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Title:
COMPETITIVE INHIBITORS OF TYPE II DEHYDROQUINASE ENZYME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/072813
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to a compound of formula (I), its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptablesalts or solvates, formula (I), to procedures of obtaining the same, to intermediates thereof, and use as competitive inhibitors of the third enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway, the type II dehydroquinase.

Inventors:
GONZÁLEZ BELLO, Concepción (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
VIEIRA PRAZERES, Verónica, Filipa (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
PAZ GÓMEZ, Sonia (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
SÁNCHEZ SIXTO, Cristina (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
TIZÓN VALVERDE, Lorena (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
Application Number:
EP2009/067858
Publication Date:
July 01, 2010
Filing Date:
December 23, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIVERSIDADE DE SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA (Edificio CACTUS, Oficina de Investigación e Tecnoloxía, ES)
GONZÁLEZ BELLO, Concepción (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
VIEIRA PRAZERES, Verónica, Filipa (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
PAZ GÓMEZ, Sonia (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
SÁNCHEZ SIXTO, Cristina (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
TIZÓN VALVERDE, Lorena (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Edificio CACTUS, ES)
International Classes:
C07D333/54; A61K31/19; A61K31/381; A61P31/00; C07C62/26; C07C62/38; C07D333/16; C07D333/56
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LORCA MELTON, Miguel (ABG Patentes, S.L.Avenida de Burgos, 16, Edificio Euromor Madrid, E-28036, ES)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A compound of formula I, its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

I wherein,

A represents a single or double bond;

X is selected from the group consisting of -(C=O)OR" and -(C=0)NRbRc, wherein each of R"1, Rb and RL is independently selected from the group consist- ing of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted hctcrocyclylalkyl; or R and Rc together form a

5 or 6 membered heterocyclyc ring together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached; each P1, P2 and P^ is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or urLsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted silyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and -(C=0)Ra, wherein Ra is as defined above; and wherein if A is a double bond, then R is selected from the group consisting of -ORa, -SRa and - NR Rc, wherein Ra, R and Rc are as defined above; and R is hydrogen or Rld, wherein Rld is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl, or R1 and R2 together form a 5-membered ring; and if A is a single bond, tthheenn RR22 iiss = =0, =S or =NRb, wherein Rb is as defined above, and R1 Rla, wherein Rla is a defined above

2 A compound of formula Ic according to claim 1 , its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

OP3 Ic wherein, X, P1, P^ and P' are as defined in claim 1 ,

Z is selected from the group consisting of O, S, NRb and + NRbRc, wherein Rb and RL arc asdcfincd m claim 1 , and

R is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstitutcd alkyl, substituted or unsubstitutcd alkcnyl, substituted or unsubsti- tuted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted hete- rocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl, or

Rb and R together form a substituted or unsubstituted 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 membered ring, or a compound of formula Ia, its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates OP3

Ia wherein X, P1, P2, P1 and Rla are as defined m claim 1 , and W is =O, =S or

=NR , wherein R is as defined m claim 1

3. A compound of formula Ib according to claim 1, its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

Ib wherein,

X, P1, P2, P' and R1 are as defined in claim 1 ; and

R~ is selected from the group consisting of-ORa, -SRa and -NR Rc, wherein Ra,

R and Rc are as defined in claim 1.

4. A compound of formula T according to claim 1 , selected from the group consisting of:

(27?)-2-allyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(25)-2-allyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(2Λ)-2-propyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(2/?)-2-bcnzyl-3-dchydroquinic acid, (25)-2-benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(2Λ)-2-(4-methyl)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(25)-2-(4-methyl)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(2Λ)-2-(4-methoxy)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(25)-2-(4-methoxy)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2Λ)-2-perfluorobenzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(25)-2-perfluorobenzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(2Λ)-2-(benzo[/)]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(25)- 2-(benzo[Z)]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-3-(benzo[δ]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4,5-trihydroxycyclohex-2- en-1-carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-3-(benzo[&]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[δ]thiophen-2- yl)mcthyl-l ,4,5-trihydroxycyclohcx-2-cn-l -carboxylatc,

Sodium (Ii?, AS, 5i?)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(5-methylbenzo[&]thiophen-2- yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate, Sodium (IR, 4S, S^-l^^-trihydroxy-S^S-methylbenzoC&lthiophen^-yOmethoxy^^S- methylbenzo[i]thiophen-2-yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 45, SΛJ-l^^-trihydroxy-S-CS-methylbenzof/^thiophen^-y^methoxy^-CS- methylbenzo[Z>]thiophen-2-yl)metliylcyclohex-2-eri-l -carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-2-allyl-3-(beπzo[Z)]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4,5- trihydroxycylohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

(AR, 6R, 7S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[fr]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid,

(47?, 6R, 7»S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[6]thiophen-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-vinyl-4,5,6,7-tctrahydrobcnzo[&]thiophcn-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6/?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-[(£')-prop-l -cnyl]-4,5,6,7-tctrahydro-bcnzo[δ]thiophcn-

4-carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-(l-methyl)vinyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[/?]thioρhen-4- carboxylic acid, (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(£)-2-cyclopropyl]vinyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[δ]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[/?]thiophen-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-2-(2-cyclopropyl)ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydro- benzo[δ]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-isopropyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[6]thiophen-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-2-ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[ft]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid, Ethyl (IR, 4S, S^^-allyl-S-CbenzoC&lthiophen^-yOmethoxy-l^^-trihydroxycyclohex-

2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

Sodium (JR, 4S, 5R)- 1 ,4,5-tridihydroxy-3-(thien-3-yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en- 1 - carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 57?)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-[(benzo[b]thioprien-5-yl)methoxy]cyclohex-2- en- 1 -carboxylate,

Sodium (7i?,^,Ji?)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(thien-23-yl)methoxy-2-(thien-23- yl)mcthylcyclohcx-2-cn-l -carboxylate, Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-3-[(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy]-2-[(benzo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methyl]- 1 ,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

Methyl (7Λ,45,5i?)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methyl-l,4,5-trihydroxycyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, Methyl (ii?,^,5i?)-l,4,5-tridihydroxy-3-(thien-3-il)methoxy-2-(thien-3-yl)methyl cyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate.

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2-(tliien-2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l -carboxylate,

Methyl (JR, 4S, 5/?)-l ,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(bcnzo[b]thiophcn-5-yl)mcthoxycyclohcx-2-cn- 1 -carboxylate,

(4 R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-(l -phcnylvinyl)-4,5,6,7-tctrahydro-bcnzo[b]thiophcn-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R1 6R, 75)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid, (^/?,6/?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phcncthyl-4,5,6,7-tctrahydrobcn-zo[b]thioρhcnc-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-propyl-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydroben-zo [b]thiophene-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 75)-2-Ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydrobeπzo [b]tiophene-4-carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 7jS)-2-benzyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-benzyl-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo [b]tbiophen-

4-carboxylic acid,

(4R, 6R, 71S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenethyl-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo [b]thiophen-4- carboxylate, Methyl (4R, 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4- carboxylate,

Methyl (4R, 6R1 7S)-2-ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thioplieii-4- carboxylatc,

Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-2-cyclopropyl]vinyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7- tctrahydrobcnzo[b]thiophcn-4-carboxylatc,

Methyl (4R, 6R, 7,S)-2-[(E)-prop-l-enyl]-4,6,7-tririydroxy-4,5,6,7- tctrahydrobcnzo[b]thiophcrι-4-carboxylatc, Methyl (4R, 6R, 7^-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4- carboxylate,

Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophen-4- carboxylate, Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)- 1 ,4-trihydroxy-3-(2-naphyl)methoxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate, Sodium (IR, 4S, 5/?)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(naphth-2-yl)methoxy-2-(naphth-2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, JΛ)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(thien-2-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2- yl)mcthylcyclohcx-2-cn-l -carboxylate, or its enantiomeric or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates.

5. Process for the preparation of compounds of formula Ia as defined in claim 2, comprising the ring opening of a lactone of formula III hi acidic medium,

OP3

III wherein, W, P1 , P1 and Ru arc as defined in claim 2.

6. Process for the preparation of a compound of formula Ib as defined in claim 3, com- prising the ring opening of a lactone of formula IV in acidic or basic medium

IV wherein, P1, P3, R1 and R2 are as defined in claim 3.

7. Process according to claim 6, wherein the compound of formula IV is prepared by a process comprising an O-, S- or /V-alkylation of a compound of formula II I or of a com- pound of formula II, or a dialkylation of a compound of formula II, wherein P1, R1 and R2 are as defined in claim 6, and W and Ru is as defined in claim 5

IV III II.

8 Process for the preparation of d compound of formula Ic as defined in claim 2, comprising the ring opening of a lactone of formula V m acidic or basic medium,

OP3

wherein, P , P , R and Z are as defined in claim 2

9 A compound of formula III, its diastereoisomers its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

OP3 III wherein W, P1, P3 and Rla are as defined in claim 5

10 A compound of formula IV its did stereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

OP3 IV wherein P1, P3, R1 and R2 are as defined in claim 6

11 A compound of formula V, its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

OP3 V wherein P1, P', R and Z are as defined in claim 8

12 A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula T as defined in 10 any of claims 1 to 4 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carier

13 A compound of formula I as defined m anyone of claims 1 to 4, for use as a medicament

15 14 A compound of formula T as defined in anyone of claims 1 to 4, for use as an antibiotic and'or antimicrobial

15 Compound according to claim 14 for use m the treatment or prophylaxis of a disease selected from the group consisting of tuberculosis, stomach cancer, gastritis, stomach 20 ulcers, and duodenal ulcers heartburn

Description:
COMPETITIVE INHIBITORS OF TYPE II DEHYDROQUINASE ENZYME

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compounds of general formula I, to procedures of ob- taining the same, to intermediates thereof, and use as competitive inhibitors of the third enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway, the type 11 dehydroquinase.

STATE OF THE ART

Although nowadays enormous effective chcmothcrapcutic agents have been developed, the number of deaths among hospitalized patients infected with resistant bacterial strains has increased dramatically. This fact is especially remarkable for important diseases such as tuberculosis, where the current therapies become less efficient. Their effects arc particularly strong in people with a compromised immune system such as HlV patients. The synergy between the AIDS epidemic and increasing surge of multidrug- resistant isolates to antibiotics leads to the alarming conclusion that antibiotics arc loosing their effectiveness. It is therefore necessary to discover new, safe, selective and more efficient antibiotics to face this problem.

For example, selectivity can sometimes be achieved by using compounds that inhibit one of the biosynthetic pathways present in bacteria. Thus, there are antibiotics that in- terfere in the protein, lipids or catetenoids biosynthesis, etc. In bacteria, there is a metabolic route, known as the shikimic acid pathway (Haslam, E. The shikimate pathway. New York: Wiley; 1974), through which chorismic acid is biosynthesized. The later compound is the precursor in the synthesis of aromatic compounds such as the aromatic amino acids, folates, ubiquinones and certain vitamins (Abell, C. Enzymology and mo- lccular biology of the shikimate pathway. In: Sankawa U, editor. Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry. Oxford: Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd.; 1998. p 573). The shikimic acid pathway is present in bacteria, fungi, higher plants and has recently been discovered in apicomplexan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium parviim (Roberts, F.; et all Nature 1998, 393, 801 ; Roberts, C. W. et all J. Infect. Dis. 2002, 185 (suppl 1 ), S25; McConkey, G. A.; Pinney, J. W.; Westhead, D. R.; Plueckhahn, K.; Fitzpatrick, T. B.; Macheroux, P.; Kappes, B. Trends in Parasitology 2004, 20, 60).

The enzyme dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, EC 4.2.1.10) catalyzes the reversible dehydration of 3-dehydroqιιinic acid to form 3-dehydroshikimic acid (Scheme 1 ). There arc two different dchydroquinascs, known as type T and type TT, which possess different biochemical and biophysical properties and do not show sequence similarity (Hawkins, A. R. Curr. Genet. 1987, / /, 491 ). These two enzymes catalyse the same reaction, but they utilize completely different mechanisms and opposite stereochemistry (Klcanthous, C; Davis, K.; Kelly, S. M.; Cooper, A.; Harding, S. E.; Price, N. C; Hawkins, A. R.; Coggins, J. R. Biochem. J. 1992, 282, 687).

DeIn droquinase 3-dehydroqumic acid 3-dehydroshikimic acid

Scheme 1

The type II enzyme (Gourley, D. G.; Coggins, J. R.; Isaacs, N. W.; Moore, J. D.; Charles, 1. G.; Hawkins, A. R. ./. MoI. Biol. 1994, 241, 488; Krell, T.; Pitt, A. R.; Coggins, J. R. FEBS Lett. 1995, 360, 93), may come from different sources (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Helicobacter pylori, Aspergillus nidulans), and catalyzes the anti elimination of water.

A number of compounds with antibiotic properties have been tested in recent years, some of which are believed to inhibit the dehydroquinase of the shikimic acid pathway. For example, Gonzalez-Bello, C. et a! Org. Biomol. Chern., 1, 2003, p. 2075-2083 or Gonzalez-Bello, C. et al Medicinal Research Reviews, Vol. 27(2), 2007, p. 177-208 discloses derivative of formula

having a K 1 of 180 to more than 20,000 micro molar with S. coelicolor Type II Dehydroquinase. Gonzalez-Bello, C. et al Org. Biomol. Chem., 1, 2003, p. 2075-2083 discloses 3- substituted derivatives of 1,4,5-Trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid, having the formula

which have a K 1 of 180 to more than 20,000 micro molar against S. coelicυlor Type II Dchydroquinasc.

Gonzalez-Bello, C. et al ChemMedChem, 2008, 3, 756-770 discloses derivative of formula

having a K 1 of 0.54 to more than 400 micro molar with H. pylori Type II Dehydroqui- nase. Compounds having the above general formula and further compounds where tested in Gonzalez-Bello, C. et a! ChemMedChem, 2007, 2, p. 194-207 against S. coeli- color Type Il Dehydroquinase, showing a K, between 0.13 and 33.5 micro molar.

Patent application WO 2005/009330 discloses derivatives of formula

Mainly those wherein R and/or R are substituted benzyl groups.

Thus, there is a need to provide further compounds with antibiotic and/or antimicrobial activity. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compounds with antibiotic and 'or antimicrobial activity activity, whose action is based on the effective and selective inhibition of the essential amino acids biosynthesis, particularly, by inhibition of the dchydroquinasc, the third enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway

The present invention provides compounds based on the qurnic acid structure, which are effectrve competitive inhibitors of type Il dehydroqumase, the third enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway These compounds are significantly more potent than the described compounds of similar structure (in some cases with a Ki more than a thousand tunes higher) The present invention also provides procedures of obtaining of these compounds as well as their use as antibiotics and/or antimicrobials

Accordingly, a first aspect of the present inv ention is directed to a compound of formula I its diastcrcoisomcrs, its cnantiomcrs or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates OP 3

T w herein,

A represents a single or double bond,

X is selected from the group consisting of -(C-O)OR 1 and -(C-0)NR b R c , wherein each of R a , R and R c is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl, or R b and R c together form a 5 or 6 mcmbcrcd hctcrocyclyc ring together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached each of P 1 , P 2 and P is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl substituted or unsubstituted silyl, substi- tuted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and -(C-O)R 1 , wherein R 1 is as defined above, and -wherein if A is a double bond, then R is selected from the group consisting of OR a , -SR a and NR R c , wherein R a , R and R c are as defined above, and R 1 is hydrogen or R a , wherein R a is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted hctcrocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl, or

R 1 and R 2 together form a 5-mcmbcrcd πng, and if A is a single bond, then R 2 is -O, ~ S or ~ NR b , wherein R b is as defined abo\e, and R 1 is R u , wherein R la is a defined above Further aspects of the present invention arc methods for the synthesis of said compounds of formula I, and intermediates thereof

A further aspect of the present invention is a pharmaceutical composition comprising said compound of formula 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier

A further aspect of the present invention is a compound of formula I as defined above, for use as a medicament

A further aspect of the present invention is a compound of formula I as defined above, for use as an antibiotic and/or antimicrobial

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Definitions

' Alkjl" refers to a straight or branched, cyclic or acyclic hydrocarbon radical consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, containing no unsaturation, having 1 -12, preferably one to eight, more preferably one to four carbon atoms, and which is attached to the rest of the molecule by a single bond, optionally substituted by one or more substituents se- lected from the group consisting of an halogen atom, an alkoxy group, a cyano group, a nitro group, a thioalkoxy group, an heterocyclylalkyl group, an hctcrocyclyl group or CF 3 , for example, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, n-pentyl, cyclopro- pyl, etc.

"Alkenyl" refers to a straight or branched, cyclic or acyclic hydrocarbon radical consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, containing at least one unsaturation, conjugated or not, having 2 to 12, preferably two to eight, more preferably two to four carbon atoms, and which is attached to the rest of the molecule by a single bond. Alkenyl radicals may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents such as a halogen atom, an alkoxy group, a cyano group, a nitro group, a thioalkoxy group, an heterocyclylalkyl group, an hctcrocyclyl group or CF,, such as vinyl, allyl, butcnyl (e.g. 1 -butcnyl, 2-butcnyl, 3- butenyl), or pentenyl (e.g. 1-pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3-pentenyl, 4-pentenyl).

"alkynyl" refers to a straight or branched, cyclic or acyclic hydrocarbon radical consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond, conjugated of not, having two to twelve, preferably two to eight, more preferably two to four carbon atoms, and which is attached to the rest of the molecule by a single bond, such as -CCH, -CH 2 CCH, -CCCH,, -CH 2 CCCH;,. Alkynyl radicals may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents such as a halogen atom, an alkoxy group, a cyano group, a nitro group, a thioalkoxy group, an heterocyclylalkyl group, an hetero- cyclyl group or CF3. "Aryl" refers to an aromatic hydrocarbon with 6 to 10 carbon atoms, such as phenyl or naphtyl, optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a halogen atom, an alkoxy group, a cyano group, a nitro group, an thioalkoxy group, an alkyl group or CF 3 .

"Silyl" refers to trialkylsilyl species which are commonly used in organic chemistry as protecting groups, such as those disclosed in Greene, T. W.; Wuts, P. G. M. "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 3° Ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999. According to a particular embodiment, a radical of formula -SiR d R e R f wherein R d , R e and R f are independently selected from a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, for example, methyl, ethyl, t-butyl, i-propyl, phenyl, etc. "arylalkyl" refers to a one or various aryl groups bonded to the rest of the molecule by an alkyl radical, for example, benzyl, 3-(phcnyl)-propyl, etc.

"Heterocyclyl" refers to a stable 3 to 15 membered-ring constituted by carbon atoms and 1 to 5 hctcroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, preferably a 4 to 8 membered-ring constituted by one or more heteroatoms, and more preferably a 5 to 6 membered-ring with one or more heretoatoms. For the purposes of this invention, het- erocyclyl groups can be a monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic systems, that can include fused rings; and the nitrogen or sulphur atom in the heterocyclic ring can be optionally oxidized; the nitrogen atom can be optionally quaternarized; and the heterocyclyl radical can be partially or totally saturated or can be aromatic. The heterocyclic ring can be substituted by one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a halogen atom, an alkoxy group, an alkyl group, a thioalkoxy group, a cyano group, a nitro group or CF<. Examples of such hctcrocyclcs include, for example, furan, thiophene, pyrrole, imidazole, triazole, isothiazole, benzothiophene, benzofurane, indol, benzo imidazole, tetrahydro furan .

"Heteroaryl" refers to a heterocyclyl group wherein at least one of the rings is aromatic. "Alkoxy" refers to a radical of formula — O-alkyl, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, pro- poxy, etc.

"Thioalkoxy" refers to a radical of formula -S-alkyl, for example, thiomethoxy, thio- ethoxy, thiopropoxy, etc.

"Amino" refers to a radical of formula -NR b R c wherein R b and R c are as previously defined. "Alkoxycarbonyl" refers to a radical of formula -C(=O)-O-alkyl.

"Aminocarbonyl" refers to a radical of formula -C(=O)-NR b R c , wherein R b and R c are as defined above.

"Alkylcarbonyl" refers to a radical of formula -C(=O)-alkyl.

"Heterocyclylalkyl" refers to a one or various heterocyclyl groups bonded to the rest of the molecule by an alkyl radical, for example, 2-(thienyl)ethyl, benzothiophenylmethyl, etc.

"Quinic acid" refers to (15,3Λ,4iS',5 J R)-l ,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid. Unless otherwise stated, the compounds of the invention arc also meant to include compounds which differ only in the presence of one or more isotopically enriched atoms. For example, compounds having the present structures except for the replacement of a hydrogen by a deuterium or tritium, or the replacement of a carbon by a 13 C- or 14 C- cnrichcd carbon or l 5 N-cnrichcd nitrogen arc within the scope of this invention. Further, the term "pharmaceutical^ acceptable" refers to molecular entities and compositions that are physiologically tolerable and do not typically produce an allergic or similar untoward reaction, such as gastric upset, dizziness and the like, when administered to a human Preferably, as used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" means approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government or listed in the U S Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans

For instance, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds provided herein are synthesized from the parent compound which contains a basic or acidic moiety by comcn- tional chemical methods Generally, such salts are, for example, prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds w ith a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent or in a mixture of the two According to a particular embodiment ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol or acetomtrile are used as solv ents Examples of the acid addition salts include mineral acid addition salts such as, for example, hydrochloride, hydrobromidc, hydroiodidc, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and organic acid addition salts such as, for example, acetate, maleate, fumarate, citrate, oxalate, succinate, tartrate, malate, mandelate, methane- sulphonate and p-toluenesulphonate Examples of the alkali addition salts include inorganic salts such as, for example, sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium, magnesium, aluminium and lithium salts, and organic alkali salts such as, for example, ethylenedia- mme, ethanolamine, N,N-dialkylenethanolamme, tπethanolamine, glucamine and basic amino acids salts

The compounds of the invention may be in crystalline form either as free compounds or as solvates (e g hydrates) and it is intended that both forms are within the scope of the present invention Methods of solvation are generally known withm the art Suitable sohates are pharmaceutically acceptable sohates In a particular embodiment the solvate is a hydrate

The compounds of the present invention may include diastcrcoisomcrs and/or cnanti- omers depending on the presence of chiral centres or isomers depending on the presence of multiple bonds (c g Z, E) The single isomers, diastcrcoisomcrs, cnantiomcrs and mixtures thereof fall withm the scope of the present invention Compounds of formula I

According to a particular embodiment, the compound of formula 1 is a compound of formula Ia, its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

Ia wherein X, P 1 , P 2 , P 3 and R la are as defined above, and W is =0, =S or =NR b . According to a particular embodiment, the compound of formula T is a compound of formula Ib, its diastereoiiomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

Ib wherein,

X, P 1 , P 2 , P 3 and R 1 are as defined above; and R 2 is selected from the group consisting of -OR", -SR" 1 and -NR 11 R 11 , wherein R d ,

R b and R c are as defined above.

According to a particular embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of formula Ic, its diastereoisomers, its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates

Ic wherein,

X, P 1 , P 2 and P' are as defined above;

Z is selected from the group consisting of O, S, NR and '* NR R c , wherein R and R c are as defined above; and R is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubsti- tuted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted het- erocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl.

According to particular embodiment X in a compound of formula I, Ia, Ib or Ic is -

CO 2 H or -CO 2 M, wherein M is a metal cation, preferably a metal cation of Group I of the Periodic Table, more preferably, of sodium. According to particular embodiment X in a compound of formula I, Ia, Ib or Ic is -

CO 2 -Ci-C 6 alkyl. According to particular embodiment X in a compound of formula T, Ta,

Ib or Ic is selected form the group consisting of methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, propoxicarbonyl and butiroxycarbonyl.

According to a particular embodiment, R 1 in a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib is an alkyl or an alkenyl group, preferably a alkyl group or a Ci 4 alkenyl group.

According to a particular embodiment, R 1 in a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib is an alkyl group, preferably a Ci.4 alkyl group, substituted with an aryl or heteroaryl group.

According to a particular embodiment, R 1 in a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib is a radical of formula VIIl

VIII wherein n is 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 1; p is 1 , 2, or 3, preferably 1 ;

R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy, substituted or unsubstituted thioalkoxy, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted hctcro- cyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl, and

Y is selected from the group consisting of O, S, NR and NR R c , wherein R and R c are as defined abo\ e, w herein the (CEb) n - moiety and R may be in any of the free positions

According to a particular embodiment, R in a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib is a radical of formula IX

IX w herein n, Y and R" are as defined above, and q is 1 , 2, or 3, preferably 1

According to a particular embodiment, R J is hydrogen or alkyl, preferably CM alkyl According to a particular embodiment, Y is S or O, preferably S According to a particular embodiment, R 1 in a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib is substituted or unsubstituted benzyl group, preferably a radical of formula X

X w herein m is 0, 1 , 2, λ, 4 or 5, preferably 1 , and

R 4 is selected from the group consisting of halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted dlkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy, substituted or unsubstituted thioalkoxy, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substi- tuted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclylalkyl According to a particular embodiment, R 4 is selected from the group consisting of halogen, alkyl and alkoxy. According to a further particular embodiment m is 5 and R 4 is fluor. According to a further particular embodiment, m is 1 or 2, and R 4 is a Ci 4 alkyl group or a C 1.4 alkoxy group.

According to a particular embodiment, R 1 in a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib is substituted or unsubstituted benzyl group, preferably a radical of formula Xa

Xa wherein m and R 4 are as previously defined

According to a particular embodiment, R 1 is H in a compound of formula Ib. According to a particular embodiment, R is alkenyl in a compound of formula Ib, preferably, alkenyl, more preferably allyl. According to a particular embodiment, R in a compound of formula Ib is selected from the group consisting of -OR a , -SR a and -NR b R c , wherein each of R a , R b and R c is independently selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl and substituted or unsubstituted hctcrocyclylalkyl; or R and R c together form a 5 or 6 membered heterocyclyc ring together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached.

According to a particular embodiment, R in a compound of formula Ib is -OR a or - SR Λ , wherein R" 1 is preferably a heterocyclylalkyl group, preferably a hetero arylalkyl, more preferably a radical of formula VIII or IX as defined above, preferably a radical of formula VIII or IX wherein R 3 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, preferably Ci 4 alkyl and/or wherein Y is S or O, preferably S.

According to a further embodiment, R 1 and R 2 together form a 5-membered heteroaryl ring. According to a particular embodiment, in a compound of formula I, Ia, Ib or Ic, at least one of P 1 , P 2 and P' is hydrogen, preferably P 1 , P 2 and P' are all hydrogen. According to a particular embodiment, R in a compound of formula Ic is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl. According to a further particular embodiment, R in a compound of formula Ic is se- lected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted, preferably branched, alkenyl and unsubstituted aryl According to a particular embodiment, R is selected from the group consisting of substituted alkyl, substituted alkenyl, substituted alkynyl and substituted aryl, preferably a substituted alkyl or substituted alkenyl, wherein the substitucnt is a C% 6 cycloalkyl group, preferably cyclo- propyl. According to a particular embodiment, said group R is in position two of the ring.

According to a particular embodiment, Z is S. According to a particular embodiment, W is =S or =0, preferably =0. In another more particular embodiment, the present invention relates to compounds of formula I preferably selected from: (2i?)-2-allyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2<S)-2-aUyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2i?)-2-propyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2Λ)-2-benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (25)-2-benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid,

(2Λ)-2-(4-methyl)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (25)-2-(4-methyl)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2Λ)-2-(4-methoxy)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (25)-2-(4-methoxy)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2Λ)-2-perfluorobenzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (25)-2-perfluorobenzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (2Λ)-2-(benzo[δ]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-3-dehydroquinic acid, (25)- 2-(bcnzo[Λ]thiophcn-5-y1)mcthyl-3-dchydroquinic acid, Sodium (IR, 45, 5Λ)-3-(benzo[&]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4,5-trihydroxycy clohex-2- cn-1 -carboxylatc,

Sodium (Ii?, 45, 5i?)-3-(benzo[&]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[&]thi ophen-2- yl)mcthyl-l ,4,5-trihydroxycyclohcx-2-cn-l -carboxylatc, Sodium (Ii?, 45, 5i?)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(5-methylbenzo[&]thiopheri-2- yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

Sodium (Ii?, 4S, 5i?)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(5-methylbenzo[&]thiophen-2-yl)m ethoxy-2-(5- methylbenzo[&]thiophen-2-yl)methylcycloliex-2-en-l -carboxylate, Sodium (Ii?, 4S, 5i?)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(5-methylbenzo[&]thiophen-2-yl)m ethoxy-2-(5- methylbenzo[Z>]thiophen-2-yl)methylcycloliex-2-en-l -carboxylate,

Sodium (Ii?, 4S, 5i?)-2-allyl-3-(benzo[i]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4,5- trihydroxycylohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

(4i?, 6/?, 7S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tctrahydrobcnzo[ft]thiophcn-4-c arboxylic acid, (4R, 6i?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[6]thio plien-4- carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 7«S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-vinyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[& ]thiophen-4- carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-[(£)-prop-l-enyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro -benzo[&]thiophen- 4-carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-(l-methyl)vinyl-4,5,6,7-tetraliydrobe nzo[&]tliioplien-4- carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 7i)-2-[(£)-2-cyclopropyl]vrnyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[/5]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid, (4i?, 6i?, 7S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetraliydrobenzo[& ]tliiophen-4- carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 7 l S)-2-(2-cyclopropyl)ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tet rahydro- benzo[ft]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-isopropyl-4,5,6,7-tetraliydrobenzo[6] tliioplien-4- carboxylic acid,

(4i?, 6i?, 75)-2-ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[&]t hiophen-4-carboxylic acid,

Ethyl (I i?, 4S, 5/?)-2-allyl-3-(bcnzo[Λ]thiophcn-2-yl)mcthoxy-l ,4,5-trihydroxycyclohcx-

2-en- 1 -carboxylate, Sodium (/i?,45 ' ,5i?)-l ,4,5-tridihydroxy-3-(thicn-3-yl)mcthoxycyclohcx-2-cn-l - carboxylate,

Sodium {I R, 4S, 5/?)-l ,4,5-trihydroxy-3-[(bcnzo[b]thiophcn-5-yl)mcthoxy]cyclohcx-2 - en-1-carboxylate,

Sodium (/Λ^5,5Λ)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(thien-23-yl)methoxy-2-(thien-23 - yl)methylcyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-3-[(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy]-2-[(benzo[b]thiophen -5- yl)methyl]-l,4-dihydroxycyc Io hex-2-en-l -carboxylate,

Methyl (7i?,45',5Λ)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[b]th iopheii-5- yl)methyl-l,4,5-trihydroxycycloriex-2-enecarboxylate,

Methyl (yi?,^5i?)-l,4,5-tridihydroxy-3-(thien-3-il)methoxy-2-(thien -3-yl)methyl cyclohcx-2-cn- 1 -carboxylate, Sodium (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2-(th ien-2- yl)mcthylcyclohcx-2-cn-l -carboxylate,

Methyl (IR, 4S, 5Λ)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxycycloh ex-2-en-

1 -carboxylate,

(4R 1 6R 1 7<S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-( 1 -pheny lvinyl)-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo [b]thiophen-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R 1 6R 1 7 1 S)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]th iophen-4-carboxylic acid, f4i?^i?, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroben-zo[b] thiophene-4- carboxylic acid, (4R 1 6R, 76)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroben-zo[b]thi ophene-4- carboxylic acid,

(4R 1 6R, 75)-2-Ethyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]tioph ene-4-carboxylic acid,

(4R 1 6R 1 7S)-2-benzyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-benzyl-4,5 ,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo [b]tbiophen- 4-carboxylic acid,

(4R 1 6R, 7»S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[ b]thiophen-4- carboxylate,

Methyl (4R 1 6R, 75)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-mcthyl-4,5,6,7-tctrahydrobcnzo[b]thio phcn-4- carboxylate, Methyl (4R 1 6R 1 7S)-2-cthyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7-tctrahydro-bcnzo[b]thio phcn-4- carboxylate,

Methyl (4R 1 6R 1 7S)-2-[(E)-2-cyclopropyl]vinyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate,

Methyl (4 R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-proρ-l-enyl]-4,6,7-trihydroxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate,

Methyl (4R, 6R, 7,S)-4,6,7-trihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroberizo[b]th iophen-4- carboxylate,

Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thioph en-4- carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)- 1 ,4-trihydroxy-3-(2-naphyl)methoxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate, Sodium (IR, 4S, 5/?)-l ,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(naphth-2-yl)mcthoxy-2-(naphth-2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate,

Sodium (IR, 4S, 5/?)-l ,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(thicn-2-yl)mcthoxy-2-(bcnzo[b]thiophcn-2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l -carboxylate, or its enantiomers or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates.

Synthesis of compounds of formula I Synthesis of compounds of formula Ia

Another aspect of the invention relates to a procedure of obtaining compounds of formula Ia, that comprises the ring opening of lactones of formula III in acidic medium,

III wherein, W, P 1 , P 1 and R la are as defined above.

The new compounds of formula III are useful intermediates for the synthesis of compounds of formula Ia. Thus, the compounds of formula TTT arc also a further aspect of the invention. Accordingly, a further aspect of the invention relates to the preparation of compounds of formula TTT, comprising the C-alkylation of a compound of formula TT,

wherein W, P 1 and P J are as defined above.

The skilled person can choose different alkylation conditions. For example, in March, J. "Advanced Organic Chemistry; Reactions Mechanism and Structure", Wiley- Interscience, fourth ed. p. 464-473 different alkylation conditions are described. Ac- cording to a particular embodiment, the alkylation is carried out in the presence of a base and of a compound R L, wherein L is a leaving group. The base is preferably selected from an anion of a dialkyl amine (amidure), such as lithium diisopropylamide, lithium hexamethyldisilazide, sodium hexamethyldisilazide or potassium hexamethyld- isilazidc. According to a particular embodiment, the leaving group is selected from io- dide, bromide, chloride, tosylate, triflate or mesylate.

Compounds of formula TI wherein W is =0 can be obtained by a procedure described in the article: Sanchez-Sixto, C; Prazeres, V. F. V.; Castedo, L.; Lamb, H.; Hawkins, A. R.; Gonzalez-Bello, C. ./. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4871; and Hanessian, S.; Pan, J.; Car- nell, A.; Bouchard, H.; Lesage, L. Total Synthesis of (-)-Reserpine Using the Chiron Approach J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 465, which arc hereby entirely included by reference.

Either of the compounds of formula II, of formula III, or of formula Ia, obtained by the process described above, and wherein W is =0, can be transformed into further compounds of formula II, of formula III, or of formula Ia, respectively, wherein W is =S or =NR by methods known in the art. For example, a compound wherein W is =0 can be transformed into a compound wherein W is =S, by reaction with Lawesson's reagent (other commonly known methods are described in books, such as in March, J. "Advanced Organic Chemistry; Reactions Mechanism and Structure", Wiley-Interscience, fourth ed. p. 893-895). A compound wherein W is =0 can be transformed into a com- pound wherein W is =NR b , for example, by reaction with an amine of formula H2NR b and removal of water (other commonly known methods are described in books, such as in March, J. "Advanced Organic Chemistry; Reactions Mechanism and Structure", Wilcy-Tntcrscicncc, fourth cd. p. 896-898). According to a particular embodiment, R 1 is an allyl chain. According to a further par- ticular embodiment, R 1 is an allyl chain in a compound of formula TTI, which is preferably obtained by bromation of a compound of formula II, followed by an allylation reaction with a commercially available allyl tin derivative, in the presence of a catalytic amount of a radical initiator. Examples of conditions for these reactions can be found in "Bridgehead radicals in organic chemistry. An efficient construction of the ABDE ring system of the lycoctonine alkaloids", Kraiis, G. A.; Andersh, B.; Su, Q.; Shi, J. Tetrahedron Letters (1993), 34(11), 1741-4; or in "Stereoselective Reactions of a (-)-Quinic Acid-Derived Enone: Application to the Synthesis of the Core of Scyphostatin", Murray, L. M.; O'Brien, P.; Taylor, R. J. K Organic Letters (2003), 5(11), 1943-1946. According to this embodiment, bromation is preferably carried out with a brominating agent selected from the group consisting of bromine, Λ L bromosuccinimide, trimethyl- phcnylammonium tribromidc, pyridinium bromidc-pcrbromidc, pyrrolidonc hydrotri- bromide and bromine-dioxane complex. The radical initiator is preferably selected from the group consisting of tert-butyl hydroperoxide, tert-butyl pcrbcnzoatc, di(tert- butyl)peroxide, perbenzoic acid, peroxyacetic acid, 9-BBN, ZnCIi, SmIa, Et3B, 2,2'- azobisisobutyronitrile or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylρropionamidine) dihydrochloride. According to a particular embodiment, the allyl tin derivative is selected from the group con- sisting of allyltributylstannanc, tributyl(2-mcthylallyl)stannanc, tributyl(2- phenylallyl)stannane, and tributyl(2-butylallyl)stannane.

The scope of the present invention also includes other transformations, usually functional group transformations, which transform a compound of a given formula into a different compound of the same formula. All such transformations are within the scope of the present invention.

For example, a compound of formula III wherein R a is an alkenyl group, may be transformed into compound of formula I wherein R 1 is an alkyl group, by first opening a lactone of formula III in acidic medium and then performing a catalytic hydrogeno lysis over the resulting compound of formula I. Alternatively, the order of the reactions can be reversed by first performing the catalytic hydrogenolysis over a compound of formula III wherein R la is alkenyl, and then opening the lactone ring, to obtain a compound of formula I wherein R 1 is an alkyl group.

Catalytic hydrogenolysis can be carried out following known procedures (March, J. "Advanced Organic Chemistry; Reactions Mechanism and Structure", Wiley- Intcrscicncc, fourth cd. p. 750 and 771 -780), e.g. in the presence of catalyst such as palladium on carbon, palladium hydroxide, Raney Nickel, platinum, ruthenium, platinium oxide or zinc oxide. Also, m a compound of formula Ia or III the stereochemistry of the carbon atom supporting the R 1 or R ld , respectively (position 2), can be inverted by treatment with a base (for example, see Carey, F A , Sundberg, R J "Advanced Organic Chemistry Part B Reaction and Synthesis", second ed P 1-41) For example, when R or R a is allyl, R configuration at position 2 is the mayor product when allylating a compound of formula II The present rn\ ention also provides an epimeπzation reaction to obtain compounds with S configuration at position 2 This epimerrzation reaction can be preferably carried out by treatment of compounds of formula III with a base, preferably selected from the group consisting of lithium dπsopropylamidc, lithium hcxamcthyldisilazidc, sodium hexamethyldisilazide and potassium hexamethyldisilazide Synthesis of compounds of formula Tb

A further aspect of the invention relates to a procedure of obtaining compounds of formula Ib, that comprises the ring opening of lactones of formula IV in acidic or basic medium,

wherein, P 1 , R 1 and R 2 arc as defined

The new compounds of formula IV are useful intermediates for the synthesis of compounds of formula Ib Thus, the compounds of formula IV are also a further aspect of the invention Accordingly, a further aspect of the invention relates to the preparation of compounds of formula IV, comprising a) an O , S or /V-alkylation reaction of compounds of formula III or of formula II, or b) a dialkylation reaction of compounds of formula II According to a particular embodiment, the O S or JV-alkylation reaction can be carried out by generation of the enol-type intermediate of a ketone thioketone or imme of a compound of formula III in the presence of a base followed by treatment with compounds of formula R * L wherein L is a leaving group The base is preferably selected from lithium dπsopropylamidc, lithium hexamethyldisilazide, sodium hcxamcthyldisi- lazide or potassium hexamethyldisilazide and the leaving group is preferably selected from iodide, bromide, chloride, tosylate, tπflate or mesylate

According to a particular embodiment, the dialkylation reaction can be carried out by generation of the enol intermediate of a ketone, thioketone or mine of a compound of formula III in the presence of a base followed by treatment with compounds of formula R L wherein L is a leaving group The base is an amine preferably selected from lithium dusopropylamide, lithium hexamethyldisilazide, sodium hexamethyldisilazide or potassium hexamethyldisilazide and the leaving group is preferably selected from iodide, bromide, chloride, tosylate, tπflatc or mesylate The O- S- or Λ τ -alkylation reaction is favored by earring out the reaction in polar aprotic solvents such as DMF, HMPA, etc Tn addition, higher O-, S- or /V-alkylation ratio is obtained by using alkylating agents containing hard leaving groups, particularly oxy- gen-contammg leaving groups, such as tosylate, mesylate or tπflate or soft hahdes such as chloride or bromide On the contrary, the C-alkylation ratio is favored by using apolar or protic solvents such as Et 2 θ, THF, dioxane, t-BuOH, and by employing alkylating agents containing soft leaving groups such as iodide The O-, S- or Υ-alkylation reaction is favored by using bromide as leaving group and N,N-dimethylformamide as reaction solvent The C- alkyldtion reaction is favored by using iodide as leaving group, tetrahydrofuran as reac- tion solvent and in the presence of a suitable crown ether

The skilled person can choose between O-, S- or iV-αlkylation and C-alkylation as mayor products through routine experimentation by introducing variations in the above mentioned factors (see pages 365-368 and 464-465 of March, J '"Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions Mechanism and Structure", Wiley-Interscience, fourth ed ) Also, the reaction may provide a mixture of the O-, S- or N -alkylated product and the dialky- lated product, which can be separated using standard purification techniques

Synthesis of compounds of formula Tc

A further aspect of the invention relates to a procedure of obtaining compounds of for- mula Tc, that comprises the ring opening of lactones of formula V in acidic or basic medium,

wherein, P 1 , P 3 , R and Z are as defined above.

The new compounds of formula V are useful intermediates for the synthesis of com- pounds of formula Ic. Thus, the compounds of formula V are also a further aspect of the invention. Accordingly, a further aspect of the invention relates to a process for the preparation of compounds of formula V, comprising the ozonolysis of a compound of formula III, wherein R is a substituted or unsubstituted allyl group, and intramolecular cyclization, in the presence of amines, phosphites or Lawcsson reagent. Conditions un- der which these type of reactions can be performed, may be found, for example in "COMPREHENSIVE HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY II, A review of the literature 1982-1995, The Structure, Reactions, Synthesis, and Uses of Heterocyclic Compounds", Editors-in-chief Alan R. Katritzky, FRS Charles W. Rccs, CBE, FRS F. V. Scriven, Volume Editor Clive W. Bird, Volume 2, "Five-membered Rings with One Hctcroatom and Fused Carbocyclic Derivatives", PERGAMON. For example, Chapter 2.03 - Pyrroles and their Benzo Derivatives: Synthesis, R.J. Sundberg, University of Virginia, Charlotlesville, VA, USA, pp. 119-206, describes conditions for the synthesis of compounds of formula V wherein Z is NR or ~ 'NR R c . For example, Chapter 2.07 - Furans and their Benzo Derivates: Synthesis, W. Friedrichsen, Universitat Kiel, Ger- many. pp. 351-394, describes conditions for the synthesis of compounds of formula V wherein Z is O. For example, Chapter 2.11 - Thiophenes and their Benzo Derivates: Synthesis, J. Nakayama, Saitama University, Japan, pp. 607-678, describes conditions for the synthesis of compounds of formula V wherein Z is S. According to a particular embodiment, the process comprises the ozonolysis of a com- pound of formula IHa

HIa wherein, P 1 , P 3 and R are as defined above.

Prior to or once the cycle is formed, the resulting compound of formula Ic may undergo further transformations. Thus, if the group R is hydrogen in the compound of formula HIa, the resulting compound of formula Ic can be further functionalized. Also, if R is different from hydrogen, said R group may be transformed.

For example, the compound of formula Ic may be optionally halogenated, and then submitted to a carbon-carbon cross-coupling reaction in order to introduce the R group. This cross-coupling reaction is typically performed in the presence of a metal catalyst, a cross-coupling reagent and a base. Preferably, the metal catalyst is selected from the group consisting of Pd(PPh,) 4 , Pd(PPb) 2 Cl 2 , Pd(OAc) 2 , Pd(dppf) 2 Cl 2 « CH 2 Cl 2 , Pd 2 (dba)<, PdCl 2 , Ni(PPh, ) 4 and Pd 2 (dba),»CHCU. According to a particular embodiment, the base is selected from the group consisting of KO'Bu, NaOAc, NaO'Bu, Ba(OH) 2 , Λ'-methylmorpholine, piperidine, ( 1 Pr) 2 EtN, Na 2 CO 5 , K 2 CO 5 , Cs 2 CO 5 , K 5 PO 4 , Et 3 N and mixtures thereof. According to a particular embodiment, said cross-coupling reagent is a boronic acid or an stannanc.

Preferably, the carbon-carbon cross-coupling reaction is selected from the group consisting of Suzuki-type reaction, a Heck-type reaction, a Sonogashira-type reaction, a Negishi-type reaction or a Stille-type reaction. For the purposes of the present invention it is understood that a Suzuki-type reaction is the cross-coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladium(O) complex between a halide or a triflate and an boronic acid or its corresponding ester, or a potassium trifluoroborate. The palladium catalysts usually employed are Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , Pd(PPh 3 ) 2 Cl 2 , Pd(OAc) 2 , Pd 2 (dba) 5 o Pd 2 (dba) 5 *CHCl 5 , optionally in the presence of phosphines or arsines, typically selected from PPh 3 , P r Bu 3 , PCy 3 or AsPh 3 . The base is usually selected from KO 1 Bu, NaO'Bu, NaOAc, Ba(OH) 2 , Na 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , Cs 2 CO 3 , K 3 PO 4 , Et 3 N, N- methylmorpholine or mixtures of them. This type of reactions are known to the skilled person, who can choose between a wide range of conditions (e.g., '"Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions", 2nd Ed., Armin dc Mcijcrc &Francois Dicdcrich, Wilcy- VCH, pp 1-31 and pp 41-109) For the purposes of the present invention it is understood that a Hcck-typc reaction is the reaction between an halide or a triflate with an alkene catalyzed by palladium(O). The palladium catalysts usually employed arc Pd(OAc) 2 , PdCl 2 , Pd(PPIh) 4 o Pd 2 (dba) 5 optionally in the presence of phosphines or arsines, typically selected between PPh 3 , P 1 Bu., PCy, or AsPh,. The base is usually selected from Na 2 CCh, K 2 CCh, NaOAc, N- methylmorpholine, K 3 PO 4 , Et 3 N or mixtures of them. Examples of suitable Heck-type reaction conditions may be found, for example, in "Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling re- actions", 2nd Ed., Armin de Meijere &Francois Diederich, Wiley-VCH, pp 1-31 and pp 217-296).

For the purposes of the present invention it is understood that a Stille-type reaction is the cross-coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladium(O) complex between an halide or a triflatc and an organotin compound. The palladium catalysts usually employed arc Pd(dppf) 2 Ci2'CH 2 Cl2, PdCl 2 , Pd(OAc) 2 , Pd 2 (dba), or Pd(PPh,) 4 , optionally in the presence of phosphines or arsines, typically selected between PPh,, P 1 Bu,, PCy, or AsPh, and in the presence of salts, such as LiCl, CsF, CuCl or CuI. Examples of suitable Heck-type reaction conditions may be found, for example, in "Metal-catalyzed cross- coupling reactions", 2nd Ed., Armin de Meijere &Francois Diederich, Wiley-VCH, pp 1 -31 and pp 125-155.

For the purposes of the present invention it is understood that a Sonogashira-type reaction is the cross-coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladium(O) complex and cocatalyzed by Cu(I) between an halide or a triflate and a terminal alkyne. The typical catalysts are Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , PdCl 2 , Pd(OAc) 2 or Pd(PPh,) 2 Cl 2 optionally in the presence of phosphines or arsines, typically selected between PPh,, P 1 Bu?, PCy, or AsPh,. The base is usually selected from Na 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , Cs 2 CO 3 , Et 3 N, ( 1 Pr) 2 EtN or mixtures of them. Examples of suitable Heck-type reaction conditions may be found, for example, in "Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions", 2nd Ed., Armin de Meijere &Francois Diederich, Wiley- VCH, pp 1-31 and pp 317-386.

For the purposes of the present invention it is understood that a Negishi-type reaction is the cross-coupling catalyzed by a palladium(O) or nickel(O) complex between an halide or a triflatc and an organozinc compound. The typical catalysts arc Ni(PPh 5) 4 , Pd(dppf) 2 Cl 2 'CH 2 Cl 2 , Pd(PPh,) 2 Cl 2 or P d 2 (dba) 3 optionally in the presence of phosphines or arsines, typically selected between PPh 3 , P 1 Bu 3 or PCy 3 . Examples of suitable Heck-type reaction conditions may be found, for example, in "Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions", 2nd Ed., Armin de Meijere &Franc,ois Diederich, Wiley- VCH, pp 1-31 and pp 815-882.

According to particular embodiment, the halogenation comprises a iodation with N- Iodosuccinimide, followed by Suzuki-typecoupling between a boronic acid or its corre- sponding ester, for example, phenylboronic acid, (-E)-prop-l-enylboronic acid, (E)-2- (cyclopropyl)vinyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolane, in the presence of a palladium catalysts, for example, Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , Pd 2 (dba) 3 'CHCl 3 or Pd 2 (dba) 3 . In summary, compounds of formula I can be obtained by opening of lactones of formula TTT, TV or V. This opening reaction can be carried out cither in acidic medium, for cx- ample, in the presence of an organic acid, such as trifluoroacetic acid, p-toluensulfonic acid, camphorsulfonic acid, acetic acid, acidic ion-cxchangc resin; a Lewis acid or mixtures thereof. The reaction can also be carried our in basic medium, for example, in the presence of an inorganic base, such as K 2 CO^, Na 2 CO 3 , LiOH, NaOH, or KOH; an organic base, such as a primary amine, a secondary amine, MeONa or EtONa. Also, any of the compounds of formula I, Ia, Ib, Ie, II I, IHa, IV or V may undergo protection-deprotection reactions using well-known procedures (Greene, T. W.; Wuts, P. G. M. '"Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 3° Ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999). For example, if P 1 , P 2 and/or P 3 is/are a TBS group, the deprotection will be preferably carried out by treatment with tetrabutylamonium fluoride. IfP 1 , P 2 and/or P J is/are a benzyl group, the deprotection will be preferably performed by catalytic hy- drogeno lysis. If P , P and/or P " is/are an acetyl group, the deprotection will be preferably carried out by treatment with K 2 CO 3 in combination with methanol. If P 1 , P 2 and/or P is/are methoxyethoxymethyl ether (MEM), the deprotection will be preferably preformed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. Biological Activity

The compounds of formula I are potent competitive inhibitors of type II dehydroqui- nases from various bacterial sources. This enzyme acts in an essential biosynthetic route in bacteria, the shikimic acid pathway. These compounds have, in many cases, inhibition constants in the low nanomolar range and to even picomolar, which makes them, the most potent known inhibitors against any dchydroquinasc.

Thus a further aspect of the invention is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula I as defined above and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. A further aspect of the invention is a compound of formula I as defined above for use as a medicament

A further aspect of the invention is the use of a compound of formula I for the preparation of a medicament to treat tuberculosis, stomach cancer, gastritis, stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers, or heartburn That is, a compound of formula I for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of a disease selected from the group consisting of tuberculosis, stomach cancer, gastritis, stomach ulcers, and duodenal ulcers heartburn

Examples of pharmaceutical compositions include any solid (tablets, pills, capsules, granules etc ) or liquid (solutions, suspensions or emulsions) compositions Typical ad- ministration routes are oral, topical or parenteral administration In a particular embodiment the pharmaceutical compositions arc in oral form Suitable dose forms for oral administration may be tablets and capsules and may contain conventional excipients known m the art such as binding agents, for example syrup, acacia, gelatin, sorbitol, tragacanth, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, fillers, for example lactose, sugar, maize starch, calcmm phosphate, sorbitol or glycine, tablctting lubricants, for example magnesium stearate, disintegrants, for example starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium starch glycol- late or micro crystalline cellulose, or pharmaceutically acceptable wetting agents such as sodium lauryl sulfate Suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sci- ences" by E W Martin

The solid oral compositions may be prepared by conventional methods of blending, filling or tabletting Repeated blending operations may be used to distribute the active agent throughout those compositions employing large quantities of fillers Such operations are conventional in the art The tablets may for example be prepared by wet or dry granulation and optionally coated according to methods well known m normal pharmaceutical practice, in particular with an enteric coating

The pharmaceutical compositions may also be adapted for parenteral administration, such as sterile solutions, suspensions or lyophilizcd products in the appropriate unit dosage form Adequate excipients can be used, such as bulking agents, buffering agents or surfactants The mentioned formulations will be prepared using standard methods such as those described or referred to in the Spanish and US Pharmacopoeias and similar reference texts.

Administration of the compounds or compositions of the present invention may be by any suitable method, such as intravenous infusion, oral preparations, and intraperitoneal and intravenous administration. Oral administration is preferred because of the convenience for the patient and the chronic character of many of the diseases to be treated. Generally an effective administered amount of a compound of the invention will depend on the relative efficacy of the compound chosen, the severity of the disorder being treated and the weight of the sufferer. However, active compounds will typically be administered once or more times a day for example 1 , 2, 3 or 4 times daily, with typical total daily doses in the range of from 0.1 to 1000 mg/kg/day.

The compounds and compositions of this invention may be used with other drugs to provide a combination therapy. The other drugs may form part of the same composition, or be provided as a separate composition for administration at the same time or at different time. EXAMPLES

The Examples, which are detailed next, will have to be considered to better understanding of the present invention, which should not be interpreted as a limitation. Example 1: (IS, 2 R, 4S, 5R)-2-bromo-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethyhilyloxy)-3- oxocyclohexan-l,5-carbolactone (VI). A solution of (IS, 4S, 5Rj-lA-di(tert- butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohexan-l,5-carbolactone (300 mg, 0.75 mmol), under inert atmosphere and at room temperature, in dry diethyl ether (20 mL) was treated with freshly made dioxane dibromide (223 mg, 0.90 mmol). The red reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature until decoloration (1.5 h), diluted with diethyl ether and washed successively with aqueous sodium bisulfate (sat.), sodium bicarbonate (sat.) and water. The organic extract was dried with Na 2 SO 4 (anh.), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford α-bromo ketone VI as a white solid (356 mg, 99%). Mp: 97-100 0 C. [a]™ -116.1° (cl .2, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 4.65 (dd, IH, J = 4.8 and 3.0 Hz), 4.27 (dd, IH, J = 2.1 and 0.9 Hz), 4.09 (br d, IH, J = 3.0 Hz), 3.22 (d, I H, J = 9.6 Hz), 2.44 (dddd, I H, J = 9.6, 4.8, 2.1 and 0.9 Hz), 0.94 (s, 9H), 0.90 (s, 9H), 0.23 (s, 3H), 0.18 (s, 3H), 0.15 (s, 3H) and 0.13 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 198.9 (C), 172.1 (C), 76.1 (C), 74.2 (CH), 71.3 (CH), 53.3 (CH), 33.6 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (C(CH,)?), 25.5 (C(CH,),), 1 8.4 (C(CH,),), 1 8.0 (C(CH,),), -3.2 (SiCH,), -3.3 (SiCH 3 ), -5.1 (SiCH 3 ) and -5.4 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 1803 (C=O) and 1731 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 479 and 481 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 19 H 16 OsBr 81 Si 2 (MH + ): 481.1264; found, 481.1275.

The starting material of Example 1 (IS, 4S, 5Λ)-l,4-di(?er?-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3- oxocyc Io hexan-l,5-carbo lactone was obtained from ([S, 3R, AR, 5Λ)-3-benciloxy-l,4- dihydroxycyclohexan-l,5-carbo lactone following the three steps shown below: Step 1 : (15, 3R, AR, 5Λ)-3-benciloxy-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)cyclohexa n-l,5- carbolactone. To a stirred solution of (\S, 3R, AR, 5Λ)-3-benciloxy-l,4- dihydroxicyclohexan-l,5-carbolactone (1.00 g, 3.79 mmol), obtained according to Hanessian, S.; Pan, J.; Carnell, A.; Bouchard, H.; Lesage, L. Total Synthesis of (-)- Reserpine Using the Chiron Approach J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 465, in dry DCM (13 ml) and pyridine (1.1 mL, 13.27 mmol), under inert atmosphere at 0 0 C, was added tert- butyldimethylsilyl trifluorosulfonate (2.6 ml, 11.37 mmol). The resultant solution was stirred at room temperature for 12 h and then diluted with DCM and water. The aqueous layer was acidified with HCl (10%) and the organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted twice with DCM. All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO^, filtered and evaporated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with 10% ethyl acetate-hexanes to yield (IS, 3R, AR, 5R)-3- bcnciloxy-l ,4-di(tcrt-butyldimcthylsilyloxy)cyclohcxan-l ,5-carbolactonc (1.81 g, 97%) as a colourless oil. [αf' D -14° (cl .4, in CHCl 3 ); 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.31 (m, 5H), 4.45 (t, IH, J 5.6), 4.42 (s, 2H), 4.11 (t, IH, J 4.6), 3.42 (ddd, IH, J 11.7, 6.2 and 4.1 ), 2.43 (d, I H, ./ 1 1.4), 2.13-1.98 (m, 2H), 1.76 (t, I H, J 1 1.9), 0.70 (s, 9H), 0.69 (s, 9H), -0.07 (s, 3H), -0.09 (s, 3H), -0.15 (s, 3H) and -0.16 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 176.3, 137.8, 128.3 (2x), 127.7, 127.6 (2x), 75.9, 74.1, 73.7, 71.1, 65.7, 38.1, 37.5, 25.7 (3x), 25.6 (3x), 18.1, 18.0, -2.9 (2x), -4.5 and -5.0 ppm. Step 2: (15, 3R, AR, 5/?)-l ,4-di(tert-butyldimcthylsilyloxy)-3-hydroxycyclohcxan-l ,5- carbolactone.cursiva A suspension of ([S, 3R, AR, 5i?)-3-benciloxy-l,4-di(/ert- butyldimethylsilyloxy)cyclohexan-l,5-carbolactone (270 mg, 0.55 mmol) and 20% palladium hydroxide-on-carbon (50 mg) in methanol (15 ml) was shaken under hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 48 h. The mixture was filtered over Celite and the residue was washed with methanol. The filtrate and washings were evaporated under reduced pressure to yield a white solid which was purified by flash chromatography eluting with 10% ethyl acetate-hexanes to yield (15, 3R, AR, 5R)-l,4-di(tert- butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-hydroxycyclohexan-l,5-carbo lactone (218 mg, 99%) as white needless. Mp 107-108 0 C; [α] 20 D -1° (cl.l, in CHCl 3 ); 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 4.49 (t, IH, J 5.5), 3.95 (t, IH, J 4.8), 3.75-3.61 (m, IH), 2.24 (d, IH, / 11.4), 2.08 (m, 2H), 1.87 (d, IH, / 11.6), 1.53 (t, IH, / 12.6), 0.73 (s, 9H), 0.67 (s, 9H), -0.06 (s, 3H), -0.08 (s, 3H), -0.10 (s, 3H) and -0.11 (s, 3H) ppm; 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 175.9, 75.6, 73.6, 67.0, 66.1 , 41.4, 37.8, 25.7 (3x), 25.5 (3x), 18.0 (2x), -2.9 (2x), -4.6 and -4.9 ppm.

Step 3: (λS, AS, 5/?)-l ,4-di(tøt-butyldimcthylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohcxan-l ,5- carbolactone. To a stirred suspension of (IS, 3R, 4R, 5R)-l,A-di(tert- butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-hydroxycyclohexan-l,5-carbo lactone (1.24 g, 3.09 mmol) and activated powder molecular sieves 4A (1.24 g) in dry DCM (31 ml) was added pyridin- ium dichromate (1.40 g, 3.71 mmol) The resultant suspension was stirred vigorously at room temperature. After 3 h more activated powder molecular sieves 4A (750 mg) were added and the resultant suspension was stirred for additional 2 h. The reaction mixture was filtered over a plug of Celite and silica gel and the residue was washed with diethyl ether. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated under reduced pressure. The brown solid obtained was redisolved in hot hexane and treated with activated carbon. The black suspension was filtered over Celite and the residue was washed with hot hex- anc. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and rccrystalliscd to afford (\S, AS, 5Λ)-l,4-di(fc;'£-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohexan-l, 5-carbolactone (1.17 g, 95%) as white needless. Mp 50-51 0 C (hexanes); [α] 20 D -24° (cl.l, in CHCl 3 ); 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) 5 4.51 (dd, IH, /5.9 and 4.1), 3.81 (br d, IH, /4.1), 2.74 (d, IH, / 17.6), 2.60 (ddd, IH, / 17.6, 2.7 and 0.9), 2.50 (d, IH, / 12.3), 2.44-2.35 (ddd, IH, / 12.3, 5.9 and 0.9), 0.67 (s, 9H), 0.66 (s, 9H), -0.04 (s, 3H), -0.09 (s, 3H), -0.1 l(s, 3H), and -0.15 (s, 3H) ppm; 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCh) δ 203.2, 175.2, 74.1, 73.1, 71.0, 50.9, 37.0, 25.5 (3x), 25.5 (3x), 18.0, 17.9, -3.1, -3.4, -4.9 and -5.3 ppm. Example 2: (IR, 2R, 4S, 5R)-2-allyl-l,4-di(tert-hutyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohex an- 1,5-carbolactone (IH-I). A solution of the α-bromo ketone VI (285 mg, 0.60 mmol) in dry toluene (17 rriL), under inert atmosphere, was treated allyltributyltin (0.26 rriL, 0.84 mmol) and AIBN (15 mg, 0.09 mmol). The resultant reaction mixture was deoxygen- ated by bubbling argon through it for 30 min. and then heated at 80 0 C for 14 h. After cooling at room temperature, the solvent was evaporated and the crude product was purified by flash chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate-hexane (5:95) to yield the α- allyl ketone IH-I (265 mg, 99%) as beige solid. Mp: 91-94 0 C. [αg 1 -24.2° (cl .l, en CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 5.75 (m, IH), 5.05 (m, 2H), 4.59 (dd, IH, J = 6.3 and 4.3 Hz), 3.92 (d, IH, J = 4.3 Hz), 2.89 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 2.78 (m, IH), 2.61 (m, IH), 2.48 (m, IH), 2.35 (m, IH), 0.91 (s, 9H), 0.88 (s, 9H), 0.20 (s, 3H), 0.13 (s, 3H), 0.12 (s, 3H) and 0.09 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 204.3 (C), 175.8 (C), 134.4 (CH), 117.4 (CH 2 ), 75.5 (C), 74.1 (CH), 71.5 (CH), 59.1 (CH), 32.2 (CH 2 ), 31.9 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (C(CH.).), 25.5 (C(CH 5 )O- 18.3 (C(CH,),), 18.0 (C(CH,),), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ), -3.3 (SiCH 3 ), -4.8 (SiCH 3 ) and -5.4 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1797 (C=O) and 1733 (C=O) cm 4 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 441 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 22 H 4 I O 5 Si 2 (MH + ): 441.2493; found, 441.2494. Anal, calcd for C 22 H 40 O 5 Si 2 .H 2 O: C, 57.60; H, 9.23. Found: C, 57.80; H, 9.17.

Example 3: (2R)-2-aUyl-3-dehydroquinie acid [(2R)-Ia-I]. A solution of the silyl ether III-l (250 mg, 0.57 mmol) in aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (5.7 mL, 50%) was heated at 90 0 C for 3 h. After cooling at room temperature, the solvents were removed under reduced pressure. The crude residue was dissolved in water and washed with ethyl acetate (2x). The aqueous phase was lypholiscd and the crude product was purified by HPLC using a semipreparative column Merck LiChroCART RP- 18 (10 μm, 250x10 mm) with a gradient 0—50% B (35 min) at a flow rate of 5 ml min " . The eluents for this column were: (A) water with 0.1% TFA and (B) acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA. Allyl derivative (2Zf)-Ia-I (60 mg, 46%) was obtained as a white solid. Mp: 144-148 0 C. [ α β 0 -30.3° (cl .0, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, D 2 O) δ 5.82 (m, IH), 5.10 (ddd, IH, J = 17.2, 3.2 and 1.6 Hz), 5.03 (ddd, IH, J = 10.0, 3.2 and 1.2 Hz), 4.40 (dd, IH, J = 9.6 and 1.2 Hz), 3.89 (ddd, IH, ./ = 11.2, 9.6 and 5.2 Hz), 3.28 (ddd, IH, ./ = 8.4, 4.8 and 1.2 Hz), 2.62 (m, IH), 2.41 (dd, IH, J = 11.2 and 13.6 Hz), 2.34 (dd, IH, J = 13.6 and 5.2 Hz) and 1.98 (m, IH) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 211.0 (C), 179.5 (C), 138.8 (CH), 119.4 (CH 2 ), 83.9 (CH), 80.1 (C), 74.7 (CH), 56.3 (CH), 43.7 (CH 2 ) and 30.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3449 (O-H), 3302 (O-H) and 1733 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (EST) m/z (%) 253 (MNa 1 ). HRMS calcd for Ci 0 H 14 O 6 Na (MNa + ): 253.0683; found, 253.0689. Example 4: (2R)-2-propyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2R)-la-2]. A suspension of the allyl derivative (2,R)-Ia-I (15.4 mg, 0.067 mmol) and 10% palladium-on-carbon (2 mg) in methanol (0.7 mL) was stirred under hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 3 h. 5 The mixture was filtered over Celite and the residue was washed with methanol. The filtrate and washings were evaporated, redissolved in water and lypholised to yield propyl derivative (2Λ)-Ia-2 (15.5 mg, 99%) as a light yellow solid. [ a f° -29.0° (cl .7, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) 5 4.31 (d, IH, J = 9.3 Hz), 3.80 (m, IH), 3.06 (d, IH, J = 9.0 Hz), 2.37 (d, IH, J = 13.5 Hz), 2.24 (m, IH), 1.80 (m, IH), 1.39-0.88 (m, 3H)

10 and 0.80 (t, 3H, J = 7.3 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 209.5 (C), 177.8 (C), 81.6 (CH), 78.8 (C), 72.6 (CH), 54.3 (CH), 41.2 (CH 2 ), 26.0 (CH 2 ), 21.2 (CH 2 ) and 13.8 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 343 1 (O-H) and 1726 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 255 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 0 H 16 O 6 Na (MH + ): 255.0839; found, 255.0848. Example 5 (cpimcrizationV (IR, 2S, 4S, 5R)-2-allyl-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethybilyloxy)-3-

15 oxocytlohexan-l,5-carbo1actone (1II-2). A stirred solution of the (2i?)-2-allyl ketone 111-1 (100 mg, 0.23 mmol) in dry THF (6.1 mL), under argon and at room temperature, was treated with a solution of LHMDS (345 μL, 0.35 mmol, 1.0 M in THF) and 12- crown-4 ether (4 μL, 0.023 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min and then diluted successively with diethyl ether and water. The organic layer was separated and

20 the aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (3x). AU the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO,)), filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate-hexanes (10:90) to yield (2S)-2-allyl ketone III-2 as a light yellow oil (75 mg, 74%). [ o f° -26.2° (cl.O, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl,) δ 5.92 (m, I H), 5.05 (dq, 1 H, J = 17.2 and 1 .6

25 Hz), 4.98 (m, I H), 4.58 (dd, I H, J = 6.4 and 4.0 Hz), 4.02 (br d, I H, J = 4.0 Hz), 2.91 (dd, IH, J = 8.4 and 3.6 Hz), 2.75 (d, IH, J = 12.0 Hz), 2.62 (ddd, IH, J = 12.0, 6.4 and 0.8 Hz), 2.53 (m, IH), 2.36 (m, IH), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.88 (s, 9H), 0.23 (s, 3H), 0.14 (s, 3H), 0.13 (s, 3H) and 0.09 (s, 3H) ppm. M C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 204.9 (C), 173.9 (C), 137.0 (CH), 1 15.8 (CH 2 ), 75.7 (C), 74.0 (CH), 72.4 (CH), 60.0 (CH), 38.0 (CH 2 ),

30 27.5 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (2X(C(CH 3 ) . ,), 18.1 (C(CHs) 3 ), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.3 (SiCH 3 ), -3.3 (SiCH,), -4.8 (SiCH.) and -5.2 (SiCH,) ppm. IR (film): 1803 (C=O) and 1730 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 441 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 22 H 4 ]O 5 Si 2 (MH " ): 441.2493; found, 441.2490.

Example 6: (2S)-2-allyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2S)-Ia-I]. The same experimental procedure was used as in the synthesis of acid (2Λ)-Ia-1 (Example 3), but using III-2 as 5 starting material (71 mg, 0.16 mmol). Yield = 25 mg (68%). Mp: 127-130 0 C. [α]™ +17.3° (cl.8, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, D 2 O) δ 5.67 (m, IH), 5.15 (td, IH, J = ill and 1.2 Hz), 5.09 (d, IH, J = 10.4 Hz), 4.40 (d, IH, J = 9.6 Hz), 3.90 (m, IH), 2.81 (m, IH) and 2.55-2.33 (m, 4H) ppm. 13 C NMR (100 MHz, D 2 O) δ 213.9 (C), 178.7 (C), 136.4 (CH), 120.8 (CH 2 ), 81.5 (CH), 79.4 (C), 74.0 (CH), 61.2 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ) and

10 36.1 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3442 (O-H), 3415 (O-H), 1724 (C=O) and 1714 (C=O) cm " '. MS (ESl) m/z (%) 253 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 0 Hi 4 O 6 Na (MNa + ). 253.0683; found, 253.0682.

General alkylation and hvdrohsis/deprotection method for Examples 7-16. A flame- dried round bottom flask was charged with (IS, 4S, 5i?,)-l,4-di(tert-

15 butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohexan-l,5-carbolactone (1 equivalent) and then dissolved in dry THF (0.04 M). The resultant solution was treated with 1.5 equivalents of LHMDS solution (1.0 M in THF) and 0.1 equivalents of 12-crown-4 ether. After being stirred for 20 min, a solution of the corresponding iodide (1.5 equivalents) in dry THF (0.6 M) was added. After 4 h, the reaction mixture was diluted successively with diethyl

20 ether and ammonium chloride (sat.). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted three times with diethyl ether. AU combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (10:90) to afford the corresponding compound of formula III as a mixture of diastereoisomers.

25 The obtained alkyl ketones 111 were dissolved in 50% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (0.1 M) and then were heated at 70 0 C for 2-3 h. After cooling at room temperature, the solvents were removed under reduced pressure. The crude residue was dissolved in water and washed with ethyl acetate (2x). The aqueous phase was lypholised and the crude product was purified by HPLC using a semipreparative column Merck LiChroCART

30 RP-18 (10 μm, 250x10 mm) with a gradient 0-50% B (35 min) at a flow rate of 5 ml min " '. The eluents for this column were: (A) water with 0.1% TFA and (B) acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA. (2/f)-Ia-(3-7) and (25)-Ia-(3-7) were obtained. The spectroscopic data of the synthesized compounds using this method is indicated above: Example 7: (2R)-2-benzy1-3-dehydroquinie acid [(2R)-IaSJ. Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 5%. White solid. Mp: 146-148 0 C. 1 H 5 NMR (400 M Hz, D 2 O) δ 7.39-7.24 (m, 5H), 4.34 (dd, I H, J = 9.6 and 1 .2 Hz), 3.90 (ddd, IH, ./ = 9.6, 11.6 and 5.2 Hz), 3.54 (ddd, IH, ./ = 8.8, 3.6 and 1.2 Hz), 3.21 (dd, IH, J = 14.4 and 8.8 Hz), 2.52 (dd, IH, J = 14.4 and 3.6 Hz), 2.43 (dd, IH, J = 14.0 and 11.6 Hz) and 2.34 (dd, IH, J = 14.0 and 5.2 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 208.4 (C), 177.1 (C), 140.2 (C), 129.6 (2xCH), 129.0 (2xCH), 127.0 (CH), 81.5 (CH),

10 78.2 (C), 72.4 (CH), 56.3 (CH), 41.3 (CH 2 ) and 29.7 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3435 (O-H) and 1728 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 303 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 14 H 16 O 6 Na (MH 1 ): 303.0839; found, 303.0838.

Example 8: (2S)-2-benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid άcido [(2S)-IaSJ. Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 20%. White solid. Mp: 131-134

15 0 C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.39 (m, 2H), 7.33 (m, IH), 7.25 (m, 2H), 4.61 (d, IH, J = 9.2 Hz), 3.93 (ddd, IH, J = 9.2, 11.6 and 5.2 Hz), 3.01 (m, 3H), 2.64 (dd, IH, J = 14.4 and 11.6 Hz) and 2.44 (dd, IH, J = 14.4 and 5.2 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 210.1 (C), 175.0 (C), 136.7 (C), 128.8 (2xCH), 128.6 (2xCH), 127.0 (CH), 78.4 (CH), 76.3 (C), 70.9 (CH), 60.2 (CH), 35.1 (CH 2 ) and 34.6 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3520

20 (O-H), 3475 (O-H), 3256 (O-H), 1719 (C=O) and 1706 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 303 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 14 H 16 O 6 Na (MH + ): 303.0839; found, 303.0836. Example 9: (2R)-2-(4-methyl)benzylS-dehydroquinic acid [(2R)-Ia-4J. Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 5%. White solid. Mp: 105- 108 0 C. [af° -47.0° (cl .6, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.16 (m, 4H), 4.29 (d,

25 IH, J = 9.6 Hz), 3.89 (m, IH), 3.47 (m, IH), 3.16 (dd, IH, J = 14.0 and 8.4 Hz), o ..48-2.32 (m, 3H) and 2.29 (s, 3H) ppm. 1 1 3X NMR (100 MHz, D 2 O) δ 210.7 (C), 179.4 (C), 139.5 (C), 139.4 (C), 132.0 (2xCH), 132.0 (2xCH), 83.9 (CH), 80.5 (C), 74.8 (CH), 58.7 (CH), 43.6 (CH 2 ), 31.7 (CH 2 ) and 23.0 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3433 (O-H) and 1726 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 317 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 5 Hi 8 O 6 Na 30 (MNa + ): 317.0996; found, 317.0993.

Example 10: (2S)-2-(4-methyl)benzylS-dehydroquinic acid [(2S)-Ia-4J. Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 23%. White solid. Mp: 134- 138 0 C. [o] " ° -23.2° (cl.O, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 8.0 Hz), 6.98 (d, 2H, J = 8.0 Hz), 4.34 (d, I H, J = 9.2 Hz), 3.80 (ddd, I H, J = 9.2, 14.4 and 5.2 Hz), 2.99 (ddd, IH, J = 11.2, 5.2 and 1.2 Hz), 2.86 (m, 2H), 2.45 (dd, IH, J =

14.4 and 1 1.6 Hz), 2.30 (ddd, IH, J = 1.2, 14.4 and 5.2 Hz) and 2.23 (s, 3H) ppm. n C 5 NMR (100 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 209.0 (C), 175.5 (C), 137.4 (C), 135.6 (C), 130.3 (2xCH),

129.6 (2xCH), 80.2 (CH), 77.6 (C), 73.1 (CH), 61.4 (CH), 37.1 (CH 2 ), 36.1 (CH 2 ) and 21.1 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3484 (0-H), 3438 (0-H), 3346 (0-H) and 1718 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 317 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 5 Hi 8 O 6 Na (MNa + ): 317.0996; found, 317.1004.

10 Example 11: (2R)-2-(4-methoxy)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2R)-IaS] . Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield — 4%. White solid. H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.16 (d, 2H, ./ = 8.8 Hz), 6.87 (d, 2H, ./ = 8.8 Hz), 4.26 (d, IH, ./ = 9.5 Hz), 3.84 (m, I H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.43 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.3 and 4.3 Hz), 3.10 (dd, I H, ./ =

14.5 and 8.5 Hz) and 2.45-2.19 (m, 3H) ppm. π C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 208.7 (C), 15 177.6 (C), 157.8 (C), 132.9 (C), 130.8 (2xCH), 1 14.5 (2xCH), 81.6 (CH), 78.5 (C), 72.6

(CH), 56.6 (CH), 55.9 (CH 3 ), 41.4 (CH 2 ) and 28.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3390 (O-H) and 1736 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 333 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd. for Ci 5 Hi 8 O 7 Na (MNa + ): 333.0945; found, 333.0946. Example 12: (2S)-2-(4-A4ethoxy)benzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2S)-IaS]. Experimental

20 procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 16%. White solid. Mp: 138- 143 0 C. [uγ; -36.2° (cl . l , in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.08 (d, 2H, J = 8.8 Hz), 6.87 (d, 2H, J = 8.8 Hz), 4.51 (d, I H, J = 9.3 Hz), 3.86 (ddd, I H, J = 14.5, 9.3 and 5.3 Hz), 3.74 (s, 3H), 2.88 (m, 3H), 2.55 (dd, IH, J = 14.5 and 11.3 Hz) and 2.37 (ddd, IH, J = 14.5, 5.3 and 1.5 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 210.8 (C), 175.6 (C),

25 158.3 (C), 130.4 (2xCH), 129.8 (C), 1 14.8 (2xCH), 79.1 (CH), 76.9 (C), 71.6 (CH), 61.0 (CH), 55.9 (CH 3 ), 35.7 (CH 2 ) and 34.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3367 (O-H), 1739 (C=O) and 1720 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 333 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 5 Hi 8 O 7 Na (MNa + ): 333.0945; found, 333.0934. Example 13: (2R)-2-peifluowbenzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2R)-Ia-O]. Experimental

30 procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 2%. White solid. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, D 2 O) δ 4.37 (d, IH, J = 9.6 Hz), 3.90 (ddd, IH, J = 11.6, 9.6 and 5.2 Hz), 3.64 (t, IH, J = 6.6 Hz), 3.22 (dd, IH, J = 14.8 and 7.2 Hz), 2.76 (dd, IH, J = 14.8 and 6.4 Hz), 2.38 (dd, IH, ./ = 11.6 and 13.6 Hz) and 2.31 (dd, IH, ./ = 13.6 and 5.6 Hz) ppm. n C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 207.9 (C), 177.0 (C), 147.8-135.9 (5xC, m), 112.6 (C, m), 81.3 (CH), 77.3 (C), 72.2 (CH), 53.1 (CH), 41.6 (CH 2 ) and 17.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. ' 9 F NMR (282 MHz, D 2 O) δ -140.3 (dd, 2F, J = 21.8 and 6.1 Hz), -155.9 (t, 2F, J = 21.8 Hz) and -160.1 (td, IF, ./ = 21.8 and 6.1 Hz) ppm. IR (KBr): 3435 (O-H) and 1730 (C=O) cm- 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 393 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 14 H 1 1 O 6 F 5 Na (MNa + ): 393.0368; found, 393.0366. Example 14: (2S)-2-perfluorobenzyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2S)-Ia-O]. Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 9%. White solid. Mp: 123- 125 0 C. [α]2,° -27.4° (tl .3, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, D 2 O) δ 4.64 (d, IH, J = 9.2 Hz), 3.96 (ddd, IH, J = 11.2, 9.2 and 5.2 Hz), 3.19 (dd, IH, J = 14.8 and 11.6 Hz), 3.09 (dd, 1 H, ./ = 14.8 and 4.4 Hz), 2.92 (ddd, 1 H, J = 1 1.6, 4.4 and 2.0 Hz), 2.58 (dd, 1 H, ./ = 14.4 and 11.2 Hz) and 2.47 (ddd, IH, J = 14.4, 5.2 and 2.0 Hz) ppm. n C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 210.3 (C), 175.4 (C), 147.6-135.8 (5xC, m), 110.8 (C, td, J = 2.8 and 18.5 Hz), 78.5 (CH), 76.7 (C), 71.2 (CH), 58.2 (CH), 35.6 (CH 2 ) and 22.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. 19 F NMR (282 MHz, D 2 O) δ -141.4 (dd, 2F, J = 21.7 and 6.2 Hz), -154.0 (t, 2F, J = 21.7 Hz) and -160.5 (td, IF, J = 21.7 and 6.2 Hz) ppm. IR (KBr): 3437 (O-H) and 1720 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 393 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 4 H n O 6 F 5 Na (MNa + ): 393.0368; found, 393.0360.

Example 15: (2R)-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2R)-Ia-J] . Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 5%. [u]J - 60.1 " {c\ .8, in CH,OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD, OD) δ 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.39 (d, I H, J = 5.3 Hz), 7.17 (dd, I H, J = 5.5 and 0.5 Hz), 7.13 (dd, IH, J = 8.3 and 1.8 Hz), 4.00 (d, IH, J = 9.3 Hz), 3.77 (ddd, IH, J = 11.0, 9.3 and 5.5 Hz), 3.37-3.24 (m, 2H), 2.44 (m, IH), 2.22 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 11.0 Hz) and 2.14 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 5.5 Hz) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CD,OD) δ 207.0 (C), 176.7 (C), 141.3 (C), 138.9 (C), 138.0 (C), 127.5 (CH), 127.0 (CH), 125.0 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 122.9 (CH), 82.9 (CH), 78.7 (C), 73.5 (CH), 57.9 (CH), 42.8 (CH 2 ) and 30.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3496 (O-H), 3421 (O-H) and 1736 (C=O) cm \ MS (ESI) m/z (%) 359 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd. for Ci 6 Hj 6 O 6 SNa (MNa 1 ): 359.0560; found, 359.0564. Example 16: (2S)-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-3-dehydroquinic acid [(2S)-Ia-7]. Experimental procedure using general alkylation method. Overall yield = 19%. White solid. Mp: 152-155 "C. [a] " " -37.6" (rl . l , in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.66 (d, I H, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.49 (s, 1 H), 7.41 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz), 7.17 (d, I H, J = 5.5 Hz), 7.02 (dd, IH, J = 8.3 and 1.3 Hz), 4.34 (d, IH, J = 9.0 Hz), 3.76 (ddd, IH, J = 14.5, 9.0 and 5.3 Hz), 2.96 (m, 3H), 2.43 (dd, I H, J = 14.5 and 1 1.5 Hz) and 2.25 (ddd, I H, J = 14.5, 5.3 and 1 .0 Hz) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 209.0 (C), 175.4 (C), 141.5 (C), 139.6 (C), 134.8 (C), 127.9 (CH), 126.2 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 124.5 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 80.2 (CH), 77.6 (C), 73.0 (CH), 61.6 (CH), 37.1 (CH 2 ) and 36.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3483 (O-H), 3431 (O-H), 3379 (O-H) and 1730 (C=O), 1711 and 1703 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 359 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd. for C 6 Hi 6 O 6 SNa (MNa + ): 359.0560; found, 359.0559.

Example 17: (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[bJthiophen-2-ylJmethoxy-l,4-di(tert- butyldimethylsilyloxy)cyclokex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (IV-I) and (IR, 4S, 5RJ-3- (benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)meth yl-l,4-dUtert- butyldimethyhilyloxy)cyclohex-2-en- 1 ,5-carbolactone (IV-2). A flame-dried round bottom flask was charged with (IR, 4S, JΛ)-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3- oxocyclohcxan-l ,5-carbolactonc (250 mg, 0.63 mmol) and then dissolved in dry DMF (17 mL). The resultant solution was treated with LHMDS (1.3 mL, 1.26 mmol, 1.0 M in THF) and was stirred at room temperature for 20 min. Then, a solution of 2- (bromomethyl)benzo[&]thiophene (215 mg, 0.95 mmol) in dry DMF (1.6 mL) was added. After 30 min., the reaction mixture was diluted succesively with diethyl ether and water. The organic phase was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted three times with diethyl ether. All combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO,)), " Fi 1— tered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (5:95) to afford O-alkyl derivative IV-I (63 mg, 18%) and dialkyl derivative IV-2 (128 mg, 29%), both as light yellow oils. Data for TV-I : [ a f° -103.3" (c2.1 , in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.86-7.79 (m, IH), 7.78-7.72 (m, IH), 7.35 (m, 2H), 7.25 (m, IH), 5.06 (s, IH), 5.01 (d, IH, ./ = 12.0 Hz), 4.95 (d, IH, ./ = 12.0 Hz), 4.49 (dd, IH, ./ = 5.5 and 3.5 Hz), 4.19 (d, IH, ./ = 3.5 Hz), 2.42 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz), 2.34 (ddd, IH, J = 10.8, 5.5 and 1.0 Hz), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.17 (s, 3H), 0.13 (s, 3H), 0.1 1 (s, 3H) and 0.10 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 176.1 (C), 153.2 (C), 140.3 (C), 139.1 (C), 138.9 (C), 124.5 (CH), 124.3 (CH), 123.6 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 122.4 (CH), 105.3 (CH), 75.3 (CH), 73.7 (C), 67.4 (CH), 65.2 (CH 2 ), 38.0 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CH,),), 25.6 (C(CH,)?), 18.1 5 (C(CH,),), 18.0 (C(CH,),), -3.1 (2xSiCH,), -4.4 (SiCH,) and -5.1 (SiCH,) ppm. TR (film): 1803 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 547 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 28 H 45 O 5 SSi 2 (MH + ): 547.2370; found, 547.2372.

Data for TV-2: [ a ] ' ° -148.6" (ri .0, in CHCL,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.82-7.67 (m, 3H), 7.61 (m, IH), 7.38-7.20 (m, 4H), 7.06 (s, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 5.07 (s, 2H), 4.60

10 (dd, IH, .1 = 5.5 and 3.3 Hz), 4.50 (d, IH, ./ = 3.3 Hz), 3.98 (d, IH, ./ = 15.5 Hz), 3.83 (d, IH, J = 15.5 Hz), 2.60 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz), 2.48 (dd, IH, J = 10.8 and 5.8 Hz), 0.99 (s, 9H), 0.80 (s, 9H), 0.24 (s, 3H), 0.22 (s, 3H), 0.20 (s, 3H) and 0.10 (s, 3H) ppm. 1 3 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.2 (C), 148.7 (C), 144.0 (C), 140.1 (C), 139.7 (C), 139.4 (C), 139.1 (C), 128.9 (2xC), 124.4 (CH), 124.2 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.6 (CH),

15 123.1 (CH), 122.8 (CH), 122.6 (CH), 122.3 (CH), 121.9 (CH), 121.2 (CH), 74.7 (C), 74.6 (CH), 68.5 (CH 2 ), 67.4 (CH), 37.5 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (CH 2 + C(CH,),), 25.5 (C(CH,),), 18.1 (C(CH,),), 18.0 (C(CH,),), -3.3 (SiCH,), -3.4 (SiCH,), -4.4 (SiCH,) and -4.5 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1799 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 693 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for C 37 H 49 O 5 S 2 Si 2 (MH " ): 693.2560; found, 693.2563.

20 Example 18: (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(henzo[h]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2 - en-l,5-tarbolactone (IV-3). To a stirred solution of silylether IV-I (42 mg, 0.077 mmol) in dry THF (1 .1 mL), under argon at 0 "C, was added tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.20 mL, 0.20 mmol, ca 1.0 M in THF). After 1 h, the ice-bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for another hour. The solvent was evaporated and the

25 obtained residue was dissolved in a mixture of ethyl acetate and water. The aqueous phase was acidified with dilute HCl and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). Al the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with (60:40) diethyl ether-

30 hcxancs to yield diol IV-3 (24 mg, 99%) as a colourless oil. [ a γ r ° -151 .2" (rl .1 , in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.77 (m, I H), 7.70 (m, I H), 7.32-7.21 (m, 3H), 5.13 (s, IH), 5.02 (br s, 2H), 4.57 (m, IH), 4.07 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz) and 2.27 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.2 (C), 155.3 (C), 141.6 (C), 140.8 (C), 140.8 (C), 125.7 (CH), 125.5 (CH), 124.8 (CH), 124.6 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 105.4 (CH), 77.0 (CH), 73.0 (C), 67.6 (CH), 66.3 (CH 2 ) and 38.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3390 (O-H) 5 and 1765 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 319 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 16 Hi 5 O 5 S (MH 1 ): 319.0635; found, 319.0634.

Example 19: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiυphen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4,5- trihydroxycyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (Ib-I). A solution of lactone IV-3 (28 mg, 0.088 mmol) in THF (0.8 mL) and aqueous NaOH (176 μL, 0.088 mmol, 0.5M) was stirred at

10 room temperature for 15 min. Water was added and THF was evaporated under reduced pressure. The aqueous solution was washed with diethyl ether (x2) and liophilisated to afford O-alkyl derivative Tb-I (31 mg, 98%) as beige solid. [«]" -52.0" (el .3, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.74 (m, IH), 7.68 (m, IH), 7.24 (m, 3H), 5.01 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 4.94 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 4.82 (s, IH), 3.87 (m, 2H) and 2.05 (m,

15 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 182.1 (C), 157.1 (C), 141.6 (2xC), 140.9 (C), 125.5 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 124.1 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 103.6 (CH), 74.7 (C), 72.4 (CH), 71.6 (CH), 65.9 (OCH 2 ) and 37.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3435 (O-H), 1664 (C=O), 1610 (C=O) and 1585 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 359 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for Ci fi H 16 O 6 SNa (MH + ): 359.0560; found, 359.0560.

20 Example 20: (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2- yl)methyl-l,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (IV-4). The same experimental procedure as used for compound IV-3 (example 18), was applied to silyl ether IV- 2 (75 mg, 0.11 mmol) in 1.6 mL of THF and 0.29 mL of tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.29 mmol). Yield = 50 mg (98%). Light yellow oil. [af D 0 -228.5° (cl .O, in acetone). 1 H

25 NMR (250 MHz, acetone-J 6 ) δ 7.89 (m, IH), 7.76 (m, 2H), 7.61 (m, IH), 7.39-7.19 (m, 5H), 7.12 (m, IH), 5.50-5.34 (m, 2H), 4.70 (m, 2H), 4.01 (d, IH, J = 14.8 Hz), 3.82 (d, IH, J = 14.8 Hz), 2.52 (dd, IH, J = 11.0 and 2.8 Hz) and 2.42 (dd, IH, J = 11.0 and 5.8 Hz) ppm. "C NMR (63 MHz, acetone-</ 6 ) δ 177.7 (C), 149.8 (C), 146.4 (C), 143.1 (C),

142.2 (C), 141.9 (C), 141.5 (C), 141.3 (CH), 126.3 (CH), 126.2 (CH), 125.6 (CH), 30 125.5 (CH), 125 0 (CH), 124.9 (C), 124.6 (CH), 124.5 (CH), 124.2 (CH), 123.7 (CH),

123.3 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 74.3 (C), 67.4 (CH 2 ), 67.2 (CH), 39.1 (CH 2 ) and 26.6 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (film): 3415 (O-H) and 1788 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (EST) m/z (%) 487 (MNa ). HRMS calcd for C 2S H 20 O 5 S 2 Na (MH + ): 487.0644; found, 487.0644. Example 21: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2- (benzo[h]thiophen-2-yl)methyl-1,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2-en-l-c arhoxylate (lb-2). The same experimental procedure as used for the synthsis of compound Ib-I (example 19), was applied to silyl ether IV-4 (52 mg, 0.1 T mmol) in 1 mL of THF and 220 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 54 mg (97%). Beige solid. [«]£ > -62.7° (cl .5, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^ 6 ) δ 8.62 (d, 1 H, ./ = 8.0 Hz), 7.87 (m, 1 H), 7.74 (m, 1 H), 7.69 (m, IH), 7.55 (m, IH), 7.35-7.27 (m, 2H), 7.25-7.16 (m, 3H), 7.04 (s, IH), 5.23 (br s, TH), 5.19-5. T2 (m, 3H), 4. T0 (br s, TH), 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.23 (d, IH, J = 15.2 Hz), 2.12 (dd, IH, J = 14.0 and 3.2 Hz) and 1.70 (dd, IH, J = 14.0 and 3.2 Hz) ppm. 1 ! C NMR (63 MHz, DMSO-d/ 6 ) δ 177.3 (C), 150.1 (C), 146.3 (C), 142.1 (C), 139.8 (C), 139.2 (C), 139.0 (C), 138.9 (C), 124.2 (CH), 124.1 (CH), 123.6 (CH), 123.4 (CH), 122.7 (CH), 122.4 (CH), 122.2 (CH), 121 .9 (CH), 121.8 (CH), 120.8 (CH), 120.5 (C), 74.2 (C), 69.8 (CH), 68.0 (CH), 64.2 (CH 2 ), 34.9 (CH 2 ) and 26.2 (CH 2 ) ppm. TR (KBr): 3398 (O-H) and 1601 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (EST) m/z (%) 505 (MH 1 ). HRMS calcd for C 25 H 22 O 6 S 2 Na (MH + ): 505.0750; found, 505.0751.

Example 22: (IR, 4S, 5R)-1,4-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-(5-methylbenzo[h] thio- phen-2-yI)ιnethoxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (IV-5) and (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-di(teιi- butyldimethyhilyloxy)-2-(5-methylbenzo[h]thiophen-2-yl)nιet hyl-3-(5- methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbo1a ctone (IV-6). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compounds IV-I and IV-2 (exmple T7) using the following: First, 200 mg of (IR, 4S, 5i? / )-l,4-di(fcr/-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3- oxocyc Io hexan-l,5-carbo lactone (0.50 mmol) in 13.3 mL of DMF and 1.0 mL of LHMDS (T .00 mmol) was used for the enolate generation. In the alkylation step, 180 mg of 2-(bromomethyl)-5-methylbenzo[ft]thiophen (0.75 mmol) in 1.3 mL of DMF was used. Yield = 62 mg (22%) of TV-5 and 99 mg (28%) of TV-6, both as light yellow oils. Data for IV-5: [«g -120.6° (c l .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.70 (d, IH, J = 8.5 Hz), 7.54 (s, IH), 7.17 (m, 2H), 5.05 (s, IH), 4.98 (d, IH, J = 12.0 Hz), 4.92 (d, 1 H, J = 12.0 Hz), 4.48 (dd, I H, J = 5.3 and 3.5 Hz), 4.17 (d, I H, J = 3.5 Hz), 2.46 (s, 3H), 2.44-2.30 (m, 2H), 0.92 (s, 9H), 0.87 (s, 9H), 0.17 (s, 3H), 0.12 (s, 3H), 0.10 (s, 3H) and 0.08 (s, 3H) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 176.1 (C), 153.3 (C), 139.4 (C), 138.9 (C), 137.4 (C), 134.0 (C), 126.3 (CH), 123.6 (CH), 123.0 (CH), 122.0 (CH), 105.2 (CH), 75.3 (CH), 73.7 (C), 67.4 (CH), 65.2 (OCH 2 ), 38.0 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CH 3 ),), 25.6 (C(CH 3 ),), 21.3 (CH 3 ), 18.1 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.1 5 (2xSiCH 3 ), -4.4 (SiCH 3 ) and -5.2 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (Film): 1801 (C=O) cm '. MS (CI) m/z (%) 561 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for C 29 H 45 O 5 SSi 2 (MH + ): 561.2526; found, 561.2530. Data for IV-6: [αg -75.4° (cl.3, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.65 (d, IH, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.59 (d, IH, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.37 (s, IH), 7.13 (d, IH, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.05 (d, IH, J = 8.3 Hz), 6.95 (s, IH), 6.87 (s, IH), 5.02 (s, 2H), 4.57 (d, IH, J = 10 5.8 and 3.3 Hz), 4.46 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz), 3.93 (d, IH, J = 15.5 Hz), 3.79 (d, IH, J =

15.5 Hz), 2.56 (d, IH, ./ = 10.8 Hz), 2.45 (m, IH), 2.44 (s, 3H), 2.42 (s, 3H), 0.96 (s, 9H), 0.78 (s, 9H), 0.21 (s, 3H), 0.19 (s, 3H), 0.16 (s, 3H) and 0.07 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 175.2 (C), 148.6 (C), 144.0 (C), 140.4 (C), 139.8 (C), 139.5 (C), 137.3 (C), 136.5 (C), 133.9 (C), 133.3 (C), 129.0 (C), 126.1 (CH), 124.8 (CH),

15 123.6 (CH), 122.7 (CH), 122.6 (CH), 121.9 (CH), 121.5 (CH), 121.0 (CH), 74.7 (C),

74.6 (CH), 68.5 (CH 2 ), 67.4 (CH), 37.5 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (CH 2 + C(CH,),), 25.5 (C(CH 3 ),), 21.4 (CH 3 ), 21.3 (CH 3 ), 18.1 (C(CH,) 3 ), 18.0 (C(CH,) 3 ), -3.3 (SiCH 3 ), -3.4 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.5 (2xSiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1799 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 721 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 39 H 53 O 5 S 2 Si 2 (MH + ): 721.2873; found, 721.2878.

20 Example 23: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(5-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2- yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (IV-7). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 1V-3 (example 18), but using silyl ether 1V-5 as starting material (72 mg, 0.13 mmol) in 1.9 mL of THF and 0.34 mL de tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.34 mmol). Yield = 34 mg (79%). Beige solid. [ α £° -135.1° (tl.4, in

25 Me 2 CO). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.63 (d, IH, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.50 (m, IH), 7.21 (m, IH), 7.10 (m, IH), 5.14 (s, IH), 5.00 (s ancho, 2H), 4.60 (m, IH), 4.08 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz), 2.38 (s, 3H) and 2.28 (m, 2H) ppm. 1 T NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 179.2 (C), 155.3 (C), 141.1 (C), 140.8 (C), 138.8 (C), 135.3 (C), 127.3 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 124.4 (CH), 123.0 (CH), 105.4 (CH), 77.0 (CH), 73.0 (C), 67.6 (CH), 66.4 (OCH 2 ), 38.4

30 (CH 2 ) and 21.4 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr): 3444 (O-H), 3377 (O-H) and 1765 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 333 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 7 Hi 7 O 5 S (MH + ): 333.0797; found, 333.0786.

Example 24: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(5-nιethylbenzo[b]thiophen-2- yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (Ib-3). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ib-I (example 19), but using carbolactone IV-7 as starting material (21 mg, 0.063 mmol) in 0.6 mL of THF and 126 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 22 mg (95%). Beige solid. [ α ];° -41.9° (cl.5, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.63 (d, 1 H, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.50 (br s, I H), 7.21 (s, 1H), 7.09 (dd, I H, J = 8.3 and 1.0 Hz), 5.01 (d, IH, J = 12.3 Hz), 4.94 (d, IH, ./ = 12.3 Hz), 4 84 (s, IH), 3.88 (m, 2H), 2.38 (s, 3H) and 2.06 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 1 OD) δ 182.1 (C), 157.2 (C), 141.7 (C), 141.3 (C), 138.9 (C), 135.2 (C), 127.1 (CH), 124.6 (CH), 123.9 (CH), 122.9 (CH), 103.5 (CH), 74.7 (C), 72.4 (CH), 71.6 (CH), 66.0 (OCH 2 ), 37.4 (CH 2 ) and 21.5 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3435 (O-H), 1649 and 1618 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 373 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 7 H] 8 O 6 SNa (MH + ): 373.0716; found, 373.0729. Example 25: (IR, 4S, 5R)-1 ,4-dihydroxy-3- (5-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2- (5-methy1benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbo lactone (IV-8). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 1V-3 (example 18), but using silyl ether IV-6 as starting material (119 mg, 0.17 mmol) in 2.4 mL of THF and 0.44 mL de tetrabutylammonium fluoride(0.44 mmol). Yield = 70 mg (84%). Beige solid. [αβ° -232.4" (cl .7, in Me 2 CO). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, acetone-d 6 ) δ 7.74 (d, IH, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.62 (d, I H, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.52 (s, I H), 7.35 (s, I H), 7.24 (s, I H), 7.17 (dd, IH, J = 8.0 and 0.8 Hz), 7.06 (dd, IH, J = 8.0 and 0.8 Hz), 6.99 (s, IH), 5.43 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 5.35 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 4.68 (m, 2H), 3.97 (d, IH, J = 14.8 Hz), 3.79 (d, I H, J = 14.8 Hz), 2.51 (d, I H, J = 12.5 Hz), 2.45-2.38 (m, 1 H), 2.41 (s, 3H) and 2.38 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, acetone-d 6 ) δ 177.8 (C), 149.8 (C), 146.5 (C), 143.1 (C), 142.5 (C), 141.7 (C), 139.2 (C), 138.7 (C), 135.7 (C), 135.1 (C), 127.9 (CH), 126.6 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 125.0 (C), 124.5 (CH), 124.4 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 123.1 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 74.3 (C), 67.4 (OCH 2 ), 67.2 (CH), 39.1 (CH 2 ), 26.6 (CH 2 ) and 22.3 (2xCH,) ppm. IR (film): 3471 (O-H), 3344 (O-H) and 1770 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (Cl) m/z (%) 493 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 27 H 25 O 5 S 2 (MH + ). 493.1143; found, 493.1131.

Example 26: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(5-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2- yl)methoxy-2-(5-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methylcyclohex-2 -en-l-carboxylate (Ih- 4) The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ib-I (example 19), but using carbolactone IV-8 as starting material (35 mg, 0.071 mmol) in 0.65 mL of THF and 142 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 22 mg (95%). Beige solid. [«]™ -61.3" (rl .5, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-(Z 6 ) δ 8.63 (d, IH, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.73 (d, IH, ./ = 8.0 Hz), 7.61 (d, IH, ./ = 8.0 Hz), 7.45 (br s, IH), 7.29 (br s, IH, ArH), 7.13 (dd, IH, ./ = 8.0 and 1.6 Hz), 7.08 (br s, IH), 7.01 (dd, IH, J = 8.0 and 1.6 Hz), 6.92 (s, IH), 5.21 (br s, IH), 5.15 (br s, IH), 5.14 (d, IH, ./ = 13.2 Hz), 5.10 (d, IH, J = 13.2 Hz), 4.08 (br s, 1 H), 3.64 (m, I H), 3.60 (d, I H, J = 15.2 Hz), 3.19 (d, I H, J = 15.2 Hz), 2.38 (s, 3H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 2.11 (dd, IH, ./ = 14.0 and 3.2 Hz) and 1.68 (dd, IH, ./ = 14.0 and 3.2 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (100 MHz, DMS(W 6 ) δ 177.2 (C), 150.1 (C), 146.4 (C), 142.1 (C), 140.1 (C), 139.4 (C), 136.4 (C), 136.1 (C), 133.3 (C), 132.5 (C), 125.7 (CH), 124.3 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 122.2 (CH), 122.0 (CH), 121.7 (CH), 121.4 (CH), 120.6 (CH), 120.5 (C), 74.3 (C), 69.8 (CH), 68.0 (CH), 64.2 (CH 2 ), 34.9 (CH 2 ), 26.3 (CH 2 ), 21.0 (CH,) and 20.9 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr): 3435 (O-H) and 1599 (C=O) cm 4 . Example 27: (IR, 4S, 5R)-2-allyl-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3- (benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methυxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolacton e (IV-9). To a solution of KHMDS (1.8 mL, 0.91 mmol, 0.5 M in toluene) in dry DMF (3 mL), under argon and at -78 0 C, a solution of (2S)-2-allyl ketone I I I-l (200 mg, 0.45 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) and toluene (1 .9 m L), both dry, was added. The resultant solution was stirred at this temperature for 30 min. A solution of 2-(bromomethyl)benzo[δ]thiophene (206 mg, 0.91 mmol) in DMF (1.8 mL) and toluene (1.2 mL), both dry, was then added. After 1 h, water and brine were added. The aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 2 mL). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. MgSO«ι), filtered and concentrated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether/hexanes [I 0 ) (0:100), 2°) (20:80)] to afford 118 mg (45%) of ether IV-9. Light yellow oil. [αg 1 -100° (cl .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.66 (dd, IH, J = 6.5 and 2.2 Hz), 7.59 (dd, IH, J = 6.5 and 2.5 Hz), 7.17 (m, 2H), 7.03 (s, IH), 5.87-5.71 (m, IH), 4.95-4.80 (m, 4H), 4.34 (dd, IH, J = 4.7 and 3.5 Hz), 4.17 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz), 2.96 (d, 2H, J = 6.2 Hz), 2.26 (m, 2H), 0.78 (s, 9H), 0.77 (s, 9H), 0.08 (s, 3H), 0.02 (s, 3H), 0.00 (s, 3H) and -0.03 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 176.3 (C), 148.3 (C), 140.9 (C), 139.2 (C), 1 36.5 (CH), 131 .2 (C), 125.1 (CH), 125.0 (CH), 124.3 (CH), 123.1 (CH), 123.0 (CH), 122.9 (C), 116.1 (CH 2 ), 77.3 (C), 75.4 (CH), 69.8 (CH 2 ), 68.1 (CH), 38.0 (CH 2 ), 30.1 (CH 2 ), 26.4 (C(CH,)?), 26.2 (C(CH,),), 18.9 (C(CH,),), 18.7 (C(CH,),), -2.5 (SiCH,), -2.6 (SiCH,), -3.8 (SiCH,) and -4.0 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1799 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 587 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 1 H 4 -O 5 SSi 2 (MH + ): 587.2683; found, 587.2682.

Example 28: (IR, 4S, 5R)-2-allyl-1 ,4-dihydroxy-3-(benzo[h]thiophen-2- y1)methoxytyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolattone (IV-IO) The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound IV-3 (example 18), but using silyl ether IV-9 as starting material (78 mg, 0.13 mmol) in 0.9 mL of THF and 0.29 mL of tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.29 mmol). Yield = 38 mg (83%). Beige solid. Mp: 122-125 0 C. [ a f° -143° (cl .5, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.76 (m, IH), 7.69 (m, IH, ArH), 7.26 (m, 2H), 7.22 (s, IH), 5.78 (m, IH), 5.22 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 5.12 (d, IH, J = 12.5 Hz), 4.97 (dq, I H, J = 17.0 and 1.7 Hz), 4.81 (m, I H), 4.55 (m, I H), 4.40 (d, I H, ./ = 3.5 Hz), 3.00 (d, 2H, J= 6.5 Hz) and 2.29 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.8 (C), 148.1 (C), 142.3 (C), 141.5 (C), 140.8 (C), 137.1 (CH), 126.5 (C), 125.5 (CH), 125.3 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.2 (CH), 115.5 (CH 2 ), 76.8 (CH), 73.8 (C), 67.2 (CH 2 ), 66.4 (CH 2 ), 38.3 (CH 2 ) and 29.5 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3482 (O-H), 3369 (O-H) and 1780 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 381 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for CiC 1 H 18 O 5 SNa (MNa + ): 381.0751 ; found, 381.0758. Example 29: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-2-allyl-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-l,4,5-tri- hydroxycyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (Ib-5). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ib-I (example 19), but using carbolactone lV-10 as starting material (30 mg, 0.084 mmol) in 0.75 mL of THF and 160 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 33 mg (99%). Beige solid. [α]=° -49° (cl. l , in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.80 (m, 2H), 7.34 (m, 2H), 7.30 (s, IH), 5.79 (m, IH), 5.09 (d, IH, J = 11.8 Hz), 4.98 (m, 3H), 4.32 (d, IH, J= 6.7 Hz), 3.93 (m, IH), 2.91 (dd, IH, J= 15.0 and 6.5 Hz), 2.66 (dd, IH, J = 15.0 and 6.5 Hz) and 2.05 (m, 2H) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 180.5 (C), 150.9 (C), 140.8 (C), 140.7 (C), 139.8 (C), 137.4 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 125.2 (CH), 124.6 (CH), 123.9 (C), 123.1 (CH), 115.9 (CH 2 ), 77.1 (C), 70.7 (CH), 70.6 (CH), 39.4 (CH 2 ) and 31.5 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3427 (O-H) and 1597 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 399 (MH 1 ). HRMS calcd for C 19 H 20 O 6 SNa (MH 1 ): 399.0873; found, 399.0887. Example 30: (IR, 2R, 4S, 5R)-l,4-di(tert-buty1dimethykilyloxy)-2-(2-methyl)allyl-3- oxocytlohexan- 1 ,5-carboJactone (III-3). A solution of the α-bromo ketone VI (500 mg, 1.04 mmol) in dry toluene (21 mL), under inert atmosphere, was treated 2- mcthylallyltributyltrn (504 mg, 1 .46 mmol) and AIBN (26 mg, 0.16 mmol). The rcsul- 5 tant reaction mixture was deoxygenated by bubbling argon through it for 30 min. and then heated at 80 0 C for 14 h. After cooling at room temperature, the solvent was evaporated and the crude product was purified by flash chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate-hexane (5:95) affording 2-methylallyl ketone 111-3 (457 mg, 96%) as white solid. Mp: 93-95 "C. [ α ];° -29.1" (cl .l, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 4.81

10 (br s, IH), 4.70 (br s, IH), 4.59 (dd, IH, J = 6.2 and 4.3 Hz), 3.92 (d, IH, J = 4.3 Hz), 2.88 (d, IH, J = 12.3 Hz), 2.75 (m, 2H), 2.49 (m, IH), 2.37 (m, IH), 1.75 (s, 3H), 0.91 (s, 9H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.22 (s, 3H), 0.14 (s, 3H), 0.12 (s, 3H) and 0.09 (s, 3H) ppm. M C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 203.0 (C), 175.8 (C), 141.3 (C), 114.0 (CH 2 ), 75.5 (C), 74.1 (CH), 71.7 (CH), 57.3 (CH), 35.9 (CH 2 ), 32.0 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (2xC(CΗ 3 ) 3 ), 21.6 (CH 3 ),

15 18.2 (C(CHOO- 18.0 (C(CHOO- -3-2 (SiCHO, -3-3 (SiCHO, -4.7 (SiCHO and -5 4 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1801 (C=O) and 1731 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) rn/z (%) 455 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 23 H 43 O 5 Si 2 (MH + ): 455.2649; found, 455.2648. Example 31: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-hutyldimethyhilyloxy)-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzυ[b]thiophen-4,6-carboϊactone (V-I). A solution of allylketone III-l (1.6 g, 3.64

20 mmol) in dicloromcthanc (125 mL) was placed into a gas-washing bottle and cooled down to -78 "C in a dry ice bath. The mixture was then flushed with argon for 5 min, oxygen for 5 min and then with ozone for 12 min. The end of the reaction was indicated by the orange coloration of the aqueous KI (5%), which is located at the exit. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was flushed for 10 min with nitrogen to remove excess

25 ozone. The gas-washing bottle was taken from the cooling bath and the content was slowly warmed to room temperature. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure to afford an oil, which it was used without further purification in the subsequent cyclization reaction. The obtained residue was dissolved in dry toluene (30 mL), under argon, was treated with Lawesson ' s reagent (1.4 g, 3.46 mmol) and heated at 100 0 C for

30 5 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured into cool hexane. The obtained precipitate was filtered and washed with more hexane. The filtrate and the washings were treated with activated carbon and filtered. The solvent were con- centrated and the obtained residue was crystallized from (99: 1) ethanol-diethyl ether to afford tiophene V-I (922 mg, 58%) as white needles. Mp: 133-137 0 C (EtOH-Et 2 O). [ O ]j; -96.6" (rl .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.17 (d, I H, J = 5.2 Hz), 6.99 (d, I H, J = 5.2 Hz), 4.82 (d, I H, J = 3.2 Hz), 4.60 (dd, I H, J = 5.5 and 3.2 Hz), 2.52 (d, IH, J = 10.7 Hz), 2.44 (dd, IH, J = 10.7 and 5.5 Hz), 0.90 (s, 9H), 0.84 (s, 9H), 0.1 8 (s, 3H), 0.15 (s, 3 H), 0.12 (s, 3 H) and 0.07 (s, 3 H) ppm. H C NMR (63 M Hz, CDCl,) δ 175.2 (C), 141.6 (C), 134.6 (C), 125.9 (CH), 123.2 (CH), 77.3 (CH), 75.7 (C), 66.2 (CH), 37.9 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (2xC(CH,) 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.1 (SiCH,), -3-2 (SiCHO and -4.7 (2xSiCHi) ppm. IR (KBr): 1797 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 441 (MH ). HRMS calcd for C 2I H 37 O 4 SSi 2 (MH 1 ): 441.1946; found, 441.1964. Example 32: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-car- bolactone (V-2). To a stirred solution of the silylcthcr V-I (70 mg, 0.16 mmol) in dry THF (2.3 mL), under argon at 0 0 C, was added tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.41 mL, 0.41 mmol, ca 1 .0 M en THF). After stirring for 15 min at 0 "C, the ice bath was rc- moved and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h. The solvent was concentrated and the obtained residue was disolved in ethyl acetate and water. The aqueous phase was acidified with HCl (10%). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). The combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na2SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield V-2 (29 mg, 85%) as a colourless oil. [«] -1 12.2" (cl .0, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.44 (d, IH, J = 5.2 Hz), 7.1 1 (d, I H, J = 5.2 Hz), 4.84 (m, 3H), 4.64 (br s, IH) and 2.52 (m, 2H) ppm. "C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.4 (C), 142.2 (C), 136.4 (C), 127.7 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 79.2 (CH), 75.1 (C), 66.6 (CH) and 38.5 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3523, 3305 (O-H), 1779 and 1753 (C=O) cm 4 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 235 (MNa " ). HRMS calcd for C 9 H 8 O 4 SNa (MH 1 ): 235.0033; found, 235.0036.

Example 33: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4- carhoxylic acid (Ic-I). A solution of the lactone V-2 (25 mg, 0.12 mmol) in THF (0.6 mL) and aqueous LiOH (0.6 mL, 0.30 mmol, 0.5M) was stirred at room temperature for 10 min Water was added and THF was removed under reduced pressure. The resultant aqueous solution was washed with diethyl ether (x2) and the aqueous extract was treated with Ambcrlitc IR-120 until pH 6. The resin was filtered and washed with miliQ water. The filtrate and the washings were lyophilised to afford acid Ic-I (25 mg, 92%) as beige solid. Mp: 128-131 0 C. [ α ] j ° -9.2° (cl .5, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.33 (d, IH, J = 5.0 Hz), 6.77 (d, IH, J = 5.0 Hz), 4.63 (d, IH, J = 8.3 Hz), 3.97 (m, IH), 2.33 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 12.0 Hz), and 2.16 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 3.8 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 178.2 (C), 143.1 (C), 135.6 (C), 128.1 (CH), 125.2 (CH), 73.6 (C), 72.8 (CH), 70.6 (CH), and 41.5 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3437 (O-H) and 1717 (C=O) Cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 213 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for C 9 H 9 O 4 S (MH + ): 213.0216; found, 213.0213.

Example 34: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyhilyhxy)-2-methyl-4,5,6, 7-tetra- hydrohenzo[h]thiophen-4,6-carholactone (V-3). A solution of 2-methylallyl ketone III- 3 (0.47 g, 1.03 mmol) in dicloromethane (30 mL) was placed into a gas-washing bottle and cooled down to -78 "C in a dry ice bath. The mixture was then flushed with argon for 5 min, oxygen for 5 min and then with ozone for 12 min. The end of the reaction was indicated by the orange coloration of the aqueous KI (5%), which is located at the exit. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was flushed for 10 min with nitrogen to remove excess ozone. The gas-washing bottle was taken from the cooling bath and the content was slowly warming up to room temperature. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure to afford an oil which was used without further purification in the subsequent cyclization reaction. A small amount was purified by flash chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate-hexanes (5:95) and characterized as the ozonide intermediate. [„]£ > +9.7° (cl .2, en CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 4.51 (br d, IH, ./ = 5.8 Hz), 4.11 (br s, IH), 2.69 (m, IH), 2.66 (d, IH, ./ = 12.0 Hz), 2.36 (dd, IH, J = 13.0 and 8.8 Hz), 2.18 (dd, IH, J = 12.0 and 5.8 Hz), 2.10 (dd, IH, J = 13.0 and 5.5 Hz), 1.71 (s, 3H), 0.90 (s, 9H), 0.87 (s, 9H), 0.17 (s, 3H), 0.13 (s, 3H), 0.12 (s, 3H) and 0.08 (s, 3H) ppm. ' 'C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 178.6 (C), 1 10.2 (C), 108.6 (C), 77.9 (CH), 73.1 (C), 66.8 (CH), 48.1 (CH), 39.1 (CH 2 ), 33.6 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (2xC(CH,),), 18.3 (C(CH,),), 18.2 (C(CHj) 3 ), 14.7 (CH 3 ), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ), -3.3 (SiCH 3 ), -4.7 (SiCH 3 ) and -5.6 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1807 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 473 (MH + ).

The obtained residue from the ozonolysis reaction was dissolved in dry toluene (30 mL) and under argon. The resultant solution was treated with Lawesson's reagent (0.33 g, 0.81 mmol) and heated at 90 0 C for 3 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured into cool hexane. The obtained precipitate was filtered and washed with more hexane. The filtrate and the washings were treated with activated carbon and filtered. The solvent were concentrated and the obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (10:90) to afford tiophene V-3 (293 mg, 62% from III-3) as a colourless oil. [ α β° -94.2° (cl .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.70 (br q, IH, J = 1.0 Hz), 4.81 (d, IH, J = 5 3.5 Hz), 4.64 (dd, IH, J = 6.0 and 3.5 Hz), 2.59 (d, IH, J = 11.0 Hz), 2.48 (dd, IH, J = 1 1.0 and 6.0 Hz), 2.44 (d, 3H, J = 1.0 Hz), 0.98 (s, 9H), 0.92 (s, 9H), 0.25 (s, 3H), 0.21 (s, 3H), 0.18 (s, 3H) and 0.14 (s, 3H) ppm. 1 T NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 175.4 (C), 141.5 (C), 140.9 (C), 132.0 (C), 121.1 (CH), 77.4 (CH), 75.6 (C), 66.2 (CH), 37.9 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CHOO. 25 - 7 (C(CHOO, 18-2 (C(CHOO. 18 0 (C(CHOO. 15-5 (CHO, -

10 3.1 (SiCH 3 ), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.7 (2xSiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1810 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 455 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 22 H 39 O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 455.2102; found, 455.2106.

Example 35: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4,6-carholactone (V-4). The experimental procedure used was the same as for com-

15 pound V-2 (example 32), but using V-3 using as starting material (175 mg, 0.38 mmol) in 5.5 niL of THF and 1 mL of tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Purification by columm chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (70:30). Yield = 61 mg (70%). Colourless oil. [α] -100.6° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 6.72 (s, IH), 4.71 (m, 2H), 3.26 (s, IH), 2.52-2.38 (m, 6H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ

20 178.4 (C), 142.7 (C), 142.2 (C), 133.9 (CH), 121.7 (CH), 79.2 (CH), 75.0 (C), 66.7 (CH), 38.5 (CH 2 ) and 15.4 (CHO PPm. IR (NaCl): 3444 (O-H) and 1770 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 249 (MNa " ). HRMS calcd for Ci 0 H 10 O 4 SNa (MNa + ): 249.0198; found, 249.0192. Example 36: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro-

25 benzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid (lc-2). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I (example 33), but using lactone V-4 as starting material (58 mg, 0.26 mmol) in 1.3 mL of THF and 0.64 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield = 50 mg (79%). Beige solid. Mp: 92-95 "C. [«]™ 18.9" (el .5, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 6.39 (s, IH), 4.52 (d, IH, J = 8.0 Hz), 3.90 (ddd, IH, ./ = 11.5, 8.0 and 3.5 Hz), 2.26 (m, 4H)

30 and 2.07 (dd, I H, J = 13.5 and 3.5 Hz) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 178.4 (C), 142.5 (C), 140.0 (C), 135.5 (C), 122.7 (CH), 73.6 (C), 72.4 (CH), 70.4 (CH), 41.1 (CH 2 ) and 14.9 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3434 (O-H) and 1729 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 267 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 10 H 12 OsSNa (MNa + ): 267.0298; found, 267.0301. Example 37: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyhily1oxy)-2-iodo-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (VII). A stirred solution of thiophene V-I (475 mg, 1.08 mmol) in dry dichloromethane (10 mL) and under argon was treated with glacial acetic acid (0.37 mL, 6.48 mmol) and Λ'-iodosuccinimide (364 mg, 1.62 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the obtained residue was portioned in diethyl ether and 10% sodium tiosulfatc. The aqueous layer was separated and the organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate and brine. The organic extract was dried (anh. Na 2 SO/)), filtered and concentrated to afford iodide VTT (569 mg, 93%) as white solid. Mp: 52-55 0 C. [ α ]J -44.9° (cl .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.17 (s, IH), 4.82 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz), 4.65 (dd, IH, J = 5.8 and 3.3 Hz), 2.55 (d, IH, J = 11.0 Hz), 2.46 (dd, IH, J = 11.0 and 5.8 Hz), 0.98 (s, 9H), 0.91 (s, 9H), 0.25 (s, 3H), 0.21 (s, 3H), 0.18 (s, 3H) and 0.14 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl.) δ 174.8 (C), 143.3 (C), 140.6 (C), 132.7 (CH), 77.2 (CH), 75.2 (C), 74.5 (C), 65.9 (CH), 37.6 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), -3.1 (SiCH 3 ), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ), -4.7 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.7 (SiCH,) ppm. I R (KBr): 1 801 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 567 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for C 2I H 36 O 4 SSi 2 I (MH + ): 567.0986; found, 567.0919. Example 38: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(terl-butyldimethxhilyloxy)-2-vinyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (VS). A Shlenck tube was charged with iodide VII (150 mg, 0.26 mmol), Pd(PPb) 4 (31 mg, 0.03 mmol) and dry dioxane (3 mL). Anhydrous K 2 CO 3 (0.72 mL, 0.79 mmol, 1 . 1 M) and v inyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2- dioxaborolane (61 μL, 0.40 mmol) was then added and the resultant solution was de- oxygenated and heated at 100 0 C for 2 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite and the precipitate was washed with hexane. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and the obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel, previously neutralized with triethylamine-hexanes (5:95), using diethyl ether-hexanes (5:95) as eluent. It was ob- tained 83 mg of tiophene V-5 (69%) as colourless oil. [«g +59.4° (cl . l, in CHCl,)- 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.90 (s, I H, ArH), 6.73 (dd, I H, J = 17.3 and 10.8 Hz), 5.53 (d, I H, J = 17.3 Hz), 5.15 (d, I H, J = 10.8 Hz), 4.83 (d, I H, J = 3.3 Hz), 4.66 (dd, I H, J = 5.5 and 3.3 Hz), 2.59 (d, IH, J = 11.0 Hz), 2.50 (dd, IH, J = 11.0 and 5.8 Hz), 0.98 (s, 9H), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.26 (s, 3H), 0.23 (s, 3H), 0.20 (s, 3H) and 0.15 (s, 3H) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCh) δ 175.2 (C), 143.6 (C), 141.9 (C), 133.3 (C), 129.7 (CH), 121.5 (CH), 1 14.2 (CH 2 ), 77.2 (CH), 75.4 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.7 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (2xC(CH,)0, 18.2 5 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CHj) 3 ), -3.1 (SiCH 3 ), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.7 (2xSiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): I SOl (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 467 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 2 ^ 9 O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 467.2108; found, 467.2102.

Example 39: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-vinyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4,6-carbolactone (V-6). The experimental procedure used was the same as for com-

10 pound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether V-5 as starting material (50 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) in 1.5 mL of THF and 0.3 mL of TBAF. Purification by columm chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (70:30). Yield = 17 mg (68%). Colourless oil. [a]j; -50.9" (r1. l , in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.94 (s, I H), 6.76 (ddd, I H, J = 17.5, 1 1.0 and 0.5 Hz), 5.51 (d, I H, J = 17.5 Hz), 5.1 1 (dd, I H, J = 1 1 .0 Hz),

15 4.74 (m, 2H) and 2.45 (m, 2H) ppm. 1 T NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.2 (C), 145.4 (C), 142.7 (C), 135.3 (C), 131.1 (CH), 122.1 (CH), 114.5 (CH 2 ), 79.0 (CH), 74.8 (C), 66.7 (CH) and 38.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. MS (CI) m/z (%) 239 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 1 H 11 O 4 S (MH ): 239.0378; found, 239.0378. Example 40: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-vinyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-

20 4-carhoxylic acid (Ic-3). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I (example 33), but using lactone V-6 as starting material (30 mg, 0.13 mmol) in 0.7 mL of THF and 0.3 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield = 32 mg (99%). Beige solid. 1H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.81-6.70 (m, 2H), 5.49 (d, IH, J = 17.5 Hz), 5.46 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz), 4.53 (d, IH, J = 8.0 Hz), 4.03 (m, IH), 2.39 (dd, IH, J = 13.3 and

25 12.0 Hz) and 2.16 (dd, IH, J = 13.3 and 3.5 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 177.4 (C), 144.6 (C), 143.4 (C), 137.8 (C), 131.4 (CH), 125.1 (CH), 113.5 (CH 2 ), 74.1 (CH), 74.0 (C), 71.6 (CH) and 42.7 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3400 (O-H) and 1718 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 279 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C n H 12 O 5 SNa (MNa " ): 279.0298; found, 279.0290.

30 Example 41: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyl&ilyhxy)-2-[(E)-prop-l-enyl)]- 4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrohenzo[h]thiophen-4,6-carholactone (V-8). A Shlcnck tube was charged with iodide VII (100 mg, 0.18 mmol), Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (20 mg, 0.02 mmol) and dry dioxane (1.8 mL). Anhydrous K 2 CO 3 (0.48 mL, 0.53 mmol, 1.1 M) and (£)-prop-l- enylboronic acid (23 mg, 0.26 mmol) was then added and the resultant solution was deoxygenated and heated at 100 0 C for 2 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite and the precipitate was washed with hexane. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and the obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel, previously neutralized with triethylamine-hexanes (5:95), using diethyl ether-hexanes (5:95) as eluent. It was obtained 78 mg of tiophene V-8 (92%) as colourless oil. [ α f -61.9° (cl . l, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.71 (s, I H), 6.38 (d, I H, J = 15.5 Hz), 5.97 (m, I H), 4.74 (d, IH, J = 3.0 Hz), 4.57 (dd, IH, J = 6.0 and 3.0 Hz), 2.52 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz), 2.42 (dd, IH, J = 10.8 and 6.0 Hz), 1.76 (d, 3H, J = 6.5 Hz), 0.91 (s, 9H), 0.85 (s, 9H), 0.19 (s, 3H), 0.15 (s, 3H), 0.12 (s, 3H) and 0.07 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 174.9 (C), 143.4 (C), 141.5 (C), 131.6 (C), 126.5 (CH), 123.9 (CH), 119.4 (CH), 76.2 (CH), 75.2 (C), 66.0 (CH), 37.5 (CH 2 ), 25.4 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.0 (CH 3 ), 17.8 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), -3.3 (SiCH 3 ), -3.5 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.9 (2xSiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1801 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 481 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 24 H 4I O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 481.2264; found, 481.2267.

Example 42: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-[(E)-prop-l-enyl]-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-8). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether V-7 as starting material (85 mg, 0.18 mmol) in 2.5 mL of THF and 0.44 mL of TBAF. Purification by columm chromatography using diethyl ether-hexano (70:30). Yield = 39 mg (87%). Mp: 150- 154 0 C. [«]? -45.6° (cl . l, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.86 (br s, IH), 6.51 (dq, I H, J = 15.5 and 1.5 Hz), 6.09 (m, I H), 4.81 -4.75 (m, 2H), 2.49 (m, 2H) and 1.83 (dd, 3H, ./ = 6.5 and 1.5 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDClO δ 178.3 (C), 145.5 (C), 142.5 (C), 133.7 (C), 127.7 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 120.3 (CH), 79.1 (CH), 74.8 (C), 66.7 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ) and 18.4 (CH.) ppm. IR (KBr): 3305 (O-H) and 1783 and 1753 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 253 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 2 HnO 4 S (MH + ): 253.0534; found, 253.0535. Example 43: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-[(E)-prop-l-enyl]-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carbυxylic acid (Ic-4). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I (example 33), but using lactone V-8 as starting material (30 mg, 0.12 mmol) in 0.6 mL of THF and 0.29 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield = 31 mg (96%). White solid. [ α ]∞ -12.4° (cl.2, in CH,OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 6.61 (s, IH), 6.43 (d, IH, J = 15.5 Hz), 6.00 (m, IH), 4.53 (d, IH, J = 7.0 Hz), 4.02 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.18 (m, IH) and 1.80 (d, IH, J = 6.3 Hz) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 144.5 (C), 141.2 (C), 138.4 (C), 126.5 (C), 125.8 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 73.9 (C), 73.5 (C), 71.9 (CH), 42.0 (CH 2 ) and 18.4 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr): 3399 (O-H) and 1720 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 293 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 2 H 14 O 5 SNa (MH + ): 293.0454; found, 293.0453. Example 44: (4R, 6R, 7SJ-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(2-methyl)vinyl-4,5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-9). A Shlenck tube was charged with iodide VlI (150 mg, 0.26 mmol), Pd(PPb) 4 (31 mg, 0.03 mmol) and dry dioxane (2.6 mL). Anhydrous K 2 CO 3 (0.7 mL, 0.79 mmol, 1.1 M) and 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(2- methyl)vinyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (75 μL, 0.40 mmol) was then added and the resultant solution was deoxygenated and heated at 100 0 C for 1.5 h. After cooling to room tem- perature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite and the precipitate was washed with hexane. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and the obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel, previously neutralized with triethylamine-hexanes (5:95), using diethyl ether-hexanes (10:90) as elu- ent. It was obtained 80 mg of tiophene V-9 (63%) as colourless oil. [af° -53.7° (cl.5, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.96 (s, IH), 5.33 (s, IH), 4.96 (s, IH), 4.83 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz), 4.66 (dd, IH, J = 6.0 and 3.3 Hz), 2.59 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz), 2.51 (dd, IH, J = 10.8 and 6.0 Hz), 2.10 (s, 3H), 0.99 (s, 9H), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.26 (s, 3H), 0.23 (s, 3H), 0.20 (s, 3H) and 0.15 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.2 (C), 146.3 (C), 141.8 (C), 136.9 (C), 133.2 (C), 119.4 (CH 2 ), 112.0 (CH), 77.3 (CH), 75.4 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.8 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CHs) 3 ), 25.6 (C(CH,),), 21.5 (CH 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH,),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.0 (SiCH 3 ), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ), -4.6 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.7 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1803 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 447 (MNa '-Bu).

Example 45: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-(2-methyl)vinyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-IO). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether V-9 as starting material (110 mg, 0.23 mmol) in 3.2 mL of THF and 0.5 mL of TBAF. Purification by columm chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes [I) 75 :25, 2) 100:0]. Yield = 41 mg (71%). White foam. [«]= » -37.0° (cl .4, in CH,OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.01 (br s, IH), 5.31 (br s, IH), 4.93 (br s, IH), 4.75 (m, 2H), 2.47 (m, 2H) and 2.07 (br s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD,OD) δ 178.2 (C), 147.9 (C), 142.6 (C), 138.6 (C), 135.1 (CH), 120.0 (CH), 112.4 (CH 2 ), 79.0 (CH), 74.8 (C), 66.6 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ) and 21.7 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3458 (O-H) and 1784 (C=O) cm 1 . Example 46: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-(2-methyl)vinyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid (IcS). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Tc-I (example 33), but using lactone V-IO as starting material (40 mg, 0.16 mmol) in 1.5 mL of THF and 0.8 mL of LiOH (aq.). Purification by HPLC using a semipreparative columm Merck ZORBAX ODS (212x25 mm), eluting with (20:80) acetonitrile-water and at a flow of 7 mL min 1 . Yield = 42 mg (98%). Beige solid, [α]™ -1.9 (cl .4, in CH,OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 6.72 (br s, IH), 5.29 (br s, IH), 4.92 (br s, IH), 4.58 (d, IH, ./ = 8.0 Hz), 3.95 (m, IH), 2.29 (dd, IH, ./ = 12.0 and 13.3 Hz), 2.13 (dd, IH, J = 3.8 and 13.3 Hz) and 1.97 (br s, 3H) ppm. "C NMR (100 MHz, D 2 O) δ 177.9 (C), 146.8 (C), 141.4 (C), 137.6 (C), 136.0 (C), 121.5 (CH), 11 1.9 (CH 2 ), 73.4 (C), 72.2 (CH), 70.1 (CH), 41.0 (CH 2 ) and 20.6 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3438 (O-H) and 1729 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 269 (M-H + ). HRMS caled for Ci 2 H 13 O 5 S (M-H + ): 269.0478; found, 269.0469. Example 47: (4R, 6R, 7SJ-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-[(E)-2-cyclopropyl]vinyl- 4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-Il). A Shlenck tube was charged with iodide VTT (100 mg, 0.18 mmol), Pd(PPh, ) 4 (20 mg, 0.02 mmol) and dry dioxane (1.8 mL). Anhydrous K 2 CO^ (0.5 mL, 0.53 mmol, 1.1 M) and (β)-2-(2- cyclopropyl)vinyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (55 μL, 0.26 mmol) was then added and the resultant solution was deoxygenated and heated at 95 0 C for 4 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite and the precipitate was washed with hexane. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and the obtained residue was was purified by columm chromatography, previously neutralized with 5% triethylamine-hexanes, eluting with diethyl ether- hcxancs (5:95) to yield tiophcnc IXf (80 mg, 89%) as a light yellow oil. [„]"* -42.6° (cl .3, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.75 (s, IH), 6.51 (d, IH, J = 15.5 Hz), 5.55 (dd, IH, J = 15.5 and 8.8 Hz), 4.80 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz), 4.64 (dd, IH, J = 5.5 and 3.3 Hz), 2.58 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz), 2.48 (dd, IH, J = 10.8 and 5.5 Hz), 1.57-1.40 (m, IH), 0.98 (s, 9H), 0.92 (s, 9H), 0.82-0.76 (m, 2H), 0.54-0.46 (m, 2H), 0.25 (s, 3H), 0.21 (s, 3H), 0.18 (s, 3H) and 0.14 (s, 3H) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCh) δ 175.2 5 (C), 143.7 (C), 141.7 (C), 135.8 (CH), 131.4 (C), 120.6 (CH), 119.3 (CH), 77.3 (CH),

75.4 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.8 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 14.3 (CH), 7.4 (2xCH 2 ), -3.0 (SiCH,), -3.2 (SiCH,), -4.6 (SiCH,) and -4.7 (SiCH,) ppm. IR (film): 1801 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 507 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 215 H 43 O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 507.2421; found, 507.2420.

10 Example 48: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-2-cyclopropil]vinyl-4, 7-dihydroxy-4,5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-12). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V- 2 (example 32), but using silyl ether V-11 as starting material (70 mg, 0.14 mmol) in 2 mL of THF and 0.36 mL of TBAF. Purification by columm chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (70:30).

15 Yield = 35 mg (92%). White solid. Mp: 154-156 0 C. [ σ g -27.0° (cl .05, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.83 (s, I H), 6.56 (d, I H, J = 15.5 Hz), 5.61 (dd, I H, J =

15.5 and 9.0 Hz), 4.80-4.74 (m, 2H), 2.55-2.43 (m, 2H), 1.59-1.45 (m, IH), 0.85-0.77 (m, 2H) and 0.51-0.45 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 178.3 (C), 145.7 (C), 142.5 (C), 137.1 (CH), 133.2 (C), 121.7 (CH), 119.8 (CH), 79.1 (CH), 74.9 (C),

20 66.7 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ), 15.2 (CH) and 7.8 (2xCH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3507 (O-H) and 1788 and 1759 (C=O) cm '. MS (CI) m/z (%) 279 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Cj 4 H 15 O 4 S (MH 1 ): 279.0691 ; found, 279.0691.

Example 49: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-2-cyclυpropγl]\inγl-4, 6, 7-tvihydroxy-4, 5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carhoxylic acid (Ic-6). The experimental procedure used

25 was the same as for compound Ic-I (example 33), but using lactone V-12 as starting material (28 mg, 0.10 mmol) in 0.9 mL of THF and 0.5 mL of LiOH (aq.). Purification by HPLC using a semipreparative columm Merck ZORBAX ODS (212x25 mm), eluting with (30.70) acetonitrile-water and at a flow of 7 mL min " . Yield — 29 mg (97%). Mp: 103-105 "C. [a]™ -4.4 (rl .2, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (500 MHz, D 2 O) δ 6.58

30 (s, I H), 6.54 (d, I H, J = 16.0 Hz), 5.66 (dd, I H, J = 16.0 and 9.5 Hz), 4.62 (d, I H, J = 8.0 Hz), 4.00 (ddd, IH, J = 8.0, 4.0 and 12.0 Hz), 2.34 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 12.0 Hz), 2.18 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 4.0 Hz), 1.53-1.46 (m, IH), 0.77 (m, 2H) and 0.45 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (125 MHz, D 2 O) δ 180.7 (C), 147.3 (C), 142.6 (C), 139.8 (CH), 138.6 (C), 123.9 (CH), 123.0 (CH), 76.2 (C), 75.1 (CH), 73.0 (CH), 43.8 (CH 2 ), 16.7 (CH) and 9.8 (2xCH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3390 (O-H) and 1722 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 5 319 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 14 Hi 6 O 5 SNa (MNa + ): 319.0611; found, 319.0618.

Example 50: (4 R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyhilyloxy)-2-phenyl-4,5,6, 7- tetrahydrυbenzo[b]thiυphen-4,6-carbϋlactone (V-13). A Shlenck tube was charged with iodide VII (130 mg, 0.23 mmol), Pd(PPIh) 4 (26 mg, 0.02 mmol) and dry dioxane (2.5 mL). Anhydrous K 2 CO 3 (0.63 mL, 0.69 mmol, 1.1 M) and phenylboronic acid (35 mg,

10 0.28 mmol) was then added and the resultant solution was deoxygenated and heated at 100 0 C for 2 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite and the precipitate was washed with hexane. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and the obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel, previously neutralized with triethylamine-hexanes

15 (5:95), using diethyl ether-hexanes (5:95) as eluent. It was obtained 89 mg (75%) of thiophcnc V-13 as white foam. Mp: 58-61 0 C. [a] 2 ; -47.8° (el .1 , in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.58 (d, 2H, J = 6.3 Hz), 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.32 (m, IH), 7.26 (s, IH), 4.93 (d, IH, J = 2.4 Hz), 4.72 (dd, IH, J = 2.4 and 4.5 Hz), 2.67 (d, IH, J = 8.4 Hz), 2.57 (dd, IH, J = 8.4 and 4.5 Hz), 1.04 (s, 9H), 0.97 (s, 9H), 0.32 (s, 3H), 0.28 (s, 3H),

20 0.25 (s, 3H) and 0.21 (s, 3H) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.1 (C), 145.0 (C), 142.5 (C), 133.9 (2xC), 128.8 (2xCH), 127.9 (CH), 125.9 (2xCH), 118.9 (CH), 77.2 (CH), 75.5 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.8 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.0 (CH 3 ), -3.2 (CH 3 ) and -4.6 (2xCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1803 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 517 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 27 H 4 ]O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 517.2264; found,

25 517.2245.

Example 51: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrohen- zo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid (Ic-7). To a stirred solution of the silyl ether V-13 (81 mg, 0.16 mmol) in dry THF (2.2 mL), under argon at 0 "C, was added tctrabutylammo- nium fluoride (0.41 mL, 0.41 mmol, ca 1.0 M en THF). After stirring for 15 min at 0 0 C

30 the ice bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h. The solvent was concentrated and the obtained residue was disolved in ethyl acetate and water. The mixture was acidified with dilute HCl until pH 1. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). The combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (70:30) to yield (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-phenyl-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[δ]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-14, 40 mg, 89%) as an colourless oil. Carbolactonc V-14 (40 mg, 0.14 mmol) was hydrolizcd as for compound Tc-I using 0.55 mL of LiOH (aq.) and 0.7 mL of THF. Yield = 38 mg (89%). White solid. Mp: 168-173 0 C. [ U ]? -20.2° (rl .0, in CH,OH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.62 (m, 2H), 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.32 (m, I H), 7.17 (s, I H), 4.66 (d, I H, J = 8.0 Hz), 4.13 (m, I H), 2.50 (dd, IH, J = 13.6 and 11.6 Hz), and 2.27 (dd, IH, J = 13.6 and 3.2 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 177.7 (C), 145.8 (C), 143.8 (C), 138.6 (C), 135.6 (C), 130.0 (2xCH), 128.8 (CH), 126.5 (2xCH), 122.0 (CH), 74.3 (C), 74.1 (CH), 71.7 (CH) and 42.6 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3419 (O-H) and 1716 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 329 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 5 H 14 O 5 SNa (MNa + ): 329.0454; found, 329.0445. Example 52: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethylήlyloxy)-2-(2-cyclopropyl)ethyl- 4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-15). A suspension of thio- phene V-Il (78 mg, 0.15 mmol) and 10% palladium-on-carbon (16 mg) in methanol (1.5 mL) was stirred under hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 48 h. The mixture was filtered over Celite and the residue was washed with methanol. The filtrate and washings were evaporated to yield thiophene V-15 (75 mg, 96%) as a colourless oil. [a]? -68.0° (fl . l, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.73 (s, IH), 4.81 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz), 4.64 (dd, IH, J = 5.8 and 3.3 Hz), 2.86 (t, 2H, J = 5.8 Hz), 2.59 (d, 1 H, J = 1 1 .0 Hz), 2.48 (dd, 1 H, ./ = 1 1.0 and 6.0 Hz), 1.55 (m, 2H), 0.98 (s, 9H), 0.92 (s, 9H), 0.73 (m, IH), 0.44 (m, 2H), 0.25 (s, 3H), 0.21 (s, 3H), 0.18 (s, 3H), 0.14 (s, 3H) and 0.07 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.5 (C), 146.7 (C), 141.2 (C), 131.8 (C), 120.0 (CH), 77.4 (CH), 75.6 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.9 (CH 2 ), 36.7 (CH 2 ), 30.4 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.1 (C(CHj) 3 ), 10.6 (CH), 4.5 (2xCH 2 ), -3.1 (SiCH 3 ), -3.2 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.7 (2xSiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1801 (C=O) cm '. MS (CI) m/z (%) 509 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for C 26 H 45 O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 509.2577; found, 509.2566. Example 53: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-(2-cyclopropyl)ethyl-4, 7-dihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetra- hydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (V-16). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether V-15 as starting ma- terial (38 mg, 0.075 mmol) in 1.1 mL of THF and 0.19 mL of TBAF. Purification by columm chromatography using diethyl ether-hexanes (70:30) as eluent. Yield = 16.2 mg (77%). [a]? -54.7" (el .6, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.76 (s, IH), 4.74 (dd, I H, J = 3.3 and 1 .0 Hz), 4.70 (d, I H, J = 3.3 Hz), 2.84 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 2.43 (m,

H), 1.49 (q, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 0.70 (m, IH), 0.39 (m, 2H) and 0.03 (m, 2H) ppm. 1 1 3X/- NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.4 (C), 148.4 (C), 142.0 (C), 133.7 (C), 120.7 (CH), 79.2 (CH), 75.0 (C), 66.7 (CH), 38.5 (CH 2 ), 38.2 (CH 2 ), 31.3 (CH 2 ), 1 1.4 (CH) and 5.0 (2xCH 2 ) ppm. Example 54: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-(2-cyclopropyl)ethyl-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetra- hydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylic acid (Ic-S). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I (example 33), but using lactone V-16 as starting material (16 mg, 0.057 mmol) in 1 mL of THF and 0.17 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yicld = 10.4 mg (61%). [a]? -24.9° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 6.41 (s, IH), 4.54 (d, IH, J = 7.8 Hz), 3.91 (m, IH), 2.74 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 2.23 (dd, IH, J = 13.5 and 12.3 Hz), 2.03 (dd, IH, ./ = 13.5 and 3.5 Hz), 1.41 (q, 2H, ./ = 7.5 Hz ), 0.63 (m, IH), 0.28 (m, 2H) and -0.07 (m, 2H) ppm. π C NMR (63 M Hz, D 2 O) δ 1 81 .1 (C), 148.0 (C), 138.8 (C), 137.9 (C), 122.4 (CH), 74.6 (C), 72.6 (CH), 71 .3 (CH), 41 .6 (CH 2 ), 36.6 (CH 2 ), 30.3 (CH 2 ), 10.5 (CH) and 4.3 (2xCH 2 ) ppm. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 271 (M-H ). HRMS calcd for C 12 H 15 O 5 S (M-H + )- 271.0635; found, 271.0625. Example 55: (4R, 6R, 7R)-l-benzyl-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyhilyloxy)-4,5,6, 7-tetra- hydro-lH-indol-4,6-carbolactone (V-17). A solution of the obtained residue (100 mg) by ozonolysis of allyl derivative III-l in acetic acid (1 mL), was treated with ben- zylamine (27 μL, 0.25 mmol) and was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The reaction mixture was diluted with diethyl ether and sodium bicarbonate (sat.). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (2x). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO,)), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (10:90) to give indol V-17 (64 mg, 55%) as colourless oil. [a]? -106.8" (cl .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.11 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 6.80 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz, 2xArH), 6.32 (d, 1 H, J = 2.8 Hz, ArH), 6.04 (d, 1 H, ./ = 2.8 Hz, ArH), 4.92 (d, IH, J = 16.0 Hz, CHH), 4.84 (d, IH, J = 16.0 Hz, CHiT), 4.57 (d, IH, J = 3.3 Hz, H-4), 4.48 (dd, IH, J = 6.0 and 3.3 Hz, H-5), 2.42 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz, H-6 eq ), 2.31 (dd, IH, ./ = 10.8 and 6.0 Hz, H-6 ax ), 0.82 (s, 9H, C(CH,)0, 0.69 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ),), 0.09 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), 0.00 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), -0.04 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ) and -0.13 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 176.1 (C), 137.2 (C), 128.8 (2xCH), 127.6 (CH), 126.5 (2xCH), 124.7 (C), 124.2 (C), 122.3 (CH), 103.6 (CH), 76.8 (CH), 74.2 (C), 64.4 (CH), 50.3 (NCH 2 ), 38.4 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CH.),), 25.6 (C(CH,)?), 1 S.2 (C(CH 3 ),), 17.9 (C(CH 3 ),), -2.9 (SiCH 3 ), -3.0 (SiCH 3 ), -4.1 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.6 (SiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film): 1799 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 514 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 28 H 44 O 4 Si 2 N (MH + ): 514.2819; found, 514.2803. Example 57: (4R, 6R, 7R)-l-benzyl-4, 7-dihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro-lH-indol-4,6- carbolactone (V-18). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether V-17 as starting material (80 mg, 0.16 mmol) in 1.5 mL of THF and 0.41 mL of TBAF. Purification by columm chromatography using ethyl acetate-hexanes (60:40) as eluent. Yield = 40 mg (91 %). [»g -91.6° (cl .O, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 5 OD) δ 7.29 (m, 3H), 7.13 (m, 2H), 6.70 (d, I H, J = 2.8 Hz), 6.18 (d, IH, ./ = 2.8 Hz), 5.20 (d, IH, ./ = 15.8 Hz), 5.13 (d, IH, ./ = 15.8 Hz), 4.69 (m, IH), 4.63 (br s, IH), 4.54 (d, IH, J= 3.3 Hz) and 2.46 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.5 (C), 139.2 (C), 129.8 (2xCH), 128.7 (CH), 128.3 (2xCH), 126.2 (C), 124.4 (C), 123.9 (CH), 103.59 (CH), 79.3 (CH), 73.8 (C), 64.4 (CH), 51.7 (CH 2 ) and 39.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. TR (film): 3395 (O-H) and 1784 (C=O) cm " ' . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 286 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Cj 6 H 16 O 4 N (MH + ): 286.1069; found, 286.1074. Example 58: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-isopropyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carbυxylic acid (Ic-8). A suspension of thiophene Ic-5 (20 mg, 0.074 mmol) and 10% palladium-on-carbon (4 mg) in methanol (0.7 mL) was stirred under hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 48 h. The mixture was filtered over Cclitc and the residue was washed with methanol. The filtrate and washings were concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtainded residue was purified by HPLC using a semipreparative columm Merck ZORBAX ODS (212x25 mm), eluting with (20:80) acetonitrile- water and at a flow of 7 mL min l to afford thiophene Ic-8 (15 mg, 74%) as a white solid. [«]; <• -6.4" (r 1.0, in McOH). Mp: 125-127 "C. 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) 5 6.51 (s, 1 H), 4.57 (d, I H, J= 8.3 Hz), 3.94 (m, I H), 3.01 (quint, 1 H, J= 6.8 Hz), 2.30 (dd, IH, J = 11.8 and 13.5 Hz), 2.14 (dd, IH, J = 3.3 and 13.5 Hz) and 1.16 (d, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz) ppm. n C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 177.9 (C), 156.2 (C), 139.6 (C), 134.8 (C), 1 19.5 (CH), 73.5 (C), 72.4 (CH), 70.3 (CH), 41.2 (CH 2 ), 30.1 (CH) and 24.2 (CH,) and 24.1 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3398 (O-H) and 1724 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 271 (M-H " ). HRMS calcd for C 12 H 15 O 5 S (M-H + ): 271.0635; found, 271.0639. 5 Example 59: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-ethyl-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetruhydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4-carboxylic acid (lc-9). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-8 using vinyl thiophene Ic-3 (18 mg, 0.070 mmol) and 10% palladium-on- carbon (4 mg) in mctanol (0.7 niL). Yield = 13.9 mg (77%). [«];" -34.6" (c 1.0, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 6.40 (br s, I H), 4.55 (d, I H, J 7.3 Hz), 3.91 (m,

10 IH), 2.66 (q, 2H, J 7.3 Hz), 2.20 (m, IH), 2.04 (m, IH) and 1.12 (t, 3H, J 7.3 Hz) ppm. πC NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 180.8 (C), 149.6 (C), 138.4 (C), 137.6 (C), 121.2 (CH), 74.3 (C), 72.3 (CH), 71.0 (CH), 41.3 (CH 2 ), 23.4 (CH 2 ) and 15.4 (CH 3 ) ppm. Example 60: Ethyl (IR, 4S, 5R)-2-allyl-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yljmethoxy-l,4,5- trihydroxycycIohex-2-en-l-carboxylute (Ib-9). A solution of lactone IV-IO (16 mg, 0.04

15 mmol) and sodium ethoxide (4 mg, 0.06 mmol) in ethanol (0.4 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 1 hora. Ethyl acetate and water was then added. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. MgSO^), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting

20 with ethyl acctatc-hcxancs (50:50). 9 mg (50%) of csthcr Tb-9 were obtained as white solid. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.78 (dd, IH, J = 6.8 and 1.6 Hz), 7.70 (dd, IH, J = 7.6 and 1.6 Hz), 7.32 (m, 2H), 7.23 (s, IH), 5.72-5.62 (m, IH), 5.27 (dd, IH, J = 12.4 and 0.8 Hz), 5.11 (d, IH, J = 12.4 Hz), 4.98 (dd, IH, J = 17.2 and 2.0 Hz), 4.89 (dd, IH, J = 10.0 and 1.6 Hz), 4.28 (d, I H, ./ = 7.2 Hz), 4.17-4.00 (m, 3H), 3.79 (br s, I H), 2.91

25 (dd, IH, J= 14.8 and 6.8 Hz), 2.65 (ddd, IH, J= 14.8, 6.4 and 1.2 Hz), 2.08 (dd, IH, J = 13.2 and 11.6 Hz), 2.00 (dd, IH, J = 13.2 and 4.0 Hz) and 1.12 (t, 3H, J = 6.8 Hz) ppm. 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.1 (C), 150.6 (C), 140.3 (C), 140.2 (C), 139.2 (C), 136.3 (CH), 124.5 (CH), 124 3 (CH), 123.7 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 122.3 (CH), 120.5 (C), 115.5 (CH 2 ), 75.4 (C), 72.0 (CH), 70.4 (CH), 67.0 (CH 2 ), 62.4 (CH 2 ), 39.6 (CH 2 ),

30 31.2 (CH 2 ) and 13.8 (CH 3 ) ppm. (2-Bromomethyl)thiophene (15a). A solution of thien-2-ylmethanol (14a) (1 mL, 10.55 mmol), phosphorus tribromide (1.5 mL, 15.83 mmol) and three drops of dry pyridine in dry dichloromethane (40 mL), under argon and 0 0 C, was stirred for Ih. During this period, the reaction mixture was allowed to reach room temperature. Water was then added and the organic phase was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethne (x2). AU the combined organic extracts were washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate, dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford bromide 15a (1.5 g, 80%) as light yellow oil. 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.73 (dd, IH, J = 5.0 and 1.0 Hz, H-5), 7.52 (d, IH, J = 3.0 Hz, H-3), 7.35 (dd, IH, J = 5.0 and 3.0 Hz, H-4) and 5.16 (s, 2H, CH 2 Br) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 141.9 (C), 131.8 (CH), 128.4 (CH), 128.2(CH) and 26.7 (CH 2 ) ppm. (5-Bromomethyl)benzo|A]thiophene (15b). To a stirred solution of benzo[/?]thiophen- 5-ylmethanol (14b) (100 mg, 0.61 mmol) in dry dichloromethane (15 mL) and under argon, PPh, (290 mg, 1.09 mmol) and then CBr 4 (240 mg, 0.73 mmol) were added. Af- ter stirring for 1 h, diethyl ether was added and the resulting precipitate was filtered and washed with diethyl ether. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the crude residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with (10:90) diethyl ether/hexanes to afford bromide 15b (129 mg, 93%) as a white amorphous solid. H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.86 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.49 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.39 (d, IH, ./ = 8.7 Hz, ArH), 7.33 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH) and 4.66 (s, 2H, CH 2 O) ppm. M C NMR (63 MHz, CDCL,) δ 139.7 (C), 139.7 (C), 133.8 (C), 127.4 (CH), 125.2 (CH), 1 23.9 (CH), 1 23.7 (CH), 122.8 (CH) and 34.1 (CH 2 ) ppm. MS (CT) nι/z (%) 227 and 229 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 9 H 8 S 79 Br (MH + ): 226.9530; found, 226.9532. Example 6]_: (1R,4S,5R)-l,4-ditert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-3-(thien-2- yl)methoxycγclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (Ia) and (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-ditert- bιιtyldimethylsilyloxy-3-(thien-2-yl)nιethoxy-2-(thien-2- yl)nιethylcyclohex-2-en-l,5- carbolactone (2a). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compounds IV-I and IV-2 in example 17, using the following: First, 300 mg of (IR, 4S, 5R)-1 , 4- di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohexan-l,5-carbolact one (0.75 mmol) in 1.5 mL of DMF and 3.0 mL of KHMDS (1.5 mmol) was used for the enolate generation. In the alkylation step, 265 mg of 2-(bromomethyl)thiophene (1.50 mmol) in 1.3 mL of DMF was used. Yield = 67 mg (18%) of Ia and 153 mg (35%) of 2a. Data for Ia: White solid. Mp: 65-67 0 C. [α];, 0 = -133° (cl.2, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.31 (dd, IH, J = 5.0 and 1.2 Hz, ArH), 7.03 (d, IH, ./ = 2.8 Hz, ArH), 6.98 (dd, IH, J = 5.0 and 3.8 Hz, ArH), 5.01 (s, IH, H-2), 4.90 (d, IH, ./ = 11.5 Hz, CflHAr), 4.84 (d, IH, J = 11.5 Hz, CHHAr), 4.47 (dd, IH, J = 5.2 and 3.5 Hz, H-5), 5 4.14 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz, H-4), 2.40 (d, IH, J = 10.5 Hz, H-6 ax ), 2.33 (dd, IH, J = 10.5 and 5.2 Hz, H-6 eq ), 0.93 (s, 9H, C(CH,) 3 ), 0.87 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.19 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), 0.15 (s, 3H, SiCH,), 0.08 (s, 3H, SiCH,) and 0.05 (s, 3H, SiCH,) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 176.1 (C), 153.2 (C), 137.7 (C), 127.1 (CH), 126.5 (CH), 126.3 (CH), 104.8 (CH), 75.2 (CH), 73.6 (C), 67.3 (CH), 64.3 (CH 2 ), 37.9 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (C(CH,),),

10 25.5 (C(CH,),), 18.0 (2xC(CH,),), -3.1 (2xCH,), -4.6 (CH,) and -5.3 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr) 1801 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (Cl) m/z (%) 497 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 24 H 4 IO 5 SSi 2 (MH + ): 497.2213; found, 497.2214.

Data for 2a: Yellow oil. -127° (rl .O, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.29 (d, IH, J= 4.2 Hz, ArH), 7.06 (d, IH, J= 4 5 Hz, ArH), 6.92 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 6.77

15 (s, IH, ArH), 4.96 (s, 2H, CH 2 O), 4.54 (m, IH, H-5), 4.42 (br s, IH, H-4), 3.79 (d, IH, J = 15.0 Hz, CHHAr), 3.69 (d, IH, J = 15.0 Hz, CHWAr), 2.53 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz, H- 6 a χ), 2.41 (dd, IH, J = 10.8 and 5.7 Hz, H-6 eq ), 0.95 (s, 9H, C(CH,) 3 ), 0.80 (s, 9H, C(CH,) 3 ), 0.20 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.18 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.17 (s, 3H, CH 3 ) and 0.06 (s, 3H, CH 3 ) ppm. n C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.3 (C), 148.2 (C), 142.8 (C), 138.8 (C), 129.7

20 (C), 126.9 (CH), 126.7 (CH), 126.4 (CH), 126.3 (CH), 124.5 (CH), 122.8 (CH), 74.6 (CH+C), 67.5 (CH 2 ), 67.2 (CH), 37.5 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 25.5 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 24.7 (CH 2 ), 18.1 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.3 (CH 3 ), -3.5 (CH 3 ) and -4.5 (2xCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film) 1799 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 593 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 29 H 4 SO 5 S 2 Si 2 (MH + ): 593.2247; found, 593.2248.

25 Example 62: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-ditert-butyldimethyhilyloxy-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-1,5-carholactone (Ib) and (IR, 4 S, 5R)-l,4-ditert- butyldimethyhilyloxy-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2-(ben zo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (2b). The reaction was carried out as for compounds Ia and 2a by using 500 mg of (IR, 4S, J/? / )-l,4-di(ter/-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-

30 oxocyc Io hexan-l,5-carbo lactone and 570 mg of (5-bromomethyl)benzo[/>]thioρriene as starting materials. Yield: 173 mg (25%) of O-alkyl derivative Ib and 237 mg (27%) of dialkyl derivative 2b.

Data for Ib: Colourless oil. [α] 2 D °= -108" (cl .2, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.79 (d, IH, J = 8.2 Hz, ArH), 7.72 (s, IH, ArH), 7.39 (d, IH, J = 5.2 Hz, ArH), 7.24 5 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 4.97 (s, IH, H-2), 4.82 (d, IH, J = 11.2 Hz, CHHO), 4.74 (d, IH, J = 11.2 Hz, CHWO), 4.43 (dd, IH, ./ = 5.0 and 3.5 Hz, H-5), 4.13 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz, H-4), 2.35 (d, IH, J = 10.5 Hz, H-6 ax ), 2.28 (m, IH, H-6 eq ), 0.87 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.82 (s, 9H, C(CHj) 3 ), 0.09 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), 0.04 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), 0.02 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ) and -0.01 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ) ppm. 1 T NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 176.1 (C), 153.4 (C), 139.6 (C),

10 139.3 (C), 131.9 (C), 127.0 (CH), 124.0 (CH), 123.7 (CH), 122.8 (CH), 122.4 (CH), 104.9 (CH), 75.2 (C), 73.7 (C), 69.6 (CH 2 ), 67.4 (CH), 38.0 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (C(CHj) 3 ), 25.5 (C(CHO,), 18.0 (C(CH,)0, 17.9 (C(CHOi), -3.2 (2xSiCH,), -4.6 (SiCH,) and -5.2 (SiCH,) ppm. IR (film): 1801 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (Cl) m/z (%) 547 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for C 28 H 43 O 5 SSi 2 (MH + ): 547.2370; found, 547.2375.

15 Data for 2b: Colourless oil. [a] 2 °= -87° (cl .7, in CHCh). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.77 (d, IH, ./ = 8.5 Hz, ArH), 7.69 (d, IH, ./ = 8.5 Hz, ArH), 7.57 (s, IH, ArH), 7.55 (s, IH, ArH), 7.43 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.36 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.23-7.12 (m, 4H, 4xArH), 4.89 (d, IH, J = 11.2 Hz, OCHH), 4.77 (d, IH, J = 11.2 Hz, OCHfl), 4.53 (dd, I H, J = 5.5 and 3.5 Hz, H-5), 4.48 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz, H-4), 3.81 (d, I H, J =

20 15.0 Hz, CHRAi), 3.66 (d, IH, J = 15.0 Hz, CUHAi), 2.56 (d, IH, J= 10.8 Hz, H-O 0x ), 2.44 (dd, IH, ./ = 10.8 Hz and 5.5 Hz, H-6 eq ), 0.95 (s, 9H, C(CHi)O, 0.73 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.17 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), 0.16 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ), 0.13 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ) and 0.03 (s, 3H, SiCH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 175.6 (C), 148.7 (C), 139.6 (C), 139.5 (C), 136.9 (C), 136.1 (C), 132.9 (C), 129.2 (C), 128.5 (C), 126.7 (CH), 125.9 (CH), 125.3

25 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.6 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 123.1 (CH), 122.3 (CH), 122.2 (CH), 121.7 (CH), 74.9 (C), 72.6 (CH 2 ), 67.1 (CH), 37.6 (CH 2 ), 29.9 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 25.4 (C(CH 3 ),), 17.9 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), -3.4 (SiCH 3 ), -3.6 (SiCH 3 ) and -4.5 (2xSiCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film) 1799 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 693 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 37 H 49 O 5 S 2 Si 2 (MH + ): 693.2560; found, 693.2464.

30 Example 63: (lR,4S,5R)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(thien-3-yljmethoxycrclohex-2-en- l,5- carholactone (3a). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound TV- 3 of example 18, but using silyl ether Ia as starting material (65 mg, 0.13 mmol) in 1.9 mL of THF and 0.29 niL de tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.29 mmol). Yield = 30 mg (86%). White foam. [α] 2 D °= -189" (cl .5, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.40 (dd, IH, J = 5.1 and 0.9 Hz, ArH), 7.12 (d, IH, J = 2.7 Hz, ArH), 6.99 (dd, IH, J = 5.1 and 3.6 Hz, ArH), 5.15 (s, IH, H-2), 4.99 (d, IH, J= 12.3 Hz, CTJHAr), 4.93 (d, IH, J = 12.3 Hz, CTWAr), 4.61 (m, IH, H-5), 4.08 (d, 1H, / = 3.3 Hz, H-4) and 2.32 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. n C NMR (75 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.2 (C), 155.3 (C), 146.0 (C), 139.6 (CH), 128.6 (CH), 127.7 (CH), 127.5 (CH), 127.5 (CH), 105.1 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 72.9 (C), 67.6 (CH 2 ), 65.5 (CH) and 38.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3463 (O-H) and 1774 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 269 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 2 H 12 O 5 S (MH + ): 269.0484; found, 269.0480.

Example 64: Sodium (IR, 4 S, 5R) - 1, 4, 5-trihydroxy- 3- (Men- 3-yl) methoxycycloh ex- 2-en- 1-carboxylate (Ih-6). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ib-I in example 19, but using carbo lactone 3a as starting material (29 mg, 0.11 mmol) in 1.0 mL of THF and 215 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 33 mg (97%). Beige solid. Mp: 125-128 0 C. [α] fl = -31 c (cl.2, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.48 (br d, IH, J = 5.1 Hz, ArH), 7.19 (d, IH, J= 3.0 Hz, ArH), 7.07 (dd, IH, J= 5.1 and 3.6 Hz, ArH), 5.06 (d, IH, J = 12.0 Hz, CiTHAr), 4.99 (d, IH, J= 12.0 Hz, CHTJAr), 4.97 (s, IH, H- 2), 4.05 (d, IH, J= 7.5 Hz, H-4), 3.96 (m, IH, H-5), 2.08 (dd, IH, J= 13.5 and 10.2 Hz, H-6 ax ) and 2.00 (dd, IH, J= 13.5 and 4.5 Hz, H-6 eq ) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 184.5 (C), 158.3 (C), 141.4 (C), 131.1 (CH), 130.3 (CH), 130.2 (CH), 103.7 (CH), 76.9 (C), 75.0 (CH), 72.6 (CH), 67.3 (CH 2 ) and 41.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3419 (O-H), 1653 and 1601 (C=O) Cm 1 . Example 65: (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[h]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-l,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2 - en-1 ,5-carbolactone (3b). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 3a by using silyl ether Ib (173 mg, 0.32 mmol) as starting material and tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.70 mL, 0.70 mmol) and THF (4.5 mL). Yield: 94 mg (92%). White solid Mp: 177-179 0 C. [a]^= -153° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.81 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.51 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.31 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 5.08 (s, IH, H-2), 4.84 (s, 2H, CH 2 O), 4.57 (m, IH, H-5), 4.08 (d, IH, J= 3.2 Hz, H-4) and 2.26 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.2 (C), 155.6 (C), 141.2 (C), 140.7 (C), 133.8 (C), 128.1 (CH), 125.1 (CH), 124.8 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 104.9 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 72.9 (C), 70.9 (CH 2 ), 67.7 (CH) and 38.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (film): 3431 (O-H) and 1763 (C=O) cm-'. MS (CI) m/z (%) 319 (MH " ). HRMS calcd for Ci 6 H 15 O 5 S (MH + ): 319.0640; found, 319.0640.

5 Example 66: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-[(benzo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methoxy]cyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (lh-7). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ib-6 using 20 mg (0.06 mmol) of lactone 3b, 125 μL of NaOH (aq.) and 0.6 mL of THF. Yield = 21 mg (98%). White solid. Mp: 157-160 0 C (dec). [α]i°= -26° (cl.4, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.99 (d, IH, J= 8.5 Hz,

10 ArH), 7.92 (s, IH, ArH), 7.63 (d, IH, , J = 5.2 Hz, ArH), 7.45 (s, IH, ArH), 7.42 (m, IH, ArH), 4.94 (m, 3H, CH 2 O + H-2), 4.09 (d, IH, ./ = 7.2 Hz, H-4), 3.98 (m, IH, H-5), 2.11 (dd, IH, J= 13.5 and 10.2 Hz, H-6 ax ) and 2.00 (dd, IH, J= 13.5 and 4.2 Hz, H-6 eq ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 182.1 (C), 156.3 (C), 140.3 (C), 139.9 (C), 133.3 (C), 128.5 (CH), 125.0 (CH), 124.5 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.4 (CH), 101.1 (CH), 74.4 (C),

15 72.6 (CH), 70.4 (CH 2 ), 70.2 (CH) and 39.5 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3419 (O-H), 1655 and 1597 (C=O) cm 4 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 359 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for Cj 6 H 16 O 6 SNa (MH 1 ): 359.0560; found, 359.0560.

Example 67: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(thien-2-yl)methoxy-2-(thien-2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l,5-carholactone (3c). The experimental procedure used was

20 the same as for compound 3a using 145 mg (0.24 mmol) of lactone 2a, 540 μL of TBAF and 3.5 mL of THF. Yield = 75 mg (86%). White solid. Mp: 95-97 "C. [αβ°= - 189° (cl.2, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.36 (d, IH, ./ = 4.8 Hz, ArH), 7.07 (m, IH, ArH), 7.02 (s, IH, ArH), 6.96 (m, IH, ArH), 6.81 (s, 2H, 2xArH), 5.22 (d, IH, J= 12.3 Hz, OCMi), 5.11 (d, IH, J= 12.3 Hz, OCHF), 4.61 (m, IH, H-5), 4.51 (d,

25 IH, J = 2.4 Hz, H-4), 3.76 (d, IH, J = 14.4 Hz, CflHAr), 3.64 (d, IH, J = 14.4 Hz, CHFAr), 2.38 (d, IH, J= 1 1.1 Hz, H-6 ax ) and 2.32 (dd, IH, J= 1 1.1 and 6.0 Hz, H-6 eq ) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.8 (C), 148.5 (C), 144.1 (C), 141.0 (C), 127.9 (CH), 127.7 (CH), 127.3 (CH), 127.3 (CH), 126.2 (CH+C), 124.0 (CH), 76.8 (CH), 73.6 (C), 66.1 (CH), 65.9 (CH 2 ), 38.4 (CH 2 ) and 24.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3498 (O-H),

30 3413 (O-H) and 1774 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (CI) m/z (%) 365 (MH 1 ). HRMS calcd for C n H 16 O 5 S 2 (MH 1 ): 365.0517; found, 365.0517. Example 68: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-1, 4-dihydroxy-3- (thien-2-yl)methoxy-2- (thien-2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (lb-8). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound lb-6 using 25 mg (0.07 mmol) of lactone 3c, 140 μL of NaOH (aq.) and 0.6 rnL of THF. Yield = 25 mg (97%). Biege solid. Mp: 178-181 0 C. [a]™= - 5 89° (cl .2, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.46 (d, IH, J = 4.8 Hz, ArH), 7.19 (dt, IH, J = 5.1 and 1.2 Hz, ArH), 7.13 (br d, IH, J = 2.7 Hz, ArH), 7.05 (ddd, IH, J = 5.1, 3.6 and 0.6 Hz, ArH), 6.92 (dt, I H, J = 3.6 and 0.9 Hz, ArH), 6.85 (m, I H, ArH), 5.18 (d, IH, J= 12.0 Hz, CMIO), 4.92 (d, IH, J= 12.0 Hz, CUHO), 4.37 (d, IH, J= 6.6 Hz, H-4), 3.93 (m, IH, H-5), 3.68 (d, IH, J = 15.6 Hz, CMIAr), 3.28 (d, IH, J = 15.6 Hz,

10 CUHAi), 2.16 (dd, IH, J = 13.8 and 11.4 Hz, H-O 8x ) and 2.03 (dd, IH, J= 13.8 and 3.3 Hz, H-6 eq ) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, D 2 O) δ 182.9 (C), 153.8 (C), 146.8 (C), 142.0 (C), 131.2 (CH), 130.3 (CH), 130.2 (CH), 129.8 (CH), 128.4 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 126.7 (C), 79.8 (C), 73.0 (CH), 72.9 (CH), 68.4 (CH 2 ), 41.7 (CH 2 ) and 29.8 (CH 2 ) ppm. TR (KBr) 3390 (O-H) and 1597 (C=O) cm "1 . EM (EST) m/z (%) 381 (M " ). HRMS calcd for

15 Ci 7 Hi 7 O 6 S 2 (M " ): 381.0461; found, 381.0461.

Example 69: (IR, 4S 1 5R)-3-[(benzo[b]tiophen-5-yl)methoxy]-2-[(benzo[b]thiophen-5 - yl) methyl) '- 1 ,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2-en- 1 ,5-carbolactone (3d). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 3a using 97 mg of ether 2b (0.14 mmol), 280 μL of TBAF and 2.0 mL of THF. Yield = 56 mg (86 %). White solid. Mp: 123-125 0 C.

20 -163° (cl .5, in acetone). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.74 (d, IH, J = 8.2 Hz, ArH), 7.61 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.49 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.39 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.19 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.10 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 5.13 (d, IH, J = 11.5 Hz, OCMi), 4.92 (d, IH, J = 11.5 Hz, OCH//), 4.57 (m, IH, H-5), 4.51 (d, IH, J = 3.2 Hz, H-4), 3.73 (d, IH, J = 14.2 Hz, CMIAr), 3.56 (d, IH, J = 14.2 Hz, CH//Ar) and 2.30

25 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, acetone-d6) δ 177.8 (C), 149.6 (C), 141.4 (C), 140.6 (C), 138.7 (C), 138.4 (C), 135.8 (C), 128.7 (CH), 127.7 (CH), 127.5 (CH), 125.8 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 125.3 (C), 125 3 (CH), 125 2 (CH), 125.1 (C), 124.2 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.1 (CH), 76.6 (CH), 74.2 (C), 71.4 (CH 2 ), 66.8 (CH), 38.9 (CH 2 ) and 30.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3452 (O-H), 3363 (O-H) and 1770 (C=O) cm '. MS (CI) m/z (%)

30 465 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 25 H 21 O 5 S 2 (MH + ): 465.0830; found, 465.0831. Example 70: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-[(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy]-2- [(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methyl]-l,4-dihydroxycyclohex-2-en-l -carboxylate (lh-9). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 3a using 25 mg (0.05 mmol) of lactone 3d, 0.1 mL of NaOH (aq.) and 0.4 mL of THF. Yield = 25 mg (99%). White solid. Mp: 197-200 0 C (dec). [α];° = -67° (cl.3, in 50% aqueous MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, 50% CD,OD/D 2 O) δ 7.66 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.47 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.26 (d, IH, ./ = 8.2 Hz, ArH), 7.14 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.05 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 6.98 (d, IH, J= 8.2 Hz, ArH), 4.84 (d, IH, J= 10.5 Hz, OCMI), 4.58 (d, IH, J = 10.5 Hz, OCHH), 4.41 (d, IH, ./ = 5.0 Hz, H-4), 3.98 (m, IH, H-5), 3.57 (d, IH, ./ = 15.7 Hz, CHHAΪ), 3.28 (d, IH, J= 15.7 Hz, CBHAr) and 2.20 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, 50% CD 3 ODZD 2 O) δ 181.9 (C), 153.1 (C), 141.9 (C), 141.6 (C), 141.0 (C), 139.7 (C), 138.8 (C), 135.3 (C), 128.9 (CH), 128.2 (CH), 127.6 (CH), 126.4 (CH), 125.8 (CH), 125.7 (C), 125.3 (CH), 125.0 (CH), 124.3 (CH), 123.9 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 78.5 (C), 72.2 (CH), 72.0 (CH 2 ), 70.9 (CH), 38.8 (CH 2 ) and 33.8 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3410 (O-H) and 1595 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 481 (M ). HRMS calcd for C 25 H 21 O 6 S 2 Na (M ): 481.0774; found, 481.0776.

Example 77: Methyl (1R,4S,5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2-

(benzo[b]thiophen-5-y1) methyl- 1, 4, 5-trlhydroxycyclohex-2-enecarboxylate (Ib-15). A solution of the corresponding carbo lactone 3d (57 mg, 0.12 mmol) in dry methanol (0 7 mL) and acetonitrile (0.7 mL) was treated with sodium methoxide (7 mg, 0.13 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hour and then it was diluted with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x3). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO^), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with (1 : 1) ethyl acetate/hexanes to afford methyl ester Ib-15 (24 mg, 40%) as white solid. Mp: 148-152 0 C. [α] 2(1 D +9° (cl.2, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.72 (d, IH, J = 8.4 Hz, ArH), 7.60 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.52 (br s, IH, ArH), 7.48 (d, IH, J = 5.4 Hz, ArH), 7.42 (d, IH, J = 5.4 Hz, ArH), 7.23 (dd, I H, ./ = 8.1 and 1.5 Hz, ArH), 7.17 (dd, 1 H, ./ = 5.7 and 0.6 Hz, ArH), 7.11 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 5.26 (d, IH, J = 11.1 Hz, OCffil), 4.87 (d, IH, J = 11.1 Hz, OCHH), 4.38 (d, IH, ./ = 7.5 Hz, H-4), 4.03 (m, IH, H-5), 3.55 (d, IH, ./ = 15.3 Hz, CΗHAr), 3.38 (d, IH, J= 15.3 Hz, CUHAr), 3.14 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.18 (dd, IH, J= 13.2 and 12.0 Hz, H-6 ax ) and 1.99 (dd, IH, J = 13.2 and 3.9 Hz, H-6 « ,) ppm. n C NMR (75 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 176.6 (C), 154.0 (C), 141.2 (2xC), 140.6 (C), 138.5 (C), 137.5 (C), 135.1 (C), 127.9 (CH), 127.2 (CH), 127.0 (CH), 125.9 (CH), 124.9 (CH), 124.7 (2xCH), 124.4 (CH), 123.2 (CH), 122.5 (CH), 120.8 (C), 77.0 (C), 72.9 (CH), 72.2 (CH 2 ), 71.3 5 (CH), 52.7 (OCH,), 41.5 (CH 2 ) and 33.1 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3410 (O-H) and 1734 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESl) rn/z (%) 519 (MNa 1 ). HRMS calcd for C 26 H 24 O 6 S 2 Na (MNa 1 ): 519.0907; found, 519.0901.

Example 72: Methyl (lR,4S,5R)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(thien-3-il)methoxy-2-(thien-3 - yljmethyl cyclυhex-2-en-l-carbυxylate (Ib-16). The experimental procedure used was

10 the same as for compound Tb-15 using 40 mg of lactone 3c, 6 mg of NaOMc and 1 .2 mL of methanol. Yield: 22 mg (51%). Beige solid. Mp: 55-57 0 C. [a]™= +7° (cl .l, in McOH). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CD 5 OD) δ 7.34 (dd, I H, ./ = 5.1 and 1.2 Hz, ArH), 7.10 (dd, I H, J= 5.1 and 1.2 Hz, ArH), 7.04 (m, I H, ArH), 6.95 (dd, IH, J = 5.1 and 3.3 Hz, ArH), 6.80 (dd, IH, J = 5.1 and 3.3 Hz, ArH), 6.67 (m, IH, ArH), 5.37 (d, IH, J= 11.4

15 Hz, CHHO), 5.01 (d, IH, J = 11.4 Hz, CHWO), 4.25 (d, IH, ./ = 7.8 Hz, H-4), 3.93 (m, IH, H-5), 3.61 (d, IH, J = 15.3 Hz, CJfHAr), 3.43 (d, IH, J = 15.3 Hz, CHJfAr), 3.33 (s, 3H, OCH,), 2.14 (dd, I H, J = 12.9 and 12.0 Hz, H-6 ax ) and 1.95 (dd, I H, J = 12.9 and 3.9 Hz, H-O 1x ) ppm. π C NMR (75 MHz, CD,OD) δ 176.2 (C), 153.7 (C), 144.1 (C), 141 .1 (C), 128.1 (CH), 127.4 (CH), 127.2 (CH), 126.9 (CH), 126.4 (CH), 124.3 (CH),

20 120.9 (C), 76.3 (C), 72.7 (CH), 71.1 (CH), 66.5 (CH 2 ), 52.8 (CH 3 ), 41.3 (CH 2 ) and 27.2 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3435 (O-H) and 1734 (C=O) cm 1 .

Example 73: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethyhilylυxy)-3-(benzυ[b]thiophen- 2- yl)methoxy-2-(thien-2-yl)methy1eye1ohex-2-en-l,5-earbolaeton e (2c). A solution of (IR, 4S, 5Λy-l,4-di(fert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohexan-l,5- carbolactone (500 mg,

25 1.25 mmol) in dry THF (12.5 mL) under inert atmosphere, was treated with a solution of LHMDS (1.9 mL, 1.87 mmol, IM in THF). The resultant mixture vvas stirred at room temperature for Ih and it was then treated with a solution of 2-iodomethylthiophene (560 mg, 2.5 mmol) in dry THF (4 mL). After 30 min., the solvent was removed and the obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography cluting with diethyl cth-

30 er/hexanes (5:95) to yield a mixture of C-alkylated products (206 mg, 33%). A solution of 50 mg (0.10 mmol) of the later mixture in DMF (0.5 mL) and toluene (0.5 mL), both dry, was treated with a solution of KHMDS (0.4 mL, 0.5 M in toluene) in dry DMF (0.2 mL). After 20 min, a solution of 2-(bromomethyl)benzo[&]thiophene (46 mg, 0.20 mmol) in 0.5 mL of DMF and 0.3 mL of toluene, both dry. After 40 min., water and diethyl ether were added, the organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with diethyl ether (x3). AU the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. 5 Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with a gradient of diethyl ether/hexanes [I 0 ) (0-100%), 2°) (5-95%)] to afford lactone 2c (28 mg, 44%) as a ycllow oil. -132" (cl .2, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.80 (m, IH, ArH), 7.72 (m, IH, ArH), 7.32 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.07 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 6.86 (dd, IH, J = 3.5 and 5.0 Hz,

10 ArH), 6.79 (d, IH, ./ = 3.5 Hz, ArH), 5.03 (s, 2H, OCH 2 ), 4.54 (dd, IH, ./ = 5.8 and 3.5 Hz, H-5), 4.44 (d, IH, J= 3.5 Hz, H-4), 3.87 (d, IH, J= 15.2 Hz, CMIAr), 3.74 (d, IH, J = 15.2 Hz, CHiTAr), 2.53 (d, IH, J = 10.8 Hz, H-6 ax ), 2.42 (dd, IH, J = 10.8 and 5.8 Hz, H-6 e q), 0.95 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.81 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ),), 0.20 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.18 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.16 (s, 3H, CH 3 ) and 0.06 (s, 3H, CH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ

15 175.2 (C), 148.2 (C), 142.7 (C), 140.0 (C), 139.9 (C), 139.1 (C), 129.7 (C), 126.4 (CH), 124.6 (CH), 124.3 (CH), 124.2 (CH), 123.6 (CH), 122.8 (CH), 122.6 (CH), 122.3 (CH), 74.6 (C), 74.5 (CH), 68.5 (CH 2 ), 67.3 (CH), 37.4 (CH 2 ), 25.6 (C(CHa) 3 ), 24.7 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 17.9 (C(CH 3 ),), -3.4 (CH 3 ), -3.5 (CH 3 ), -4.5 (CH 3 ) and -4.6 (CH,) ppm. IR (fi lm) 1797 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 665 (MNa + ). H RMS

20 calcd for C 3 H 46 OsS 2 Si 2 Na(MNa 1 ): 665.2217; found, 665.2225.

Example 74: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methoxy-2-(thien- 2- yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l,5-carholactone βe). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 3a using 15 mg (0.02 mmol) of ether 2c, 50 μL of TBAF and 0.4 mL of THF. Yield = 7 mg (84%). White solid. [a]f, = -155" (cl .2, in MeOH). 1 H

25 NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.71 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.25 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.18 (s, IH, ArH), 7.00 (dd, IH, J = 5.0 and 1.5 Hz, ArH), 6.74 (m, IH, ArH), 5.27 (d, IH, J= 12.5 Hz, OC//H), 5.17 (d, IH, ./ = 12.5 Hz, OCHW), 4.55 (m, IH, H-5), 4.47 (d, IH, ./ = 3.2 Hz, H-4), 3.78 (d, IH, J = 14.8 Hz, C#HAr), 3.63 (d, IH, J = 14.8 Hz, CHTTAr) and 2.29 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.8 (C), 148.6 (C), 144.2 (C),

30 142.3 (C), 141.6 (C), 140.9 (C), 128.0 (C), 127.3 (CH), 126.3 (CH), 125.6 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 124.8 (CH), 124.1 (CH), 124.0 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 73.7 (C), 66.8 (CH 2 ), 66.3 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ) and 24.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3452 (O-H) and 1770 (C=O) Cm "1 . MS (Cl) m/z (%) 415 (M H + ). HRMS calcd for C 2 iH 19 O 5 S 2 (MH " ): 415.0674; found, 415.0674.

Example 75: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(henzo[h]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy- 2-(thien-2-yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (Ib-13). The same experimental procedure was the same as for compound lb-6 (example 64), but using carbo lactone 3e as starting material (20 mg, 0.05 mmol) in 0.5 mL of THF and 97 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 22 mg (99%). White solid. Mp: 184 0 C (dec). [a] " °= -24° (cl.5, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, 50% CD,OD/D 2 O) δ 7.82 (m, IH, ArH), 7.77 (m, IH, ArH), 7.35 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.26 (s, 1 H, ArH), 7.10 (dd, I H, ./ 3.3 and 3.0 Hz, ArH), 6.82 (d, 2H, ./ 3.8 Hz, 2xAτH), 5.25 (d, IH, J 12.0 Hz, CMiO), 5.04 (d, IH, J 12.0 Hz, CHM)), 4.36 (d, IH, J 5.2 Hz, H-4), 3.92 (m, I H, H-5), 3.73 (d, I H, J 15.3 Hz, CWHAr), 3.31 (m, I H, J 15.3 Hz, CBHAr) and 2.10 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, 50% CD,OD/D 2 O) δ 180.8 (C), 152.0 (C), 145.4 (C), 142.7 (C), 141.5 (C), 140.9 (C), 127.1 (CH), 126.3 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 125.3 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 123.7 (2xCH+C), 123.3 (CH), 77.1 (C), 71.6 (CH), 70.0 (CH), 66.5 (CH 2 ), 37.4 (CH 2 ) and 27.2 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3442 (O-H) and 1668 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 431 (M " ). HRMS calculated for C 21 Hi 9 OsS 2 (MT): 431.0618; found, 431.0602. Example 76: Methyl (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4,5-trihydmxy-3-(henzo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l-carboxy1ate (Ib-14). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound lb-15 using 52 mg (0.16 mmol) of lactone 3b, 10 mg (0.18 mmol) of NaOMc and 1.2 mL of methanol. Yield: 38 mg (68%). White solid. [a]^= - 31" (c 1.4, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.89 (d, 2H, J 8.4 Hz, 2xArH), 7.58 (d, IH, J 5.7 Hz, ArH), 7.40 (dd, IH, J 8.4 and 1.2 Hz, ArH), 7.37 (d, IH, J 5.7 Hz, ArH), 4.98 (s, IH, H-2), 4.94 (s, 2H, CH 2 O), 4.02 (m, 2H, H-5 + H-4), 3.70 (s, 3H, OCH,) and 2.04 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. n C NMR (75 MHz, CD,OD) δ 176.7 (C), 158.9 (C), 141 3 (C), 134.3 (C), 128.2 (C), 128.1 (CH), 125.3 (CH), 124.9 (CH), 123.9 (CH), 123.4 (CH), 99.5 (CH), 74.3 (C), 74.0 (CH), 71.0 (CH 2 ), 70.5 (CH), 53.1 (CH 3 ) and 40.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3446 (O-H), 3305 (O-H) and 1732 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 373 (MNa + ). HRMS calculated for C n H 18 O 6 SNa (MNa + ): 373.0716; found, 373.0711. Example 77: Methyl (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiυphen-5-yl)methoxy-l,4,5- tributyroxycyclohex-2-en-l-carboxyiate (6b). A solution of ester lb-14 (15 mg, 0.04 mmol), pyridine (18 μL, 0.22 mmol) and butyryl chloride (23 μL, 0.22 mmol) in ace- tonitrilc (1 mL) at 0 0 C was stirred during 20 h during which time the reaction mixture 5 reached room temperature. Ethyl acetate and water were added and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (2x2 mL). AU the combined organic extracts were dried Na2SO4 (anh.), filtered and evaporated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with (30:70) diethyl eth- cr/hcxancs to yield ester 6b (18 mg, 80%) as yellow oil. +17" (rl .3, in CHCl,).

10 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.83 (d, IH, / 8.2 Hz, ArH), 7.73 (s, IH, ArH), 7.45 (d, IH, J 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.28 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 5.74 (d, IH, J 8.5 Hz, H-4), 5.45 (m, 2H, H- 5+H-2), 4.96 (d, IH, / 11.2 Hz, CiTHO), 4.87 (d, IH, / 11.2 Hz, CHlTO), 3.73 (s, 3H, OCH,), 2.50 (dd, IH, ./ 13.0 and 3 4 Hz, H-6, q ), 2.33-2.23 (m, 7H, 3xCH 2 +H-6 JX ), 1.70-1.51 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ) and 0.96-0.77 (m, 9H, 3xCH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz,

15 CDCl 3 ) δ 172.9 (C), 172.8 (C), 172.6 (C), 171.0 (C), 155.3 (C), 139.6 (C), 139.3 (C), 131.9 (C), 127.0 (CH), 123.7 (CH), 123.6 (CH), 122.5 (CH), 122.4 (CH), 97.5 (CH), 77.4 (C), 70.1 (CH 2 ), 69.9 (CH), 68.6 (CH), 52.9 (CH,), 36.1 (CH 2 ), 36.0 (3xCH 2 ), 18.3 (3xCH 2 ) and 13.5 (3xCH 3 ) ppm. IR (film) 1747 (C=O) cm "1 . Example 78: Methyl (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-l,4,5-

20 tripentyroxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate (6c). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 6b using pentanoyl chloride. Yield: 83%. Yellow oil. [α]^,° = +10° (cl.O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.83 (d, IH, / 8.3 Hz, ArH), 7.73 (br s, IH, ArH), 7.46 (d, IH, / 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.31 (d, IH, / 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.26 (dd, IH, / 8.2 and 1.5 Hz, ArH), 5.74 (d, I H, / 8.5 and 1.3 Hz, H-4), 5.45 (m, 2H, H-5+H-2),

25 4.96 (d, IH, / 11.5 Hz, CHRO), 4.86 (d, IH, / 11.5 Hz, CUHO), 3.74 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.49 (dd, IH, / 13.2 and 3.8 Hz, H-6 eq ), 2.36-2.24 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ), 1.94 (dd, IH, / 13.2 and 12.2 Hz, H-6 ax ), 1.62-1.43 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ) and 1.41-1.14 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ), 0.92 (m, 6H, 2xCH,) and 0.57 (t, 3H, / 7.3 Hz, CH,) ppm. 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl,) δ 174.8 (C), 173.1 (C), 172.8 (C), 171.1 (C), 155.3 (C), 139.6 (C), 139.4 (C), 131.9 (C),

30 127.0 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.7 (CH), 122.6 (CH), 122.5 (CH), 97.5 (CH), 70.2 (C), 70.1 (CH 2 ), 70.0 (CH), 68.6 (CH), 52.9 (CH,), 35.2 (CH 2 ), 34.0 (CH 2 ), 33.9 (CH 2 ), 33.8 (CH 2 ), 27.0 (2xCH 2 ), 26.8 (CH 2 ), 22.2 (2xCH 2 ), 22.1 (CH 2 ), 13.7 (2xCH 3 ) and 13.5 (CH,) ppm. IR (film) 1747 (C=O) cm '.

Examp le 79: Methyl (IR, 4S, 5R)-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methoxy-2- (benzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-l,4,5-tribwymxycyclohex-2-en-l -carboxylate (6d). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 6b using ester Ib-15. Yield: 87%. Beige solid. Mp: 96-98 0 C. -57° (cl .O, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.79 (d, IH, ./ 8.3 Hz, ArH), 7.71 (d, IH, ./ 8.7 Hz, ArH), 7.67 (s, IH, ArH), 7.56 (s, 1 H, ArH), 7.44 (d, 1 H, J 5.2 Hz, ArH), 7.39 (d, 1 H, J 5.0 Hz, ArH), 7.19 (m, 4H, 4xArH), 6.07 (d, IH, J 7.5 Hz, H-4), 5.47 (m, IH, H-5), 5.00 (d, IH, / 11.5 Hz, CHHO), 4.79 (d, IH, J 1 1.5 Hz, CBHO), 3.36 (d, 1H, J 15.0 Hz, CWHAr), 3.33 (d, IH, J 15.0 Hz, CHWAr), 3.31 (s, 3H, CH 3 O) 2.25 (m, 7H, 3xCH 2 and H-O 0x ), 2.09 (dd, IH, J 12.7 and 4.0 Hz, H-6 ec ), 1.66-1.54 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ) and 0.95-0.84 (m, 9H, 3xCH 3 ) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 174.9 (2xC), 173.4 (C), 172.5 (C), 149.0 (C), 139.7 (C), 139.6 (C), 139.4 (C), 137.6 (C), 135.0 (C), 132.7 (C), 126.9 (CH), 126.4 (CH), 125.6 (CH), 124.1 (C+CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.7 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 122.9 (CH), 122.4 (CH), 122.1 (CH), 75.1 (C), 72.2 (CH 2 ), 69.9 (CH), 69.0 (CH), 52.9 (CH 3 ), 37.7 (CH 2 ), 36.1 (2xCH 2 ), 32.3 (CH 2 ), 29.6 (CH 2 ), 18.3 (3xCH 2 ) and 13.6 (3xCH,) ppm. IR (film) 1730 (C=O) Cm 1 . Examp le 80: Methyl (IR, 4S, 5Rj-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-5-yljmethoxy-2- (benzo[h]thiophen-5-yl)methyl-l ' ,4,5-tripentyroxycyclohex-2-en- 1 -carboxylate (6e). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 6c using ester Ib-14. Yield: 87%. White solid. Mp: 82-84 0 C. [«]£'= -48° (cl 0, in CHCh). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.79 (d, IH, J 8.3 Hz, ArH), 7.71 (d, IH, J 8.3 Hz, ArH), 7.67 (br s, IH, ArH), 7.57 (br s, IH, ArH), 7.44 (d, IH, J 5.3 Hz, ArH), 7.39 (d, IH, J 5.3 Hz, ArH), 7.25 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.16 (dd, IH, ./ 8.3 and 1.5 Hz, ArH), 6.07 (d, IH, ./ 7.8 Hz, H-4), 5.47 (m, IH, H-5), 5.00 (d, IH, J 11.3 Hz, CWHO), 4.79 (d, IH, J 11.3 Hz, CWHO), 3.63 (m, IH, J 15.2 Hz, CWHAr), 3.37 (d, IH, J 15.2 Hz, CHWAr), 3.31 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.26 (m, 7H, 3xCH 2 +H-6 dx ), 2.09 (dd, IH, ./ 12.8 and 4.0 Hz, H-6,. q ), 1 60-1.47 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ), 1.36-1.20 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ) and 0.93-0.79 (m, 9H, 3xCH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 174.9 (2xC), 173.6 (C), 172.6 (C), 149.1 (C), 139.7 (C), 139.6 (C), 139.4 (C), 137.6 (C), 135.0 (C), 132.8 (C), 126.9 (CH), 126.5 (CH), 125.6 (CH), 124.1 (C), 124.1 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.7 (CH), 123.5 (CH), 122.8 (CH), 122.4 (CH), 122.1 (CH), 75.1 (C), 72.2 (CH 2 ), 69.9 (CH), 69.0 (CH), 52.9 (CH,), 37.7 (CH 2 ), 34.0 (2xCH 2 ), 32.3 (CH 2 ), 29.7 (CH 2 ), 26.9 (3xCH 2 ), 22.2 (3xCH 2 ) and 13.7 (3xCH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 1726 (C=O) cm "1 .

5 Example 81: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-buty1dimethylsilyloxy)-2-(l-phenyhinyl)-4, 5,6, 7- tetrahydrohenzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (7). A Shlenck tube wis charged with iodide VII of example 37 (190 mg, 0.34 mmol), Pd(PPk) 4 (40 mg, 0.03 mmol) and dry dioxane (3.4 mL). Anhydrous K 2 CO 3 (0.92 mL, 1.01 mmol, 1.1 M) and 1- phcnylvinylboronic acid pinacol ester (1 16 mg, 0.50 mmol) was then added and the

10 resultant solution was deoxygenated and heated at 100 0 C for 3 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Cclitc and the precipitate was washed with hexane. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated and the obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography, previously neutralized with 5% triethylamine-hexanes, eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (5:95) to yield thiophene

15 7 (105 mg, 58%) as a light yellow oil. [a]^= -46.6° (cl .9, in CHCU). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCK) δ 6.88-6.85 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.86 (s, I H, H-2), 5.56 (s, I H), 5.26 (s, I H), 4.86 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.67 (dd, J = 5.6 and 3.2 Hz, IH, H-6), 2.61 (d, J = 10.9 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ), 2.51 (dd, J = 10.9 and 5.8 Hz, IH, H-5 Lq ), 0.94 (s, 9H, C(CH 1 )O, 0.89 (s, 9H, C(CH,),), 0.23 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.21 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.20 (s, 3H, CH ,) and 0.1 1 (s,

20 3H, CH,) ppm. 11 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.1 (C), 145.3 (C), 143.1 (C), 141 .7 (C), 140.2 (C), 134.0 (C), 128.2 (2xCH), 128.1 (3xCH), 122.4 (CH), 1 14.0 (CH 2 ), 77.2 (CH), 75.3 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.8 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(OL) 3 ), 25.5 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.1 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.0 (C(CH 1 ),), -3.0 (CH,), -3,2 (CH,), -4.6 (CH,) and -4.6 (CH 1 ) ppm. IR (film) 1803 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 543 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 29 H^O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ):

25 543.2415; found, 543.2412.

Example 82: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-(l-phenylvinyl)-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (8). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 of example 32, but using silyl ether 7 as starting material (140 mg, 0.26 mmol) in 3.4 mL of THF and 0.65 mL de tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.65

30 mmol). Yield: 68 mg (84%). Colourless oil. [a]^ = -37.7° (tl .2, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.48-7.28 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.90 (s, IH, H-3), 5.59 (s, IH), 5.25 (s, IH), 4.82 (m, 2H, H-6+H-7) and 2.52 (m, 2H, H-8) ppm. n C NMR (63 MHz, CD,OD) δ 17« .2 (C), 147.1 (C), 145.0 (C), 142.6 (C), 141 .8 (C), 136.1 (C), 129.4 (3xCH), 129.3 (2xCH), 122.6 (CH), 1 14.6 (CH 2 ), 79.1 (CH), 74.8 (C) 66.7 (CH) and 38.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (film) 3408 (O-H) and 1778 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) ni/z (%) 315 (MH + ). HRMS calculated for CrHi 5 O 4 S (MH ): 315.0686; found, 315.0684. Example 83: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-(l-phenylvinyl)-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzofhJthiopken-4-carboxylic acid (Tc-IO). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I of example 33, but using lactone 8 as starting material (12 mg, 0.04 mmol) in 0.2 mL of THF and 0.1 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield: 12 mg (92%). Orange solid. 4.9° (cl.O, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.35 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.67 (s, IH, H-3), 5.54 (s, IH, CiTH), 5.19 (s, IH, CBH), 4.67 (d, J 8.3 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.14-3.96 (m, IH, H-6) and 2.31 (m, 2H, CH 2 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 179.4 (C), 145.5 (C), 143.1 (C), 141.7 (C), 140.5 (C), 137.4 (C), 128.8 (3xCH), 128.5 (2xCH), 124.3 (CH), 1 14.6 (CH 2 ), 74.0 (C), 72.3 (CH), 70.6 (CH) and 41 .3 (CH 2 ) ppm. TR (KBr) 3390 (O-H) and 1600 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (EST) m/z (%): 331 (M-H). HRMS calcd for C P H I 5 OSS (M-H): 331.0636 found, 331.0637.

Example 84: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-styryl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (10). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 7 (example 81), but using iodide VII of example 37 as starting material (150 mg, 0.26 mmol), Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (19 mg, 0.02 mmol), K 2 CO 3 (0.72 mL) and (£)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-styryl-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (91 mg, 0.40 mmol) in 2.65 mL of dioxanc. Yield: 94 mg (65%). Colourless oil. [a ]^= -21.2" (H .0, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.50 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.38 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.30 (m, IH, ArH), 7.20 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, IH, CZZ=CHAr), 7.03 (s, IH, H-3), 6.91 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, IH, CH=CZYAr), 4.90 (d, ./ = 3.0 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.71 (dd, J = 5.5 and 3.0 Hz, IH, H-6), 2.66 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, H-5 ax ), 2.56 (ddd, J = 11.0, 5.5, and 5.0 Hz, IH, H-5 eq ), 1.05 (s, 9H, C(CH,),), 0.99 (s, 9H, C(CH,)?), 0.32 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.30 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.26 (s, 3H, CH,) and 0.21 (s, 3H, CH,) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.1 (C), 143.5 (C), 142.1 (C), 136.6 (C), 133.2 (C), 129.1 (CH), 128.7 (2xCH), 127.8 (CH), 126.4 (2xCH), 121.8 (CH), 121.5 (CH), 77.2 (CH), 75.4 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.7 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (2xC(CH 3 ),), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH,) 3 ), -3.0 (CH 3 ), -3.2 (CH 3 ), -4.6 (CH 3 ) and -4.6 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (film) 1801 (C=O) Cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 543 (MH + ). HRMS calculated for C 29 H 4 ^O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 543.2415; found, 543.2422.

Example 85: (4R, 6R 1 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-styry1-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-

4,6-carbolactone (11). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 of example 32, but using silyl ether 10 as starting material (40 mg, 0.07 mmol) in

1.0 mL of THF and 0.18 mL de tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.18 mmol). Yield: 20 mg (87%). White solid. Mp: 196-200 "C (dec). [α]^ = 12.2° (rl .7, in McOH). 1 H

NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.50 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.33 (m, 3H, 2xArH+CZZ=CHAr),

7.25 (m, IH, ArH), 7.10 (s, IH, H-3), 6.93 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, IH, CH=CiZAr), 4.84-4.80 (m, 2H, H-7+H-6), 2.53 (m, 2H, H-5) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CD^,OD) δ 178.2 (C),

145.4 (C), 142.9 (C), 138.1 (C), 135.1 (C), 130.3 (CH), 129.8 (2xCH), 129.0 (CH),

127.5 (2xCH), 122.6 (CH), 122.3 (CH), 79.1 (CH), 74.9 (C), 66.8 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3490 (O-H), 3305 (O-H), 1782 and 1756 (C=O) cm "1 .

Example 86: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-styryl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4-carboxylic acid (Ic-Il). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I of example 33, but using lactone 11 as starting material (15 mg, 0.05 mmol) in 0.24 mL of THF and 0.14 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield: 14 mg (87%). White solid. Mp:

200 0 C (dec), [αg = 50.5° (tl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 7.54 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.41 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.32 (m, IH, ArH), 7.29 (d, J = 16.3 Hz, IH, CZZ=CHAr), 6.97 (d, J = 16.3 Hz, I H, CH=CZZAr), 6.81 (s, I H, H-3), 4.70 (d, J = 8.0Hz, IH, H-7), 4.06 (m, IH, H-6), 2.37 (m, IH, H-5 ax ) and 2.18 (m, IH, H-5 eq ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 180.6 (C), 143.7 (C), 140.6 (C), 138.6 (C), 137.0 (C), 129.3 (2xCH), 128.6 (CH), 128.3 (CH), 126.7 (2xCH), 124.5 (CH), 122.2 (CH), 74.3 (C), 72.4 (CH), 70.9 (CH) and 41.5 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3398 (O-H) and 1602 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%): 331 (M-H). HRMS calculated for C 17 Hi 5 O 5 S (M-H): 331.0635; found, 331 .0637.

Example 87: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-propyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4,6-carholactone (13). A suspension of thiophcnc V-8 of example 42 (76 mg, 0.30 mmol) and Pd(OH) 2 (15mg) in methanol (4.3 mL) was stirred under hydrogen atmos- phcrc at room temperature for 48 h. The mixture was filtered over Cclitc and the residue was washed with methanol. The filtrate and washings were evaporated to yield thio- phene 13 (74 mg, 97%) as a white solid. Mp: 120-125 0 C. -75.2° (cl.5, in MeOH) 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,0D) δ 6.75 (s, IH, H-3), 4.72 (m, 2H, H-6+H-7), 2.71 (t, ./ 7.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 Ar), 2.45 (m, 2H, H-5), 1.62 (m, 2H, CW 2 CH,) and 0.91 (t, ./ 7.3 Hz, 3H, CH.) ppm. "C NMR (75 MHz, CD.OD) δ 178.4 (C), 148.3 (C), 141.9 (C), 133.6 (C), 120.6 (CH), 79.1 (CH), 74.9 (C), 66.6 (CH), 38.4 (CH 2 ), 33.1 (CH 2 ), 25.9 (CH 2 ) and 13.9 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr): 3409 (O-H) and 1779 (C=O) cm "1 . Example 88: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenyl)ethyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- henzo[b]thιophen-4,6-carholactone (14). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 13, but using lactone 11 as starting material (77 mg, 0.24 mmol) in 3.5 mL of MeOH and 15 mg Of Pd(OH) 2 . White solid. Mp: 85-97 0 C. [a]^= -65.9° (fl .7, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.32-7.10 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.82 (s, IH, H-3), 4.78 (m, 2H, H-6+H-7), 3.09 (m, 2H, CZZ 2 CH 2 Ph), 2.93 (m, 2H, CH 2 Ph) and 2.50 (m, 2H, H-5) ppm. π C NMR (75 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.4 (C), 147.6 (C), 142.1 (C), 141.9 (C), 133.9 (C), 129.5 (4xCH), 127.2 (CH), 121.0 (CH), 79.2 (CH), 75.0 (C), 66.7 (CH), 38.9 (CH 2 ), 38.5 (CH 2 ) and 33.1 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3409 (O-H) and 1776 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 339 (MNa " ). HRMS calculated for C^Hi 6 NaO 4 S (MNa + ): 339.0662; found, 339.0667.

Example 89: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 6, 7-trihydro\y-2-phenethy}-4, 5, 6, 7-tetrahydroben- zo[b]thiophene-4-carboxylic acid (lc-12). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I of example 33, but using lactone 14 as starting material (20 mg, 0.06 mmol) in 0.3 mL of THF and 0.19 mL of LiOH (aq.). White solid. Mp: 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.29-7.07 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.54 (s, IH, H-3), 4.50 (d, IH, J 6.7 Hz, H-6), 3.97 (m, IH, H-7), 2.98 (m, 2H, CW 2 CH 2 Ph), 2.88 (m, 2H, CH 2 CW 2 Ph), 2.33 (dd, IH, J 13.5 and 9.7 Hz, H-5ax) and 2.14 (dd, IH, J 13.5 and 3.4 Hz, H-5eq) ppm. 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.4 (C), 146.1 (C), 142.4 (C), 140.4 (C), 138.9 (C), 129.5 (2xCH), 129.4 (2xCH), 123.7 (CH), 74.4 (C), 72.9 (C), 72.3 (CH), 41.3 (CH 2 ), 38.9 (CH 2 ) and 33.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 333 (M-H). HRMS calculated for Ci 7 H^O 5 S (M-H): 333.0791; found, 333.0792. Example 90: (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 6, 7-trihydroxy-2-propyl-4, 5, 6, 7-tetrahydroben- zo[b]thiophene-4-carbox\iic acid (lc-13). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I of example 33, but using lactone 13 as starting material (20 mg, 0.08 mmol) in 0.4 mL of THF and 0.24 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield: 21 mg (96%). White solid. 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.47 (s, IH, H-3), 4.46 (d, IH, J 5.9 Hz, H-6), 3.91 (m, IH, H-7), 2.61 (t, 2H, J 7.3 Hz, CH 2 ), 2.40-2.00 (m, 2H, CH 2 ), 1.56 (m, 2H, CH 2 ) and 0.86 (t, 3H, ./ 7.3 Hz, CH,) ppm. r 'C NMR (75 MHz, CD,OD) δ 179.5 (C), 146.8 (C), 140.1 (C), 139.0 (C), 123.5 (CH), 74.6 (C), 72.8 (CH), 72.3 (CH), 41.2 (CH 2 ), 33.3 (CH 2 ), 26.0 (CH 2 ) and 14.0 (CH,) ppm. MS (EST) m/z (%) 271 (M-H). HRMS calculated for Ci 2 Hi 5 O 5 S (M-H): 271.0635; found, 271.0630. Example 91: (4R, 6R, 7Sj-2-Ethyl-4,6, 7-trihydwxy-4,5, 6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]tiophene- 4-carboxyIic acid (Ic-14). The experimental procedure used was the same as for com- pound V-15 (example 52) but utilizing acid Ic-3 (18 mg, 0.070 mmol), 4 mg of Pd-C (10%) in methanol (0.7 mL). Yield = 13.9 mg (77%). Beige solid. Mp: 130 "C (dec). [o]]; -34.6° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, D 2 O) δ 6.40 (br s, IH, H-3), 4.55 (d, IH, J = 7.0 Hz, H-7), 3.91 (m, IH, H-6), 2.66 (q, 2H, J = 7.3 Hz, CZf 2 CH 3 ), 2.20 (m, IH, H-5 ax ), 2.04 (m, IH, H-5, q ) and 1.12 (t, 3H, J = 7.3 Hz, CH,) ppm. 13 C RMN (63 MHz, D 2 O) δ 180.8 (C), 149.6 (C), 138.4 (C), 137.6 (C), 121 .2 (CH), 74.3 (C), 72.3 (CH), 71 .0 (CH), 41 .4 (CH 2 ), 23.4 (CH 2 ) and 15.4 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3435 (O-H) and 1724 (C=O) cm \ MS (ESI) m/z (%) 257 (M-H); HRMS calcd for CnHi 3 O 5 S (M- H): 257.0478; found, 257.0469. Example 92: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-benzyl-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyhily\oxy)-4, 5, 6, 7- tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophen-4,6-carbolactone (20). A Shlenck tube was charged with iodide VII (example 37) (234 mg, 0.41 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .CH 2 Cl 2 (35 mg, 0.04 mmol) and dry dioxane (4.1 mL). K 2 CO, (1.12 mL, 1.23 mmol, 1.1 M) and 2-benzyl- 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaborolane (120 μL, 0.54 mmol) was then added and the resultant solution was dcoxygcnatcd and heated at 90 0 C for 9 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite and the precipitate was washed with hcxanc. The filtrate and the washings were concentrated. The obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (2:98) to afford benzyl tiophene 20 (60 mg, 28%) and thiophene V-I (42 mg, 22%). Colourless oil. [α] ; D °= -7.7 (cl .3, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.12 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.56 (s, IH, H-3), 4.63 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.47 (dd, J = 5.9 and 3.1 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.96 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, CiTHPh), 3.88 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, CHflPh), 2.42 (d, J =10.9 Hz, IH, H-5 eq ), 2.31 (dd, J = 10.9 and 5.9 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ), 0.78 (s, 9H, C(CH 1 ),), 0.74 (s, 9H, C(CH,),), 0.06 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.01 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.00 (s, 3H, CH 1 ) and -0.05 (s, 3H, CH,) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCh) δ 175.3 (C), 145.2 (C), 141.3 (C), 139.5 (C), 133.1 (C), 128.6 (2xCH), 128.5 (2xCH), 126.6 (CH), 121.2 (CH), 77.3 (CH), 75.5 (C), 66.3 (CH), 37.8 (CH 2 ), 36.4 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 25.6 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), -3.0 (CH 3 ), -3.2 (CH 3 ), -4.6 (CH 3 ) and -4.7 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (Film) 1801 (C=O) cm '. MS (CI) m/z (%) 531 (MH 1 ). HRMS calcd for C 28 H 43 O 4 SSi 2 (MH + ): 531.2421 ; found, 531.2438. Example 93: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-benzyl-4, 7-dihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4,6-carbolactone (21). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether 20 (57 mg, 0.11 mmol) in 1.5 mL of THF and 0.27 mL dc tctrabutylammonium fluoride (0.27 mmol). Yield: 29 mg (91 %). White solid. Mp: 116-118 0 C. [α]^°= -77.7 (c2.2, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.33-7.15 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.83 (s, I H, H-3), 4.83-4.66 (m, 2H, H-7+H-6), 4.10 (s, 2H, CH 2 Ph) and 2.48 (m, 2H, H-5) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD,OD) δ 178.4 (C), 147.6 (C), 142.1 (C), 141.4 (C), 134.7 (C), 129.7 (2xCH), 129.6 (2xCH), 127.7 (CH), 121.5 (CH), 79.1 (CH), 74.9 (C), 66.7 (CH), 38.5 (CH 2 ) and 37.2 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (Film) 3411 (O-H) and 1776 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 325 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 6 H 14 O 4 SNa (MNa + ): 325.0505; found, 325.0495. Example 94: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-benzyl-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-benzyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carbυxylic acid (Ic-15). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound Ic-I (example 33), using lactone 21 (24 mg, 0.08 mmol) in 0.34 mL of THF and 0.1 1 mL of LiOH (aq.). Yield: 24 mg (96%). White solid. Mp: 209-212 0 C. [α]*' = -14.6 (r2.0, in McOH). 1 H N MR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.35-7.10 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 6.61 (s, 1 H, H-3), 4.54 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 1 H, H-7), 4.04 (s, 2H, CH 2 Ph), 4.00 (m, IH, H-6), 2.34 (dd, J = 13.7 and 8.4 Hz, H-5 ax ) and 2.17 (dd, J = 13.7 and 3.3 Hz, H- 5 eq ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 180.8 (C), 145.7 (C), 141.7 (C), 140.4 (C), 140.2 (C), 129.7 (2xCH), 129.5 (2xCH), 127.4 (CH), 124.4 (CH), 74.6 (C), 72.6 (CH), 72.1 (CH), 40.4 (CH 2 ) and 37.3 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (film) 3419 (O-H) and 1604 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 319 (M-H). HRMS calcd for Ci 6 H 15 O 5 S (M-H): 319.0635; found, 319.0631. Example 95: (4R, 6R, 7R)-l-(2-(2-bromo)phenyl)ethy1-4, 7-di(tert-butyldimethyl- silyloxy)-4 ' ,5 ' ,6, 7 '-tetrahydro-lH-indole-4 ' ,6-carbolactone (22). A solution of allylketone III-l (example 2) (500 nig, 1.14 mmol) in dicloromethane (50 mL) was placed into a gas-washing bottle and cooled down to -78 0 C in a dry ice bath. The mixture was then flushed with argon for 5 min, oxygen for 5 min and then with an oxygea'ozone mixture for 12 min. The end of the reaction was indicated by a 5% potassium iodide/water solution turning orange, which was located at the exit. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was flushed for 10 min with argon to remove excess ozone. The gas-washing bottle was taken from the cooling bath and the content was slowly warming up to room temperature. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure to afford an oil (500 mg) which was dissolved in a 1 : 1 mixture of dichloromethane-acetic acid (2 mL). The resultant solution was treated at 0 0 C with 2-(2-bromo)phenylethylamine (0.18 mL, 1.25 mmol) and it was stirred for 30 min. The reaction mixture was neutralized with powdered sodium bicarbonate and it was diluted with dichloromethane and water. The organic layer was sepa- rated and the aqueous layer was extracted twice with dichloromethane. All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel, previously neutralized with triethylamine-hexanes (5:95), using diethyl ether- hcxancs (5 :95) as clucnt to afford compound 22 (150 mg, 23%) as a colourless oil. [a]™= -109.0 (cl.3, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.60-7.50 (m, IH, ArH), 7.15-7.07 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 6.60-6.55 (m, IH, ArH), 6.50 (d, ./ = 2.7 Hz, IH, H- 2), 6.14 (d, ./ = 2.7 Hz, I H, H-3), 4.50 (dd, J = 5.5 and 3.5 Hz, I H, H-6), 4.18 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.07 (m, 2H, NCH 2 ), 3.29-3.19 (m, IH, CΗHAr), 3.09-2.93 (m, IH, CUHAr), 2.47 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, H-5 eq ), 2.38 (dd, J = 10.5 and 5.5 Hz, H-5 ax ), 0.97 (s, 9H, C(CH,),), 0.88 (s, 9H, C(CH,),), 0.22 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.18 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.14 (s, 3H, CH,) and 0.14 (s, 3H, CH,) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCU) δ 175.9 (C), 137.2 (C), 132.6 (CH), 130.8 (CH), 128.7 (CH), 127.9 (CH), 124.7 (C), 123.8 (C), 123.4 (C), 121.2 (CH), 103.5 (CH), 76.5 (CH), 74.2 (C), 64.1 (CH), 46.5 (CH 2 ), 38.3 (CH 2 ), 38.2 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (2xC(CH 3 ) 3 ), 18.2 (C(CH 3 ),), 18.0 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), -2.9 (CH 3 ), -3.0 (CH 3 ), -4.1 (CH,) and -4.3 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr) 1799 (C=O) cm " ' . MS (CI) m/z (%) 606 and 608 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 29 H 45 O 4 NSi 2 81 Br (MH + ): 608.2050; found, 608.2043. Example 96: (8R, 9R.1 lRj-8,1 l-di(tert-butyldimethyhilyloxy)-5, 6, 8, 9, 10,11- hexahydroindolo[2,l-a]isoquinoline-9,ll-carbolactone (23). A Shlenck tube was charged with bromide 22 (150 mg, 0.25 mmol), PdCl 2 (PPh 3 ) 2 (68 mg, 0.10 mmol), triphenylphosphine (51 mg, 0.19 mmol), K 2 CO? (73 mg, 0.53 mmol) and dry DMF (1.5 mL). The resultant solution was deoxygenated and heated at 125 0 C for 16 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the resultant residue was dissolved in diethyl ether and brine. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (x2). AU the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), ficltcrcd and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by columm chromatography over silica gel, previously neutralized with tricthylaminc-hcxancs (5:95), using diethyl cthcr-hcxancs (5:95) as eluent to afford compound 23 (70 mg, 54%) together with 38 mg (25%) of starting material. Corrected yield = 72%. Colourless oil. [a]™= -25.3 (cl .2, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.32 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, I H, ArH), 7.08-6.89 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 6.32 (s, I H, H-3), 4.69 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, I H, H-7), 4.51 (dd, J = 5.7 and 3.2 Hz, I H, H-6), 3.77 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H, NCH 2 ), 2.84 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H, ArCH 2 ), 2.42 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, IH, H- 5 e q), 2.32 (dd, J = 10.7 and 5.7 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ), 0.84 (s, 9H, C(CHj) 3 ), 0.74 (s, 9H, C(CHj) 3 ), 0.10 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.07 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 0.05 (s, 3H, CH 3 ) and 0.01 (s, 3H, CH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 175.9 (C), 130.6 (C), 130.2 (C), 128.9 (C), 127.8 (CH), 127.2 (CH), 126.1 (CH), 124.5 (C), 124.4 (C), 122.7 (CH), 98.5 (CH), 76.7 (CH), 74.2 (C), 64.3 (CH), 41 .4 (CH 2 ), 38.5 (CH 2 ), 28.9 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CHj) 3 ), 25.6 (C(CHj) 3 ), 18.3 (C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 17.9 (C(CHj) 3 ), -2.9 (CH 3 ), -3.0 (CH 3 ), -3.7 (CH 3 ) and -4.5 (CH,) ppm. IR (KBr) 1795 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 526 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C 29 H 44 O 4 NSi 2 (MH + ): 526.2803; found, 526.2799. Example 97: (8R,9R,llR)-8,ll-dlhydroxy-5, 6,8,9,10,11-hexahydroindolof 2, 1- a]tioquinoline-9, l 1 -carholactone (24). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound V-2 (example 32), but using silyl ether 23 (50 mg, 0.10 mmol) in 1.3 mL of THF and 0.19 mL de tetrabutylammonium fluoride (0.19 mmol). Yield: 24 mg (86%). White solid. Mp: 157-161 "C. [α] 2 D °= -18.7 (rl .8, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.48 (d, ./ = 7.6 Hz, IH, ArH), 7.22-7.15 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.11-7.06 (m, IH, ArH), 6.53 (s, IH, H-3), 4.80 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.79-4.76 (m, IH, H-6), 4.06-4.02 (m, 2H, NCH 2 ), 3.08-2.93 (m, 2H, ArCH 2 ), 2.53 (d, J = 1 1 .2 Hz, I H, H-5 eq ) and 2.48 (dd, / = 11.2 and 5.2 Hz, H-5 ax ) ppm. 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.2 (C), 132.3 (C), 132.2 (C), 130.3 (C), 129.1 (CH), 128.2 (CH), 127.3 (CH), 126.1 (C), 124.6 (C), 123.5 (CH), 98.7 (CH), 79.2 (CH), 73.8 (C), 64.2 (CH), 42.5 (CH 2 ), 39.3 (CH 2 ) and 29.9 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3400 (O-H) and 1765 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 298 (MH + ). HRMS calcd for C n H 16 O 4 N (MH 1 ): 298.1074; found, 298.1075. Example 98: Ethyl (4 R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-phenethyl-4, 5,6, 7 '-tetrahydro- benzυ[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate (Ic-14). A solution of the lactone 14 (example 88) (20 mg, 0.06 mmol) in dry cthanol (0.6 mL) was treated with sodium cthoxidc (4 mg, 0.06 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 35 min and the solvent was then evaporated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes [ I) 50:50; 2) 100:0] to afford ethyl ester Ic-14 (10 mg, 43%) as well as 5 mg of lactone 14 (25%). Corrected yield = 59%. White solid. Mp: 118-120 0 C. [α]2,°= -5.4° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.23 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.15 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 6.45 (s, IH, H-3), 4.46 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.16 (m, 2H, OCH 2 ), 4.00 (ddd, J = 12.1, 8.1 and 3.6 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.03 (t, ./ = 7 5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 2.90 (m, 2H, CH 2 ), 2.35 (dd, J = 13.3 and 12.1 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ), 2.10 (dd, J = 13.3 and 3.6 Hz, IH, H-5 eq ) and 1.21 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH 3 ) ppm. n C NMR (100 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 175.7 (C), 146.4 (C), 142.3 (C), 142.2 (C), 136.7 (C), 129.5 (2xCH), 129.4 (2xCH), 127.2 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 74.4 (C), 74.3 (CH), 71.6 (CH), 62.9 (OCH 2 ) 42.8 (CH 2 ), 38.9 (CH 2 ), 33.1 (CH 2 ) and 14 5 (CH,) ppm. TR (KBr) 3456 (O-H), 3332 (O-H) and 1728 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (EST) m/z (%): 385 (MNa 1 ). HRMS calculated for Ci 9 H 22 O 5 SNa (MNa 1 ): 385.1080; found, 385.1070.

Example 99: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-methyl-4, 5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate (Ic-15). A solution of the lactone V-4 (ex- ample 35) (39 mg, 0.17 mmol) in dry methanol (1.7 mL) was treated with sodium me- thoxide (9 mg, 0.17 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 min. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). AU the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate- hexanes [I) 75:25; 2) 100:0] to afford methyl ester Ic-15 (38 mg, 86%) as white solid. Mp: 87-92 0 C. [«]J -8.2° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.45 (s, IH, ArH), 4.49 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.01 (ddd, J = 11.8, 8.1 and 3.6 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.74 (s, 3H, OMc), 2.40 (m, 4H, Mc+H-5 ax ) and 2.12 (dd, J = 13.7 and 3.6 Hz, 1 H, H-5 eq ) ppm. "C NMR (75 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 176.2 (C), 142.2 (C), 141.6 (C), 136.8 (C), 124.0 (CH), 74.5 (C), 74.3 (CH), 71.6 (CH), 53.2 (OCH 3 ), 42.8 (CH 2 ) and 15.4 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (NaCl) : 3420 (O-H) and 1736 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 281 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C n H 14 OsSNa (MNa + ): 281.0454; found, 281.0449.

Example 100: (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-Ethyl-4, 7-dihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetruhydrobenzo[b]thiophen- 4,6-carholactone (25). A suspension of vinyl lactone V-6 (example 39) (40 mg, 0.17 mmol) and 20% palladium hydroxide-on-carbon (8 mg) in methanol (2.5 mL) was stirred under hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 12 h. The mixture was filtered over Celite and the residue was washed with methanol. The filtrate and washings were evaporated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with diethyl ether-hexanes (70:30) to yield ethyl derivative 25 (37 mg, 90%) as white solid. Mp : 119-122 0 C. [ a f° -80.4° (cl .2, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.82 (s, IH, H-3), 4.78 (m, 2H, H-7+H-6), 2.83 (q, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, CiJ 2 CH 3 ), 2.55-2.43 (m, 2H, H-5) and 1 .28 (t, ./ = 7.5 Hz, 3H, CH ,) ppm. M C NMR (75 M Hz, CD 5 OD) δ 178.4 (C), 150.2 (C), 142.0 (C), 133.5 (C), 1 19.9 (CH), 79.2 (CH), 75.0 (C), 66.7 (CH), 38.5 (CH 2 ), 24.5 (CH 2 ) and 16.5 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3525 (O-H), 3458 (O-H), 1784 and 1761 (C=O) Cm- 1 .

Example 101: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-ethyl-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate (lc-16). The experimental procedure used was the same as for methyl ester Ic-15 utilizing lactone 25 (24 mg, 0.10 mmol) in dry methanol (1 mL) and 5 mg of sodium methoxide (0.10 mmol). Purification by flash chromatogra- phy eluting with ethyl acetate-hexanes [I) 80:20; 100:0] afforded methyl ester Ic-16 (9 mg, 33%) as colourless oil. [ α ] j ° -11.2° (cl.O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.47 (s, I H, H-3), 4.49 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, I H, H-7), 4.01 (ddd, J = 1 1.8, 8.1 and 3.6 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.73 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.76 (q, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, OCH 2 ), 2.35 (m, IH, H-5 ax ), 2.12 (dd, ./ = 13.3 and 3.6 Hz, IH, H-5^) and 1.25 (t, ./ = 7.5 Hz, 3H, CH,) ppm. n C NMR (75 MHz, CD,OD) δ 176.3 (C), 149.2 (C), 141.9 (C), 136.6 (C), 122.2 (CH), 74.6 (C), 74.3 (CH), 71.6 (CH), 53.2 (OCH,), 42.8 (CH 2 ), 24.6 (CH 2 ) and 16.4 (CH ,) ppm. IR 5 (film): 3373 (O-H) and 1736 (C=O) cm '. MS (ESI) m/z (%) 295 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 2 Hi 6 O 5 SNa (MNa + ): 295.0611; found, 295.0609.

Example 102: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 6, 7-triacetoxy-2-methyl-4, 5,6, '/ '-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate (26). A solution of the triol lc-15 (16 mg, 0.06 mmol) in dry pyridine (1 mL) and acetic anhydride (1 mL) was stirred at room temperature for

10 36 h. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate-hexanes (50:50) to afford acetate 26 (20 mg, 90%) as yellow oil. [ α ] j ° -100.4° (c2.2, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.78 (s, IH, H-3), 6.04 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, IH, H-7), 5.42 (ddd, J = 11.0, 7.8 and 4.1 Hz, I H, H-6), 3.77 (s, 3H, OMc), 2.74 (dd, J = 14.2 and 4.1 Hz, I H, H-5 eq ),

15 2.66 (dd, J = 14.2 and 11.0 Hz, IH, H-5 dx ), 2.41 (s, 3H, Me), 2.12 (s, 3H, Me), 2.10 (s, 3H, Me) and 2.05 (s, 3H, Me) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 170.6 (C), 170.1 (C), 170.1 (C), 169.6 (C), 141.3 (C), 136.7 (C), 133.0 (C), 124.6 (CH), 76.9 (C), 70.4 (CH), 69.6 (CH), 53.0 (OCH 3 ), 34.6 (CH 2 ), 21.1 (CH 3 ), 21.0 (CH 3 ), 20.9 (CH 3 ) and 15.4 (CH,) ppm. IR (NaCl): 1743 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 407 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd

20 for Ci 7 H 20 O 8 SNa (MNa + ): 407.0771 ; found, 407.0773.

Example 103: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-tributyroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate (27). A solution of triol Ic-15 (13 mg, 0.05 mmol), dry pyridine (24 μL, 0.30 mmol) and butyryl chloride (23 μL, 0.23 mmol) in dicloro- methane (0.5 mL) at 0 0 C was stirred during 12 h during which time the reaction mix-

25 ture reached room temperature. After this time more butyryl chloride (23 μL, 0.23 mmol) and dry pyridine (24 μL, 0.30 mmol) were added. After 8 h the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and the obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography eluting with (30:70) ethyl acetate-hexanes to yield ester 27 (15 mg, 65%) as a colourless oil. [„] » -71.5" (rl . l , in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ

30 6.77 (s, IH, ArH), 6.07 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, IH, H-7), 5.43 (ddd, ./ = 11.6, 8.2 and 3.7 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.77 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.76 (dd, J = 14.1 and 3.7 Hz, IH, H-5 eq ), 2.60 (dd, J = 14.1 and 1 1 .6 Hz, I H, H-5 ax ), 2.51 -2.19 (m, 9H, Mc+3xCH 2 ), 1.76-1 .54 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ) and 1.00-0.84 (m, 9H, 3xCH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 173.2 (C), 172.8 (C), 172.7 (C), 169.7 (C), 141.2 (C), 137.0 (C), 132.9 (C), 124.6 (CH), 76.9 (C), 70.5 (CH), 69.4 (CH), 52.9 (OCH,), 36.1 (CH 2 ), 36.1 (CH 2 ), 36.1 (CH 2 ), 34.9 (CH 2 ), 18.4 (CH 2 ), 18.3 (CH 2 ), 18.3 (CH 2 ), 15.5 (CH,), 13.6 (CH,), 13.6 (CH,) and 13.5 (CH,) ppm. IR (NaCl): 1741 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 491 (MNa 1 ). HRMS calcd for C 23 H 32 O 8 SNa (MNa + ): 491.1710; found, 491.1713.

Example 104: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-tripentyroxy-2-methyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzofbJthiophen-4-carboxylate (28). The experimental procedure used was the same as for ester 27 utilizing triol Ic-15 in dicloromethane (0.6 mL) and dry pyridine (24 μL, 0.30 mmol) and pentanoyl chloride (27 μL, 0.23 mmol). Yield : 19 mg (73%). Colourless oil. [a]-° -49.8° (cl .8, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 6.77 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, I H, ArH), 6.06 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, IH, H-7), 5.42 (ddd, J = 1 1.8, 7.8 and 3.8 Hz, I H, H-6), 3.77 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.75 (dd, J = 14.1 and 3.8 Hz, IH, H-5 cq ), 2.59 (dd, J = 14.1 and 11.8 Hz, IH, H-5 dx ), 2.50-2.20 (m, 9H, Me+3xCH 2 ), 1.72-1.50 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ), 1.46-1.16 (m, 6H, 3xCH 2 ) and 0.95-0.87 (m, 9H, 3xCH 3 ) ppm. n C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 173.4 (C), 172.9 (C), 172.8 (C), 169.7 (C), 141.1 (C), 137.0 (C), 132.9 (C), 124.7 (CH), 76.8 (C), 70.5 (CH), 69.3 (CH), 52.9 (OCH,), 34.9 (CH 2 ), 34.0 (CH 2 ), 34.0 (CH 2 ), 33.9 (CH 2 ), 26.9 (CH 2 ), 26.9 (CH 2 ), 26.8 (CH 2 ), 22.2 (CH 2 ), 22.2 (CH 2 ), 22.1 (CH 2 ), 15.4 (CH,) and 13.7 (3xCH,) ppm. IR (NaCl): 1743 (C=O) cm " ' . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 533 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 26 H 38 O 8 SNa (MNa + ): 533.2180; found, 533.2181. Example 105: Methyl (4 R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-2-cyclopropyl]vinyl-4, 6, 7-trihydroxy-4, 5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiυphen-4-carboxylate (Ic-17). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound lc-16 using compound V-12 (example 48) (40 mg, 0.14 mmol), sodium methoxide (8 mg) and methanol (1 .4 mL). Colourless oil [uf° +44.0"

(cl . l, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 6.52 (s, IH, ArH), 6.49 (d, J = 15.5 Hz, IH, CH=CiZAr), 5.54 (dd, J = 15.5 and 9.0 Hz, IH, CiZ=CHAr), 4.49 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.02 (ddd, J = 8.1, 3.7 and 12.0 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.75 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.35 (dd, J = 13.4 and 12.0 Hz, I H, H-5 ax ), 2.13 (dd, J = 13.4 and 3.7 Hz, I H, H-5 eq ), 1.49 (m, IH, CH), 0.79 (m, 2H, CH 2 ) and 0.46 (m, 2H, CH 2 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD,OD) δ 176.1 (C), 144.9 (C), 141.7 (C), 137.2 (C), 136.2 (CH), 122.5 (CH), 122.0 (CH), 74.4 (C), 74.2 (CH), 71.5 (CH), 53.3 (OCH 3 ), 42.7 (CH 2 ), 15.2 (CH) and 7.7 (2xCH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 3409 (O-H) and 1738 (C=O) cm- 1 . MS (ESl) m/z (%) 333 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 5 H 18 O 5 SNa (MNa + ): 333.0767; found, 333.0770. Example 106: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(£)-2-cyclopropyl]vinyl-4,6,7-triacetoxy-4,5,6,7- 5 tetrahydrobenzo[δ]thiophen-4-carboxylate (29). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 26 using triol Ie-17 (13 mg, 0.04 mmol), acetic anhydride (1 mL) and pyridine (1 inL). Colourless oil. [af* -23.3" (f 1 .1 , in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl,) δ 6.82 (s, IH, H-3), 6.45 (d, J = 15.6 Hz, IH, CH=CiZAr), 6.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH, H-7), 5.55 (dd, J = 8.8 and 15.6 Hz, IH, CfZ=CHAr), 5.41 (ddd, ./ = 8.0,

10 3.6 and 11.2 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.77 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.74 (dd, J = 14.4 and 3.6 Hz, IH, H- 5 eq ), 2.62 (dd, IH, J = 14.4 and 1 1.2 Hz, H-5 ax ), 2.13 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 2.10 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 2.05 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 1.52-1.43 (m, IH, CH), 0.80 (m, 2H, CH 2 ) and 0.47 (m, 2H, CH 2 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 170.6 (C), 170.1 (C), 170.0 (C), 169.4 (C), 144.1 (C), 136.6 (CH), 135.8 (C), 133.4 (C), 122.8 (CH), 120.1 (CH), 76.8 (C), 70.4 (CH),

15 69.5 (CH), 53.3 (OCH,), 34.6 (CH 2 ), 21.0 (CH,), 20.9 (CH,), 20.9 (CH,), 14.3 (CH), 7.5 (CH 2 ) and 7.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1743 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 459 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 2I H 24 O 8 SNa (MNa + ): 459.1084; found, 459.1070. Example 107: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-prop-l-enyl]-4, 6, 7-trihydroxy-4,5,6, 7- tetrahydwbenzofbJthiophen-4-carboxylate (Ic-18). The experimental procedure used

20 was the same as for compound Ic-16 using compound V-8 (example 42) (40 mg, 0.16 mmol), sodium methoxide (8 mg) and methanol (1.6 mL). Yield : 42 mg (93%). Colourless oil. [a] " °= +12.4" (cl .O, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 6.54 (s, I H, H- 3), 6.44 (dd, J = 15.6 and 1.3 Hz, 1 H, CH=CWAr), 6.02 (dq, J = 15.6 and 6.6 Hz, 1 H, CW=CHAr), 4.50 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, IH, H-7), 4.02 (ddd, J = 8.1, 3.7 and 11.9 Hz, IH, H-

25 6), 3.75 (s, 3H, OMc), 2.35 (dd, J = 13.3 and 1 1.9 Hz, I H, H-5 ax ), 2.13 (dd, ./ = 13.3 and 3.7 Hz, IH, H-5 eq ) and 1.82 (dd, J = 6.6 and 1.3 Hz, 3H, CH 3 ) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 176.1 (C), 144.8 (C), 142.2 (C), 137.1 (C), 126.8 (CH), 125.7 (CH), 123.0 (CH), 74.4 (C), 74.2 (CH), 71.5 (CH), 53.3 (OCH 3 ), 42.7 (CH 2 ) and 18.4 (CH,) ppm. TR (KBr): 3388 (O-H) and 1736 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (EST) m/z (%) 307 (MNa ).

30 HRMS calcd for Ci 3 H] 6 O 5 SNa (MNa + ): 307.0611; found, 307.0611. Example 108: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-2-[(E)-prop-l-enyl]-4,6, 7-triacetoxy-4, 5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxylate (30). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 26 using compound Ic-18 (22 mg, 0.07 mmol), acetic anhydride (1 rriL) and pyridine (1 mL). Yield : 23 mg (74%). White solid. Mp: 140-143 0 C. 5 [o]]; -56.0° (cl .9, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 6.84 (s, IH, H-3), 6.41 (dd, J = 15.6 and 1.1 Hz, IH, MeCH=C//), 6.11-5.96 (m, 2H, MeOY=CH+H-7), 5.42 (ddd, J = 7.8, 4.0 and 1 1.1 Hz, I H, H-6), 3.77 (s, 3H, OMc), 2.74 (dd, J = 14.2 and 4.0 Hz, IH, H-5 eq ), 2.63 (dd, J = 14.2 and 11.1 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ), 2.14 (s, 3H, AcO), 2.11 (s, 3H, AcO), 2.06 (s, 3H, AcO) and 1.82 (dd, ./ = 6.6 and 1.1 Hz, 3H, CH,) ppm. 13 C NMR (63

10 MHz, CD,OD) δ 170.6 (C), 170.1 (C), 170.1 (C), 169.4 (C), 144.1 (C), 136.2 (C), 133.3 (C), 127.5 (CH), 123.8 (CH), 123.3 (CH), 76.8 (C), 70.4 (CH), 69.5 (CH), 53.0 (OCH,), 34.6 (CH 2 ), 21.0 (CH 3 ), 21.0 (CH 3 ), 20.9 (CH 3 ) and 18.3 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr): 1745 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 433 (MNa + ). H RMS calcd for Ci 9 H 22 O 8 SNa (MNa + ): 433.0928; found, 433.0913.

15 Example 109: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4,6, 7-trihydroxy-2-styiyl-4, 5,6, 7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiυphen-4-carboxylate (Ic-19). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound lc-16 using compound 11 (example 85) (40 mg, 0.13 mmol), sodium methoxide (7 mg) and methanol (1.3 mL). Yield : 39 mg (89%). Yellow oil. [α] +56.2° (cθ.8, in CH 3 OH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.47 (d, J = 7.3 Hz,

20 2H, 2xArH), 7.32 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 7.22 (m, 2H, ArH+PhC#=CH), 6.87 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, I H, CW=CHPh), 6.81 (s, I H, H-3), 4.55 (d, ./ = 8.1 Hz, I H, H-7), 4.06 (ddd, J = 11.9, 8.1 and 3.7 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.77 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.39 (dd, J = 13.4 and 11.9 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ) and 2.17 (dd, J = 13.4 and 3.7 Hz, I H, H-5 eq ) ppm. π C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 175.0 (C), 143.6 (C), 142.6 (C), 137.2 (C), 136.6 (C), 128.8 (2xCH), 128.5 (CH),

25 127.8 (CH), 126.4 (2xCH), 124.2 (CH), 121.8 (CH), 73.4 (C), 73.3 (CH), 70.5 (CH), 52.3 (OCH 3 ) and 41.7 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (film) 3390 (O-H) and 1736 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%): 369 (MNa + ). HRMS calculated for Ci 8 H 18 O 5 SNa (MNa " ): 369.0767; found, 369.0767.

30 Example 110: Methyl (4R, 6R, 7S)-4, 7-dihydroxy-2-styιyl-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro- benzo[b]thiophen-4-carboxy!ate (Ic-20). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound 26 using compound Ic-19 (24 mg, 0.06 mmol), acetic anhydride (1 mL) and pyridine (1 mL). Yield : 27 mg (84%). Beige solid. Mp: 160-163 0 C. [Ct] 1 2 , 0 = -7.4° (cl 2, in CHCl,). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.36 (d, ./ = 7 3 Hz, 2H, 2xArH), 7.30-7.08 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.05 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, IH, PhCiZ=CH), 7.02 (s, IH, H-3), 6.80 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, IH, Ci7=CHPh), 6.02 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, IH, H-7), 5.40 (ddd, J = 5 1 1.1 , 7.8 and 3.9 Hz, I H, H-6), 3.73 (s, 3H, OMc), 2.70 (dd, J = 14.2 and 3.9 Hz, I H, H-5 eq ), 2.57 (dd, J = 14.2 and 11.1 Hz, IH, H-5 ax ), 2.10 (s, 3H, AcO), 2.06 (s, 3H, AcO) and 2.01 (s, 3H, AcO) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, CDCl,) δ 170.6 (C), 170.1 (C), 170.0 (C), 169.4 (C), 143.8 (C), 137.4 (C), 136.3 (C), 129.6 (CH), 128.7 (2xCH), 128.0 (CH), 126.4 (2xCH), 125.5 (CH), 121.0 (CH), 76.7 (C), 70.4 (CH), 69.4 (CH), 53.0 (OCH 3 ),

10 34.8 (CH 2 ), 21.0 (CH 3 ), 21.0 (CH 3 ) and 20.9 (CH 3 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 1743 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%): 495 (MNa " ). HRMS calculated for C 24 H 24 O 8 SNa (MNa " ): 495.1084; found, 495.1067.

Example 111 : (IR, 4 S, 5R)-l,4-Dihydroxy-3-(2-naphyl)nιethoxycyclohex-2-en-l,5- carbolactone (31) and (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(2-naphyl)methoxy-2-(2-

15 naphyl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone (32). To a solution of KHMDS (4 mL, 2.0 mmol, 0.5 M in toluene) in dry DMF (2 mL), under argon and at -78 "C, a solution of (IR, 4S, 5 /?j-l ,4-di(ferf-butyldirncthylsi1yloxy)-3-oxocyclohcxan-l ,5-carbolactonc (400 mg, 1.00 mmol) in 10 mL of a mixture of DMF and toluene (1 : 1), both dry, was added. The resultant solution was stirred at this temperature for 30 min. A solution of 2-

20 (bromomethyl)naphtalene (442 mg, 2.00 mmol) in 8 mL of a mixture DMF and toluene (3 :2), both dry, was then added. After 1 h, water and brine were added. The aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 2 mL). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether/hexanes [I 0 ) 5:95; 2°)

25 10:90] to afford 57 mg (10%) of (IR, 4S, 5Λ>l,4-di(fert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-(2- napbyl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolactone and 75 mg (11%) of (IR, 4S, 5R)- 1,4- di(fe?t-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-(2-naphyl)methoxy-2-(2-naph yl)methylcyclohex-2-en- 1,5-carbolactone. Both compounds were deprotected using the same experimental procedure as for compound IV-3 (example 18) to afford diol 31 (20 mg, 61%) and diol 32

30 (32 mg, 64%), respectively.

Data for diol 31: Colourless oil. -112° (cl .O, in MeOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.79 (m, 4H, 4xArH), 7.44 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 5.01 (s, IH, H-2), 4.91 (s, 2H, OCH 2 Ar), 4.59 (m, IH, H-5), 4.11 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz, H-4) and 2.27 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. 1 3 C NMR (63 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 179.3 (C), 155.8 (C), 135.3 (C), 134.8 (C), 134.6 (C), 129.2 (CH), 129.0 (CH), 128.7 (CH), 127.6 (CH), 127.3 (CH), 127.2 (CH), 126.6 (CH),

105.1 (CH), 77.0 (CH), 73.0 (C), 70.9 (CH 2 ), 67.8 (CH) and 38.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (film) 5 3446 (O-H) and 1770 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 335 (MNa 1 ). HRMS calcd for

Ci 8 H 16 O 5 Na (MNa 1 ): 335.0890; found, 335.0889.

Data for diol 32: White solid. Mp: 203-207 0 C. -190° (cl .4, in acetone). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, acctonc-d 6 ) δ 7.89-7.65 (m, 8H, 8xArH), 7.53-7.37 (m, 6H, 6xArH), 5.33 (d, IH, J = 11.8 Hz, CHHO), 5.15 (d, IH, J = 11.8 Hz, CH#O),4.69 (m, 2H, H-

10 4+H-5), 3.92 (d, IH, J = 14.5 Hz, CiTHAr), 3.74 (d, IH, J= 14.5 Hz, CHHAi), 2.53 (d, I H 1 J = 1 1 .0 Hz, H-6 eq ) and 2.41 (dd, I H 1 J = 1 1 .0 and 5.7 Hz, H-6 ax ) pρm. "C NMR (63 MHz, acetone-d 6 ) δ 177.8 (C), 149.8 (C), 140.1 (C), 140.1 (C), 137.1 (C), 135.2 (C), 134.9 (C), 134.6 (C), 133.6 (C), 129.5 (CH), 129.5 (CH), 129.4 (CH), 129.1 (CH), 129.0 (CH), 128.9 (CH), 128.7 (CH), 128.4 (CH), 127.7 (CH), 127.6 (CH), 127.5 (CH),

15 127.2 (CH), 127.0 (CH), 126.4 (CH), 76.7 (CH), 74.3 (C), 71.4 (CH 2 ), 66.9 (CH), 38.9 (CH 2 ) and 31.2 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3460 (O-H), 3346 (O-H) and 1768 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 475 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for C 29 H 24 O 5 Na (MNa + ): 475.1516; found, 475.1511. Example 112: Sodium (lR,4S,5R)-l,4-trihydroxy-3-(2-naphyl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l -

20 carboxylate (Ib-10). The same experimental procedure was the same as for compound Ib-I (example 19) using carbolactone 31 (8 mg, 0.02 mmol) in 0.2 mL of THF and 51 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 9 mg (99%). Beige solid. Mp: 54 0 C (dec). -12° (cl . l, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, 50% CD 3 ODZD 2 O) δ 7.93 (m, 4H, 4xArH), 7.57 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 5.04 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, IH, CHHO), 4.97 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, IH, CHHO),

25 4.95 (s, IH, H-2), 4.09 (d, IH, J = 6.0 Hz, H-4), 4.01 (m, IH, H-5), 2.16 (dd, J = 13.8 and 8.1 Hz, 1 H, H-O 3x ) and 2.06 (dd, I H, J = 13.8 and 3.9 Hz, H-O 1x ,) ppm. "C NMR (75 MHz, 50% CD 3 OD/D 2 O) δ 182.1 (C), 157.0 (C), 135.4 (C), 134.3 (C), 134.1 (C),

129.2 (CH), 128.9 (CH), 128.6 (CH), 127.5 (CH), 127.4 (CH), 127.3 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 102.2 (CH), 74.8 (CH), 72.8 (C), 70.9 (CH), 70.6 (CH 2 ) and 38.7 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr)

30 3435 (O-H) and 1660 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 375 (MNa + ). HRMS calcd for Ci 8 H 17 O 6 Na 2 (MNa + ): 375.0815; found, 375.0817. Example 113: Sodium (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4,5-trihydroxy-3-(naphth-2-yl)methoxy-2-(naphth- 2-yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (Ib-Il). The same experimental procedure was the same as for compound Ib-I (example 19) using carbo lactone 32 (29 mg, 0.06 mmol) in 0.6 mL of THF and 120 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 28 mg (95%). White solid. Mp: 184-187 0 C [α];° = -4° (cl . l, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, 50% D 2 OZCD 3 CN) δ 7.76- 7.57 (m, 6H, 6xArH), 7.46-7.29 (m, 7H, 7xArH), 7.15 (br d, J= 8.2 Hz, IH, ArH), 4.92 (d, ./= 11.2 Hz, IH, CTTHO), 4.71 (d, ./= 11.2 Hz, IH, CHTTO), 4.33 (d, ./ = 3.0 Hz, IH, H-4), 3.88 (m, IH, H-5), 3.60 (d, J = 15.7 Hz, IH, CTTHAr), 3.22 (d, J = 15.7 Hz, IH, CHTTAr) and 2.10 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. 13 C NMR (63 MHz, 50% D 2 OZCD 3 CN) δ 180.5 (C), 151.9 (C), 140.1 (C), 136.0 (C), 134.2 (C), 133.7 (C), 133.5 (C), 132.5 (C), 128.7 (CH), 128.6 (CH), 128.5 (CH), 128.3 (CH), 128.2 (2xCH), 127.9 (CH), 127.3 (CH), 127.1 (CH), 126.9 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 126.5 (CH), 125.7 (CH), 122.3 (C), 76.9 (C), 70.8 (CH), 70.4 (CH 2 ), 69.2 (CH), 36.8 (CH 2 ) and 32.7 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3435 (O-H) and 1660 (C=O) cm 1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 493 (MH + ). HRMS calculated for C 29 H 26 O 6 Na (MH + ): 493.1622; found, 493.1620.

Example 114: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethyhilyloxy)-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-5- yl)methyl-3-(thien-2-yl)methoxycyclohex-2-en-l,5-carholacton e (33). A solution of (IR, 4S, 5T?y-l,4-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3-oxocyclohexan-l,5- carbolactone (350 mg, 0.87 mmol) in 17.5 mL of dry THF was treated with LHMDS (1.3 mL, 1.31 mmol) at room temperature. After Ih, 2-iodomethylbenzothiophene (480 mg, 1.75 mmol) was added and the resultant mixture was stirred for 40 min. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and diethyl ether. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 25 mL). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. Na 2 SO^, filtered and concentrated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl etherZhexanes [I 0 ) O 1 100; 2°) 10:90] to afford 158 mg (33%) of the corresponding alkylated ketone. Then, to a stirred solution of KHMDS (1.2 mL, 0.58 mmol, 0.5 M in toluene) in dry DMF (1.4 mL), under argon and at -78 0 C, a solution of the previously obtained ketone (158 mg) in 2.8 mL of a mixture of DMF and toluene (1 :1), both dry, was added. The resultant solution was stirred at this temperature for 30 min. A solution of 2-(bromomethyl)thiophene (102 mg, 0.58 mmol) in 2.4 mL of a mixture DMF and toluene (1 4: 1), both dry, was then added. After 1 h, water and brine were added. The aqueous phase was extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 2 mL). All the combined organic extracts were dried (anh. MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated. The obtained residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel eluting with diethyl ether/hexanes [I 0 ) 5:95; 2°) 10:90] to afford 54 mg (29%). Colourless oil. [a]^= -111° (tl.3, in CHCl 3 ). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CDCl,) δ 7.55 (d, IH, ./ = 8.2 Hz, ArH), 7.43 (s, IH, ArH), 7.20 (d, IH, J = 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.11-6.97 (m, 5H, 5xArH), 4.73 (d, IH, ./ = 12.2 Hz, OCHH), 4.68 (d, IH, J =

12.2 Hz, OCHH), 4.39 (dd, IH, J = 5.5 and 3.5 Hz, H-5), 4.26 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz, H-4), 3.63 (d, IH, J = 15.0 Hz, CJfflAr), 3.49 (d, IH, J = 15.0 Hz, CHHAr), 2.37 (d, IH, J = 11.0 Hz, H-6 ax ), 2.25 (dd, IH, J = 11.0 and 6.0 Hz, H-6 eq ), 0.79 (s, 9H, C(CHi) 3 ), 0.54 (s, 9H, C(CH,),), 0.04 (s, 3H, CH,), 0.02 (s, 3H, CH,), -0.05 (s, 3H, CH,) and -0.15 (s, 3H, CH,) ppm. "C NMR (63 MHz 5 CDCl 3 ) δ 175.5 (C), 148.3 (C), 139.7 (C), 138.8 (C), 136.0 (C), 130.3 (C), 127.8 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 126.6 (CH), 126.0 (CH), 125.4 (CH), 124.5 (C), 123.7 (CH), 123.1 (CH), 121.8 (CH), 77.5 (C), 74.7 (CH), 67.4 (CH 2 ),

67.3 (CH), 37.6 (CH 2 ), 30.1 (CH 2 ), 25.7 (C(CH,),), 25.4 (C(CH,),), 18.0 (C(CH,),), -3.3 (CH,), -3.5 (CH,) and -4.5 (2xCH,) ppm. TR (film) 1799 (C=O) cm "1 . MS (ESI) m/z (%) 643 (MH ). HRMS calculated for C 33 H 47 O^S 2 Si 2 (MH 1 ): 643.2398; found,

643.2393.

Example 115: (IR, 4S, 5R)-l,4-dihydroxy-3-(thien-2-yl)nιethoxy-2-(benzo[b]thiophe n-

2-yl)methyltyclohex-2-en-l,5-carbolattone (34). The experimental procedure used was the same as for compound TV-3 (example 18) using 40 mg (0.06 mmol) of ether 33, 140 μL of TBAF and 0.9 mL of THF. Yield = 22 mg (88%). Yellow solid. Mp: 140-143 0 C. [αlj= -l48" (f1.2, in McOH). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, CD,OD) δ 7.67 (d, 2H, J = 8.2 Hz, 2xArH), 7.44 (d, IH, J= 5.5 Hz, ArH), 7.36 (dd, J= 5.0 and 1.2 Hz, IH, ArH), 7.26 (br d, IH, J = 8.2 Hz, ArH), 7.22 (d, IH, J= 5.5 Hz, ArH), 6.97 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 5.21 (d, IH, J= 12.2 Hz, OCHH), 5.09 (d, IH, J= 12.2 Hz, OCHiT), 4.62 (m, IH, H-5), 4.55 (d, IH, J = 3.5 Hz, H-4), 3.74 (d, IH, J = 14.0 Hz, CHHAr), 3.57 (d, IH, J = 14.0 Hz, CHWAr), 2.38 (d, 1 H, J = 1 1.0 Hz, H-6 ax ) and 2.31 (dd, 1 H, J = 1 1.0 and 5.2 Hz, H-6 eq ) ppm. "C NMR (63 MHz, CD,OD) δ 178.9 (C), 148.4 (C), 141.2 (C), 141.1 (C), 138.5 (C), 138.0 (C), 128.1 (CH), 127.7 (CH), 127.4 (CH), 127.1 (CH), 127.0 (C+CH), 124.8 (CH), 124.7 (CH), 122.6 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 73.9 (C), 66.2 (CH 2 ), 65.8 (CH), 38.5 (CH 2 ) and 30.6 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3483 (O-H), 3429 (O-H) and 1749 (C=O) cm "1 MS (ESI) m/z (%) 437 (MNa + ). HRMS calculated for C 2I H 18 O 5 S 2 Na (MNa " ): 437.0488; found, 437.0481.

Example 116: Sodium (IR, 4 S, 5R)-l,4,5-tήhydroxy-3-(thien-2-yl)methoxy-2- (benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)methylcyclohex-2-en-l-carboxylate (Ib-12). The same experi- 5 mental procedure was the same as for compound Ib-I (example 19) using carbolactone 34 (20 mg, 0.05 mmol) in 0.5 mL of THF and 97 μL of NaOH (aq.). Yield = 22 mg (97%). White solid. Mp: 191-194 0 C [a]^= -55° (cl .2, in H 2 O). 1 H NMR (250 MHz, 50% D 2 OZCD 5 CN) δ 8.27 (d, IH, ./ = 8.5 Hz, ArH), 8.21 (br s, IH, ArH), 8.01 (d, ./ = 5.5 Hz, IH, ArH), 7.82 (m, 3H, 3xArH), 7.44 (m, 2H, 2xArH), 5.51 (d, IH, . J = 11.5 Hz,

10 OCHH), 5.35 (d, IH, J = 11.5 Hz, OCBH), 4.84 (m, IH, H-4), 4.41 (m, IH, H-5), 4.16 (d, IH, J = 15.2 Hz, CJ/HAr), 3.66 (d, IH, J = 15.2 Hz, CH/YAr) and 2.61 (m, 2H, H-6) ppm. H C NM R (63 MHz, 50% D 2 O/CD,CN) δ 180.5 (C), 151.4 (C), 140.7 (C), 140.5 (C), 138.5 (C), 137.4 (C), 127.9 (CH), 127.6 (CH), 127.2 (CH), 127.2 (CH), 126.7 (CH), 124.8 (CH), 124.2 (C), 123.7 (C), 122.4 (CH), 76.9 (C), 70.7 (CH), 69.5 (CH),

15 65.3 (CH 2 ), 37.2 (CH 2 ) and 32.4 (CH 2 ) ppm. IR (KBr) 3408 (O-H) and 1605 (C=O) cm

Example 117: Effect of compounds of formula I of the invention on the catalytic activity of the type II dehydroquinase from various sources. The inhibitory potency of compounds T of the invention against type II dchydroquinascs from Mycobacterium tuhercu-

20 losis, Streptomyces cυelicυlor and Helicobacter pylori were assayed as it is described in the following articles: 1) Sanchez-Sixto, C; Prazeres, V. F. V.; Castedo, L.; Lamb, H.; Hawkins, A. R.; Gonzalez-Bello, C. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4871; 2) Prazeres, V. F. V.; Sanchez-Sixto, C; Castedo, L.; Lamb, H .; Hawkins, A. R.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffc; Coggins, J. R.; Lapthorn, A. J.; Gonzalez-Bello, C. ChemMedChem 2007, 2, 194; and 3)

25 Sanchez-Sixto, C; Prazeres, V. F. V.; Castedo, L.; S. W. Suh, Lamb, H.; Hawkins, A. R.; Canada, F. J.; Jimenez-Barbero, J.; Gonzalez-Bello, C. ChemMedChem 2008, 3, 756. The inhibition data (K 1 ) are summarized in Table 1.

30 Table 1. Inhibition constants K 1 (μM) of compounds I against type I l dchydroquinascs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori and Streptomyces coelicolor! 1 Compound M. tuberculo- H. pylori S. coeli-

(2R)-Ia-I 0.76 9.4 10.2

(2S)-Ia-I 1.85 21.5 6.7

(2R)-la-2 1.70 20 76

(2R)-la-3 0.10 1.40 1.55

(2S)-Ia-I 0.09 1.18 1.05

(2Λ)-Ia-4 0.089 0.25 0.022

(2S)-la-4 0.09 0.97 0.15

(2/J)-Ta-S 0.025 0.17 0.034

(2S)-Ia-S 0.10 1.40 0.34

(2R)-la-6 0.047 2.6 0.242

(2S)-la-6 0.074 0.97 0.0065

(2R)-Ia-I 0.029 0.16 0.004

(2S)-Ia-I 0.055 0.90 0.038

Ib-I 0.0032 0.16 0.00048

Ib-2 0.00425 0.14 0.0028

Tb-3 0.040 0.097 0.0024

Ib-4 0.19 0.07 0.013

Ib-5 1.24 1.10 0.015

Ib-6 0.92 0.14

Ib-8 15 0.14

Ib-7 0.031 0.166 0.0003

Ib-9 0.140 0.024

Ib-.1O <0.00026

Ib-Il 0.032

Ib-12 0.046 0.279 Ib-13 0.021 0.280

Ic-I 3.0 34 9.7

Ic-2 0.40 1.60 3.15

Ic-3 0.052 1.25 0.81

Ic-4 0.097 0.35 0.093

Ic-5 0.86 38 1.88

Ic-6 0.1 1 1.08 0.0003

Tc-7 0.097 >150 0.085

Ic-8 0.090 0.60 0.00085

Ic-9 0.185 3.4 0.80

Ic-IO 20.5 4.65

Tc-I l 16 0.15

Ic- 12 1.7 0.046

Ic-13 0.12 0.022

Ic-15 0.0054

"Assay conditions: pH = 7.0, 25 0 C, 50 niM Tris.HCl (H. pylori and S. coelicolor) or 50 mM Tris.HOAc (M. tuberculosis).

As shown in Table 1, the present invention provides inhibitors with inhibition constants as low as 3.2 nanomolar (Ib-I) or 25 nanomolar ((2R)-Ia-S) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria which causes tuberculosis. This represents 1600 times more affinity with respect of the natural substrate (K m = 40 ,uM), and 8000 times more effective than 2,3-dehydroqιiinic acid (K 1 = 200 μM). In the case of H. pylori affinities are as good as 21 nM (Ib-13). This represents about 21.000 times more affinity with respect of the natural substrate (K m = 444 μM), and 16.190 times more effective than the 2,3- dchydroquinic acid (K 1 = 340 μM). In the case of S. coelicolor affinities arc as good as 0.3 nanomolar (Tc-6), 0.48 nanomolar (Tb-I) or 0.85 nanomolar (Tc-8).