matter described herein may be implemented in any appropriate type of system using any suitable components, the embodiments disclosed herein are described in relation to a wireless network, such as the example wireless network illustrated in Figure 5. For simplicity, the wireless network of Figure 5 only depicts network 106, network nodes 160 and l60b, and WDs 110, 110b, and l lOc. In practice, a wireless network may further include any additional elements suitable to support communication between wireless devices or between a wireless device and another communication device, such as a landline telephone, a service provider, or any other network node or end device. Of the illustrated components, network node 160 and wireless device (WD) 110 are depicted with additional detail. The wireless network may provide communication and other types of services to one or more wireless devices to facilitate the wireless devices’ access to and/or use of the services provided by, or via, the wireless network. The wireless network may comprise and/or interface with any type of communication, telecommunication, data, cellular, and/or radio network or other similar type of system. In some embodiments, the wireless network may be configured to operate according to specific standards or other types of predefined rules or procedures. Thus, particular embodiments of the wireless network may implement communication standards, such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Long Term Evolution (LTE), and/or other suitable 2G, 3G, 4G, or 5G standards; wireless local area network (WLAN) standards, such as the IEEE 802.11 standards; and/or any other appropriate wireless communication standard, such as the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax), Bluetooth, Z-Wave and/or ZigBee standards.

Network 106 may comprise one or more backhaul networks, core networks, IP networks, public switched telephone networks (PSTNs), packet data networks, optical networks, wide-area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), wireless local area networks (WLANs), wired networks, wireless networks, metropolitan area networks, and other networks to enable communication between devices.

Network node 160 and WD 110 comprise various components described in more detail below. These components work together in order to provide network node and/or wireless device functionality, such as providing wireless connections in a wireless network. In different embodiments, the wireless network may comprise any number of wired or wireless networks, network nodes, base stations, controllers, wireless devices, relay stations, and/or any other components or systems that may facilitate or participate in the communication of data and/or signals whether via wired or wireless connections.

As used herein, network node refers to equipment capable, configured, arranged and/or operable to communicate directly or indirectly with a wireless device and/or with other network nodes or equipment in the wireless network to enable and/or provide wireless access to the wireless device and/or to perform other functions (e.g., administration) in the wireless network. Examples of network nodes include, but are not limited to, access points (APs) (e.g., radio access points), base stations (BSs) (e.g., radio base stations, Node Bs, evolved Node Bs (eNBs) and NR NodeBs (gNBs)). Base stations may be categorized based on the amount of coverage they provide (or, stated differently, their transmit power level) and may then also be referred to as femto base stations, pico base stations, micro base stations, or macro base stations. A base station may be a relay node or a relay donor node controlling a relay. A network node may also include one or more (or all) parts of a distributed radio base station such as centralized digital units and/or remote radio units (RRUs), sometimes referred to as Remote Radio Heads (RRHs). Such remote radio units may or may not be integrated with an antenna as an antenna integrated radio. Parts of a distributed radio base station may also be referred to as nodes in a distributed antenna system (DAS). Yet further examples of network nodes include multi-standard radio (MSR) equipment such as MSR BSs, network controllers such as radio network controllers (RNCs) or base station controllers (BSCs), base transceiver stations (BTSs), transmission points, transmission nodes, multi-cell/multicast coordination entities (MCEs), core network nodes (e.g., MSCs, MMEs), O&M nodes, OSS nodes, SON nodes, positioning nodes (e.g., E-SMLCs), and/or MDTs. As another example, a network node may be a virtual network node as described in more detail below. More generally, however, network nodes may represent any suitable device (or group of devices) capable, configured, arranged, and/or operable to enable and/or provide a wireless device with access to the wireless network or to provide some service to a wireless device that has accessed the wireless network.

In Figure 15, network node 160 includes processing circuitry 170, device readable medium 180, interface 190, auxiliary equipment 184, power source 186, power circuitry 187, and antenna 162. Although network node 160 illustrated in the example wireless network of Figure 5 may represent a device that includes the illustrated combination of hardware components, other embodiments may comprise network nodes with different combinations of components. It is to be understood that a network node comprises any suitable combination of hardware and/or software needed to perform the tasks, features, functions and methods disclosed herein. Moreover, while the components of network node 160 are depicted as single boxes located within a larger box, or nested within multiple boxes, in practice, a network node may comprise multiple different physical components that make up a single illustrated component (e.g., device readable medium 180 may comprise multiple separate hard drives as well as multiple RAM modules).

Similarly, network node 160 may be composed of multiple physically separate components (e.g., a NodeB component and a RNC component, or a BTS component and a BSC component, etc.), which may each have their own respective components. In certain scenarios in which network node 160 comprises multiple separate components (e.g., BTS and BSC components), one or more of the separate components may be shared among several network nodes. For example, a single RNC may control multiple NodeB’s. In such a scenario, each unique NodeB and RNC pair, may in some instances be considered a single separate network node. In some embodiments, network node 160 may be configured to support multiple radio access technologies (RATs). In such embodiments, some components may be duplicated (e.g., separate device readable medium 180 for the different RATs) and some components may be reused (e.g., the same antenna 162 may be shared by the RATs). Network node 160 may also include multiple sets of the various illustrated components for different wireless technologies integrated into network node 160, such as, for example, GSM, WCDMA, LTE, NR, WiFi, or Bluetooth wireless technologies. These wireless technologies may be integrated into the same or different chip or set of chips and other components within network node 160.

Processing circuitry 170 is configured to perform any determining, calculating, or similar operations (e.g., certain obtaining operations) described herein as being provided by a network node. These operations performed by processing circuitry 170 may include processing information obtained by processing circuitry 170 by, for example, converting the obtained information into other information, comparing the obtained information or converted information to information stored in the network node, and/or performing one or more operations based on the obtained information or converted information, and as a result of said processing making a determination.

Processing circuitry 170 may comprise a combination of one or more of a microprocessor, controller, microcontroller, central processing unit, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, or any other suitable computing device, resource, or combination of hardware, software and/or encoded logic operable to provide, either alone or in conjunction with other network node 160 components, such as device readable medium 180, network node 160 functionality. For example, processing circuitry 170 may execute instructions stored in device readable medium 180 or in memory within processing circuitry 170. Such functionality may include providing any of the various wireless features, functions, or benefits discussed herein. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 170 may include a system on a chip (SOC).

In some embodiments, processing circuitry 170 may include one or more of radio frequency (RF) transceiver circuitry 172 and baseband processing circuitry 174. In some embodiments, radio frequency (RF) transceiver circuitry 172 and baseband processing circuitry 174 may be on separate chips (or sets of chips), boards, or units, such as radio units and digital units. In alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 172 and baseband processing circuitry 174 may be on the same chip or set of chips, boards, or units

In certain embodiments, some or all of the functionality described herein as being provided by a network node, base station, eNB or other such network device may be performed by processing circuitry 170 executing instructions stored on device readable medium 180 or memory within processing circuitry 170. In alternative embodiments, some or all of the functionality may be provided by processing circuitry 170 without executing instructions stored on a separate or discrete device readable medium, such as in a hard-wired manner. In any of those embodiments, whether executing instructions stored on a device readable storage medium or not, processing circuitry 170 can be configured to perform the described functionality. The benefits provided by such functionality are not limited to processing circuitry 170 alone or to other components of network node 160, but are enjoyed by network node 160 as a whole, and/or by end users and the wireless network generally.

Device readable medium 180 may comprise any form of volatile or non-volatile computer readable memory including, without limitation, persistent storage, solid-state memory, remotely mounted memory, magnetic media, optical media, random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), mass storage media (for example, a hard disk), removable storage media (for example, a flash drive, a Compact Disk (CD) or a Digital Video Disk (DVD)), and/or any other volatile or non-volatile, non-transitory device readable and/or computer-executable memory devices that store information, data, and/or instructions that may be used by processing circuitry 170. Device readable medium 180 may store any suitable instructions, data or information, including a computer program, software, an application including one or more of logic, rules, code, tables, etc. and/or other instructions capable of being executed by processing circuitry 170 and, utilized by network node 160. Device readable medium 180 may be used to store any calculations made by processing circuitry 170 and/or any data received via interface 190. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 170 and device readable medium 180 may be considered to be integrated.

Interface 190 is used in the wired or wireless communication of signalling and/or data between network node 160, network 106, and/or WDs 110. As illustrated, interface 190 comprises port(s)/terminal(s) 194 to send and receive data, for example to and from network 106 over a wired connection. Interface 190 also includes radio front end circuitry 192 that may be coupled to, or in certain embodiments a part of, antenna 162. Radio front end circuitry 192 comprises filters 198 and amplifiers 196. Radio front end circuitry 192 may be connected to antenna 162 and processing circuitry 170. Radio front end circuitry may be configured to condition signals communicated between antenna 162 and processing circuitry 170. Radio front end circuitry 192 may receive digital data that is to be sent out to other network nodes or WDs via a wireless connection. Radio front end circuitry 192 may convert the digital data into a radio signal having the appropriate channel and bandwidth parameters using a combination of filters 198 and/or amplifiers 196. The radio signal may then be transmitted via antenna 162. Similarly, when receiving data, antenna 162 may collect radio signals which are then converted into digital data by radio front end circuitry 192. The digital data may be passed to processing circuitry 170. In other embodiments, the interface may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components.

In certain alternative embodiments, network node 160 may not include separate radio front end circuitry 192, instead, processing circuitry 170 may comprise radio front end circuitry and may be connected to antenna 162 without separate radio front end circuitry 192. Similarly, in some embodiments, all or some of RF transceiver circuitry 172 may be considered a part of interface 190. In still other embodiments, interface 190 may include one or more ports or terminals 194, radio front end circuitry 192, and RF transceiver circuitry 172, as part of a radio unit (not shown), and interface 190 may communicate with baseband processing circuitry 174, which is part of a digital unit (not shown).

Antenna 162 may include one or more antennas, or antenna arrays, configured to send and/or receive wireless signals. Antenna 162 may be coupled to radio front end circuitry 190 and may be any type of antenna capable of transmitting and receiving data and/or signals wirelessly. In some embodiments, antenna 162 may comprise one or more omni-directional, sector or panel antennas operable to transmit/receive radio signals between, for example, 2 GHz and 66 GHz. An omni-directional antenna may be used to transmit/receive radio signals in any direction, a sector antenna may be used to transmit/receive radio signals from devices within a particular area, and a panel antenna may be a line of sight antenna used to transmit/receive radio signals in a relatively straight line. In some instances, the use of more than one antenna may be referred to as MIMO. In certain embodiments, antenna 162 may be separate from network node 160 and may be connectable to network node 160 through an interface or port. Antenna 162, interface 190, and/or processing circuitry 170 may be configured to perform any receiving operations and/or certain obtaining operations described herein as being performed by a network node. Any information, data and/or signals may be received from a wireless device, another network node and/or any other network equipment. Similarly, antenna 162, interface 190, and/or processing circuitry 170 may be configured to perform any transmitting operations described herein as being performed by a network node. Any information, data and/or signals may be transmitted to a wireless device, another network node and/or any other network equipment.

Power circuitry 187 may comprise, or be coupled to, power management circuitry and is configured to supply the components of network node 160 with power for performing the functionality described herein. Power circuitry 187 may receive power from power source 186. Power source 186 and/or power circuitry 187 may be configured to provide power to the various components of network node 160 in a form suitable for the respective components (e.g., at a voltage and current level needed for each respective component). Power source 186 may either be included in, or external to, power circuitry 187 and/or network node 160. For example, network node 160 may be connectable to an external power source (e.g., an electricity outlet) via an input circuitry or interface such as an electrical cable, whereby the external power source supplies power to power circuitry 187. As a further example, power source 186 may comprise a source of power in the form of a battery or battery pack which is connected to, or integrated in, power circuitry 187. The battery may provide backup power should the external power source fail. Other types of power sources, such as photovoltaic devices, may also be used.

Alternative embodiments of network node 160 may include additional components beyond those shown in Figure 5 that may be responsible for providing certain aspects of the network node’s functionality, including any of the functionality described herein and/or any functionality necessary to support the subject maher described herein. For example, network node 160 may include user interface equipment to allow input of information into network node 160 and to allow output of information from network node 160. This may allow a user to perform diagnostic, maintenance, repair, and other administrative functions for network node 160.

As used herein, wireless device (WD) refers to a device capable, configured, arranged and/or operable to communicate wirelessly with network nodes and/or other wireless devices. Unless otherwise noted, the term WD may be used interchangeably herein with user equipment (UE). Communicating wirelessly may involve transmitting and/or receiving wireless signals using electromagnetic waves, radio waves, infrared waves, and/or other types of signals suitable for conveying information through air. In some embodiments, a WD may be configured to transmit and/or receive information without direct human interaction. For instance, a WD may be designed to transmit information to a network on a predetermined schedule, when triggered by an internal or external event, or in response to requests from the network. Examples of a WD include, but are not limited to, a smart phone, a mobile phone, a cell phone, a voice over IP (VoIP) phone, a wireless local loop phone, a desktop computer, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a wireless cameras, a gaming console or device, a music storage device, a playback appliance, a wearable terminal device, a wireless endpoint, a mobile station, a tablet, a laptop, a laptop-embedded equipment (LEE), a laptop-mounted equipment (LME), a smart device, a wireless customer-premise equipment (CPE) a vehicle- mounted wireless terminal device, etc.. A WD may support device-to-device (D2D) communication, for example by implementing a 3GPP standard for sidelink communication, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-everything (V2X) and may in this case be referred to as a D2D communication device. As yet another specific example, in an Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, a WD may represent a machine or other device that performs monitoring and/or measurements, and transmits the results of such monitoring and/or measurements to another WD and/or a network node. The WD may in this case be a machine-to-machine (M2M) device, which may in a 3GPP context be referred to as an MTC device. As one particular example, the WD may be a UE implementing the 3GPP narrow band internet of things (NB-IoT) standard. Particular examples of such machines or devices are sensors, metering devices such as power meters, industrial machinery, or home or personal appliances (e.g. refrigerators, televisions, etc.) personal wearables (e.g., watches, fitness trackers, etc.). In other scenarios, a WD may represent a vehicle or other equipment that is capable of monitoring and/or reporting on its operational status or other functions associated with its operation. A WD as described above may represent the endpoint of a wireless connection, in which case the device may be referred to as a wireless terminal. Furthermore, a WD as described above may be mobile, in which case it may also be referred to as a mobile device or a mobile terminal. As illustrated, wireless device 110 includes antenna 111, interface 114, processing circuitry 120, device readable medium 130, user interface equipment 132, auxiliary equipment 134, power source 136 and power circuitry 137. WD 110 may include multiple sets of one or more of the illustrated components for different wireless technologies supported by WD 110, such as, for example, GSM, WCDMA, LTE, NR, WiFi, WiMAX, or Bluetooth wireless technologies, just to mention a few. These wireless technologies may be integrated into the same or different chips or set of chips as other components within WD 110

Antenna 111 may include one or more antennas or antenna arrays, configured to send and/or receive wireless signals, and is connected to interface 114. In certain alternative embodiments, antenna 111 may be separate from WD 110 and be connectable to WD 110 through an interface or port. Antenna 111, interface 114, and/or processing circuitry 120 may be configured to perform any receiving or transmitting operations described herein as being performed by a WD. Any information, data and/or signals may be received from a network node and/or another WD. In some embodiments, radio front end circuitry and/or antenna 111 may be considered an interface.

As illustrated, interface 114 comprises radio front end circuitry 112 and antenna 111. Radio front end circuitry 112 comprise one or more filters 118 and amplifiers 116. Radio front end circuitry 114 is connected to antenna 111 and processing circuitry 120, and is configured to condition signals communicated between antenna 111 and processing circuitry 120. Radio front end circuitry 112 may be coupled to or a part of antenna 111. In some embodiments, WD 110 may not include separate radio front end circuitry 112; rather, processing circuitry 120 may comprise radio front end circuitry and may be connected to antenna 111. Similarly, in some embodiments, some or all of RF transceiver circuitry 122 may be considered a part of interface 114. Radio front end circuitry 112 may receive digital data that is to be sent out to other network nodes or WDs via a wireless connection. Radio front end circuitry 112 may convert the digital data into a radio signal having the appropriate channel and bandwidth parameters using a combination of filters 118 and/or amplifiers 116. The radio signal may then be transmitted via antenna 111. Similarly, when receiving data, antenna 111 may collect radio signals which are then converted into digital data by radio front end circuitry 112. The digital data may be passed to processing circuitry 120. In other embodiments, the interface may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components.

Processing circuitry 120 may comprise a combination of one or more of a microprocessor, controller, microcontroller, central processing unit, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, or any other suitable computing device, resource, or combination of hardware, software, and/or encoded logic operable to provide, either alone or in conjunction with other WD 110 components, such as device readable medium 130, WD 110 functionality. Such functionality may include providing any of the various wireless features or benefits discussed herein. For example, processing circuitry 120 may execute instructions stored in device readable medium 130 or in memory within processing circuitry 120 to provide the functionality disclosed herein.

As illustrated, processing circuitry 120 includes one or more of RF transceiver circuitry 122, baseband processing circuitry 124, and application processing circuitry 126. In other embodiments, the processing circuitry may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components. In certain embodiments processing circuitry 120 of WD 110 may comprise a SOC. In some embodiments, RF transceiver circuitry 122, baseband processing circuitry 124, and application processing circuitry 126 may be on separate chips or sets of chips. In alternative embodiments, part or all of baseband processing circuitry 124 and application processing circuitry 126 may be combined into one chip or set of chips, and RF transceiver circuitry 122 may be on a separate chip or set of chips. In still alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 122 and baseband processing circuitry 124 may be on the same chip or set of chips, and application processing circuitry 126 may be on a separate chip or set of chips. In yet other alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 122, baseband processing circuitry 124, and application processing circuitry 126 may be combined in the same chip or set of chips. In some embodiments, RF transceiver circuitry 122 may be a part of interface 114. RF transceiver circuitry 122 may condition RF signals for processing circuitry 120.

In certain embodiments, some or all of the functionality described herein as being performed by a WD may be provided by processing circuitry 120 executing instructions stored on device readable medium 130, which in certain embodiments may be a computer- readable storage medium. In alternative embodiments, some or all of the functionality may be provided by processing circuitry 120 without executing instructions stored on a separate or discrete device readable storage medium, such as in a hard-wired manner. In any of those particular embodiments, whether executing instructions stored on a device readable storage medium or not, processing circuitry 120 can be configured to perform the described functionality. The benefits provided by such functionality are not limited to processing circuitry 120 alone or to other components of WD 110, but are enjoyed by WD 110 as a whole, and/or by end users and the wireless network generally.

Processing circuitry 120 may be configured to perform any determining, calculating, or similar operations (e.g., certain obtaining operations) described herein as being performed by a WD. These operations, as performed by processing circuitry 120, may include processing information obtained by processing circuitry 120 by, for example, converting the obtained information into other information, comparing the obtained information or converted information to information stored by WD 110, and/or performing one or more operations based on the obtained information or converted information, and as a result of said processing making a determination.

Device readable medium 130 may be operable to store a computer program, software, an application including one or more of logic, rules, code, tables, etc. and/or other instructions capable of being executed by processing circuitry 120. Device readable medium 130 may include computer memory (e.g., Random Access Memory (RAM) or Read Only Memory (ROM)), mass storage media (e.g., a hard disk), removable storage media (e.g., a Compact Disk (CD) or a Digital Video Disk (DVD)), and/or any other volatile or non volatile, non-transitory device readable and/or computer executable memory devices that store information, data, and/or instructions that may be used by processing circuitry 120. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 120 and device readable medium 130 may be considered to be integrated.

User interface equipment 132 may provide components that allow for a human user to interact with WD 110. Such interaction may be of many forms, such as visual, audial, tactile, etc. User interface equipment 132 may be operable to produce output to the user and to allow the user to provide input to WD 110. The type of interaction may vary depending on the type of user interface equipment 132 installed in WD 110. For example, if WD 110 is a smart phone, the interaction may be via a touch screen; if WD 110 is a smart meter, the interaction may be through a screen that provides usage (e.g., the number of gallons used) or a speaker that provides an audible alert (e.g., if smoke is detected). User interface equipment 132 may include input interfaces, devices and circuits, and output interfaces, devices and circuits. User interface equipment 132 is configured to allow input of information into WD 110, and is connected to processing circuitry 120 to allow processing circuitry 120 to process the input information. User interface equipment 132 may include, for example, a microphone, a proximity or other sensor, keys/buttons, a touch display, one or more cameras, a USB port, or other input circuitry. User interface equipment 132 is also configured to allow output of information from WD 110, and to allow processing circuitry 120 to output information from WD 110. User interface equipment 132 may include, for example, a speaker, a display, vibrating circuitry, a USB port, a headphone interface, or other output circuitry. Using one or more input and output interfaces, devices, and circuits, of user interface equipment 132, WD 110 may communicate with end users and/or the wireless network, and allow them to benefit from the functionality described herein.

Auxiliary equipment 134 is operable to provide more specific functionality which may not be generally performed by WDs. This may comprise specialized sensors for doing measurements for various purposes, interfaces for additional types of communication such as wired communications etc. The inclusion and type of components of auxiliary equipment 134 may vary depending on the embodiment and/or scenario.

Power source 136 may, in some embodiments, be in the form of a battery or battery pack. Other types of power sources, such as an external power source (e.g., an electricity outlet), photovoltaic devices or power cells, may also be used. WD 110 may further comprise power circuitry 137 for delivering power from power source 136 to the various parts of WD 110 which need power from power source 136 to carry out any functionality described or indicated herein. Power circuitry 137 may in certain embodiments comprise power management circuitry. Power circuitry 137 may additionally or alternatively be operable to receive power from an external power source; in which case WD 10 may be connectable to the external power source (such as an electricity outlet) via input circuitry or an interface such as an electrical power cable. Power circuitry 137 may also in certain embodiments be operable to deliver power from an external power source to power source 136. This may be, for example, for the charging of power source 136. Power circuitry 137 may perform any formatting, converting, or other modification to the power from power source 136 to make the power suitable for the respective components of WD 110 to which power is supplied. Figure 6 illustrates one embodiment of a UE in accordance with various aspects described herein. As used herein, a user equipment or UE may not necessarily have a user in the sense of a human user who owns and/or operates the relevant device. Instead, a UE may represent a device that is intended for sale to, or operation by, a human user but which may not, or which may not initially, be associated with a specific human user (e.g., a smart sprinkler controller). Alternatively, a UE may represent a device that is not intended for sale to, or operation by, an end user but which may be associated with or operated for the benefit of a user (e.g., a smart power meter). UE 2200 may be any UE identified by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), including a NB-IoT UE, a machine type communication (MTC) UE, and/or an enhanced MTC (eMTC) UE. UE 200, as illustrated in 2Figure 6, is one example of a WD configured for communication in accordance with one or more communication standards promulgated by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), such as 3GPP’s GSM, UMTS, LTE, and/or 5G standards. As mentioned previously, the term WD and UE may be used interchangeable. Accordingly, although Figure 6 is a UE, the components discussed herein are equally applicable to a WD, and vice-versa.

In Figure 6, UE 200 includes processing circuitry 201 that is operatively coupled to input/output interface 205, radio frequency (RF) interface 209, network connection interface 211, memory 215 including random access memory (RAM) 217, read-only memory (ROM) 219, and storage medium 221 or the like, communication subsystem 231, power source 233, and/or any other component, or any combination thereof. Storage medium 221 includes operating system 223, application program 225, and data 227. In other embodiments, storage medium 221 may include other similar types of information. Certain UEs may utilize all of the components shown in Figure 6, or only a subset of the components. The level of integration between the components may vary from one UE to another UE. Further, certain UEs may contain multiple instances of a component, such as multiple processors, memories, transceivers, transmitters, receivers, etc.

In Figure 6, processing circuitry 201 may be configured to process computer instructions and data. Processing circuitry 201 may be configured to implement any sequential state machine operative to execute machine instructions stored as machine- readable computer programs in the memory, such as one or more hardware-implemented state machines (e.g., in discrete logic, FPGA, ASIC, etc.); programmable logic together with appropriate firmware; one or more stored program, general-purpose processors, such as a microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), together with appropriate software; or any combination of the above. For example, the processing circuitry 201 may include two central processing units (CPUs). Data may be information in a form suitable for use by a computer.

In the depicted embodiment, input/output interface 205 may be configured to provide a communication interface to an input device, output device, or input and output device. UE 200 may be configured to use an output device via input/output interface 205. An output device may use the same type of interface port as an input device. For example, a USB port may be used to provide input to and output from UE 200. The output device may be a speaker, a sound card, a video card, a display, a monitor, a printer, an actuator, an emitter, a smartcard, another output device, or any combination thereof. UE 200 may be configured to use an input device via input/output interface 205 to allow a user to capture information into UE 200. The input device may include a touch-sensitive or presence-sensitive display, a camera (e.g., a digital camera, a digital video camera, a web camera, etc.), a microphone, a sensor, a mouse, a trackball, a directional pad, a trackpad, a scroll wheel, a smartcard, and the like. The presence-sensitive display may include a capacitive or resistive touch sensor to sense input from a user. A sensor may be, for instance, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a tilt sensor, a force sensor, a magnetometer, an optical sensor, a proximity sensor, another like sensor, or any combination thereof. For example, the input device may be an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a digital camera, a microphone, and an optical sensor.

In Figure 6, RF interface 209 may be configured to provide a communication interface to RF components such as a transmitter, a receiver, and an antenna. Network connection interface 211 may be configured to provide a communication interface to network 243a. Network 243a may encompass wired and/or wireless networks such as a local-area network (LAN), a wide-area network (WAN), a computer network, a wireless network, a telecommunications network, another like network or any combination thereof. For example, network 243a may comprise a Wi-Fi network. Network connection interface 211 may be configured to include a receiver and a transmitter interface used to communicate with one or more other devices over a communication network according to one or more communication protocols, such as Ethernet, TCP/IP, SONET, ATM, or the like. Network connection interface 211 may implement receiver and transmitter functionality appropriate to the communication network links (e.g., optical, electrical, and the like). The transmitter and receiver functions may share circuit components, software or firmware, or alternatively may be implemented separately.

RAM 217 may be configured to interface via bus 202 to processing circuitry 201 to provide storage or caching of data or computer instructions during the execution of software programs such as the operating system, application programs, and device drivers. ROM 219 may be configured to provide computer instructions or data to processing circuitry 201. For example, ROM 219 may be configured to store invariant low-level system code or data for basic system functions such as basic input and output (I/O), startup, or reception of keystrokes from a keyboard that are stored in a non-volatile memory. Storage medium 221 may be configured to include memory such as RAM, ROM, programmable read-only memory (PROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), magnetic disks, optical disks, floppy disks, hard disks, removable cartridges, or flash drives. In one example, storage medium 221 may be configured to include operating system 223, application program 225 such as a web browser application, a widget or gadget engine or another application, and data file 227. Storage medium 221 may store, for use by UE 200, any of a variety of various operating systems or combinations of operating systems.

Storage medium 221 may be configured to include a number of physical drive units, such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID), floppy disk drive, flash memory, USB flash drive, external hard disk drive, thumb drive, pen drive, key drive, high-density digital versatile disc (HD-DVD) optical disc drive, internal hard disk drive, Blu-Ray optical disc drive, holographic digital data storage (HDDS) optical disc drive, external mini-dual in-line memory module (DIMM), synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), external micro-DIMM SDRAM, smartcard memory such as a subscriber identity module or a removable user identity (SIM/RUIM) module, other memory, or any combination thereof. Storage medium 221 may allow UE 200 to access computer-executable instructions, application programs or the like, stored on transitory or non-transitory memory media, to off load data, or to upload data. An article of manufacture, such as one utilizing a communication system may be tangibly embodied in storage medium 221, which may comprise a device readable medium.

In Figure 6, processing circuitry 201 may be configured to communicate with network 243b using communication subsystem 231. Network 243a and network 243b may be the same network or networks or different network or networks. Communication subsystem 231 may be configured to include one or more transceivers used to communicate with network 243b. For example, communication subsystem 231 may be configured to include one or more transceivers used to communicate with one or more remote transceivers of another device capable of wireless communication such as another WD, UE, or base station of a radio access network (RAN) according to one or more communication protocols, such as IEEE 802.2, CDMA, WCDMA, GSM, LTE, UTRAN, WiMax, or the like. Each transceiver may include transmitter 233 and/or receiver 235 to implement transmitter or receiver functionality, respectively, appropriate to the RAN links (e.g., frequency allocations and the like). Further, transmitter 233 and receiver 235 of each transceiver may share circuit components, software or firmware, or alternatively may be implemented separately.

In the illustrated embodiment, the communication functions of communication subsystem 231 may include data communication, voice communication, multimedia communication, short-range communications such as Bluetooth, near-field communication, location-based communication such as the use of the global positioning system (GPS) to determine a location, another like communication function, or any combination thereof. For example, communication subsystem 231 may include cellular communication, Wi-Fi communication, Bluetooth communication, and GPS communication. Network 243b may encompass wired and/or wireless networks such as a local-area network (LAN), a wide-area network (WAN), a computer network, a wireless network, a telecommunications network, another like network or any combination thereof. For example, network 243b may be a cellular network, a Wi-Fi network, and/or a near-field network. Power source 213 may be configured to provide alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power to components of UE 200.

The features, benefits and/or functions described herein may be implemented in one of the components of UE 200 or partitioned across multiple components of UE 200. Further, the features, benefits, and/or functions described herein may be implemented in any combination of hardware, software or firmware. In one example, communication subsystem 231 may be configured to include any of the components described herein. Further, processing circuitry 201 may be configured to communicate with any of such components over bus 202. In another example, any of such components may be represented by program instructions stored in memory that when executed by processing circuitry 201 perform the corresponding functions described herein. In another example, the functionality of any of such components may be partitioned between processing circuitry 201 and communication subsystem 231. In another example, the non-computationally intensive functions of any of such components may be implemented in software or firmware and the computationally intensive functions may be implemented in hardware.

Figure 7 is a schematic block diagram illustrating a virtualization environment 300 in which functions implemented by some embodiments may be virtualized. In the present context, virtualizing means creating virtual versions of apparatuses or devices which may include virtualizing hardware platforms, storage devices and networking resources. As used herein, virtualization can be applied to a node (e.g., a virtualized base station or a virtualized radio access node) or to a device (e.g., a UE, a wireless device or any other type of communication device) or components thereof and relates to an implementation in which at least a portion of the functionality is implemented as one or more virtual components (e.g., via one or more applications, components, functions, virtual machines or containers executing on one or more physical processing nodes in one or more networks).

In some embodiments, some or all of the functions described herein may be implemented as virtual components executed by one or more virtual machines implemented in one or more virtual environments 300 hosted by one or more of hardware nodes 330. Further, in embodiments in which the virtual node is not a radio access node or does not require radio connectivity (e.g., a core network node), then the network node may be entirely virtualized.

The functions may be implemented by one or more applications 320 (which may alternatively be called software instances, virtual appliances, network functions, virtual nodes, virtual network functions, etc.) operative to implement some of the features, functions, and/or benefits of some of the embodiments disclosed herein. Applications 320 are run in virtualization environment 300 which provides hardware 330 comprising processing circuitry 360 and memory 390. Memory 390 contains instructions 395 executable by processing circuitry 360 whereby application 320 is operative to provide one or more of the features, benefits, and/or functions disclosed herein.

Virtualization environment 300, comprises general-purpose or special-purpose network hardware devices 330 comprising a set of one or more processors or processing circuitry 360, which may be commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) processors, dedicated Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), or any other type of processing circuitry including digital or analog hardware components or special purpose processors. Each hardware device may comprise memory 390-1 which may be non-persistent memory for temporarily storing instructions 395 or software executed by processing circuitry 360. Each hardware device may comprise one or more network interface controllers (NICs) 370, also known as network interface cards, which include physical network interface 380. Each hardware device may also include non-transitory, persistent, machine-readable storage media 390-2 having stored therein software 395 and/or instructions executable by processing circuitry 360. Software 395 may include any type of software including software for instantiating one or more virtualization layers 350 (also referred to as hypervisors), software to execute virtual machines 340 as well as software allowing it to execute functions, features and/or benefits described in relation with some embodiments described herein.

Virtual machines 340, comprise virtual processing, virtual memory, virtual networking or interface and virtual storage, and may be run by a corresponding virtualization layer 350 or hypervisor. Different embodiments of the instance of virtual appliance 320 may be implemented on one or more of virtual machines 340, and the implementations may be made in different ways.

During operation, processing circuitry 360 executes software 395 to instantiate the hypervisor or virtualization layer 350, which may sometimes be referred to as a virtual machine monitor (VMM). Virtualization layer 350 may present a virtual operating platform that appears like networking hardware to virtual machine 340.

As shown in Figure 7, hardware 330 may be a standalone network node with generic or specific components. Hardware 330 may comprise antenna 3225 and may implement some functions via virtualization. Alternatively, hardware 330 may be part of a larger cluster of hardware (e.g. such as in a data center or customer premise equipment (CPE)) where many hardware nodes work together and are managed via management and orchestration (MANO) 3100, which, among others, oversees lifecycle management of applications 320.

Virtualization of the hardware is in some contexts referred to as network function virtualization (NFV). NFV may be used to consolidate many network equipment types onto industry standard high volume server hardware, physical switches, and physical storage, which can be located in data centers, and customer premise equipment. In the context of NFV, virtual machine 340 may be a software implementation of a physical machine that runs programs as if they were executing on a physical, non-virtualized machine. Each of virtual machines 340, and that part of hardware 330 that executes that virtual machine, be it hardware dedicated to that virtual machine and/or hardware shared by that virtual machine with others of the virtual machines 340, forms a separate virtual network elements (VNE).

Still in the context of NFV, Virtual Network Function (VNF) is responsible for handling specific network functions that run in one or more virtual machines 340 on top of hardware networking infrastructure 330 and corresponds to application 320 in 3Figure 7.

In some embodiments, one or more radio units 3200 that each include one or more transmitters 3220 and one or more receivers 3210 may be coupled to one or more antennas 3225. Radio units 3200 may communicate directly with hardware nodes 330 via one or more appropriate network interfaces and may be used in combination with the virtual components to provide a virtual node with radio capabilities, such as a radio access node or a base station.

In some embodiments, some signalling can be effected with the use of control system 3230 which may alternatively be used for communication between the hardware nodes 330 and radio units 3200.

With reference to FIGURE 8, in accordance with an embodiment, a communication system includes telecommunication network 410, such as a 3GPP-type cellular network, which comprises access network 411, such as a radio access network, and core network 414. Access network 411 comprises a plurality of base stations 4l2a, 4l2b, 4l2c, such as NBs, eNBs, gNBs or other types of wireless access points, each defining a corresponding coverage area 4l3a, 4l3b, 4l3c. Each base station 4l2a, 4l2b, 4l2c is connectable to core network 414 over a wired or wireless connection 415. A first UE 491 located in coverage area 4l3c is configured to wirelessly connect to, or be paged by, the corresponding base station 4l2c. A second UE 492 in coverage area 413a is wirelessly connectable to the corresponding base station 4l2a. While a plurality of UEs 491, 492 are illustrated in this example, the disclosed embodiments are equally applicable to a situation where a sole UE is in the coverage area or where a sole UE is connecting to the corresponding base station 412.

Telecommunication network 410 is itself connected to host computer 430, which may be embodied in the hardware and/or software of a standalone server, a cloud-implemented server, a distributed server or as processing resources in a server farm. Host computer 430 may be under the ownership or control of a service provider, or may be operated by the service provider or on behalf of the service provider. Connections 421 and 422 between telecommunication network 410 and host computer 430 may extend directly from core network 414 to host computer 430 or may go via an optional intermediate network 420. Intermediate network 420 may be one of, or a combination of more than one of, a public, private or hosted network; intermediate network 420, if any, may be a backbone network or the Internet; in particular, intermediate network 420 may comprise two or more sub-networks (not shown).

The communication system of Figure 8 as a whole enables connectivity between the connected UEs 491, 492 and host computer 430. The connectivity may be described as an over-the-top (OTT) connection 450. Host computer 430 and the connected UEs 491, 492 are configured to communicate data and/or signaling via OTT connection 450, using access network 411, core network 414, any intermediate network 420 and possible further infrastructure (not shown) as intermediaries. OTT connection 450 may be transparent in the sense that the participating communication devices through which OTT connection 450 passes are unaware of routing of uplink and downlink communications. For example, base station 412 may not or need not be informed about the past routing of an incoming downlink communication with data originating from host computer 430 to be forwarded (e.g., handed over) to a connected UE 491. Similarly, base station 412 need not be aware of the future routing of an outgoing uplink communication originating from the UE 491 towards the host computer 430.

Example implementations, in accordance with an embodiment, of the UE, base station and host computer discussed in the preceding paragraphs will now be described with reference to 5Figure 9. In communication system 500, host computer 510 comprises hardware 515 including communication interface 516 configured to set up and maintain a wired or wireless connection with an interface of a different communication device of communication system 500. Host computer 510 further comprises processing circuitry 518, which may have storage and/or processing capabilities. In particular, processing circuitry 518 may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. Host computer 510 further comprises software 511, which is stored in or accessible by host computer 510 and executable by processing circuitry 518. Software 511 includes host application 512. Host application 512 may be operable to provide a service to a remote user, such as UE 530 connecting via OTT connection 550 terminating at UE 530 and host computer 510. In providing the service to the remote user, host application 512 may provide user data which is transmitted using OTT connection 550.

Communication system 500 further includes base station 520 provided in a telecommunication system and comprising hardware 525 enabling it to communicate with host computer 510 and with UE 530. Hardware 525 may include communication interface 526 for setting up and maintaining a wired or wireless connection with an interface of a different communication device of communication system 500, as well as radio interface 527 for setting up and maintaining at least wireless connection 570 with UE 530 located in a coverage area (not shown in Figure 9) served by base station 520. Communication interface 526 may be configured to facilitate connection 560 to host computer 510. Connection 560 may be direct or it may pass through a core network (not shown in Figure 9) of the telecommunication system and/or through one or more intermediate networks outside the telecommunication system. In the embodiment shown, hardware 525 of base station 520 further includes processing circuitry 528, which may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. Base station 520 further has software 521 stored internally or accessible via an external connection.

Communication system 500 further includes UE 530 already referred to. Its hardware 535 may include radio interface 537 configured to set up and maintain wireless connection 570 with a base station serving a coverage area in which UE 530 is currently located. Hardware 535 of UE 530 further includes processing circuitry 538, which may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. UE 530 further comprises software 531, which is stored in or accessible by UE 530 and executable by processing circuitry 538. Software 531 includes client application 532. Client application 532 may be operable to provide a service to a human or non-human user via UE 530, with the support of host computer 510. In host computer 510, an executing host application 512 may communicate with the executing client application 532 via OTT connection 550 terminating at UE 530 and host computer 510. In providing the service to the user, client application 532 may receive request data from host application 512 and provide user data in response to the request data. OTT connection 550 may transfer both the request data and the user data. Client application 532 may interact with the user to generate the user data that it provides.

It is noted that host computer 510, base station 520 and UE 530 illustrated in Figure 9 may be similar or identical to host computer 430, one of base stations 4l2a, 4l2b, 4l2c and one of UEs 491, 492 of Figure 8, respectively. This is to say, the inner workings of these entities may be as shown in Figure 9 and independently, the surrounding network topology may be that of Figure 8.

In Figure 9, OTT connection 550 has been drawn abstractly to illustrate the communication between host computer 510 and UE 530 via base station 520, without explicit reference to any intermediary devices and the precise routing of messages via these devices. Network infrastructure may determine the routing, which it may be configured to hide from UE 530 or from the service provider operating host computer 510, or both. While OTT connection 550 is active, the network infrastructure may further take decisions by which it dynamically changes the routing (e.g., on the basis of load balancing consideration or reconfiguration of the network).

Wireless connection 570 between UE 530 and base station 520 is in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. One or more of the various embodiments improve the performance of OTT services provided to UE 530 using OTT connection 550, in which wireless connection 570 forms the last segment. More precisely, the teachings of these embodiments may improve the data rate and code rate and thereby provide benefits such as reduced user waiting time and reduced transmission errors.

A measurement procedure may be provided for the purpose of monitoring data rate, latency and other factors on which the one or more embodiments improve. There may further be an optional network functionality for reconfiguring OTT connection 550 between host computer 510 and UE 530, in response to variations in the measurement results. The measurement procedure and/or the network functionality for reconfiguring OTT connection 550 may be implemented in software 511 and hardware 515 of host computer 510 or in software 531 and hardware 535 of UE 530, or both. In embodiments, sensors (not shown) may be deployed in or in association with communication devices through which OTT connection 550 passes; the sensors may participate in the measurement procedure by supplying values of the monitored quantities exemplified above, or supplying values of other physical quantities from which software 511, 531 may compute or estimate the monitored quantities. The reconfiguring of OTT connection 550 may include message format, retransmission settings, preferred routing etc.; the reconfiguring need not affect base station 520, and it may be unknown or imperceptible to base station 520. Such procedures and functionalities may be known and practiced in the art. In certain embodiments, measurements may involve proprietary UE signaling facilitating host computer 5l0’s measurements of throughput, propagation times, latency and the like. The measurements may be implemented in that software 511 and 531 causes messages to be transmitted, in particular empty or ‘dummy’ messages, using OTT connection 550 while it monitors propagation times, errors etc.

Figure 10 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 4 and 5. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to 6Figure 10 will be included in this section. In step 610, the host computer provides user data. In substep 611 (which may be optional) of step 610, the host computer provides the user data by executing a host application. In step 620, the host computer initiates a transmission carrying the user data to the UE. In step 630 (which may be optional), the base station transmits to the UE the user data which was carried in the transmission that the host computer initiated, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. In step 640 (which may also be optional), the UE executes a client application associated with the host application executed by the host computer.

Figure 11 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 4 and 5. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 11 will be included in this section. In step 710 of the method, the host computer provides user data. In an optional substep (not shown) the host computer provides the user data by executing a host application. In step 720, the host computer initiates a transmission carrying the user data to the UE. The transmission may pass via the base station, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. In step 730 (which may be optional), the UE receives the user data carried in the transmission. Figure 12 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 4 and 5. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 12 will be included in this section. In step 810 (which may be optional), the UE receives input data provided by the host computer. Additionally or alternatively, in step 820, the UE provides user data. In substep 821 (which may be optional) of step 820, the UE provides the user data by executing a client application. In substep 811 (which may be optional) of step 810, the UE executes a client application which provides the user data in reaction to the received input data provided by the host computer. In providing the user data, the executed client application may further consider user input received from the user. Regardless of the specific manner in which the user data was provided, the UE initiates, in substep 830 (which may be optional), transmission of the user data to the host computer. In step 840 of the method, the host computer receives the user data transmitted from the UE, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure.

Figure 13 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 4 and 5. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 13 will be included in this section. In step 910 (which may be optional), in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure, the base station receives user data from the UE. In step 920 (which may be optional), the base station initiates transmission of the received user data to the host computer. In step 930 (which may be optional), the host computer receives the user data carried in the transmission initiated by the base station.

Any appropriate steps, methods, features, functions, or benefits disclosed herein may be performed through one or more functional units or modules of one or more virtual apparatuses. Each virtual apparatus may comprise a number of these functional units. These functional units may be implemented via processing circuitry, which may include one or more microprocessor or microcontrollers, as well as other digital hardware, which may include digital signal processors (DSPs), special-purpose digital logic, and the like. The processing circuitry may be configured to execute program code stored in memory, which may include one or several types of memory such as read-only memory (ROM), random- access memory (RAM), cache memory, flash memory devices, optical storage devices, etc. Program code stored in memory includes program instructions for executing one or more telecommunications and/or data communications protocols as well as instructions for carrying out one or more of the techniques described herein. In some implementations, the processing circuitry may be used to cause the respective functional unit to perform corresponding functions according one or more embodiments of the present disclosure.

Figure 14 depicts a method in accordance with particular embodiments, the method begins at step VVA02 with determining a reference signal pattern for data repetition in an uplink. The method may move to step VVA04 with transmitting uplink data to a network node with K-l repetitions. For example, K may indicate a total number of instances of the data being transmitted, with“1” corresponding to sending the original instance of data and K- 1 corresponding to the number of repetitions of transmitting the first instance. One or more reference signals may be included in the transmitted uplink data according to the determined reference signal pattern. K may be an integer equal to or greater than 2.

Figure 15 depicts a method in accordance with particular embodiments, the method begins at step VVB02 with receiving uplink data from a wireless device with K-l repetitions. One or more reference signals are included in the received uplink data according to a reference signal pattern. The method may move to step VVB04 with determining an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals. K may be an integer equal to or greater than 2.

Figure 16 illustrates a schematic block diagram of an apparatus WWA00 in a wireless network (for example, the wireless network shown in Figure 5). The apparatus may be implemented in a wireless device or network node (e.g., wireless device 110 or network node 160 shown in Figure 5). Apparatus WWA00 is operable to carry out the example method described with reference to Figure 14 and possibly any other processes or methods disclosed herein. It is also to be understood that the method of Figure 14 is not necessarily carried out solely by apparatus WWA00. At least some operations of the method can be performed by one or more other entities.

Virtual Apparatus WWA00 may comprise processing circuitry, which may include one or more microprocessor or microcontrollers, as well as other digital hardware, which may include digital signal processors (DSPs), special-purpose digital logic, and the like. The processing circuitry may be configured to execute program code stored in memory, which may include one or several types of memory such as read-only memory (ROM), random- access memory, cache memory, flash memory devices, optical storage devices, etc. Program code stored in memory includes program instructions for executing one or more telecommunications and/or data communications protocols as well as instructions for carrying out one or more of the techniques described herein, in several embodiments. In some implementations, the processing circuitry may be used to cause Reference Signal Pattern Determining Unit WWA02, Transmitting Unit WWA04 and any other suitable units of apparatus WWA00 to perform corresponding functions according one or more embodiments of the present disclosure.

As illustrated in Figure 16, apparatus WWA00 includes Signal Pattern Determining Unit WWA02, Transmitting Unit WWA04. Signal Pattern Determining Unit WWA02 is configured to determining a reference signal pattern for data repetition in an uplink. Transmitting Unit WWA04 is configured to transmitting uplink data to a network node with K-l repetitions. One or more reference signals may be included in the transmitted uplink data according to the determined reference signal pattern. K may be an integer equal to or greater than 2.

Figure 17 illustrates a schematic block diagram of an apparatus WWB00 in a wireless network (for example, the wireless network shown in Figure 5). The apparatus may be implemented in a wireless device or network node (e.g., wireless device 110 or network node 160 shown in Figure 5). Apparatus WWB00 is operable to carry out the example method described with reference to Figure 15 and possibly any other processes or methods disclosed herein. It is also to be understood that the method of Figure 15 is not necessarily carried out solely by apparatus WWB00. At least some operations of the method can be performed by one or more other entities.

Virtual Apparatus WWB00 may comprise processing circuitry, which may include one or more microprocessor or microcontrollers, as well as other digital hardware, which may include digital signal processors (DSPs), special-purpose digital logic, and the like. The processing circuitry may be configured to execute program code stored in memory, which may include one or several types of memory such as read-only memory (ROM), random- access memory, cache memory, flash memory devices, optical storage devices, etc. Program code stored in memory includes program instructions for executing one or more telecommunications and/or data communications protocols as well as instructions for carrying out one or more of the techniques described herein, in several embodiments. In some implementations, the processing circuitry may be used to cause Receiving Unit WWB02, Uplink Channel Quality Determining Unit WWB04, and any other suitable units of apparatus WWB00 to perform corresponding functions according one or more embodiments of the present disclosure.

As illustrated in Figure 17, apparatus WWB00 includes Receiving Unit WWB02 and Uplink Channel Quality Determining Unit WWB04. Receiving Unit WWB02 is configured to receive uplink data from a wireless device with K-l repetitions. One or more reference signals are included in the received uplink data according to a reference signal pattern. Uplink Channel Quality Determining Unit WWB04 is configured to determining an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals. K may be an integer equal to or greater than 2.

The term unit may have conventional meaning in the field of electronics, electrical devices and/or electronic devices and may include, for example, electrical and/or electronic circuitry, devices, modules, processors, memories, logic solid state and/or discrete devices, computer programs or instructions for carrying out respective tasks, procedures, computations, outputs, and/or displaying functions, and so on, as such as those that are described herein.

In some embodiments a computer program, computer program product or computer readable storage medium comprises instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the embodiments disclosed herein. In further examples the instructions are carried on a signal or carrier and which are executable on a computer wherein when executed perform any of the embodiments disclosed herein.

SAMPLE EMBODIMENTS

Group A Embodiments

1. A method performed by a wireless device for transmitting uplink data, the method comprising:

- determining a reference signal pattern for data repetition in an uplink; and

- transmitting uplink data to a network node with one or more repetitions, wherein one or more reference signals are included in the transmitted uplink data according to the determined reference signal pattern.

2. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein determining the reference signal pattern for data repetition in an uplink comprises receiving signaling with the reference signal pattern.

3. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the reference signal pattern is chosen from a set of reference signal patterns.

4. The method of any of the previous embodiments, further comprising removing one of the one or more reference signals from the transmitted uplink data based on the presence of a sounding reference signal in a subslot used for the transmission.

5. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2.

6. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

7. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

8. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein transmitting uplink data to a network node with one or more repetitions comprises transmitting N number of data symbols, wherein N is equal to or greater than a guaranteed number.

9. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein transmitting uplink data to a network node with one or more repetitions comprises transmitting the uplink data with a code rate equal to or less than a guaranteed code rate.

10. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the uplink data with one or more repetitions are transmitted consecutively in time.

11. The method of any of embodiments 1-9, wherein the uplink data with one or more repetitions are not transmitted consecutively in time.

12. The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more reference signals may be configured differently based on the determined reference signal pattern.

13. The method of embodiment 12, wherein the one or more reference signals may be configured using different cyclic shifts based on the alignment of the one or more reference signals.

14. The method of any of the previous embodiments, further comprising:

- providing user data; and

- forwarding the user data to a host computer via the transmission to the base station.

Group B Embodiments

15. A method performed by a base station for receiving uplink data, the method comprising: - receiving uplink data from a wireless device with one or more repetitions, wherein one or more reference signals are included in the received uplink data according to a reference signal pattern; and

- determining an uplink channel quality from the wireless device based on the one or more reference signals.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, further comprising determining the reference signal pattern for data repetition in the uplink from the wireless device. The method of embodiment 13, further comprising detecting a starting subslot of the received uplink data from the wireless device.

The method of embodiment 14, wherein detecting the starting subslot comprises detecting the presence of the one or more reference signals and determining a current repetition index based on the detection of the presence of the one or more reference signals.

The method of any of embodiments 14-15, further comprising combining the uplink data of the one or more repetitions into a single data set.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer greater than or equal to 2. The method of any of the previous embodiments, further comprising signaling the reference signal pattern to the wireless device before receiving the uplink data from the wireless device.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more repetitions correspond to K-l repetitions and K is an integer equal to 2, 3, or 4.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more reference signals are Demodulation Reference Signals.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein the uplink data with one or more repetitions are received consecutively in time.

The method of any of embodiments 14-21, wherein the uplink data with one or more repetitions are not received consecutively in time.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein positions of the one or more reference signals do not uniquely define the reference signal pattern and the method further comprises the step of detecting positions of other reference signals to determine the reference signal pattern.

The method of any of the previous embodiments, further comprising:

- obtaining user data; and

- forwarding the user data to a host computer or a wireless device. Group C Embodiments

28. A wireless device for transmitting uplink data, the wireless device comprising:

- processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments; and

- power supply circuitry configured to supply power to the wireless device.

29. A base station for receiving uplink data, the base station comprising:

- processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments;

- power supply circuitry configured to supply power to the wireless device.

30. A user equipment (UE) for transmitting uplink data, the UE comprising:

- an antenna configured to send and receive wireless signals;

- radio front-end circuitry connected to the antenna and to processing circuitry, and configured to condition signals communicated between the antenna and the processing circuitry;

- the processing circuitry being configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments;

- an input interface connected to the processing circuitry and configured to allow input of information into the UE to be processed by the processing circuitry;

- an output interface connected to the processing circuitry and configured to output information from the UE that has been processed by the processing circuitry; and

- a battery connected to the processing circuitry and configured to supply power to the UE.

31. A computer program, the computer program comprising instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

32. A computer program product comprising a computer program, the computer program comprising instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

33. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium or carrier comprising a computer program, the computer program comprising instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

34. A computer program, the computer program comprising instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

35. A computer program product comprising a computer program, the computer program comprising instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

36. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium or carrier comprising a computer program, the computer program comprising instructions which when executed on a computer perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments. A communication system including a host computer comprising:

- processing circuitry configured to provide user data; and

- a communication interface configured to forward the user data to a cellular network for transmission to a user equipment (UE),

- wherein the cellular network comprises a base station having a radio interface and processing circuitry, the base station’s processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

The communication system of the pervious embodiment further including the base station.

The communication system of the previous 2 embodiments, further including the UE, wherein the UE is configured to communicate with the base station.

The communication system of the previous 3 embodiments, wherein:

- the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, thereby providing the user data; and

- the UE comprises processing circuitry configured to execute a client application associated with the host application.

A method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station and a user equipment (UE), the method comprising:

- at the host computer, providing user data; and

- at the host computer, initiating a transmission carrying the user data to the UE via a cellular network comprising the base station, wherein the base station performs any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

The method of the previous embodiment, further comprising, at the base station, transmitting the user data.

The method of the previous 2 embodiments, wherein the user data is provided at the host computer by executing a host application, the method further comprising, at the UE, executing a client application associated with the host application.

A user equipment (UE) configured to communicate with a base station, the UE comprising a radio interface and processing circuitry configured to performs the of the previous 3 embodiments.

A communication system including a host computer comprising:

- processing circuitry configured to provide user data; and

- a communication interface configured to forward user data to a cellular network for transmission to a user equipment (UE),

- wherein the UE comprises a radio interface and processing circuitry, the UE’s components configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

The communication system of the previous embodiment, wherein the cellular network further includes a base station configured to communicate with the UE.

The communication system of the previous 2 embodiments, wherein:

- the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, thereby providing the user data; and

- the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application.

A method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station and a user equipment (UE), the method comprising:

- at the host computer, providing user data; and

- at the host computer, initiating a transmission carrying the user data to the UE via a cellular network comprising the base station, wherein the UE performs any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

The method of the previous embodiment, further comprising at the UE, receiving the user data from the base station.

A communication system including a host computer comprising:

- communication interface configured to receive user data originating from a transmission from a user equipment (UE) to a base station,

- wherein the UE comprises a radio interface and processing circuitry, the UE’s processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

The communication system of the previous embodiment, further including the UE. The communication system of the previous 2 embodiments, further including the base station, wherein the base station comprises a radio interface configured to communicate with the UE and a communication interface configured to forward to the host computer the user data carried by a transmission from the UE to the base station. The communication system of the previous 3 embodiments, wherein:

- the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application; and

- the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application, thereby providing the user data.

The communication system of the previous 4 embodiments, wherein:

- the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, thereby providing request data; and

- the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application, thereby providing the user data in response to the request data.

A method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station and a user equipment (UE), the method comprising:

- at the host computer, receiving user data transmitted to the base station from the UE, wherein the UE performs any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

The method of the previous embodiment, further comprising, at the UE, providing the user data to the base station.

The method of the previous 2 embodiments, further comprising:

- at the UE, executing a client application, thereby providing the user data to be transmitted; and

- at the host computer, executing a host application associated with the client application.

The method of the previous 3 embodiments, further comprising:

- at the UE, executing a client application; and

- at the UE, receiving input data to the client application, the input data being provided at the host computer by executing a host application associated with the client application,

- wherein the user data to be transmitted is provided by the client application in response to the input data.

A communication system including a host computer comprising a communication interface configured to receive user data originating from a transmission from a user equipment (UE) to a base station, wherein the base station comprises a radio interface and processing circuitry, the base station’s processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

The communication system of the previous embodiment further including the base station.

The communication system of the previous 2 embodiments, further including the UE, wherein the UE is configured to communicate with the base station.

The communication system of the previous 3 embodiments, wherein:

- the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application;

- the UE is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application, thereby providing the user data to be received by the host computer.

A method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station and a user equipment (UE), the method comprising:

- at the host computer, receiving, from the base station, user data originating from a transmission which the base station has received from the UE, wherein the UE performs any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

The method of the previous embodiment, further comprising at the base station, receiving the user data from the UE. 65. The method of the previous 2 embodiments, further comprising at the base station, initiating a transmission of the received user data to the host computer.

FIGURE 18 illustrates an example flowchart diagram of a method 1800 for use in a wireless device, such as wireless device 110, 200, 330, 491, 492, or 530 described above. At step 1810 of method 1800, a predetermined configuration for an uplink transmission, including uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data is determined. For example, a wireless device may determine in which subslot the data transmission in the uplink may start and where one or more reference signals may be inserted within the transmission. As a particular example, the wireless device may determine a transmission pattern from a set of available transmission patterns, such as the set of patterns depicted in Tables 3-7 above. In some embodiments, the reference signal pattern is uniquely identifiable. In some embodiments, determining the reference signal pattern configuration is based on information signalled from the network node. For example, the network node may communicate information from which the wireless node may determine which predetermined configuration to use for the transmission.

At step 1820, a cyclic shift for one or more reference signals transmitted with the uplink data and the one or more repetitions of the uplink data is determined. For example, reference signals transmitted with the uplink data may be configured using different cyclic shifts based a variety of factors. For example, the cyclic shift may be based on the sequence of the repetitions of the data or the predetermined configuration. In particular, a first sequence of the reference signals may use cyclic shift 0 while another sequence could use cycle shift 1. In this manner, the cyclic shift may be used by a receiving node to better differentiate between overlapping uplink signals, which may be especially useful when uplink signals are allowed to overlap more easily or more often with the inclusion of more repetitions of the uplink data.

At step 1830, the uplink data, the one or more repetitions, and the one or more reference signals, are transmitted to a network node with one or more repetitions. The transmitted uplink data and one or more repetitions are transmitted with the one or more reference signals according to the predetermined configuration and the cyclic shift. For example, the wireless device may repeat data in the transmission, which may enhance the success rate of transmitting that data to the target network node. Additionally, the transmitted data may include one or more reference signals, such as a Demodulation Reference Signal, based on the predetermined configuration. These reference signals may allow the network node to calibrate the connection with the wireless device to adequately receive the data in the uplink. In certain embodiments, the transmission including one or more repetitions is made to satisfy a guaranteed code rate or a guaranteed number of data symbols in the transmission, thereby ensuring a certain quality of the transmission. In some embodiments, the data and repetitions are transmitted consecutively in time, or alternatively not consecutively in time.

In certain embodiments, the number of the one or more reference signals in the uplink data transmitted is less than the number of the one or more repetitions. For example, not every repetition may have its own reference signal and the previous reference signal may be reused by the network node in receiving the repetition. In some embodiments, the predetermined configuration may be determined by removing one or more reference signals from the transmitted uplink data based on the presence of a sounding reference signal in a subslot used for the transmission. In certain embodiments, the predetermined configuration is based on the number of repetitions. In some embodiments, the reference signal pattern configuration begins within a time interval or a frame structure.

FIGURE 19 illustrates an example flowchart diagram of a method 1900 for use in a network node, such as network node 160, 330, 412, or 520 described above. Method 1900 may begin at step 1910, in which uplink data and one or more repetitions of the uplink data is received from a wireless device. One or more reference signals with a cyclic shift are received with the uplink data. The uplink data and the one or more repetitions are transmitted by the wireless device according to a predetermined configuration. The one or more reference signals are transmitted by the wireless device according to the cyclic shift. In some embodiments, the number of reference signals is equal to or less than the number of repetitions. In that case, the network node may reuse one or more of the reference signals of a previous repetition or the original uplink data for a subsequent repetition.

At step 1920, an uplink channel quality from the wireless device is determined based on the one or more reference signals. For example, the network node may use the reference signals to determine the uplink channel quality. Based on this determination, the network node may further communicate with the wireless node, including adjusting parameters to accommodate the channel quality.

In certain embodiments, method 1900 may include one or more additional, option steps. In particular embodiments, method 1900 includes optional step 1930, in which the predetermined configuration used for transmitting the uplink data and the one or more repetitions from the wireless device is determined. In some embodiments, the network node determines the reference signal pattern configuration before using the reference signals to determine the uplink channel quality. For example, the network node may determine a starting subslot of the received uplink data by detecting a reference signal and a current repetition index of the data, which may indicate which reference signal pattern configuration is used. In some embodiments, the reference signals do not uniquely define the reference signal pattern configuration. In such cases, the network node may use the cyclic shifts of the reference signals to determine which uplink data and repetitions belong together, thereby enabling the network node to determine the configuration.

In certain embodiments, the one or more reference signals received at the network node use a different cyclic shift from other reference signals, e.g., those associated with a different uplink signal/transmission. For example, the wireless device may apply a different cyclic shift to reference signals of a first transmission than the cyclic shift applied to a subsequent reference signals for a second uplink transmission. As another example, different wireless devices may be configured to use different cyclic shifts from one another, allowing the network node to distinguish between uplink transmissions that may have similar or the same predetermined patterns, e.g., repetition sequences. In some embodiments, the wireless device may only use a cyclic shift if that cyclic shift is not allocated to another wireless device in a time overlapping with the granted uplink resources. In some embodiments, the cyclic shift used may depend on the predetermined configuration or another criteria. In this manner, the different cyclic shifts may be a further indication of the reference pattern configuration, which may be used by the network node.

In certain embodiments, the network node configures one or more cyclic shifts to be applied to the one or more reference signals. For example, the network node may communicate with the wireless device, directly or indirectly, before receiving the uplink data to indicate a cyclic shift configuration that indicates to the wireless device to apply different cyclic shifts to the reference signals. In this manner, the wireless device may be enabled to use cyclic shifts to better define the reference signal pattern, thereby enabling the network node to more easily receive the uplink data with repetitions.

In certain embodiments, the network node may further combine the one or more repetitions of the uplink data with the uplink data into a single data set. For example, it may interleave the data and repetitions into a single data set. For example, certain symbols of one of the data or one of the repetitions may not be received with a high certainty, but if in another set of the same data the symbol received clearly, then that symbol may be used in the single data set.

In some embodiments, the network node may further transmit to the wireless device, information that enables the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration. In some embodiments, this is done before the network node receives the uplink data from the wireless device. For example, the network node may signal a repetition pattern configuration to use directly or indirectly or indicate a certain level of code rate or number of symbols to be transmitted. If the configuration is indicated directly or indirectly, the network node may know in advance what configuration is used by the wireless device in the uplink transmission or from what set of possible configurations the wireless device may choose.

In certain embodiments, information that enables the wireless device to determine the predetermined configuration is transmitted to the wireless device. For example, the network node may signal information related to what configurations are enabled for use with the network node, what the code rate or minimum data symbols number should be, how many repetitions of the data should be transmitted, the time interval size, the uplink grant size, etc. Based on this information, and information at the wireless device, the wireless device may determine a predetermined configuration, as described above.

Although the present disclosure has been described with several embodiments, a myriad of changes, variations, alterations, transformations, and modifications may be suggested to one skilled in the art, and it is intended that the present disclosure encompass such changes, variations, alterations, transformations, and modifications as fall within the scope of the appended claims.