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Title:
COMPOSITE OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/048461
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method is described of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln1-xAx)wCr1-yByO3-δ and a doped zirconia. Preferred materials are (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95Cr0.7Fe0.3O3-δ for the porous fuel oxidation layer, (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95Cr0.5Fe0.5O3-δ for the dense separation layer, and (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95Cr0.3Fe0.7O3-δ for the porous surface exchange layer. Firing the said fuel activation and separation layers in nitrogen atmosphere unexpectedly allows the separation layer to sinter into a fully densified mass.

Inventors:
LU, Zigui (57 Wagon Wheel Drive, East Amherst, NY, 14051, US)
PLONCZAK, Pawel, J. (57 Morningside Lane, Amherst, NY, 14221, US)
LANE, Jonathan, A. (58 Berwin Drive, Snyder, NY, 14226, US)
Application Number:
US2016/048000
Publication Date:
March 23, 2017
Filing Date:
August 22, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY, INC. (39 Old Ridgebury Road, Danbury, CT, 06810, US)
International Classes:
C04B38/00; B01D53/22; B01D67/00; B01D69/02; B01D69/12; B01D71/02; B01J23/00; C01B13/02; C04B35/01; C04B35/26; C04B35/42; C04B35/44; C04B35/462; C04B35/488
Domestic Patent References:
WO2013089895A12013-06-20
Foreign References:
US20130072374A12013-03-21
US20070082254A12007-04-12
Other References:
JIAN-JUN LIU ET AL: "ZrYOLaSrCrFeOdual-phase composite hollow fiber membrane targeting chemical reactor applications", JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, ELSEVIER BV, NL, vol. 389, 3 November 2011 (2011-11-03), pages 435 - 440, XP028394245, ISSN: 0376-7388, [retrieved on 20111112], DOI: 10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2011.11.010
ZHONG ET AL: "Stoichiometric lanthanum chromite based ceramic interconnects with low sintering temperature", SOLID STATE IONICS, NORTH HOLLAND PUB. COMPANY. AMSTERDAM; NL, NL, vol. 177, no. 7-8, 15 March 2006 (2006-03-15), pages 757 - 764, XP027895768, ISSN: 0167-2738, [retrieved on 20060315]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MANCINI, Ralph, J. et al. (Praxair, Inc.39 Old Ridgebury Roa, Danbury CT, 06810, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
We Claim:

1. A method of producing an oxygen ion composite membrane comprising:

forming a first layer on a porous support containing a first mixture of particles of

(Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and doped zirconia and pore formers, where Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.1 to about 0.6;

the first mixture containing the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia such that when sintered, the first layer will contain the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia in a first volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass;

forming a second layer on the first layer that contains a second mixture of particles of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia and that does not contain pore formers , where Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.3 to about 0.7;

the second mixture containing the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia such that when sintered, the second layer will contain the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia in a second volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 of from about 30% to about 70%) of the total solid mass;

heating the first layer, the second layer and the porous support in nitrogen atmosphere so that said first layer partially sinters into a porous mass containing the first mixture of particles, thereby to provide a porous fuel oxidation layer and the second layer fully sinters into a densified mass containing the second mixture of particles, thereby to provide a dense separation layer.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein:

a third layer is formed on the second layer containing a third mixture of particles of (Lni-xCx)wCri-yBy03-5, the doped zirconia and pore formers, where Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ni or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.4 to about 0.8; the third mixture having a third volume ratio of the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia such that when sintered, the third layer will contain the (Lni-xAx)wCri. yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia in a third volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass; and

the third layer is heated so that said third layer partially sinters into a porous mass containing the third mixture of particles, thereby to provide a porous surface exchange layer.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the doped zirconia is lOSclYSZ or lOSclCeSZ.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein:

the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 within the first mixture of particles is (Lai-xSrx)wCri. yFey03-5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.3; the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 within the second mixture of particles is (Lai-xSrx)wCri.yFey03.5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.5; the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 within the third mixture of particles is (Lai-xSrx)wCri. yFey03-5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.7; and

the sintered porous support is formed from doped zirconium oxide or a mixture of MgO and MgAl204.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the first volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri. yBy03-5 is about 60% of the total solid mass, the second volume percentage of (Lni. xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 is about 50% of the total solid mass and the third volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03.5 is about 60% of the total solid mass.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the porous support is of tubular or planar configuration.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein:

the porous support is formed of 4YSZ and fired at a temperature of about 1050 °C, so that it is not fully sintered prior to forming the first layer on the porous support ; the first layer after having been formed on the porous support is dried at ambient temperature prior to coating the second layer on the first layer; and

the first layer, the second layer and the porous support are sintered at a

temperature of about 1400 °C in nitrogen.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the third layer is sintered at a temperature of from about 1250 °C to about 1350 °C in air.

9. The method of claim 6, wherein the first layer, the second layer and the third layer are sintered at a temperature of about 1400 °C in nitrogen, and wherein said first layer, second layer and/or said third layer are optionally formed by slurry coating.

10. The method of claim 2, wherein the first layer, the second layer and/or the third layer are formed by slurry coating.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the doped zirconia is lOSclYSZ or lOSclCeSZ.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the porous support is 4YSZ.

13. An oxygen ion composite membrane comprising:

first and second layers on a porous support providing a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer, respectively, for the oxygen ion composite membrane; each of the first and second layers containing a mixture of (Lni-xAx)wCri.yBy03.5 and doped zirconia, where for the first of the layers, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is 0.9 - 1.0, x is 0.1 - 0.3 and y is 0.1 - 0.6 and for the second of the layers, A is Ca or Sr, and B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al or combinations thereof, w is 0.9 - 1.0, x is 0.1 - 0.3 and y is 0.3 - 0.7;

the first of the layers containing the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia in a first volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass; and the second of the layers containing the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia in a second volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass.

14. The oxygen ion composite membrane of claim 13, wherein:

a third layer is situated on the second layer to form a porous surface exchange layer and that also contains the mixture of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia, where Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ni or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.4 to about 0.8; and

the third layer containing the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 and the doped zirconia in a third volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass.

15. The oxygen ion composite membrane of claim 14, wherein the doped zirconia is lOSclYSZ or lOSclCeSZ.

16. The oxygen ion composite membrane of claim 15, wherein:

the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 within the first layer is (Lai-xSrx)wCri.yFey03-¾ where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.3;

the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 within the second layer is (Lai-xSrx)wCri-yFey03-5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.5;

the (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 within the third layer is (Lai-xSrx)wCri-yFey03-5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.7; and

the sintered porous support is formed from stabilized zirconia oxide or a mixture of MgO and MgAl204.

17. The oxygen ion composite membrane of claim 13 or claim 16, wherein the first volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 is about 60% of the total solid mass, the second volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 is about 50% of the total solid mass and the third volume percentage of (Lni-xAx)wCri-yBy03-5 is about 60% of the total solid mass.

18. The oxygen ion composite membrane of claim 16, wherein the porous support is of tubular or planar configuration.

19. The oxygen composite membrane of claim 17, wherein the sintered porous support is formed from 4YSZ.

Description:
COMPOSITE OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE

Government Support

[0001] This invention was made with Government support under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-07NT43088, awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention relates to a method of forming a composite oxygen transport membrane and the composite oxygen transport membrane itself in which a porous fuel oxidation layer, a dense separation layer, and a porous surface activation layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and a doped zirconia. The invention also relates to such a method in which the separation layer is sintered to full density in nitrogen atmosphere. The term "nitrogen atmosphere" means an atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure between about 0.1 and 1000 Pa

Background of the Invention

[0003] Oxygen transport membranes function to separate oxygen from air or other oxygen containing gases by transporting oxygen ions through a material that is capable of conducting oxygen ions and electrons at elevated temperatures. When a partial pressure difference of oxygen is applied on opposite sides of such a membrane, oxygen ions will ionize on one surface of the membrane and emerge on the opposite side of the membrane and recombine into elemental oxygen and release electrons. The free electrons resulting from the combination will be transported back through the membrane to ionize the oxygen. The partial pressure difference can be produced by providing the oxygen containing feed to the membrane at a positive pressure or by combusting a fuel or other combustible substance in the presence of the separated oxygen on the opposite side of the membrane or a combination of the two methods. It is to be noted that the combustion will produce heat that is used to raise the temperature of the membrane to an operational temperature at which the oxygen ion transport can occur and also, to supply heat to an industrial process that requires heating. Moreover, whether or not heat is required for a process, the combustion itself can produce products such as synthesis gases by means of partial oxidation of a fuel or other combustible substance occasioned as a result of the combustion.

[0004] Oxygen transport membranes can utilize a single phase mixed conducting material such as a perovskite to conduct the electrons and transport the oxygen ions. While perovskite materials with high ambi-polar conductivity, such as Lai -x Sr x Coi.

yFe y 03-5 or Bai -x Sr x Coi -y Fey03-5, can exhibit a high oxygen flux, such materials tend to be very fragile under operational conditions involved where a fuel or other combustible substance is used to produce the partial pressure difference. This is because the perovskite will have a variable stoichiometry with respect to oxygen or decompose in reducing atmosphere, which makes the material unsuitable for processes in which a reducing fuel is introduced. In order to overcome this problem, a two-phase mixture of more stable materials can be used in which a primarily ionic conductor is provided to conduct the oxygen ions and a primarily electronic conductor is used to conduct the electrons. The primarily ionic conductor can be a fluorite such as a stabilized zirconia and the primarily electronic conductor can be a perovskite which contains Cr and therefore more stable than the Co-containing perovskite materials. Where the primarily ionic conductor is a fluorite, this chemical expansion is less problematical.

[0005] Typically, oxygen transport membranes are composite, also known as supported thick film, structures that include a dense separation layer composed of the two phases of materials, a porous fuel oxidation layer located between the dense separation layer and a porous support layer and a porous surface activation layer located opposite to the porous fuel oxidation layer and on the other side of the dense separation layer. All of these layers are supported on a porous support, or porous supporting substrate. The dense separation layer is where the oxygen ion transport principally occurs. Although defects in the dense separation layer can occur that enable the passage of gas through such layer, it is intended to be gas tight and therefore, not porous. Both the porous surface activation layer and the porous fuel oxidation layers are "active", that is, they are formed from materials that permit the transport of oxygen ions and the conduction of electrons. Since the resistance to oxygen ion transport is dependent on the thickness of the membrane, the dense separation layer is made as thin as possible and therefore must be supported in any case. The porous fuel oxidation layer enhances the rate of fuel oxidation by providing a high surface area where fuel can react with oxygen or oxygen ions. The oxygen ions diffuse through the mixed conducting matrix of this porous layer towards the porous support and react with the fuel that diffuses inward from the porous support into the porous fuel oxidation layer. The porous surface activation layer enhances the rate of oxygen incorporation by enhancing the surface area of the dense separation layer while providing a path for the resulting oxygen ions to diffuse through the oxygen ion conducting phase to the dense separation layer and for oxygen molecules to diffuse through the open pore space to the dense separation layer. The surface activation layer therefore, reduces the loss of driving force in the oxygen incorporation process and thereby increases the achievable oxygen flux. Preferably, the porous fuel oxidation layer and the porous surface exchange layer are formed from similar electronic and ionic phases as the dense separation layer to provide a close thermal expansion match between the layers.

[0006] U.S. Patent No. 7,556,676 describes a composite oxygen ion transport membrane. In order to form a dense, gas impermeable dual phase membrane layer from these materials the membrane needs to contain vanadium, and be sintered in a furnace atmosphere containing a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen. From a cost perspective for high volume manufacturing it would be preferable to sinter in an atmosphere which does not contain hydrogen. From an environmental viewpoint it would be beneficial to eliminate vanadium. The materials of both the porous intermediate fuel oxidation layer and the porous air side surface exchange layers described in this patent have shown a tendency to densify during prolonged usage at high temperatures. Densification of these layers results in degradation of oxygen flux through the membrane due to loss of surface area and therefore active reaction site.

[0007] U.S. Patent No. 8,795,417 B2 provides a method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane consisting of a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer from mixtures of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y By03-5 and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not calcium and preferably strontium. The typical materials are (LCCM55) for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (Lao.8Sro.2)o.95Cro.5Feo .5 0 3 .5 (LSCF55) for the dense separation layer.

[0008] Since Ca-containing perovskite materials are more refractory than Sr-containing ones, the idea was to sinter the separation layer to full density while maintaining a porous fuel activation layer without using pore former. However, it was later found out that although the fuel activation layer remained porous, the separation layer was difficult to sinter to full density in air. Moreover, the shrinkage mismatch between the fuel activation layer and the separation layer resulted in residual stress in the membrane which caused the membrane to delaminate from the porous substrate.

[0009] As will be discussed the present invention provides a method of manufacturing a composite oxygen ion transport membrane and the membrane structure resulting from such manufacturing methods that among other advantages incorporates materials that enable fabrication to be accomplished in a more cost effective manner than in the prior art and also, will be more durable than prior art membranes.

Summary of the Invention

[0010] The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an oxygen ion composite membrane. In accordance with such method, a first layer containing a first mixture of particles of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y B y 0 3 .5, doped zirconia and pore formers is formed on a porous support. Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.1 to about 0.6. The first mixture contains the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia such that when sintered, the first layer will contain the (Ln^ x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia in a first volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y B y 0 3 -5 from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass. A second layer is formed on the first layer that contains a second mixture of particles of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia. In one embodiment this second mixture of particles is substantially free of pore formers. In another embodiment, the second mixture of particles does not contain pore formers. In such mixture, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, and B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.3 to about 0.7. The second mixture contains the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia such that when sintered, the second layer will contain the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y B y 0 3- 5 and the doped zirconia in a second volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass. The first layer and the second layer and porous support are heated in nitrogen so that said first layer partially sinters into a porous mass containing the first mixture of particles, thereby to provide a porous fuel oxidation layer and the second layer sinters fully into a densified mass containing the second mixture of particles, thereby to provide a dense separation layer. While maintaining a fully densified separation layer, the porosity of the first layer can be controlled by adjusting either the amount of pore formers or the Cr content in the perovskite material.

[0011] As can be appreciated from the above discussion, since the composite membrane of the present invention is formed by sintering the layers in nitrogen, or a nitrogen atmosphere, a hydrogen-containing sintering atmospheres is not required, which reduces the cost of fabricating such a composite membrane of the present invention. The term "nitrogen atmosphere" means an atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure of from about 0.1 to about 1000 Pa.

[0012] In addition to the foregoing, a third layer can be formed on the second layer containing a third mixture of particles of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y B y 0 3- 5 and the doped zirconia and pore formers. Again, for such mixture, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ni or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.4 to about 0.8. The third mixture has a third volume percentage of the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3 -5 and the doped zirconia such that, when sintered, the third layer will contain the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 and the doped zirconia in a third volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass. The third layer is sintered in air at a temperature of about 1300 °C such that the third layer is porous. In one embodiment, the doped zirconia is 10 mol% scandia and 1 mol% yttria doped zirconia (lOSclYSZ) or 10 mol% scandia and 1 mol% ceria doped zirconia (lOSclCeSZ).

[0013] The (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 within the first mixture of particles can be (Lai.

xSr x ) w Cri -y Fe y 0 3- 5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.3. The (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 within the second mixture of particles can be (Lai -x Sr x ) w Cri -y Fe y 0 3- 5, where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.5. The (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 within the third mixture of particles can be where w is 0.95, x is 0.2 and y is 0.7. Moreover, the sintered porous support is formed from an yttria stabilized zirconia with yttria content of from about3 - 6 mol%, in another embodiment from about 4-5 mol% or a mixture of MgO and MgAl 2 0 4 .

[0014] In one embodiment, the first volume percentage of (Lai -x Sr x ) w Cri -y Fe y 0 3 .5 is about 60% of the total solid mass, the second volume percentage of (Lai -x Sr x ) w Cri.

yFe y 0 3 -5 is about 50% of the total solid mass and the third volume percentage of (Lai. is about 60% of the total solid mass. The porous support can be of tubular or planar configuration. In one specific embodiment, the porous support is formed of 4 mol% Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (4YSZ) and fired at a temperature of about 1050 °C, so that it is not fully sintered prior to forming the first layer on the porous support. In such an embodiment, the first layer is formed on the porous support and dried at ambient temperature. The second layer is then formed on the first layer. The first layer, the second layer and the porous support are then sintered at a temperature of about 1400 °C in nitrogen. Additionally, the third layer can be formed on the second layer and be sintered at a temperature of from about 1250 °C to about 1350 °C in air.

Alternatively, the first layer, the second layer and the third layer can be sintered at a temperature of about 1400 °C in nitrogen. In any embodiment of the present invention, the first layer, the second layer and/or the third layer can be formed by any an

conventional coating method. In one embodiment, the first layer, the second layer and/or the third layer are formed by slurry coating.

[0015] The present invention also provides an oxygen ion composite membrane that comprises first and second layers on a porous support providing a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer, respectively. Each of the first and second layers contain a mixture of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and doped zirconia, where for the first of the layers, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.1 to about 0.6 and for the second of the layers, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, and B is Fe, Mn, Co, Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.3 to about 0.7. The first of the layers contains the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia in a first volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y B y 03.5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass. The second of the layers contains the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia in a second volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 from about 30% to about 70% of the total solid mass.

[0016] A third layer can be situated on the second layer to form a porous surface exchange layer and that also contains the mixture of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and the doped zirconia. In such layer, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Al, or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.4 to about 0.8. The third layer contains the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03.5 and the doped zirconia in a third volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 between about 30%) and about 70% of the total solid mass.

[0017] Further, the doped zirconia can be lOSclYSZ or lOSclCeSZ. Preferably, the (Lni. x A x ) w Cri. y B y 0 3- 5 within the first layer is (Laa8Sro. 2 ) 0 .95Cro .7 Fe 0 . 3 0 3 .5; the (Lai.

xA x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 within the second layer is preferably (La 0 .8Sr 0 . 2 ) 0 .95Cr 0 .5Fe 0 .5O 3 -5; and the (Lai -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 within the third layer is preferably (Lao.8Sro.2)o.95Cro.3Feo.703-5.

Additionally, preferably, the first volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 is about 60% of the total solid mass; the second volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03.5 is about 50% of the total solid mass; and the third volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03.5 is about 60%) of the total solid mass. In any embodiment of the present invention and in any aspect, the porous support is of tubular configuration.

Brief Description of the Drawings

[0018] While the specification concludes with claims distinctly pointing out the subject matter that the inventors regard as their invention, it is believed that the invention will be better understood when taking in connection Figure 1, which is a cross-sectional micrograph of a composite oxygen ion transport membrane.

Detailed Description

[0019] Figure 1 illustrates a cross-sectional micrograph of a composite oxygen transport membrane 1 of the invention. Composite oxygen transport membrane 1 has a porous support layer 10. Applied to the porous support layer 10 is a first layer 12, a second layer 14 and a third layer 16. The composite oxygen transport membrane is specifically designed to function in an environment in which a fuel or other combustible substance is introduced to the porous support layer 10, on the side opposite to the first, second and third layer 12, 14 and 16, and subjected to combustion supported by permeated oxygen to both provide the partial pressure difference necessary to drive oxygen ion transport and also to heat the membrane to an operational temperature at which oxygen ion transport will occur. In this regard, the term "fuel" when used in connection with this layer, both herein and in the claims, is not intended to be limiting, but rather, to indicate and include any substance that can be oxidized through permeation of oxygen through the membrane. The second layer 14 is the active layer at which oxygen ion transport principally occurs and as such, serves as dense separation layer that is impervious to gas, but allows oxygen ion transport. The third layer 16 serves to initially reduce the oxygen and thus serves as a porous surface activation layer. Each of the first layer 12, the second layer 14 and the third layer 16 after heating and sintering will preferably each have a thickness of between about 10 μπι and about 50 μπι.

[0020] The porous support layer 10 could be formed from partially stabilized zirconia oxide e.g. from about 3 and 6 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia e.g. 15 mol% calcia stabilized zirconia. Partially doped zirconia with yttria content lower than 4 mol% tends to experience a tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation at ambient temperature, especially when under stress or in the presence of water vapor. The phase transformation is accompanied by about 5% volume increase and results in cracking of the porous support or delamination of the coating layers from the porous support. Alternatively the porous substrate can be formed from a mixture of MgO and MgAl 2 0 4 . Alternatively the porous substrate could be a porous metal. In this regard, although not part of the present invention, as would be appreciated by those skilled in the art, porous support layer 10 should provide as open an area as possible while still being able to be structurally sound in its supporting function.

[0021] Porous support structures for application in composite oxygen transport membranes are best characterized in terms of their porosity, strength and effective oxygen diffusivity. The porous support forms the mechanical support for the "active" membrane layers so should have sufficient strength at high temperatures. A typical support structure in this application would have total porosity in the range of from about 20 to about 50% by volume. An important property of the porous substrate is the ability to allow gaseous species to readily move through the porous support structure to and from the membrane 'active' layers e.g. H 2 , CO, H 2 0 and C0 2 . The ability of the substrate to allow gaseous transport can be characterized as an effective oxygen diffusivity, D e ff 02-Ν2· For this application it has been determined that a D e ff 02-N2 more than 0.005 cm 2 /s measured at room temperature is preferred. The porous substrate should also possess a thermal expansion coefficient not more than 10% different from that of the membrane 'active' layers between room temperature and membrane operation temperature.

[0022] A stabilized zirconia, namely, Zri -x-y A x B y 0 2-5 is a common material in all three "active" membrane layers, namely, the first layer 12, the second layer 14 and the third layer 16. As mentioned above in all of these layers oxygen ion transport occurs and as such, are "active". In order to generate industrially relevant levels of oxygen ion conductivity, A and B are typically Sc, Y, Ce, Al or Ca. Preferably, such stabilized zirconia has a composition given by the formula: Zr 0. 80 2 Sco . i8oYo . oi80 2- 5 or

Zr 0.809 Sco . i 82 Ceo . oo 9 0 2- 5, often noted as lOSclYSZ or lOSclCeSZ, respectively, in literature associated with this class of membrane. However it should be noted that many different combinations of Sc, Y, Ce, Al, Ca or other elements can be substituted to achieve the same end.

[0023] Turning first to the first layer 12, this layer is formed from a first mixture of particles of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and lOScl YSZ and pore formers. In this layer, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B can be Mn, Fe, Co Al, Ti or combinations thereof, w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.1 to about 0.6. The preferred composition of material for this layer is

(Lao.8Sro. 2 )o.95Cr 0 .7Feo.303-5. The (Lai -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 and lOSclYSZ should be present within a first volume percentage of (Lai -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3 . 5 of from about 30% to about 70%) of the total sintered mass. In one embodiment, the first volume percentage of (Lai. x A x ) w Cri -y B y 03-5 is about 60%>. [0024] The second layer 14 is formed of a second mixture of particles of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y B y 0 3- 5 and lOSclYSZ. The function of the second layer 14 is to be a gas separation layer that is impervious to gas molecules but should be conductive to oxygen ions and electrons. In this layer, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B is Mn, Fe, Co Al, Ti or combinations thereof, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3, y is from about 0.3 to about 0.7 and w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0. The preferred composition of material for this layer is (Lao .8 Sro.2)o .95 Cr 0.5 Feo .5 0 3- 5. Within the second mixture of particles, the (Lni -x A x ) w Cri. y By0 3- 5 and lOScl YSZ should be present within a second volume percentage of (Lni. x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 of from about 30% to about 70% of the total sintered mass. In one embodiment, the second volume percentage is about 50% of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5.

[0025] The third layer 16, that serves as the porous surface exchange layer, is formed of a third mixture of particles of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 and lOScl YSZ. In this layer, Ln is La, Y, Pr, Ce or Sm, A is Ca or Sr, B can be Mn, Fe, Co Al, Ni or combinations thereof; w is from about 0.9 to about 1.0, x is from about 0.1 to about 0.3 and y is from about 0.4 to about 0.8. In one embodiment the composition of material for this layer is

(Lao . 8Sro.2)o . 95Cr 0.3 Feo . 70 3- 5. The (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 and lOSclYSZ should be present within a third volume percentage of (Lni -x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 of from about 30% to about 70%) of the total sintered mass. In one embodiment, the third volume percentage of (Lni. x A x ) w Cri -y B y 0 3- 5 is about 60%>. The high Fe content in the perovskite phase and the volume ratio of the two phases in the mixture help keep the loss of driving force for oxygen reduction low while maintaining a stable microstructure during long-term operation at high temperatures.

[0026] As an example of forming the composite oxygen ion transport membrane 1, the perovskite material (Lao.8Sro.2)o.95Cr 0 .5Feo.50 3- 5 (LSCrF55) for the second layer 14, the gas separation layer, can be obtained from NexTech Materials, Ltd., Lewis Center, Ohio and Zr 0. 80 2 Sco . i8oYo . oi80 2 -5 (lOScl YSZ) can be obtained from Daiichi Kigenso Kagaku Kogyo Co,. Ltd, Osaka, Japan through their US agent Sojitz, Ltd, in New York, United States of America. The perovskite phase LSCrF55 can have a particle size D 50 in the range of from about 0.3 to 0.5 μιτι, the lOSclYSZ should have a D 50 of less than 0.6 μιη. In order to fabricate a 70 gram batch of gas separation layer slurry, 36.75 gram of LSCrF55 are mixed with 33.25 gram of lOSclYSZ, 36 gram Ferro B73210 binder, 170 gram toluene and 1200 gram of 1.5 mm diameter YSZ milling media in a 500 ml NALGE E bottle. The mixture is milled until the particle size of the mixture is in the range of from about 0.3 to 0. 5 μπι. The perovskite material (Lao.8Sro.2)o.95Cr 0 .7Feo.303-5 (LSCrF73) for the first layer 12, the fuel oxidation layer, is also obtained from NexTech Materials, Ltd., Lewis Center, Ohio and the lOScl YSZ can also be obtained from Daiichi Kigenso Kagaku Kogyo Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan through their US agent Sojitz, Ltd, in New York. The perovskite phase LSCrF73 is specified as having a particle size D 50 in the range of from about 0.3 to 0. 5 μπι, the lOSclYSZ should have a D 50 of less than 0.6 μπι as received. In order to prepare a 180 gram batch of fuel oxidation layer slurry, 112.32 gram of LSCrF73, 67.68 gram of lOSclYSZ, 150 gram of toluene, 30 gram of Ferro B73210 binder, and 1200 gram of 1.5 mm diameter YSZ grinding media are added in a 500 ml NALGENE bottle. The mixture is then milled for about 6 hours to form a slurry having a particle size d 5 o of from about 0.3 to about 0.5 μπι. About 4.5 gram of carbon black having a particle size of about d 50 of 0.8 μπι and 0.3 gram of surfactant KD-1 dissolved in 15 gram of toluene are then added to the slurry and milled for additional 2 hours. To prepare the surface exchange layer slurry, 80 gram of the electronic and ionic mixture having (Lao.8Sro.2)o.95Cr 0 .3Feo.703-5 (LSCrF37) and lOSclYSZ is prepared so that the mixture contains about 60% of LSCrF37 and about 40% of lOSclYSZ by volume. To the mixture, 28.8 gram of toluene, 19.2 gram of ethyl alcohol, 16 gram of the same Ferro binder mentioned above, 1.6 gram of surfactant KD-1, and about 500 gram of 1.5 mm diameter YSZ grinding media are added and the resultant mixture is milled for about 2 hours to form a slurry having a particle size d 5 o of from about 0.3 to about 0.5 μπι. About 12 gram of carbon black are added to the slurry and it is milled for additional 2 hours.

[0027] In order to form a composite oxygen transport membrane 1 from these slurries the slurries are deposited on a porous support 10 by slurry coating followed by firing in nitrogen. The porous support 10 can be tubular and fabricated by an extrusion process. Although the porous support 10 can be fully sintered, it can first be fired at a low temperature e.g. at about 1000 °C after green forming such that some residual shrinkage remains when the coated substrate is fired again at higher temperatures. The first layer 12 is then deposited on the surface of the porous support layer 10 and the thickness is controlled by the speed at which the supporting substrate is dipped into the slurry. The first layer 12 is allowed to dry at ambient temperature. The second layer 14 is then applied on top of the first layer 12 by dipping the component into the gas separation slurry and allowed to dry. The coated tube is slowly heated in flowing nitrogen to about 1400 °C and held at the same temperature for about 6 hours for the membrane to sinter completely. During sintering, the oxygen partial pressure of the atmosphere in the furnace is controlled below 20 Pa. The tube is then cooled in nitrogen to complete the sintering process. The sintered tube is checked for flow coefficient, as defined below:

where q is the flow rate, N 2 is a constant, x is the inlet pressure, G g is the gas specific gravity, and T t is the absolute upstream temperature. The Cv of the sintered tube should not exceed 1.5 x 10 "5 . After this, the third layer 16 is applied by slurry coating the sintered three layer membrane structure and firing at a temperature of about 1300 °C in air. The third layer 16 could also be applied after drying of the dense layer, 14 and then all three active layers 12, 14, 16 co-fired together in one high temperature sintering step at a temperature of about 1400 °C in nitrogen. Combining the high temperature sintering steps for these three layers leads to lower manufacturing costs than can be achieved when using separate high temperature sintering steps for each of the three layers. The Cv of the tube after the sintering of the surface exchange layer is checked again to make sure no significant change has occurred.

[0028] The resultant tube has the preferred thickness, pore size and porosity within the ranges, namely, the fuel oxidation layer 12 has a thickness of from about 10 microns to about 50 microns, an average pore size of from about 0.1 microns to about 1 micron and a porosity of from about 25 percent to about 50 percent. The porous support layer 10 has a thickness of about 1 mm, an average pore size of from about 0.5 micron to about 3 microns and a porosity of from about 25 to 45 percent. The surface exchange layer 16 has a thickness of from about 10 microns to about 50 microns, an average pore size from about 0.1 microns to about 1 microns and a porosity of from about 25 percent to about 50 percent. The separation layer 14 has a thickness of from about 10 microns to about 50 microns, with substantially no connected porosity; in another embodiment with no connected porosity.

[0029] While the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, as would occur to those skilled in the art, numerous changes, additions and omission may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as set forth in the appended claims.