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Title:
COMPOSITE DECK FASTENER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/139562
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A direct fastening fastener particularly suited for use in normal weight or lightweight composite deck system. The fastener is heat treated to a dual-hardness level so that a portion of the fastener is capable of driving into the support member, such as a joist and a decking member. The remaining portion of the fastener remains relatively ductile so that it can withstand and transfer shear loads imposed by shifting of the concrete slab, which overlies the composite decking, to the support member. The fastener can be a single or multiple piece fastener which includes specially formed annular flanges that enhance interlocking between the fastener, the concrete slab and support members.

Inventors:
CHAMBERLAIN, Matthew (11 Far Horizons Drive, Bethel, Connecticut, 06801, US)
ROSE, Douglas (12 Evergreen Drive, Sherman, Connecticut, 06784, US)
Application Number:
US2017/017352
Publication Date:
August 17, 2017
Filing Date:
February 10, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BLACK & DECKER INC. (1000 Stanley Drive, New Britain, Connecticut, 06053, US)
International Classes:
F16B19/14; F16B15/00; F16B19/00
Foreign References:
US5605423A1997-02-25
US20090188192A12009-07-30
US2855817A1958-10-14
US3505920A1970-04-14
US20110188971A12011-08-04
US3505919A1970-04-14
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BARTON, Rhonda L. (Stanley Black & Decker, Inc.701 E. Joppa Rd.-TW19, Towson Maryland, 21286, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
We eia m:

1. A fastener comprising;

a striking- unit including a driving head having a top surface capable of being stricken by a driving meniber and a bottom -^aface;

an elongated shank along a longitudinal axis of the fastener, the elongated shank operatively connected to the striking unit and extending from the bottom, surface of the striking unit;

an insertion member ixitegral with the elongated shank and disposed at an opposite end. from the striking unit, the insertion member having a textured portion and a tip portion^, and

a first annular flange disposed between the elongated shank and the insertion member, wherein at least a portion of the insertion member is heat treated to enable the tip portion to drive into a decking member.

2. The fastener according to claim 1 , wherein the insertion member is heat treated to a hardness greater than the hardness of the elongated shank and striking unit

3. The fastener according to claim 1 , wherein the insertion member is hardened to 54 minimum Rockwell C while the elongated shan and striking unit of the fasienef: are' hardened to 50 -7Q% of the insertion membe ;.

4. The fastener according to claim 1, wherein the insertion member comprises a rounded profile,

.5. The fastener according to claim J, wherein the insertion member comprises one of a stepped profile and a straight profile,

6. The fastener according to claim I, wherein the striking unit comprises a plurality of ecesses.

7. Tile fastener according to claim l f wherei the striking unit is threadediy engaged, with the elongated shank. 8, The fastener according to claim 1, wherein the insertion member comprises a textured portion,

9. The fastener according to claim 8. wherein the textured 'portion co mprises a knurled portion.

1 . The fastener according to claim 9, wherein the knurled portion comprises one of a helix diamond pa tiem and a spiral patterii.

11. The fastener according to elaim 1, farther comprising a second annular- flange on the striking unit, the second -annular .flange extending radiall outward from the longitudinal axis of tile fastener and haying a diameter greater than the diameter of the driving head, the second annular flange and tile driving head defining: an .annular recess therebetween,

12. A fastener comprising:

an elongated shank -having an end portion with a top surface capable of being stricken by a driving member;

an insertio member integral with the elongated shank at an opposite end from the end portion, the insertion member haying, a textured portion and a tip portion;

an annular flange disposed hetvveen the- insertion member and the end portion; and.

a threaded poriion along the elongated shank adjacent to the end portion..

wherein at least a portion of the insertion member is heat treated to enable the tip portion to drive into a decking member.

13. The fastener according to claim 12, further comprising a nut threaded around the threaded portion of the. elongated shank

14. A fastener, comprising::

an elongated shank ith a longitudinal axis, a first end, and a second end;

a striking unit positioned at the. first, end;

an insertion member positioned at the second end, the insertion nieixiber including a tin portion;

at least o e annular flange fomied on the elongated shank and extending radially outward; and

at least one ridge formed o the insertion mem er and defining a helix around the longitudinal axis,

wherein a leas a portio of the tip is heat treated and textured to enable the tip portion to drive into a decking member.

Description:
TITLE: COMPOSITE DECK FASTENER

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[O0O1J The present application claims priority under 3.5 LLS.C. § 119(e) lo U.S. provisional patent application Serial No. 62/293,580 entitled: Composite Decking Fastener filed February 10, 2016, which is hereby incorporated by reference in t heir entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Field of the Invention

[0002] This invention relates generally to fasteners for securing composite decking to a steel supporting structure, and more particularly to a direct fastening fastener for use as a stud in lightweight or normal weight composite deck systems which are used as floors o roofs in modern buildings,

{0003] During ' construction of a composite deck, sheets of metal decking, which are often corrugated but can also be flat* are usuall fastened to steel structural members. Located along and projecting upwardl from the steel members are metal studs. A concrete slab formed over the steel decking encases the metal studs, so that the studs restrict relative shear movement between the concrete slab and the steel member..

Description of the Related .Ait

[000 J Two general types of studs, nam el , weld studs and self-drilling studs,, are typically used to secure members in a composite deck. General weld studs are welded directly to the decking and/or steel structural members. These studs are ductile and so are suited to restrict the relative shear movement between the concrete slab and the steel decking. Installation of a weld stud requires that it bum through the decking in order to attach itself to the underlying steel support member. Daring the installation, the decking will bum away around the steel weld stud and will typically not attach itself to the support member. This would require a separate attachment operation to attach the deck to the support member.

[0005] Further, a round ceramic insulator is used at the end of the weld stud during the installation process. The round ceramic insulator is used to concentrate the heat and assist in welding of the stud to the steel .support member. Once the weld stud is a ttached, the round ceramic. insulator needs to be removed from the base of the weld stud, in orde for the concrete to encase the stud. At this point, tbe typical wa of removing the ceramic insulator is to strike the ceramic insulator with a hammer to break it away from the base of the installed- weld studs. Since ceramic insulators are brittle, when broken avvay from the weld studs they shatter mid scatter ceramic pieces over the deck surface. The scattered ceramic pieces must be removed from the deck surface prior to concrete pour, both for safety reasons and to avoid integration into the concrete mixture and contamination of the .concrete integrity. Use of direct fastening fasteners does not require the above extra operations,

[0006] In the process of stud welding through the decking, the protective deck coating applied to the stud is damaged from the intense heat produced, rendering it susceptible to corrosi n. A typical recommended practice is to apply the protective coating to the bare o damaged decking material to reduce corrosion effects. Use of direct fastening fasteners does not require the above extra operation.

[0007] Due to the nature of the weld joint between the stud and the steel, the diameter of the weld stud establishes a minimum material thickness that is required for the structural member. The .-smallest weld studs that are resently commercially used establish a lower limit on the material thickness of the s uctirrai member that can be/used with those weld studs. The smallest diameter weld stud currently available is 1/2" diameter which requires a minimum of 0,200" thick steel„ If the steel thickness is less than 0.200", which is usually encountered in a typical bar joist construction, the weld stud is not recommended. Direct fastening fasteners present an alternative in these applications.

f 0008] Direct fastening fasteners or pins are thus an attractive alternative to weld studs for use in composite decks * Direct fastening fasteners do not limit the minimum material thickness of the structural member, in addition., direct fastening fasteners secure the decking to the steel, thereby eliminating the separate attachment needed with the use of weld studs. Direct fastening fasteners also avoid other problems with weld studs, such as the removal of the ceramic insulator from the stud after its installation, and the cleanup of ceramic pieces which are occasioned by the removal. The decking is not damaged, and indeed, the need to repair the metal decking and attach it to the stud or the metal support is eliminated. Use of a direct fastening fastener does not create a damaged area of the decking which must be repaired and instead, when properly installed provide a means for attaching the deck, to the steel member. However, in order fo the direct fastening fasteners to be capable of being fastened into the steel, the direct fastening fasteners mast undergo a standard process of bein heat treated to a relatively high degree of hardness. This standard processing results in the reduced ductility , and ductility is necessary in the direct fastening fastener to transfer the shearing movement in the. composite deck system. Some fasteners have attempted to compensate for this bask deficiency by isolating the fastener from the concrete with a spacer. The spacer attempts to convert the shearing action of the -concrete slab into bending moment which the hardened fastener is more adept at resisting. However, it does not change the non-ductile nature of the direct fastening fasteners themselves.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0909} The general aim of the present invention is to provide a direct fastening fastener fo use in a composite deck system where the material cross-section, of the steel member is less than the minimum material thickness required for a standard weld stud

[0010] A more detailed objective is to achieve the foregoing by heat treating the fastener to a dual-hardness level so that a portion of the fastener is capable of driving into the steel while the -remaining portion of the fastener is s fficieiitl ductile to transmit the shearing forces HI a. composite deck system to the. main, structural members,

|0011] An even more specific objective is to achieve the foregoing by heat treating -ail. insertion member, of the fastener, to a relatively high degree of hardness while maintaining the remainder of the fastener in a ' relatively ductile condition.

[0012] . Another general aim of the invention is to provide for enhanced interlocking between the fastener and the concrete slab in composite deck system, whereby the concrete in the composite deck system- is prevented from .sliding off of the substrate or. decking.

[0013] It is a feature of the invention that the fastener is provided with an integral flange which automatically establishes the height of the portion of the fastener that is encased in the- cohctete slab for proper concrete co er, which secures ' the decking to the steel, and which is shaped to transmit shearing loads.

[9014] A further feature is the provision of the fastener with a second integral flange which is located near the driving head of the fastene and which interacts with the concrete to limit deflection of the steel joists, ' [0015] A farther feature of the present invention is that the fastener can be driven from powered fastening tool without deformation. As the fasteners of the present invention are able to withstand iheibrces of a powered driving tool, the constitution of composite deck systems can be expedited thereby saving construction time.

[00161 In an embodiment, the fastener includes a striking unit including a drivin head having a to surface capable of being stricken by a driving member and a bottom surface; aft elongated shank along a longitudinal axis of the fastener, the elongated shank operatively connected to th striking unit and extendin from the bottom surface of th striking unit; an insertion member integral with the elongated shank and disposed at an opposite end from the striking unit, the insertion member having a textured portion and a tip portion, and a first annular flange disposed between the elongated shank and the insertion member. At least a portion of the insertion membe can be heat treated to enable the tip portion to drive into a decking member. The insertion member can be heat treated to a hardness greater than tlie hardness of the elongated shank and striking unit. In addition, the insertion member can be hardened to 54 ' minimum Rockwell. C while the elongated shank and striking unit of tlie fastener are hardened to 50%~7D% of the insertion member.

[0017] hi an embodiment, the insertion member can have a rounded profile, a stepped profile or straight profile,: The insertion membe can also have a textured or knurled portion having at least one of helix diamond pattern and a spiral pattern.

[0018] The striking unit can define a plurality of recesses alon the length of the fastener and can he threadedly engaged with the. elongated shank. The striking unit can also include second annular flange on. the s king unit, the second annular flange extending radially outward from the longitudinal axis of the fastener and having a diameter greater than the diameter of the driving head, the second annula flange and the driving head defining an annular recess therebetween

[0019} In another embodiment, the fastener includes art elongated shank having an end portion with a top surface capable of being stricken by a driving member; an insertion member integral with the elongated shank at an opposite end from the end portion, the insertion membe having a textured portion and a tip portion; an annular fJange disposed between the insertion member and the end portion: and a threaded portion along the elongated shank adjacent to the end portion. At least a portion of the insertion member can be heat treated to enable the tip portion to driw into a decking member. The fastener can. also include a nut threaded aroimtl the threaded portion of the elongated shank.

[0020] In another embodiment, the fastene can include an elongated shank with a longitudinal axis, a first end, and second end; a striking unit, positioned at the first end; an insertion member positioned at the second end, the insertion member including a tip portion; at least one annular flange formed on the elongated shank and extending radially outward; and at least: one ridge formed on the insertion member and defining a helix around the longitudinal axis. At least a portion of. the tip can be heat treated and textured to enable the ti portion to drive into a decking Member.

[0021] These and other obj ect and advantages of the invention will become more ' apparent from the following detailed description when taken in. conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0022] FIG. 1 is a fragmentary per specti ve view of a typical composite deck stra eture using new direct fastening fasteners incorporating the unique features of the present invention

[0023] FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 :

[0024] FIG. 3 is an enlarged side view of the fastener shown in FIGS. 1 and ¾

[0Θ25] FIG.4A is an exemplary view of the fastener according to a second embodiment of the invention, FIG . 4B is a enlarged view of an area of the fastener that is heat treated to a relatively high degree of hardness;

(0026] FIG. 5 A is an exemplary view of the fastene according to a third embodiment of the invention. FIG. 533 is an enlarged, view of an area of the fastener that is heat treated to a relatively high degree of hardness;

[0627] FIG. 6A is an. exemplary view of the fastener according to a fourth, embodiment of the invention. FIG. 6B is an enlarged view of an area, of " t e fastener that is heat treated to a relatively high degree of hardness:

[0028] FIGS. 7 A and 7B illustrate a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a driving tool for driving the fastener into the composite deck structure; 029] FIG. 8 is an exemplary view of the fastener according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention;

[0030] FIG. 9 is an exemplar y view of the fastener according to a sixt embodiment of the present invention;

[0031] FIG, 10 is an .-exemplary, view of the fastener according to a seventh embodiment of the present invehtioii: and

[0032] FIG / . 11 i s an exemplary view of the fastener according to an eighth embodiment- of the present Invention.

[0033] While the inventio is susceptible o various modifications and alternative constructions, a certain illustrated embodiment hereof has been shown in the drawings and will be described below in detail. It should be understood, however, that there is no intention t Emit the invention to the specific form, disclosed:* but on the contrary,, the intention i to cover all modifications, alternative constructions and equivalents falimg within the spirit and scope of the invention,

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE f » REFER ED EMBODIMENT

[0034] Referring to FIG. 1, for purposes of illustration, the .present -invention is shown in the drawings a embodied in a direct fastening pin or fastener 10, A direet fastening fastener is a fastener that can he driven from a powered fastener driving tool, such as the driving tool 2, shown in FIGS. 7 A and 7B. ' T¾e direct: fastening fast ner, ^herei 'w ¾s%ler''3[ 10 is especially useful as a fastener in deck systems that ate used as floors of roof decks in modem buildings, A floor o roof deck is subject to shear forces that tend to cause a horizontal., or shearin movement of the deck relative -to its support structure. The fastener 10 of the present invention restricts and transfers : this shearing movement when used in a composite: deck system.

|M3S] A composite deck system, such as in composite deck system 11, is typically fabricated at a building, site by joining primary s.tractural members to secondary structural members, In an embodiment, primary strnctwal rnembers 8 can be metal and include a decking member IS and a. support member, .namely an upper elongated horizontal joist member 13 A. The fastener 10 is driven through the primary structural members 8 as shown in FIOS, 1 and .2. Secondar structural members 12 can also be. metal and include a lower elongated horizontal joist; member 13B an a web member 1.4. The structural members 8 arid 12 include joist . members or beams, but not are restricted to these members. During construction of a building, the secondary structural members 12. are joined to the building structural support beams (not; shown). The primary · structural, members 8 are then joined to the secondary straemM members 12. Joist members, such as steel joists, are typicall comprised of vertically spaead upper and lowe elongated horizontal joist members 13A and 13B, and supporting web members 14 joined to and extending between the horizontal joist members. In lightweight composite deck systems, the joist members are formed with material cords having a relatively thin cfoss-seetioa (e.g., less than 0.200").

0036] The decking member 15, such as, for example, the metal decking shown in FIG. 1 , is typically laid over and spans adjacent joist members 13 A so that co igations, if present, run at. a right angle to Hie joists. In an embodiment, the composite deck system may be fabricated without a corrugated decking member. FIGS. .1 and 2 illustrate corrugations- 15.A that form peaks and valleys along the length of the decking member IS. Located in and projecting upwardly from the upper horizontal joist members 13A and through the decking member 15 are the fasteners 10. A concrete slab 16 is then poured over the decking member .15, encasing the upper portion of the fastener 10.

[0037] As illustrated, for example, in PIG, 3, the fastener 10 has a elongated shank 17 having a longitudinal axis A. The elongated shank. 17 has an upper shank portion- 1 and a lower shank portion or insertion member 34. The insertion member 34 has a diameter that is smaller than the diameter of the upper shank portion 19 and includes a tapered portion 40 and a knurled portion 18. The knurled portion 18 has a series of ridges and/or indentations. The knurl causes a welding effect between the fastener and. the steel joist when the fastener is engaged in the joist. The knurled portion 1.8 eanmclude ^ for example, a heli diamond knurl pattern as: shown in FIGS. 3-4B. The uppe shank portio 19 is an unknurled portion of the shank 17, Alternative larurled patterns include a spiral pattern 118 as shown In FIGS. 5A-6B. The spiral patterned knurl 118 introduces rotation during the driving of the fastener as disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 8,449,237, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

10038] Projecting from one end of the tapered portion 40 is a pointed tip 20 configured for driving into the decking member 15 and upper joist members 13 A. The tapering of the insertion member 34, slows the fastener during the driving action into the joist members to eliminate over driving. The tapered portion 40 of the insertion member 34 is illustrated as having a rounded profile, as shown m FIGS, 3-4B. An alternative insertion member 134 embodied by the present invention as shown in FIGS. SA-5B, has a stepped tapered portion 140. Another altera tive insertion member 234 embodied by the present invention as shown in FIGS. 6A.-6B has a straight tapered portion 240. In an embodiment, the stepped tapered portion 140, and straight shank 240 can have a sharper pointed tip 120 than the pointed tip 20 of the rounded tapered portion, of FIGS . 3-4B. Additionally, the sharper point of the stepped 140 and straight 240 tapered portions allows penetration throiigh thicker steel bodies.

[0039] Embodiments of the present invention include any combination of the above knurled portions and tapered portions, For example, in an embodiment, fastener 1 . 0 can include the rounded tapered portion 40 with a spiral pattern knurle pattern as shown in FIGS. 9 and 11.

[00401 Located at the end of the fastener 1 opposite the pointed tip 20 is a driving: head

21. The driving head 21 is formed to engage the driving member 4 of the driving tool 2 which is capable of striking the top surface of the driving head end of the fastener. In an embodiment as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4A, 5 A and 6A, the fastener 1 . 0 can be stricke at the end portion 31 of the shank 17, which has a chamfered driving head 23. The drivin member 4 can be a driven by any of the many other well-known, a ia! driving means. As shown in FIG, 2, the driving tool 2 drives the pointed ti 20 and knurled portion 18 of the fastener through the decking member 1 . 5, into the valleys of the corrugations 15 A and throug the upper horizontal joist members 13 A.

[0041} A integral annula lower flange 26 is located between the insertio member 34 and the upper shank portion 19 of the fastener 10. The lowe flange 26 has a diamete that is greater than the diameter of the shank 17 thereby providing a bearing-surface 30 that contacts the joist members 13 A and prevents over-driving or distortion of the joists.

[0042] In accordance with the present invention, the fastener 10 is selectively heat treated to a dual-hardness level so that the insertion member 34 has a relatively high degree of hardness to enable it to drive into the decking member 15 and the upper horizontal joist members 13 A, The upper shank portion 19 of the fastener 10 is also heat treated, but to a lesser degree of hardness so that it remains relatively ductile and capable of resisting and transmitting the shearing forces of the concrete slab 16 in which it is encased. The shearing forces of the concrete, slab 16 are generall directed left or right, relative to the decking member IS and upper horizontal joist members 13 A. In addition, the fastener 10 is uniquely constructed so that it correctly positions itself in and enhances interlocking with the concrete slab 16, in addition to establishing . ' correct, concrete slab cover,

[0043] D wring construction of the composite deck system 11 , the insertion members 34 are driven through the valleys of the decking member 15 arid through the upper horizontal , joist members 13 A, When each fastener 10 is driven, the bearing surface 30 of the lower flange 26 engages the decking member 15, thereby fastening the decking to the under lying joist members 13 A. The lower flange 26 provides positive localized fastening. In particular, the lower flange 26 provides a . posMve ' stopiio theiastener when.tib.e.fasteaer is driven into the decking member 15 and the bearing: surface 30 engages the decking member 1.5. : As a result, the lower flange 26 ensures that tire height of each fastener with respect: to . the horizontal joist: membe 13A : is consistent, for uniform concrete cover requirements of the conereie slab 16 above the fastener. In addition, the lower flange 26 adds stability to the driven fastener withi the eonerete slab 16,

|0044:J The bearing surface 30 of the lower flange 26 is substantially flat and joins the knurled shank portion 18 at chamfered surface or radlused angle 50. The radiused angle 50 increases the strength of " the fastener in the area in contrast to sharp angles that can fracture w r hen a. heat treated fastener is driven by a. powered driving tool, When the fasteneris driven into place a shown in FIG. 2, the bearin surface.30 ; will securely fasten the top side of the decking to the underlying joist members 13 A,

[TO4S] Addi tionally, the. upper side of the lo er annular flange 26 i s smoothl radiused as at 2 to flare slowly from the angular flange to the upstanding shank 17. it is found mat the curved or radiused j unction is trnportant to prevent cracking of the fastene when subjected to bending loads : The curved, shape ma also tend to distribute the shear: forces, particula ly when the conereie slab itself has a significant component loading the flange against the corrugated decking and joist members.

[0046] FIG. 3 illustrates a secon or upper annular flange 2 located directly below the driving, head 21, between the driving head and the upper shank portion 19 of the shank 1.7. The upper flange 27 is smaller in diameter than lower flange 26. The driving head 2! and upper flange 27 form a striking unit 29, The striking unit 29 has a profile that includes recesses 25 that define eonerete mfeiiocking areas, where the eonerete is wedged between the driving head 21, flange 27 and end portion 31 of the shank 17, The recesses 25 allow concrete to form around the upper flange 27 and between sections of the striking unit, thereby creating an interiocikijig relationship between the fastener 10 and the concrete slab 16,

{00471 in a embodiment, the striking unit 29 can be integral with the .upper shank portion

19 of the -shank 17. In another embodiment, the: striking unit 29 can be separate from- the uppe shank portion 1 of the shank 1 and attached thereto by external threads that threadedly engage internal threads on the inner surface of the uppe shank portio 19. in further embodiment, the striking unit 29 can be separate: from the upper shank portion 19 of the shank 17 and attached, thereto by internal, threads that threadediy engage, external threads -oh the outer surface of the upper shank portion, similar to a post nut.

[0048] In an embodiment in which the striking unit 29 is separate from the shank 17, the strikin unit can. be attached to the shank before or after the fastener is driven into the decking member 15 by the driving tool 2, if the striking unit 29 is attached to tile shank 17 after the fastener 10 is driven into the metal decking member 15 , then the end portion 31 of the shank can be struck by the driving, member 4 of the driving tool 2. in this regard, the end portion 31 of the shank 17 lias a chamfered end 23 to prevent the end portion from becoming deformed when the fastene 10 is struck by the driving member 4. Th chamfered portion 23 also helps the fastener 10 maintain its shape and not deform in embodiments where the striking unit 29 is integral with the shank portion 17 of the fastener.

[0049] When a shearing force aets on the upper portion of the fastener 10 that is encased in the concrete slab 16 (FIG. 2), the upper shank portion 19 of the fastener tends to bend, in a cantilever fashion.,, about the center of the lower flange 26, thereby pivoting the driving head 21 and the upper flange 27. As the upper flange 27 and the, dri ving head 21 try to pivot in the concrete, the concrete surrounding the upper flange and the driving head responds with a restoriug force couple. This restoring force couple is applied to the bottom surface 33 of the upper flange 27 opposite the shearing force and to the upper side of the uppe flange 27 and driving head on the side of the shearing force. As a result, deflection of the fastene 10 in response to the shearing force is reduced. In this manner, the upper flange 27 enhances the structural interlocking between the fastener and the concrete slab. This same restoring force couple also has the effect of creating an upwardly directed force on the fastener at the underside; of the upper flange 27. which tends to -act .through the insertion member 34 to reduce the deflection of the joist members 13A and web 14.

S O [00SG] In carrying out the invention,, the fastene 10 is heat treated to a dual-hardness level with a Drill-Flex® heat treatin process developed b Eico Industries, Inc., Rockford,, 111, Specifically, tire insertion member 34, 13, 234 is heat treated to a relatively high hardness so that it is capable of effectively tapping into the decking membe 15 and the upper horizontal joist member 13 A. The remaining portions of the. fastener, i.e., the driving head 21, the: upper shank; portion 19, and the annular flanges 26 and 27, are heat treated to a lesser degree of hardness so that they remain relatively ductile and capable of resisting and transmitting the shearing forces of the floor or roof secondary structural members 12 to the main structural supports without .failure. By way of example, the insertion member 34 is hardened to 54 minimum Rockwell C while the remaining portion of the fastener is hardened to 5Q¾~70% of the insertion member 34.

0051 ] As shown in Fi GS . 5 A-6B , 9 and 11 , the flange c an be i n the form of a hex member

126 having a beari ng surface 130. The hex shape allows for additional tightening of the fastener into the primary structural members 8.

[0052] Additionally, in further embodiments as shown in FIGS. 8 ? 9, 10 and 1 1 , one end of the elongated shank, 17 can have an externally threaded portion 45 that can threadedly engage internal threads on a post nut or ca (not shown). The post nut can have a diameter that is larger than the diameter of the threaded portion 45, thereby creating a recess between the post nut and the threaded portion. As with the striking unit 29, the recesses allow concrete to form, around, the post nut thereby ereaiing . an interlocking relationship between the fastener 10 and the concrete slab 16.

[0053] The driving too! can include, but is not limited to pneumatic tools, air powered tools, cordless battery-powered tools, iritroceilulose technology systems and gas iastening delivery systems. Further, a driving tool caii include a powder actuated tool as shown, in FIGS. 7 A and 7B,. which illustrate a configuration of the driving tool 2 with the fastener 10: within the tool body and after the fastener is driven from the tool.

[0054] From the foregoing, it will be apparent that the present invention brings to the art a new and improved fastener .10 for use: in a lightweight or normal weight composite deck system 1 1 where the use of standard wel studs is precluded, m addition, the ability of the fastene 10 to resist and transfer .shear forces in composite deck system is enhanced over prior weld studs and many self-drilling studs by virtue of the dual-hardness levels embodied in the fastener and the provisions of the integral upper flange 27 which enhances interlocking between the fastener 10

1.1 and the concrete slab 16 and primary S structural members. Additionally, the installation of the powered fastener 10 is faster and. therefore time-saving over the installation of weld studs.

[00551 While aspects of the present inventio are described herein and illustrated i the accompanying drawings in the context of a fastener and tool, those of ordinary skill in the art. will appreciate that the invention, in its broadest aspects, has further applicability,

0056:] It will be appreciated that the above : description is merely exemplary in nature, and is not intended to limit the present disclosure, its application or uses, While specific examples have been -described in the specification and illustrated in the drawings, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for ■elements thereof without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Furthermore, the mixing and matching of features,, element and/or functions between various examples is expressly contemplated herein, even if not specifically shown or described, so that one of ordinary skill in the art would appreciate from this disclosure that features, elements and/or fiuietions of one example may be- incorporated into another example as appropriate, unless described otherwise * above. Moreover, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the eachings of the present disclosure without departing from tire essential scope thereof. Therefore,; it¾ intended; that the present disclosure not be limited to the particular examples illustrated by the drawings and described in the specification as the best mode presently contemplated for earning out the teachings of the present disclosure, but that the scope of the present disdosure will include any embodiments falling within the foregoing description.