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Title:
COMMON AIR SUPERCHARGED FOUR-STROKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH OVERHEATED FUEL INJECTION AND SCREENED COMBUSTION CHAMBER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/122036
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The subject of the invention is a common air supercharged four-stroke internal combustion engine with overheated fuel injection and screened combustion chamber (106). The engine is supercharged with three swept volume air, has a combustion chamber (106) equipped with a screen (48) to reduce thermal loss and features direct injection of overheated fuel to reduce harmful emissions. This engine has a swept volume of one third of that of a naturally aspirated engine (104) with the same output. Two swept volume supercharging air is generated in the supercharging compressor chamber (7) underneath the piston (4), and one swept volume supercharging air is generated during the suction stroke. The supercharging air is stored in tanks from which the air is released for the supercharging action to take place. Both the temperature and the mass of the supercharging air are adjustable. The supercharging action and energy generation can be suspended for each cylinder (1) in case of partial workload (when the full output of the engine is not momentarily utilized). The invention converts exhaust gas energy into electric energy by use of a turbo generator (43).

Inventors:
OLÁH, Antal (Kaszásdűlő UTCA 1.2/20, 1033 Budapest, HU)
Application Number:
HU2017/000001
Publication Date:
July 20, 2017
Filing Date:
January 12, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
OLÁH, Antal (Kaszásdűlő UTCA 1.2/20, 1033 Budapest, HU)
International Classes:
F02B29/04; F02M53/06
Foreign References:
US5163397A1992-11-17
US6338328B12002-01-15
DE4216565A11992-12-10
US4527534A1985-07-09
US4315489A1982-02-16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KORMOS, Ágnes (Váci út 66. FSZT.3, 1132 Budapest, HU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Four-stroke internal combustion engine with common air supercharging, which comprises, amongst others, typical and known parts such as the cylinders (1), the pistons (4), the valves (8, 9, and 10), the driving gear, the sensors, the engine control unit, the electric accumulators, and which has its supercharging air generating compressors arranged in the areas bordered by the cylinder (1), the cylinder foot (3) and the piston (4), and which has a smaller swept volume compared to a naturally aspirated engine (104) that uses the same amount of air per working cycle, and which has at least one tank for storing the supercharging air, at least one cooler (15) for cooling the supercharging air, at least one turbo generator (43) for utilizing the energy obtained from the exhaust gas, at least one electric motor/generator (44) for driving and braking the crankshaft (41), characterized in that it has at least one common air supercharging mechanism, which, in each working cycle, after the suction has taken place, fills the working chamber (6), that already contains air sucked in during the suction stroke, with additional air from the supercharging air storage tanks.

2. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a swept volume that is 60 to 67 percent smaller than that of a naturally aspirated engine (104) which uses the same amount of air per working cycle.

3. Common air supercharging mechanism of the engine according to claims 1 to 2, characterized in that it comprises a common air pipe (24) that leads the supercharging air to the cylinders, and comprises a common air supercharging regulator (21) that regulates the pressure and temperature of the air transferred from the supercharging air storage tanks into the common air pipe (24), and comprises either a supercharging valve (9) that leads the air from the common air pipe (24) to the cylinders (1), a suction chamber open-close supercharging valve (29) or a direct supercharging valve (32).

4. Common air pipe (24) of the engine according to claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it has, where applicable, an open-close supercharging toggle valve (25) in its section leading to the cylinders (1) to enable switching on and off the cylinder supercharging operation.

5. A screen (48) reducing the thermal loss in the internal combustion engine, which is made of at least one layer of heat resistant sheet, characterized in that the screen (48) is mounted to the screened surface (53) by the screen mount supports (50) by means of creating an air gap (49), and that the pressure of the screened space is transferred to the screened surface (53) by the screen (48) not through the screen mount supports (50) but by applying pressure to the air cushions of the air gap (49), and that thermal insulation is primarily provided for not by the material of the screen (48) but by the air gap (49) positioned in between the screen (48) and the screened surface (53).

6. The screen (48) according to claim 5, characterized in that it has screen mount supports (50) longer than the air gap (49), and that the screen mount supports (50) enable the screen (48) to move both in parallel to the plane of the screen (48) and perpendicularly to the screened surface (53), and that the screen (48) is mounted to the material of the screened surface (53) and/or to a fastening insert provided that such insert is a metallic fastening insert (52) and/or a heat insulated metallic insert (54) and/or an insert made of heat insulating material (55), and that the screen (48) may have compensating slots (51) on it that compensate for differences in pressure.

7. The screen (48) according to claims 5 to 6, characterized in that, for piston engines, it is arranged on the cylinder head (2) and/or on the suction valve (8) and/or on the supercharging valve (9) and/or on the exhaust valve (10) and/or on the piston crown (58) and/or on the surface of the head land (59) and/or on the valve stem of the exhaust valve (10) and/or on the surface of the exhaust chamber (57), whereas for Wankel engines, it is arranged on the front surface of the rotating piston (108) and/or on the surface of the rotating piston chamber (109).

8. The screen (48) according to claims 5 to 6, characterized in that it is arranged on the internal surface of hot gas transferring pipes.

9. Heat exchanger heating the fuel for internal combustion engines equipped with direct injection technology, characterized in that it has a heat absorbing surface directly heated with the heat from the combustion chamber (106) and/or with the heat from the cylinder head (2), and that it has a heat transfer surface that provides for fuel heating by means of flow-through, and that it has a section leading the heated portion of the fuel to the nozzle needle tip (99) of the fuel injector valve.

10. The heat exchanger according to claim 9, characterized in that it is arranged in the injector valve, and that its heat absorbing surface consists of the injector nozzle body (98) and the heat transfer chamber cover cylinder (101), and that its heat transfer surface consists of the heat transfer chamber (102) arranged in the injector nozzle body (98), and that the heat transfer chamber closing cylindrical cavity (103) leads the heated portion of the fuel to the nozzle needle tip (99) of the injector valve.

11. Procedure to operate the engine according to claims 1 to 10 equipped with common air supercharging technology and screened combustion chamber (106), during which:

- per each working cycle, a volume of air corresponding to twice the swept volume is compressed to a pressure of at least 3 bars in the supercharging compressor chamber (7) in the compression/expansion stroke and in the exhaust/suction stroke, and the compressed air is stored in tanks, - per each working cycle, a volume of air corresponding to one time the swept volume is sucked into the working chamber (6) in the suction stroke,

- per each working cycle, after the suction has taken place, an additional volume of air corresponding to twice the swept volume is supercharged into the working chamber (6) from the supercharging air storage tanks with the volume and temperature of the supercharging air being regulated by the common air supercharging regulator (21),

- the volume of air corresponding to three times the swept volume is compressed in the compression stroke,

- the fuel is heated when it passes through the heat transfer chamber (102) and is then injected into the working chamber (6),

- the air/fuel mixture is ignited by means of electric spark or, in diesel engines, is achieved via compression ignition,

- in the expansion stroke, the pressure energy is used to rotate the crankshaft (41) and compress the supercharging air,

- in the exhaust stroke, the exhaust gas is led to the turbo generator (43), which converts the energy obtained from the exhaust gas into electric energy,

- after the conversion has taken place, the so converted electric energy is led to the electric motor/generator (44) and/or to the electric accumulator,

- the electric motor/generator (44) is used to rotate the crankshaft (41) and reduce the fluctuation in the rotation speed of the crankshaft (41) by means of regulating the turning torque of the electric motor/generator (44).

12. The procedure according to claim 11, characterized in that, upon acceleration, a volume of air corresponding to more than three times the swept volume is supercharged into the working chamber (6) per each working cycle and/or the turning torque of the electric motor/generator (44) is increased.

13. The procedure according to claim 11, characterized in that, upon braking, the fuel injection and supercharging operations of the cylinders (1) are suspended, and the compressors continue to run to fill the supercharging air storage tanks with supercharging air and/or the electric motor/generator (44) is switched to generator mode to charge the electric accumulator.

14. The procedure according to claim 11, characterized in that, upon partial workload, cycle hybrid operating mode is activated during which the energy generating action of certain cylinders (1) is switched off by means of suspending their fuel injection and supercharging operations, the compressors of the switched off cylinders (1) continue to run, the working cylinders (1) are supercharged with a volume of air corresponding to either three times the swept volume or more than that with use of the excessive air compressed by the switched off cylinders (1), and the fluctuation in the rotation speed of the crankshaft (41) is reduced, by means of regulating the turning torque of the electric motor/generator (44), more specifically adjusting the turning torque to either a lower value or, by switching the electric motor/generator (44) to generator operating mode, to a negative value in the expansion stroke of working cylinders (1), or adjusting the turning torque of the electric motor/generator (44) to a higher value in the expansion stroke of the switched off cylinder (1), respectively.

15. Common air supercharging Wankel engine, which has at least two piston housings with one of the piston housings being arranged as a compressor piston housing (96) and the other piston housing being arranged as a working piston housing (97), and which has a smaller chamber volume compared to a non-superchargeable Wankel engine that uses the same amount of air per working cycle, and which has at least one tank for storing the supercharging air, at least one cooler (15) for cooling the supercharging air, at least one turbo generator (43) for utilizing the energy obtained from the exhaust gas, and at least one electric motor/generator (44) for driving and braking the crankshaft (41), characterized in that it comprises at least one common air supercharging mechanism, which, in each working cycle, after the suction has taken place, fills the chamber, that already contains air sucked in during the suction operation, with additional air from the supercharging air storage tanks.

16. Common air supercharging Wankel engine, which has at least two piston housings with one of the piston housings being arranged as a compressor piston housing (96) and the other piston housing being arranged as a working piston housing (97), and which has at least one tank for storing the supercharging air, at least one cooler (15) for cooling the supercharging air, at least one turbo generator (43) for utilizing the energy obtained from the exhaust gas, and at least one electric motor/generator (44) for driving and braking the crankshaft (41), characterized in that it comprises at least one common air supercharging mechanism, which, during the suction operation, fills the chamber with air from the supercharging air storage tanks.

Description:
COMMON AIR SUPERCHARGED FOUR-STROKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH OVERHEATED FUEL INJECTION AND SCREENED COMBUSTION CHAMBER

The subject of the invention is a common air supercharged four-stroke internal combustion engine with overheated fuel injection and screened combustion chamber and the procedure to operate it.

Vehicle engines need to comply with ever stricter environmental protection regulations. A proper way for internal combustion engines to comply with these regulations is to feature supercharging technology, direct injection and reduced engine size. Hybrid construction involving an internal combustion engine combined with an electric motor to drive the vehicle, has additional benefits.

The four-stroke internal combustion engine described in this invention provides for better fuel economy and reduced environmental polluting emissions due to the common air supercharging technology, combustion chamber screening, direct overheated fuel injection and cycle hybrid operating procedure. This technology may be used for spark ignition engines, compression ignition engines, piston-type engines (also known as reciprocating engines) and Wankel engines. This solution affects the supercharging process, the charge exchange process, the direct fuel injection process, the reduction in thermal loss at the engine wall and the utilization of exhaust gas.

One of the methods for supercharging is called self-supercharging which involves the creation of a compressor at the bottom part of the piston. This type of supercharging process is described in the patent document No. US961059. It guides the supercharging air to the engine through a heat exchanging tank. The energy obtained from the exhaust gas is utilized in a separate, larger cylinder. The patent document No. US2407859 provides a solution for interconnecting the self- supercharging process and the cam-controlled driving gear and recommends the use of such a tank for four-stroke engines that allows for achieving a supercharge volume of twice the swept volume and a cam shape making the expansion stroke shorter than the compression stroke. The technical fine-tuning of the cam-controlled driving gear can be observed in several patent documents. The patent document No. US1648780 already addresses the separation of the pulling and the thrust cam. The technology described in patent document No. US6449940 B2 involves a linear bearing to guide the piston straight. The technology described in patent document No. US3572209 addresses valve control by use of a cam constructed in the flywheel and uses a support bearing to guide the piston rod straight.

For a more efficient supercharging process, the engine can be designed in a way to allow for the combined use of ambient air and compressed air (using a vane pump in patent document No. US4527534, a rotary pump in patent document No. US4566422 or a turbine compressor in patent document No. US6470681) with the engine having separate valves for the ambient air suction process and the supercharging process, respectively.

The patent document No. US8118002 describes a continuously variable two-valve valve actuator solution as a way to improve the efficiency of charge exchange with one of the two valves being also fully closable.

The patent document No. US4694654 describes an exhaust gas driven turbo generator as a way to utilize exhaust gas with the so converted and generated electric energy supplying the electric motor that drives the crankshaft. The residual energy remaining from the exhaust gas after conversion is used for the turbocharging process.

Several patent documents describe solutions for reducing thermal loss. The patent document No. US4018194 describes an insert made of insulating material and used in the piston chamber. The patent document No. US4526824 describes a ceramic insert used at the exhaust valve in the cylinder head. The thermal conductivity of the proposed ceramic insulating materials is lower than that of the metals used to construct the engine wall. Nevertheless, more significant thermal insulation requires the use of thicker thermal insulating materials. The patent document No. US20090071434 describes a technology where various thermal insulating materials are used to form a thin layer which insulates the combustion chamber. The insulating materials were unable to permanently resist regular and extremely variable thermal load. A common feature in the thermal insulating patents listed above is that the pressure in the combustion chamber is transferred to the insulated surfaces by the insulating materials themselves. The gas applied pressure on the insulating materials which in turn applied pressure on the piston. The patent document No. US7654240 (describing a technology that is considered to be the closest to the technology described in the present invention) describes an enclosed air gap in between the piston body and the metallic piston crown as a way of thermal insulation. Due to the thick crown cross section, the heat simply bypasses the air gap in a lateral direction and enters the piston body at the welded seam. The thermal insulating action of the air gap does not take effect. Moreover, it mechanically weakens the piston in spite of the structure being robust.

Patent documents No. US 8100114 B2 and US 8707934 B2 describe a way to evaporate liquid fuel. These solutions involve fuel heating remotely (i.e. away from the working chamber) by means of utilizing the thermal power of the exhaust gas or that of the cooling liquid. The patent document No. US 8511287B2 proposes a super-critical fuel injection solution where the fuel is heated in the injector by means of electric energy. A drawback of this solution is that additional heat is transferred to the cylinder head which already requires cooling in the first place. The heated fuel's temperature decreases while the heated fuel travels to the injector tip and thus requires overheating which in turn makes it necessary to protect other parts of the injector from overheating by means of thermal insulation.

After reviewing current state of the art, we hereby describe a two-chamber engine described in the patent document No. US8490584 as a solution closely relating to the present invention. The two-chamber engine makes use of a compressor, a cam-controlled driving gear and a storage tank, all positioned at the lower part of the piston. These solutions corresponding to current state of the art are also used in our invention. The technical characteristic in which the common air supercharged engine 105 described in this invention differs from the two-chamber engine is that the common air supercharged engine 105 described in this invention supercharges, with additional air, the cylinder 1 that already contains the air sucked in during the suction stroke. The effect of this technical characteristic is that the engine described in this invention is suitable for achieving a supercharging air volume of three times the swept volume, whereas the two-chamber engine is suitable for achieving a supercharging air volume of only twice the swept volume. Another technical effect is that the engine described in this invention has a swept volume size that is 33% smaller than that of the two-chamber engine having the same output.

The technical characteristic in which the engine described in this invention differs from the engines (described in patent documents No. US4527534, US4566422 and US6470681) having similarity in terms of using separate valves for the suction and the supercharging operation, respectively, is that the engine described in this invention does not have an external supercharging compressor that comprises one or more moving parts. The technical effect of this characteristic is that the engine described in this invention is suitable for achieving high-pressure supercharging with less loss and a significantly simpler and smaller structure and is much more dynamic due to having the supercharging air contained in a tank that is ready to release the supercharging air instantly upon demand. Another significant difference from the other two solutions that resemble the engine described in this invention, is that the engine described in this invention is the only one of them that is capable of completely utilizing the residual energy remaining from the exhaust gas.

The objective of this invention is to realize a four-stroke, piston-type (also known as reciprocating), internal combustion engine which has better operating efficiency and produces smaller amount of harmful emissions compared to a naturally aspirated engine having the same output.

One of the findings coming from the solution described in this invention is that using common air supercharging technology allows for the generation of a supercharging air volume corresponding to around three times the swept volume, thus increasing operating efficiency and providing for the opportunity to build a four-stroke engine which has an engine equalling to one third of the engine swept volume of a naturally aspirated engine having the same output. Another finding is that by applying screening and thus preventing the whirling hot gas from rubbing against the engine wall, a large portion of the thermal loss at the engine wall can be eliminated which results in increased operating efficiency. The third finding is that the operating efficiency can be increased by using the heat from the cylinder head as a supplemental resource to heat the directly injected fuel, and injecting the fuel in an overheated state. All of these three solutions corresponding to the findings described above also reduce harmful emissions in addition to increased operating efficiency. The aforementioned solutions are applied together to strengthen the effects of each other and thus realizes the objective of the invention.

The objective set for the invention is accomplished by way of the internal combustion engine described in co-ordinated main claims 1, 5 and 9 as well as the procedure to operate such engine as described in claim 11.

The solution described in this invention is illustrated in the following figures.

Figure 1: Draft for common air supercharging.

Figure 2: Draft for common air supercharging with two cold tanks.

Figure 3: Draft for common air supercharging with two cold tanks and two regulators.

Figure 4: Layout drawing for the supercharging mechanism equipped with a supercharging valve (9), for a four-cylinder engine.

Figure 5: Layout drawing for the supercharging mechanism equipped with a suction chamber open- close supercharging valve (29), for a four-cylinder engine.

Figure 6: Layout drawing for the supercharging mechanism equipped with a direct supercharging valve (32), for a four-cylinder engine.

Figure 7: Layout drawing for the supercharging with a supercharging/suction regulator unit (37), for a four-cylinder engine.

Figure 8: Layout drawing for a common air supercharged engine with cam-controlled driving gear.

Figure 9: Cross-sectional diagram for the screening operation.

Figure 10: Cross-sectional diagram for the screened combustion chamber (106).

Figure 11: Cross-sectional diagram for the heat exchanger positioned on the tip of the injector valve.

Figure 12: Draft for the construction of the lens-shaped combustion chamber (106).

Figure 13: Assembly drawing for the piston (4).

Figure 14: Cross-sectional diagram for the valve actuator.

Figure 15: Circle diagram for the actuating cams. Figure 16: Diagram for the piston (4) travel and for the opening/closing operation of vajves 8, 9 and 10.

Figure 17: Draft for the cam-controlled driving gear and for valve actuation.

Figure 18: Draft for the four-cylinder engine's pipes transferring cold and hot air.

Figure 19: Sankey diagram for the energetic effects of the main claims.

Figure 20: Draft for common air supercharging, for a Wankel engine.

Figure 21: Draft for common air supercharging without a supercharging valve, for a Wankel engine.

Figure 22: Draft for a Wankel engine having various piston housing widths.

Figure 23: Cross-sectional diagram for the screening operation, for a Wankel engine.

The figures do not include the sensors that transmit temperature, pressure, gas composition, turning torque, and position signals to the engine control unit. Pressure values are expressed in bar: 1 bar = 100,000 pascals. The adiabatic coefficient (also known as the ratio of specific heats) indicated with the symbol κ (kappa) is the ratio of specific heat measured at constant pressure and the specific heat measured at constant volume. The 104"naturally aspirated engine having the same output" as referenced in the description for comparison purposes shall be construed as a non-superchargeable, four-stroke, piston-type (also known as reciprocating) engine that uses the same amount of air per working cycle as the 105 common air supercharged engine (. The engine comprises, amongst other, typical and known parts such as the 1 cylinders), the 4 pistons, the 8,9, and 10 valves„ the driving gear, the sensors, the engine control unit, and the electric accumulator(s). The working cycle consists of four strokes, and the 4 piston travels from one dead centre to the other dead centre under one stroke. The strokes are called suction, compression, expansion and exhaust, respectively. The 6 working chamber is a space bordered by the 58 piston crown, the 2 cylinder head and the 1 cylinder . A portion of the 6 working chamber is occupied by the 106 combustion chamber , which is a space bordered by the 58 piston crown and the 2 cylinder head when the 4 piston is at the top dead centre. The 1 cylinder is terminated by the 3 cylinder foot at the 5 piston rod end of the 1 cylinder , and the 5 piston rod passes through the 3 cylinder foot in a sealed manner (i.e. the 5 piston rod passes through the sealing of the 3 cylinder foot . The engine control unit is capable of switching the open-close valves to open and closed state, respectively. The chamber volume of a Wankel engine is the largest space occupied in between the engine cowl and thel08 rotary piston when the 108 rotary piston is rotating.

The main characteristic of the 105 common air supercharged engine is that it utilizes three swept volume air until four strokes happening. On the other hand, until four strokes happening, the non-supercharged four-stroke engine utilizes one swept volume air, and the two-stroke engine utilizes two swept volume air. Consequently, the 105 common air supercharged engine has a swept volume equalling to one third of the swept volume of a 104 naturally aspirated engine having the same output, and operates in four strokes. Another important characteristic is that the air is transferred to the 1 cylinders by means of suction and compression. While air of ambient pressure is sucked into the 1 cylinders, air of pressure higher than ambient pressure is transferred into the 1 cylinders as supercharging air. The third important characteristic is that supercharging air is stored in tanks and thus readily and instantly available upon demand. The fourth characteristic is that the supercharging operation may optionally be suspended for each 1 cylinder which is beneficial in vehicles.

The name "common air supercharging" comes from the concept of collecting, storing and cooling the supercharging air separately generated per each 1 cylinder and regulating its pressure and temperature before such supercharging air is transferred to a pipe commonly (i.e. jointly) used by the 1 cylinders for the supercharging operation. That is, the supercharging operation takes places from the 24 common air pipe.

The arrangement shown in Figure 1 is a preferred (and most generic) embodiment for co ' mmon air supercharging. The figure shows such parts of the invention that are used for generating and storing the supercharging air, and such parts of the invention that are used for the supercharging operation. The compressor generating the supercharging air is arranged in the 7 supercharging compressor chamber bordered by the 4 piston, the 1 cylinder and the 3 cylinder foot. The 11 compressor suction valve and the 12 compressor discharge valve are located on the 3 cylinder foot. These valves have the benefit of being check valves. The 12 compressor discharge valve and the 14 hot tank are connected to each other via the 13 hot supercharging pipe. The 14 hot tank and the 16 cold tank are connected to each other via the 15 cooler. The two tanks are connected to the 21 common air supercharging regulator via the 13 hot supercharging pipe and the 17 cold supercharging pipe. The 24 common air pipe connects the 21 common air supercharging regulator to the 9 supercharging valve , which leads the supercharging air to the 6 working chamber. The volume of the 14 hot tank corresponds to twice to three times the swept volume. The 16 cold tank is beneficially of the largest size possible. A long pipe can also be used as a tank with the first part functioning as the 14 hot tank, the middle part as the 15 cooler, and the third part as the 16 cold tank . The pipe that is used as the tank may be constructed as an integral part of the vehicle structure.

The compressor is intended to compress a volume of air corresponding to twice the swept volume under one working cycle: a volume of air corresponding to one time the swept volume in the compression/expansion stroke, and a volume of air corresponding to one time the swept volume in the exhaust/suction stroke. The compressor compresses the air to a pressure exceeding 3 bars. When the pressure level in the compressor reaches the pressure level in the tank, the 12 compressor discharge valve opens, and the 4 piston pushes the compressed and thus heated air to the 14 hot tank. From here, the supercharging air is led through the 15 cooler to cool down to ambient temperature. The supercharging air cooled down to ambient temperature is then stored in the 16 cold tank.

The supercharging air volume corresponding to three times the swept volume is achieved in a way that air of ambient pressure in a volume corresponding to one time the swept volume is sucked into the 6 working chamber through the 8 suction valve in the suction stroke, and, after the suction has taken place, the 9 supercharging valve opens and an additional volume of air corresponding to twice the swept volume is added to the 6 working chamber from the supercharging air storage tanks through the 21 common air supercharging regulator and the 24 common air pipe . The 6 working chamber is therefore supercharged with a volume of air corresponding to three times the swept volume and this state is accomplished in each working cycle as part of the standard operation. Consequently, the 105 common air supercharged engine has a swept volume equalling to one third of the swept volume of a 104 naturally aspirated engine having the same output. The air of elevated pressure released from the 24 common air pipe into the 6 working chamber cools down and its flow rate increases. It has two benefits: the temperature in the 6 working chamber decreases, and the combustion will be more complete (perfect) due to the more intense whirling phenomenon.

Figures 2 and 3 illustrate a solution for a preferred embodiment for storing the supercharging air and utilizing the stored supercharging air.

The benefit of the two-cold-tank solution illustrated in Figure 2 is that the pressure of the 16 cold tank may be scaled down to a lower value during normal operation since cold supercharging air of elevated pressure is readily available from the 35 cold+ tank when needed for acceleration. During normal operation, the 34 non-return valve is closed, and opens when the 35 cold+ tank is filled or when accelerating. During acceleration, the 33 check valve prevents the air of elevated pressure from returning to the 16 cold tank.

With the two-cold-tank solution illustrated in Figure 3, during acceleration, the air in the 35 cold+ tank is transferred to the 8 suction valves through the 36 cold+ supercharging pipe and the 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit. This is beneficial as the pressure in the 35 cold+ tank performs positive work during the entire suction stroke. The 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit also substitutes the 47 butterfly valve as it also regulates the volume of air sucked into the engine in normal operating mode. It has the same design as the 21 common air supercharging regulator. Even though this solution is preferred in vehicles equipped with a retarder, the 35 air in the cold+ tank can also be used in normal operating mode.

Figures 4, 5 and 6 illustrate preferred embodiments for the common air supercharging mechanism described in patent claim 3.

More specifically, Figure 4 illustrates a preferred embodiment for the common air supercharging mechanism with a 9 supercharging valve and its way of operation in a four-cylinder engine. This solution consists of the 21 common air supercharging regulator, the 24 common air pipe and the 9 supercharging valves. The intended purpose of the supercharging mechanism is to provide the engine with constant supercharging volume (beneficially a volume of supercharging air corresponding to three times the swept volume) at various supercharging air storage tank pressures and various engine speeds (RPM). This is achieved by the engine control unit by means of regulating the 22 hot supercharging regulator valve and the 23 cold supercharging regulator valve. Measured data includes engine speed (RPM) as well as the pressure and temperature in the 24 common air pipe. Since the pressure in the 24 common air pipe is higher than the pressure of the ambient air, the 9 supercharging valves are sealed using 26 closed diaphragm seal. The possibility of suspending the supercharging operation per each 1 cylinder is provided for by the 25 open-close supercharging toggle valves. These valves may be omitted should there be no need for the suspension of the supercharging operation per each 1 cylinder. The actuation of the 9 supercharging valve is beneficially performed by the conventional mechanical 31 supercharging valve actuator. The 22 and 23 supercharging regulator valves may be actuated pneumatically, hydraulically and electrically. When the engine is shut down, the 22 and 23 supercharging regulator valves are set to fully closed pdsition which means that the tank retains its pressure until the engine is started again. Figure 4 illustrates the cross-sectional diagram of the 21 common air supercharging regulator. In a preferred embodiment, the 22 and 23 supercharging regulator valves are actuated by an electric stepping motor.

With 104 naturally aspirated engines , correct charge exchange operation is achieved by means of a variable valve control unit with complex structure that adjusts the opening duration and displacement of the 8 suction valve in function of the actual engine speed (RPM). The 21 common air supercharging regulator allows for a much simpler regulation of the charge exchange operation. After correctly adjusting the pressure of the 24 common air pipe, the desired cylinder charge can be achieved at various engine speeds (RPM) and with various tank pressures.

Figure 5 illustrates a design for the common air supercharging mechanism with a 29 suction chamber open-close supercharging valve, for a four-cylinder engine. This solution has the benefit of not having a separate 9 supercharging valve since 8 suction valve takes care of the supercharging operation. This solution consists of the 21 common air supercharging regulator , the 24 common air pipe , the 27 suction chamber arranged in the 2 cylinder head , the 29 suction chamber open-close supercharging valve , the 28 suction chamber check valve and the 8 suction valve . During the first part of the suction stroke, the 29 suction chamber open-close supercharging valve is closed, and the engine sucks the air in through the 28 suction chamber check valve. At the end of the suction operation, the 29 suction chamber open-close supercharging valve opens, and the air of elevated pressure entering the 27 suction chamber closes the 28 suction chamber check valve and supercharges the 6 working chamber . After the supercharging operation has completed, the 29 suction chamber open-close supercharging valve closes again. Consequently, a volume of supercharging air corresponding to little less than three times the swept volume can be achieved as the 27 suction chamber contains air of supercharging pressure at the end of the supercharging operation. When the next suction stroke starts, the engine will suck in air only if the pressure in the 27 suction chamber drops below the pressure of the ambient air. The 8 suction valve is actuated by the conventional mechanical 30 suction valve actuator.

Figure 6 illustrates a preferred embodiment for the common air supercharging mechanism with a 32 direct supercharging valve. This solution consists of the 21 common air supercharging regulator, the 24 common air pipe and the 32 direct supercharging valves . This solution can be applied if the actuation of the 32 direct supercharging valve can be directly controlled through the engine control unit. The actuation may be achieved pneumatically, hydraulically or electrically.

Figure 7 illustrates the 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit and its operation. The 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit is used for the two-cold-tank common air supercharging arrangement as illustrated in Figure 3. The 35 cold+ tank is connected to the 38 acceleration supercharging valve through the 36 cold+ supercharging pipe. The 38 acceleration supercharging valve is arranged in the 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit. The 18 suction pipe is connected to the 39 suction regulator valve that is arranged in the 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit. The 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit is connected to the 8 suction valves through the 40 supercharging/suction pipe. In normal operation, the 38 acceleration supercharging valve is closed, and the amount of air to be sucked in during the suction stroke is adjusted through the 39 suction regulator valve. The standard supercharging operation in normal operation is achieved through the 21 common air supercharging regulator. When accelerating, the 39 suction regulator valve closes, and the engine is supercharged from the 35 cold+ tank with a volume of air corresponding to more than three times the swept wolume through the 38 acceleration supercharging valve . The 37 supercharging/suction regulator unit has the same design as the 21 common air supercharging regulator. The air in the fully filled 35 cold+ tank may also be used for normal supercharging operation as applicable.

Figure 8 illustrates in more details a preferred embodiment for the 105 common air supercharged engine described in claim 1 completed with a cam-controlled driving gear, and demonstrates the roles of the 43 turbo generator and the 44 electric motor/generator, respectively. The figure illustrates the cross-sectional diagram for the 41 crankshaft, the cam-controlled driving gear arranged in the 42 flywheel disc, and the 1 cylinder. The engine sucks the air in through the 45 engine air inlet from which the air is led to the 47 butterfly valve through the 46 air filter. From the 47 butterfly valve, the air is led to the 1 cylinders through the 18 suction pipe. The 105 common air supercharged engine contains a supercharging air volume corresponding to three times the swept volume. However, the 1 cylinder only has a space corresponding to one time the swept volume to perform the expansion stroke. Therefore, for further expansion, the exhaust gas is first led to the 43 turbo generator through the 113 three-way catalytic converter and the 19 turbine pipe. From the 43 turbo generator, the air is led to the 20 exhaust pipe. The generator part of the 43 turbo generator generates electric energy which is used to supply the 44 electric motor/generator that drives the 41 crankshaft. In piston-type (also known as reciprocating) engines, there is no turning torque at the dead centres. Also, the turning torque varies as the piston travels between the dead centres. In a conventional engine, this fluctuation in the turning torque is compensated by the flywheel. However, varying the turning torque of the 44 electric motor/generator found in the engine described in this invention allows for achieving a more consistent turning torque value with use of a smaller flywheel. Even when the supercharging operation and energy generation are suspended for certain 1 cylinders, the fluctuation in the turning torque is still compensated by the 44 electric motor/generator. The electric energy needs to be stored only for the period of one working cycle to compensate for the fluctuation in the turning torque. Therefore, a condenser or super condenser beneficially suffices for this purpose thus eliminating the need for an accumulator. Consequently, the common air supercharged engine which deploys a 43 turbo generator and an 44 electric motor/generator can also be considered as a hybrid engine. However, to distinguish between this type of hybrid engine and the widely known hybrid engine, we call this type of technology a cycle hybrid operating mode as the electric energy needs to be stored only for the period of one working cycle. The 44 electric motor/generator also serves as a starter motor. When used with an accumulator of larger capacity, this solution can be turned into a conventional hybrid engine. The 44 electric motor/generator is arranged on the 41 crankshaft with direct connection (i.e. without a gear) which is preferred when the turning torque frequently changes direction. In normal operation, the tanks retain the air when the engine is shut down as the 22 hot supercharging regulator valve and the 23 cold supercharging regulator valve can be fully closed. When a large- sized 16 cold tank is used, it might be beneficial to install an 114 empty tank valve. This way, if the supercharging air storage tanks are empty when the engine is started, the 114 empty tank valve can be kept closed to rapidly achieve a tank pressure required for normal operation.

Figure 9 illustrates a preferred embodiment for the screening technology described in claims 5 and 6. The screening technology is intended to reduce thermal loss at the engine wall. The way screening helps to achieve this is that the hot air whirling in the 106 combustion chamber is prevented from rubbing against the wall of the 106 combustion chamber as the 48 screen is used to create a stationary air layer in between the wall of the 106 combustion chamber and the 106 combustion chamber itself. The technical characteristic in which the screening technology is different from other thermal loss reduction solutions deploying heat insulating materials and heat insulating coatings is that the 48 screen can be made of metal and deploys an 49 air gap). The technical characteristic in which the screening technology is different from other solutions also deploying an air gap is that the 48 screen is made of an especially thin sheet and transfers the pressure present in the 106 combustion chamber in a way other than the 50 screen mount supports that have small cross sections. The technical effects of this latter characteristic are that the 48 screen can be arranged on every part of the 106 combustion chamber in the same way, and that the 106 combustion chamber can have arbitrary pressure. The third beneficial technical effect is that the 48 screen can be simply multiplied. The objective effect of screening is that the amount of heat transferred from the hot gas whirling in the 106 combustion chamber to the parts bordering the 106 combustion chamber is reduced, so is thermal loss, thus enabling the engine deploying screening technology to achieve higher operating efficiency.

The 48 screen consists of a thin sheet that is attached in front of the 53 screened surface through an 49 air gap and with use of long and flexible 50 screen mount supports ( that have small cross-sections. The benefit of the 50 screen mount supports having small cross-sections and a long design relative to the 49 air gap is that the 50 screen mount supports transfer little heat to the 53 screened surface. The benefit of flexibility is that the 48 screen can be fastened in a tension-free manner. There are two reasons why this is necessary. First, the temperature of the 48 screen is higher during operation than the temperature of the 53 screened surface and thus the 48 screen and the 53 screened surface have different heat expansion characteristics. Heat expansion is enabled by the flexible 50 screen mount supports. Second, the flexible attachment enables the 48 screen to move closer to or away from the 53 screened surface thus helping compensate for the difference in pressure in the 49 air gap and in the 6 working chamber. The air flow through the 51 compensating slots also contributes to pressure compensation. The 51 compensating slots are beneficially constructed as holes of small diameter. However, the 51 compensating slots may as well be omitted, as applicable, if sufficient air volume required for pressure compensation can pass through across the edge of the 48 screen or next to the 50 screen mount supports. If the 49 air gap and the 6 working chamber have identical pressure values, the pressure in the 6 working chamber is transferred by the air cushion of the 49 air gap. Therefore, the 50 screen mount supports do not have to transfer force. Similarly to the electrode of the spark plug, the 48 screen has a self-cleaning characteristic due to the high temperature it reaches during operation.

The 49 air gap positioned in between the 53 screened surface and the 48 screen has a thickness of a few tenths of a millimetre. Similarly, the 48 screen also has a thickness of a few tenths of a millimetre. The 50 screen mount support has a length of a few millimetres and a cross-section of a few tenths of a square millimetre. The heat insulating action is performed by the stationary or slightly moving air in the 49 air gap that is positioned in between the 53 screened surface and the 48 screen. The heat resistance of stationary air is multiple thousands higher than the heat resistance of metals and multiple times higher than the heat resistance of insulating materials. Therefore, even a small amount of 49 air gap provides for good heat insulation. The reason why 50 screen mount supports shall have small cross-sections is to avoid deteriorating this heat insulating effect. The 48 screen also reduces heat transferred through radiation. Multiple screens have the ability to further reduce thermal loss as illustrated by the 56 second screen in Figure 6. During operation, the temperature of the 48 screen falls between the compression final temperature and the combustion peak temperature. The 48 screen stores the heat transferred to the wall in the previous working cycle and returns some part of this stored heat in the next working cycle. However, the benefit from this effect can only be achieved with a fast compression stroke and strong whirling power and when the 4 piston stays at the top dead centre for a longer-than-usual period. Other (unexpected) benefits are that combustion inhibition decreases next to the 48 screen due to the high temperature of the 48 screen , and that the strong whirling power enables the combustion process to be more complete (perfect).

In a preferred embodiment, the 48 screen is made of a thin heat resistant metal sheet, and the 50 screen mount supports are cut out from the matter of the 48 screen as shown in Figure 9. The 48 screen is directly welded onto weldabie materials with use of the 50 screen mount supports. For non-weldable surfaces such as aluminium, the weldabie 52 metallic fastening insert is applied for this purpose. The 54 heat insulated metallic insert can also be used beneficially to further reduce thermal loss. In another preferred embodiment, the 50 screen mount support is attached to the 55 insert made of heat insulating material. Where applicable, the 48 screen and the 50 screen mount support can be made of heat insulating material. The48 screen may be fastened by means of riveting, screwing, brazing or adhesion.

Figure 10 illustrates a preferred embodiment for the screening technology described in claim 7 with use of the cross-sectional view of the 106 screened combustion chamber. At the point in time when the 4 piston reaches the top dead centre, the largest thermal loss occurs across the surface of the 106 combustion chamber as this is the area where the temperature of the gas is the highest. Therefore, the screening technology is applied across the surface of the parts bordering the 106 combustion chamber, namely on the 58 piston crown , on the surfaces of the 8, 9 and 10 valves and on the 2 cylinder head . The 59 head land section of the 1 cylinder running from the 2 cylinder head to the fire ring does not contain any surfaces that travel (move) on each other. Therefore, screening is beneficially applied across the surface of the 59 head land, too. It is preferred to construct a 59 head land section that is longer than that of the 104 naturally aspirated engine. The 48 screen consists of at least one layer but may beneficially consist of multiple layers. Screening is also applied on the stem of the 10 exhaust valve in the 57 exhaust chamber of the 2 cylinder head. This figure illustrates, in cross-sectional view, a preferred embodiment for the screening technology as applied across the internal surface of the hot air transferring pipe (in this particular case, the 19 turbine pipe ) described in claim 8.

Figure 11 illustrates a preferred embodiment for the heat exchanger, as described in claim 9, that overheats the fuel. The figure shows the cross-sectional view of a heat exchanger positioned on the tip of a direct diesel injector valve. As it is known, soot particles and nitrogen oxides are produced as bypass products during diesel engine operation, the amount of which needs to be reduced by way of after-treatment. Soot particles are formed when tiny drops of the injected fuel get overheated, and the fuel molecules found in the drop break down resulting in the formation of non- readily-combustible carbon atoms. Harmful nitrogen oxides are formed when the oxygen found in air comes into contact with nitrogen molecules at the boundary surface of drops at a temperature exceeding 1500 °C. On the other hand, when fuel in gaseous state of aggregation is burned, the amount of soot particles formed is minimal. In addition, the lack of boundary surface means that there is no overheated range where nitrogen oxide could be formed. The solution described in this invention injects overheated fuel which, after the injection, immediately turns into gaseous state of aggregation in the 106 combustion chamber. To achieve this phenomenon, the fuel is heated in a pressurized and enclosed space, and hydrogen is prevented from escaping. This results in a moderate number of carbon atoms formed. The technical characteristics in which the solution described in this invention differs from the solution, described in patent document No. US 8511287 B2, most closely related to the solution in this invention, is that fuel heating is achieved not by means of a heat exchanger heated with electric energy but by means of a heat exchanger heated partially by the heat from the 2 cylinder head and partially by the heat from the 106 combustion chamber . The technical effects of the solution described in this invention are: the heat exchanger does not heat but cools down the 2 cylinder head and other parts of the injector; there is no need to install an insulating section; and the heat exchanger is very easy to arrange on such part of the 98 injector nozzle body that protrudes into the 106 combustion chamber in a position that is very close to the 99 nozzle needle tip. It is especially beneficial that the nozzle needle is lubricated and cooled by cold fuel up until the position of the 99 nozzle needle tip. The objective effect of cooling the 2 cylinder head and re-utilizing some part of the heat transferred to the 2 cylinder head is that the engine can operate at higher efficiency. As an additional benefit, the heating intensity automatically follows the working load.

It consists of the 98 injector nozzle body arranged in a manner that it protrudes into the 106 combustion chamber , the 102 heat transfer chamber arranged in the 98 injector nozzle body , the 101 heat transfer chamber cover cylinder , and the 103 heat transfer chamber closing cylindrical cavity . The fuel is heated when it passes through the 102 heat transfer chamber (beneficially having a spiral chamber design). The 102 heat transfer chamber is connected to the nozzle needle tip through the 103 heat transfer chamber closing cylindrical cavity. After the nozzle needle is lifted, the overheated fuel enters the 106 combustion chamber through the 100 injector boring. The surface of the 102 heat transfer chamber is beneficially coated with cobalt molybdenum oxide to prevent the formation of deposits on the surface. The figure separately illustrates the 102 heat transfer chamber with reference mark.. The figure shows a single-thread design for the 102 heat transfer chamber. However, the heat transfer surface may also have a multiple-thread design or other shape if larger heating capacity or lower flow resistance is needed. The heat transfer surface has been scaled to allow the fuel to reach a temperature of 350 to 500 degree Celsius right at the 99 nozzle needle tip but not before. If heat regulation is an important aspect, a dual fuel inlet design can be achieved. In this case, a double-threaded 102 heat transfer chamber and a valve located outside the injector should be applied to select if only one or both of the 102 heat transfer chamber branches are deployed. (It is not illustrated in the figure.) The combustion process is much quicker due to the gaseous state of aggregation of the fuel. Therefore, fuel injection is performed more times but for less period on each occasion. The solution described in this invention can be applied in a similar way for direct gasoline injection as well and is especially beneficial for screening as late injection can be deployed to prevent the fuel from entering the 49 air gap.

Figure 12 illustrates a lens-shaped 106 combustion chamber that can be constructed for the 105 common air supercharged engine and provides for guidance for the selection of the correct compression ratio. For this purpose, we use the draft for the 1 cylinder found in a 104 naturally aspirated engine and the draft for the cylinder found in the 105 common air supercharged engine. In order to take into consideration the supercharging air volume corresponding to three times the swept volume, the 1 cylinder for the 105 common air supercharged engine has been extended to triple the original length. As it can be seen, the 105 common air supercharged engine has a much more favourable 106 combustion chamber surface/volume ratio compared to the 104 naturally aspirated engine having the same compression ratio. This allows for the preferred embodiment of the lens-shaped joint-free 106 combustion chamber. The 105 common air supercharged engine has a smaller stroke length than the 104 naturally aspirated engine. Therefore, higher engine speed (RPM) can be achieved due to the same mean velocity of the 4 piston attributable to the shorter piston travel, and also due to the lighter 4 piston mass.

The reciprocating motion of the 4 piston in the 105 common air supercharged engine is converted into rotary motion by the crank gear, link gear (Scotch yoke) or cam-controlled driving gear connected to the 60 crosshead (no connection can be made to the 5 piston rod as it is fixed). The commonly known crank gear and link gear are not illustrated in the figures. The design presented here involves a cam-controlled driving gear as it is the cam-controlled driving gear through which the overall benefits coming from the solutions described in this invention can be utilized to the fullest extent. For the purpose of the design of the 43 turbo generator, the primary focus is to achieve the highest possible operating efficiency rather than deploying a low-inertia rotor which is normally a key focus in turbocharged engines. The 44 electric motor/generator is beneficially constructed as a brushless DC motor. This way, it can be favourably used as a starter motor and a cycle hybrid engine.

The cam-controlled driving gear is illustrated in Figure 8 and Figure 17 in cross-sectional view. The driving gear is positioned in two flywheel discs that are symmetrically arranged on the 41 crankshaft and face each other. The internal side of the flywheel discs hosts the 111 piston thrust cams and the 110 piston pulling cams (all of which convert the reciprocating motion of the 4 piston into a rotary motion) , while the external side of the discs gives place to the 74 valve opening cams and the 75 valve closing cams .

Figure 13 illustrates a crosshead-type 4 piston that can be constructed as a low-weight structure, where the 4 piston, the 5 piston rod and the 60 crosshead are rigidly built together to form an assembly. The connection can be made by threaded joint at the 69 fixing position for the 60 crosshead or at the 70 fixing position for the 4 piston. The 61 crosshead link holds the 62 crosshead stud at its centre. The 63 crosshead linear cam is arranged in parallel to the 5 piston rod on both sides of the 61 crosshead link. The length of the 63 crosshead linear cam is identical to the stroke length. The centre of the 61 crosshead link coincides with the 64 crosshead cam mid-point. This arrangement for the 63 crosshead linear cam allows the 63 crosshead linear cam to be filled with the 66 hollow cylinder roller only to half-way so that the 5 piston rod does not have to bear flexural torque as illustrated in Figure 18. The 65 engine cowl linear cam absorbs the lateral forces. Both halves of the two-part 42 flywheel disc hosts a 110 piston pulling cam and a 111 piston thrust cam to ensure that the working load is symmetrical. Four pieces of ceramic roller-type or hollow cylinder roller-type roller are used for following the four cams. Such rollers are arranged on the 62 crosshead stud symmetrically. The 67 pinch roller is used for transferring the pushing action, and the 68 pulling roller is used for transferring the pulling action.

Figure 14 illustrates a valve actuator that has no valve spring. Spring-free valve actuation has the benefit of allowing for a lighter 72 pusher rod and a lighter 71 rocker in terms of weight. For common air supercharging, spring-free valve actuation is especially beneficial as the 24 common air pipe exerts pressure on the 9 supercharging valve in the opening direction, and so a stronger spring would be needed to ensure proper closing action. The cam is followed by the 77 bearing roller and the 78 bearing roller (all of them arranged on the 79 roller pin). Linear guiding is jointly provided for by the 76 engine cowl pusher rod cam and the 73 pusher rod holder.

Figure 15 illustrates the centre lines of the actuating cams in the form of a circle diagram. The 80 cam follows the movement of the 4 piston ; the 86 cam follows the movement of the 8 suction valve ; the 87 cam follows the movement of the 9 supercharging valve ; and the 88 cam follows the movement of the 10 exhaust valve . The 82 starting point identifies 0 degree rotation of the 41 crankshaft. The 80 cam illustrates the movement of the 4 piston, more precisely the distance between the 4 piston and the mid-point of the 41 crankshaft in function of the rotation of the 41 crankshaft (41). The 80 cam (80) has a shape very similar to figure "8". The 4 piston travels through four strokes under a single revolution. It means that a full working cycle is completed under a single revolution of the 41 crankshaft. It is especially beneficial as no gear is needed for valve regulation.

Figure 16 illustrates the movement of the 4 piston and the 8, 9 and 10 valves in function of the 91 crankshaft rotation degree. The 89 cam sections represent the opened state of the 8, 9 and 10 valves () on the figure. The 90 cam section represents the state when the 9 supercharging valve opens to flush the 1 cylinder. The 80 cam represents the movement of the 4 piston. This figure distinctively illustrates the 84 acceleration cam sections that are more favourable than the 81 sinus cam. When moving across the 84 acceleration cam sections , the 4 piston reaches the half-way point of the piston travel quicker compared to when moving across the 81 sinus cam . Following the 83 upper dead interval, the piston does not move and the combustion chamber has a constant volume. The 85 lower dead interval represents the cam section that is deployed in lieu of the bottom dead centre. The 9 supercharging valve is beneficially open during some part of the 85 lower dead interval. The lengths of the 83 and 85 dead intervals depend on the engine construction and may be relatively short.

Figure 17 illustrates the cross-sectional view of a 1 cylinder (1) of the engine and the cross- sectional view of the 42 flywheel discs. The 8 suction valve (8), the 9 supercharging valve and the 10 exhaust valve (all arranged in the 2 cylinder head ) are actuated by means of the 72 pusher rod and the 71 rocker ). The 11 compressor suction valve also operates through the 72 pusher rod and the 71 rocker to achieve a higher charge level. A simple check valve can also be deployed for this purpose where applicable. The 95 crankshaft bearings are embedded into the motor cowl. 93 Piston rings are lubricated through the 94 piston ring oiling valves when the piston is at the bottom dead centre. The 92 spark plug/fuel injector is illustrated in the figure symbolically.

Figure 18 illustrates the four 1 cylinders arranged around the 41 crankshaft at 90 degrees. Cold air transferring pipes are arranged on one side of the driving gear, while hot air transferring pipes and the 43 turbo generator are arranged on the other side of the driving gear. The engine is designed to deploy a 21 common air supercharging regulator , a 24 common air pipe , an open-close supercharging toggle valve per each 1 cylinder and a 9 supercharging valve , all of them enclosed in a lens-shaped 106 combustion chamber as illustrated in Figure 12. Taking into consideration the supercharging air volume corresponding to three times the swept volume, the compression ratio has been beneficially selected to be ε=19. This value corresponds to ε=7 in the 6 working chamber of the 105 common air supercharged engine as illustrated in Figure 12, where the compression space accounts for one unit and the displacement accounts for six units. As the supercharging operation is achieved from the 16 cold tank as part of the normal operation, the combustion peak temperature stays low. Due to the low peak temperature, the extent of decrease in the adiabatic coefficient (K=kappa) is not as high as in the 104 naturally aspirated engine, resulting in higher operating efficiency for the engine. The mechanical load on the engine does not increase significantly either as the common air supercharged engine (105) has a piston surface equalling to only half of the piston surface of the 104 naturally aspirated engine that uses the same amount of air. It is especially beneficial that, even though, the peak pressure decreases due to the lower compression ratio deployed in the 6 working chamber , the mean pressure increases due to the supercharging air volume corresponding to three times the swept volume.

Figure 19 illustrates a Sankey diagram to demonstrate the energetic effects of the common air supercharging operation, the screening operation and the direct injection of overheated fuel. In an average 104 naturally aspirated engine, only a small portion of the 115 energy introduced via fuel turns into 119 effective workload. 116 Mechanical loss, 117 cooling loss and 118 exhaust loss do nothing but polluting the environment. The 120 energy obtained through common air supercharging is mainly attributable to the bearing design, smaller cylinder circumference, shorter stroke length and lower peak pressure, and reduces 116 mechanical loss. The screening operation reduces 117 cooling loss. One part of the energy recovered this way directly increases the 125 effective workload (i.e. the 121 energy obtained through screening), while the other part of the energy recovered this way enters the exhaust gas (i.e. the 122 energy entering the exhaust gas through screening). The 123 energy utilized from the exhaust gas through the use of the 43 turbo generator and the 44 electric motor/generator also increases the 125 effective workload of the engine described in this invention. The solution described in this invention for directly injecting overheated fuel has a primary benefit of reducing harmful emissions and a secondary benefit of increasing the 125 effective workload of the engine described in this invention. The 126 mechanical loss, 127 cooling loss and 128 exhaust loss of the engine described in this invention are much lower than those of an average 104 naturally aspirated engine. Based on the diagram, the energy generated by the 44 electric motor/generator accounts for approximately one third of the effective workload of the engine described in this invention.

Below is the description of the typical operating states of the engine installed in the vehicle: When accelerating, the turning torque of the 44 electric motor/generator is increased, and the volume of supercharging air is also increased through the common air supercharging regulator in a way so that a volume of air corresponding to more than twice the swept volume is transferred to the 6 working chamber while the 9 supercharging valve is open. This way, a supercharging air volume corresponding to more than three times the swept volume can be achieved in the 6 working chamber .

When braking, the supercharging operation is completely suspended by closing the 25 open- close supercharging toggle valves. The compressors continue to operate and provide for the compressed air deployed to decelerate the vehicle.

When partial engine load is detected, the cycle hybrid operating mode is deployed. In the cycle hybrid operating mode, the energy generation for certain 1 cylinders is suspended while still operating the working 1 cylinders on full supercharge at all times and ensuring consistent (even) rotation speed of the 41 crankshaft by regulating the turning torque of the 44 electric motor/generator . Consistent (even) rotation speed of the 41 crankshaft is achieved by decreasing the turning torque of the 44 electric motor/generator (or setting a negative turning torque value by switching the 44 electric motor/generator to generator operating mode) during the expansion stroke of the working 1 cylinders, and by increasing the turning torque of the 44 electric motor/generator during the expansion stroke of the suspended 1 cylinders . The suspension of energy generation for the 1 cylinders is achieved by suspending the supercharging operation and fuel injection for the respective 1 cylinders. Continuing to run the compressors of suspended 1 cylinders allows for supercharging the working 1 cylinders with a volume or air corresponding to more than three times the swept volume. This is accomplished by use of the excessive air compressed in the 7 supercharging compression chambers of the suspended 1 cylinders.

It is widely known that diesel engines are operated on an air-fuel ratio of λ = 1.2 to 1.3, and that the engine output is increased/decreased by means of quality regulation. With the engine described in this invention, a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio of λ = 1 can be used since the engine output is regulated according to the cycle hybrid operating mode. Using a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio of λ = 1 requires (i) high-speed supercharging air intake for the common air supercharging operation; (ii) screening for reducing the combustion inhibition at the wall; and (iii) overheated fuel injection. This provides for the opportunity to either increase the engine output by 20 to 30 percent or decrease the engine swept volume by 20 to 30 percent, and to particularly beneficially use the conventional 113 three-way catalytic converter.

Figure 20 illustrates a preferred embodiment for a Wankel engine with common air supercharging as described in patent claim 15. For this purpose, we used an engine equipped with two piston housings the drafts of which can be seen in a lay-flat manner. In the 96 compressor piston housing is the supercharging air generated, which is later used in the 97 working piston housing in conjunction with the air sucked in through the 107 suction gap. For this purpose, the 9 supercharging valve opens only after the 107 suction gap has been closed. Since the compressor part sucks in and compresses double volume of air through the 112 suction gaps under a revolution, a volume of supercharging air corresponding to three times the chamber volume is achieved in Wankel engines, too. Consequently, a Wankel engine with common air supercharging has a chamber volume that is 33% smaller than that of a naturally aspirated Wankel engine that uses the same amount of air. Since only one of the two piston housings operates as an engine, it means that less lubricating oil is burned in the process. The common air supercharging technology is also compatible with compression ignition engines. The 109 rotary piston chamber is not constructed in the 96 compressor piston housing. The solution illustrated in Figure 4 is a preferred embodiment for the supercharging mechanism.

Figure 21 illustrates a preferred embodiment for a Wankel engine with common air supercharging as described in patent claim 16. The 9 supercharging valve is not used for this version. This version also provides for the opportunity to use less oil and is also compatible with compression ignition engines. In this case, the chamber volume reduces only if the two piston housings have different widths (i.e. the 96 compressor piston housing is beneficially wider). A preferred embodiment of the supercharging mechanism is illustrated in Figure 4 (i.e. supercharging mechanism without a 9 supercharging valve). After the supercharging operation has taken place, the 24 common air pipe is closed by the lateral face of the rotary piston.

Figure 22 illustrates a Wankel engine in which the 96 compressor piston housing is wider than the 97 working piston housing. As it can be noticed, the common air supercharged Wankel engine has the same installation size but has an output corresponding to 1.5 times the output of the non-superchargeable Wankel engine that has unified piston housing widths. The reason being is that the 96 compressor piston housing is utilized twice due to the two 112 suction gaps which results in the compressor volume being accounted for as double volume. This construction of the piston housing enables the Wankel engine that utilizes supercharging without a 9 supercharging valve to have an engine size that is 33% smaller than the engine size of a naturally aspirated Wankel engine having the same output.

Figure 23 illustrates the cross-sectional view of a preferred embodiment of the screening technology used in a Wankel engine as described in claim 7, i.e. the screening of the front surface of the 108 rotary piston and the screening of the surface of thel09 rotary piston chamber. The screening technology (in particular the screening of the 109 rotary piston chamber) enables the thermal loss to significantly decrease.

The solutions described in the main claims not only meet the objective set for the invention (see Figure 19) but also beneficially influence the effects of each other as follows:

However, the solutions described in the main claims can also be applied individually and are beneficial in increasing the operating efficiency of internal combustion engines and reducing environmental pollution. The tanks storing the supercharging air can be beneficially used for braking energy recuperation in vehicles using endurance braking system (also known as retarder). Using a larger electric accumulator beneficially allows for the construction of a hybrid engine. The solutions described in this invention provide for the opportunity to increase the compression rate in spark ignition engines or to use a simpler structure in compression ignition engines thus closing to each other and utilizing the benefits provided for by the two types of engine.

The preferred embodiments may simply be realized with use of the tools known and used in the machinery manufacturing industry. The engine control units currently used in the vehicle industry are able to perform the required calculations and regulations with use of the data obtained from a preset program and from the sensors.

The engine described in this invention may be used not only in vehicles but also in any other industries where internal combustion engines have been used.

LIST OF REFERENCE SIGNS Cylinder 33 Check valve

Cylinder head 34 Non-return valve

Cylinder foot 35 Cold+ tank

Piston 36 Cold+ supercharging pipe

Piston rod 37 Supercharging/suction regulator unit Working chamber 38 Acceleration supercharging valve Supercharging compressor chamber 39 Suction regulator valve

Suction valve 40 Supercharging/suction pipe

Supercharging valve 41 Crankshaft

Exhaust valve 42 Flywheel discs

Compressor suction valve 43 Turbo generator

Compressor discharge valve 44 Electric motor/generator

Hot supercharging pipe 45 Engine air inlet

Hot tank 46 Air filter

Cooler 47 Butterfly valve

Cold tank 48 Screen

Cold supercharging pipe 49 Air gap

Suction pipe 50 Screen mount support

Turbine pipe 51 Compensating slot

Exhaust pipe 52 Metallic fastening insert

Common air supercharging regulator 53 Screened surface

Hot supercharging regulator valve 54 Heat insulated metallic insert

Cold supercharging regulator valve 55 Insert made of heat insulating material Common air pipe 56 Second screen

Open-Close supercharging toggle valve 57 Exhaust chamber

Closed diaphragm seal 58 Piston crown

Suction chamber 59 Head land

Suction chamber check valve 60 Crosshead

Suction chamber open-close 61 Crosshead link

supercharging valve 62 Crosshead stud

Suction valve actuator 63 Crosshead linear cam

Supercharging valve actuator 64 Crosshead cam mid-point

Direct supercharging valve 65 Engine cowl linear cam Hollow cylinder roller 96 Compressor piston housing (Wankel) Pinch roller 97 Working piston housing (Wankel) Pulling roller 98 Injector nozzle body

Fixing position (on the crosshead) 99 Nozzle needle tip

Fixing position (in the piston) 100 Injector boring

Rocker 101 Heat transfer chamber cover cylinder Pusher rod 102 Heat transfer chamber

Pusher rod holder 103 Heat transfer chamber closing cylindrical Valve opening cam (on the flywheel disc) cavity

Valve closing cam (on the flywheel disc) 104 Naturally aspirated engine

Engine cowl pusher rod cam 105 Common air supercharged engine Bearing roller (for valve opening) 106 Combustion chamber

Bearing roller (for valve closing) 107 Suction gap (in the working piston Roller pin housing)

Cam (for piston movement) 108 Rotary piston

Sinus cam (for piston movement) 109 Rotary piston chamber

Starting point (it identifies 0 degree 110 Piston pulling cam

rotation of the crankshaft) 111 Piston thrust cam

Upper dead interval (instead of upper 112 Suction gap (in the compressor piston dead centre) housing)

Acceleration cam section (on the piston 113 Three-way catalytic converter cam) 114 Empty tank valve

Lower dead interval (instead of lower 115 Energy introduced via fuel

dead centre) 116 Mechanical loss (naturally aspirated Cam (for suction valve movement) engine)

Cam (for supercharging valve movement) 117 Cooling loss (naturally aspirated engine) Cam (for exhaust valve movement) 118 Exhaust loss (naturally aspirated engine) Cam section (valve open position) 119 Effective workload (naturally aspirated Cam section (supercharging valve engine)

flushes) 120 Energy obtained through common air Crankshaft rotation degree supercharging

Spark plug/fuel injector 121 Energy obtained through screening Piston rings 122 Energy entering the exhaust gas through Piston ring oiling valve screening

Crankshaft bearing 123 Energy utilized from the exhaust gas 124 Energy obtained through overheated fuel 127 Cooling loss (engine according to the

125 Effective workload (engine according to invention)

the invention) 128 Exhaust loss (engine according to the

126 Mechanical loss (engine according to the invention)

invention)