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Title:
COMPOSITION COMPRISING SPRAY DRIED ROE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/154879
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A composition comprising spray dried roe, wherein the spray dried roe is in the form of a powder and comprises less than 10 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

Inventors:
LOVAAS, Erik (P.O.Box 6420Tromsø Science Park, 9294 Tromsø, N-9294, NO)
Application Number:
EP2019/052943
Publication Date:
August 15, 2019
Filing Date:
February 06, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MARINE BIOEXPLOITATION AS (P.O.Box 6420, Tromsø Science Park, 9294 Tromsø, N-9294, NO)
International Classes:
A23L3/46; A21D2/26; A23J1/04; A23L17/30; A23L33/17; C07K14/46; C08J3/12
Foreign References:
CN1147350A1997-04-16
JP2003180290A2003-07-02
JPH0681583B21994-10-19
US20100068371A12010-03-18
Other References:
SATHIVEL S ET AL: "Physical and nutritional properties of catfish roe spray dried protein powder and its application in an emulsion system", JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, BARKING, ESSEX, GB, vol. 95, no. 1, 1 November 2009 (2009-11-01), pages 76 - 81, XP026234386, ISSN: 0260-8774, [retrieved on 20090424], DOI: 10.1016/J.JFOODENG.2009.04.011
PETER KRACKOWIZER: "Fisch-Visionär - Kaviar-Pulvermacher Walter Grüll und seine beiden Weltneuheiten", PETERS REISE-MOSAIK-BLOG, 8 February 2015 (2015-02-08), pages 1 - 5, XP055589014, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190515]
ALEX STRANIG: "Dry Ei: Getrockneter Forellen-Kaviar im Glas - Produkt der Woche - derStandard.at > Lifestyle", 3 November 2015 (2015-11-03), pages 1 - 1, XP055589019, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190515]
DATABASE GNPD [online] MINTEL; 20 March 2012 (2012-03-20), ANONYMOUS: "Spicy Cod Roe Corn Balls", XP055588841, retrieved from www.gnpd.com Database accession no. 1756307
DATABASE GNPD [online] MINTEL; 28 April 2014 (2014-04-28), ANONYMOUS: "Spaghetti with Prawn & Dried Mullet Roe in Anchovy Sauce", XP055588994, retrieved from www.gnpd.com Database accession no. 2405261
SHAVIKLO AMIR REZA ED - SINGH NARPINDER: "Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review", JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SPRINGER (INDIA) PRIVATE LTD, INDIA, vol. 52, no. 2, 13 June 2013 (2013-06-13), pages 648 - 661, XP035448436, ISSN: 0022-1155, [retrieved on 20130613], DOI: 10.1007/S13197-013-1042-7
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MARKS & CLERK LLP (62-68 Hills Road, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB2 1LA, CB2 1LA, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS:

1. A composition comprising spray dried roe, wherein said spray dried roe is in the form of a powder and comprises less than 10 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

2. A composition as claimed in claim 1 , wherein said composition is a dietary supplement, a nutritional supplement, a food product or a pharmaceutical composition.

3. A composition as claimed in claim 2, wherein said composition is a food product, and preferably an animal food product.

4. A composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, further comprising one or more antioxidants.

5. A composition as claimed in claim 4, wherein said antioxidants are selected from curcumin, spermine and mixtures thereof.

6. Spray dried roe in the form of a powder, wherein said spray dried roe comprises less than 10 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe

7. Spray dried roe as claimed in claim 6, wherein said spray dried roe comprises at least 90 wt% ingredients derived from fresh roe.

8. Spray dried roe as claimed in claim 6 or 7, wherein said roe is selected from capelin roe, cod roe, herring roe, saithe roe, shrimp roe or salmon roe, preferably capelin roe, cod roe, herring roe or salmon roe, more preferably herring roe.

9. Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 8, which comprises 60 wt% to 80 wt%, preferably 65 wt% to 75 wt% of protein based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

10. Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 9, which comprises 10 wt% to 30 wt%, preferably 15 wt% to 25 wt% of lipid, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

1 1 . Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 10, which comprises omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids in a weight ratio of from 15:1 to 25:1 , preferably from 17:1 to 20:1.

12. Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 1 1 , which comprises 2 wt% to 10 wt%, preferably 3 wt% to 5 wt% of omega-3 fatty acids, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

13. Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 12, which comprises docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in a weight ratio of from 1 :1 to 5:1 , preferably from 2:1 to 3:1 .

14. Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 13, which comprises 1 wt% to 5 wt%, preferably 2 wt% to 3 wt%, of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), based on the total weight of said spray dried roe.

15. Spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 14, which comprises 5 wt% to 10 wt%, preferably 7 wt% to 9 wt% of leucine, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

16. A process for preparing spray-dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 15, comprising:

(i) obtaining roe;

(ii) pre-treating said roe; and

(iii) spray-drying said roe.

17. A process as claimed in claim 16, wherein said pre-treating step comprises treating said roe with steam.

18. A package containing a composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5 or spray dried roe as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 15.

Description:
Composition comprising spray dried roe

INTRODUCTION

The present invention relates to compositions such as dietary supplements, nutritional supplements, food products and pharmaceutical compositions, comprising spray dried roe, wherein the spray dried roe is in the form of a powder and comprises less than 10 wt% water. The present invention also relates to the spray dried roe per se and to a process for preparing the spray dried roe. The invention further relates to a package (e.g. pouch, bottle, and canister) containing the composition or spray dried roe.

BACKGROUND

It is known that marine organisms are a potential source of compounds for human nutrition and health benefits. Three types of long chain omega-3 fatty acids come from marine sources: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids help facilitate important immune functions, gene expression and platelet aggregation, and also help maintain membrane fluidity and structure, cell signalling pathways, and synthesis of physiologically important chemicals such as prostaglandins. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are also known for their ability to reduce inflammation.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for normal human growth. However, only minor quantities of the beneficial w-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of w-3 PUFAs and their metabolism.

Today, various governments and health organizations recommend dietary intakes for total n-3 PUFA of 1 .4 to 2.5 g/d, with EPA plus DHA ranging from 140 to 600 mg/d. Unfortunately, in many western countries, these recommendations are not met by the majority of people. Therefore, other dietary sources of EPA and DHA are being sought. Food enrichment may be the best long-term solution to boost intake of long chain n-3 PUFA.

In light of recent consumer demand for food products containing healthier oils, manufacturers have introduced several foods fortified with omega-3 fatty acids. The main categories of foods being fortified with omega- 3s are dairy products, nutritional beverages and baked goods. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavour that is considered unacceptable.

Another concern of today's nutritionists is the high ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids of modern human food (up to 50:1 compared with 1 :1 in ancient times). Many food manufacturers are in the process of reformulating their food products towards healthier compositions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids have positive effects on preventing or curing diseases like heart disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, ulcerative colitis, Raynaud's disease, allergies, eczema, skin thickening, weight gain and a host of other diseases.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

Viewed from a first aspect, the present invention provides a composition comprising spray dried roe, wherein said spray dried roe is in the form of a powder and comprises less than 10 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

Viewed from a further aspect the present invention provides spray dried roe in the form of a powder, wherein said spray dried roe comprises less than 10 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

Viewed from a further aspect the present invention provides a process for preparing spray-dried roe as hereinbefore defined, comprising:

(i) obtaining roe;

(ii) pre-treating said roe; and

(iii) spray-drying said roe.

Viewed from a further aspect the present invention provides a package containing spray dried roe as hereinbefore defined.

DEFINITIONS

As used herein the term“spray drying” refers to a method of producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a gas. In a typical spray drying process, a liquid or slurry is dispersed by an atomiser or spray nozzle into droplets and hot gas is blown into the droplets to evaporate the liquid therefrom. Usually the process is carried out in an air atmosphere, but other gases such as nitrogen may alternatively be used. As would be readily understood by a skilled person, spray drying does not include freeze drying (lyophilisation) or vacuum drying. As used herein the term“spray dried” refers to a product obtained from a spray drying process.

As used herein the term“roe” refers to the eggs of fish. The term encompasses both unripe and ripe eggs taken from the ovaries of fish. The outer surface of an egg consists of a coating that acts as a solid shield (the chorion and vitelline membrane) that protects the interior.

As used herein the term “powder” refers to an assembly of solid particles. Powders may be characterised by the size of the particles in the assembly. When the term“particle size” is used herein, the average diameter of particles is meant. Particle size may be determined, for example, by laser diffraction.

As used herein the term“fatty acid” refers to a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid moiety (i.e. the carboxylic acid without the acid hydrogen) with an aliphatic hydrocarbon chain which may be saturated or unsaturated. Typically the hydrocarbon chain comprises 6-22 carbon atoms.

As used herein the term“omega-3 fatty acid” refers to a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that has the first double bond in the hydrocarbon chain, when viewed from the free end of the hydrocarbon chain (i.e. the end furthest from the carboxylic acid group), between the third and fourth carbon atoms from the free end of the hydrocarbon chain.

As used herein the term“omega-6 fatty acid” refers to a polyunsaturated fatty acid that has the first double bond in the hydrocarbon chain, when viewed from the free end of the hydrocarbon chain (i.e. the end furthest from the carboxylic acid group), between the sixth and seventh carbon atoms from the free end of the hydrocarbon chain.

As used herein the term“dietary supplement” refers to a product intended for ingestion, alongside a human or animal diet, that provides nutrients that the human or animal might otherwise not consume in sufficient quantities (e.g. through their regular diet). Typically a dietary supplement does not contain a significant amount of calories.

As used herein the term“nutritional supplement” refers to a product intended for ingestion by a human or animal that provides nutrients that the human or animal might otherwise not consume in sufficient quantities (e.g. through their regular diet) as well as a source of calories. Examples of nutritional supplements include meal replacements, nutritional drinks and energy bars.

As used herein the term“sports supplement” refers to a nutritional supplement specifically designed to provide nutrients to enhance or improve a person’s performance during sport or exercise, their recovery following sport or exercise and/or the effects of sport or exercise on them.

As used herein the term“food product” refers to any substance that is intended to be consumed by a human or animal. The term encompasses products that are themselves food products as well as ingredients of such products, i.e. products, which after combination with other ingredients, are food products.

DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION

Description of composition

The present invention provides a composition comprising spray dried roe, wherein the spray dried roe is in the form of a powder and comprises less than 10 %wt water. Roe is an extremely attractive ingredient for use in, e.g. food and health products, in light of its ideal balance of ingredients and in particular its omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid ratio. The problem with roe, however, is that it has low storage stability and has a strong fishy smell and flavour which is often undesirable. These problems are overcome by utilising spray dried roe.

The compositions of the invention comprising spray dried roe provide therapeutic and/or nutritional benefits to animals, including human and non-human animals. Representative examples of non-human animals include dogs, cats, chickens, turkeys, horses, sheep, cows, pigs, guinea pigs and fish. Domestic animals, e.g. pets, are one preferred group of non-human animals.

The therapeutic and/or nutritional benefit is achieved as a result of the composition of the spray dried roe. Examples of neurological conditions that may be improved, maintained or treated by the compositions of the invention include dementia, cognitive dysfunction, DHA or neurological deficiencies, overall brain health, mood, memory and concentration, brain and retina cell survival during both aging and the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, digestive and/or fat absorption issues. The compositions of the present invention can also improve, maintain or treat infertility, particularly male infertility.

Preferably the composition is a dietary supplement, a nutritional supplement, a food product or a pharmaceutical composition.

In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the composition is a food product. The food product may be a human food or an animal food. Particularly preferably the food is an animal food, e.g. pet food. The pet food may be dry feed or wet feed.

When the composition of the invention is a food product, the product may be any conventional food type. Representative examples include animal feed (e.g. pet food, aquaculture feed), infant formula feed, baby food, food for children and youngsters, drinks (e.g. milk, milk shake, soft drink, juice, smoothie etc.), baked goods (e.g. bread), meat or fish products (e.g. burgers, sausages, fish cakes, crab sticks, etc.), sports products, snack foods (e.g. chocolate bars), sauces, soups, toppings or dressings, dairy products (e.g. yoghurts, cheese), pregnancy nutrition food products and frozen meals. Generally the food products are identical in composition to conventional food products except for the addition of spray dried roe.

Preferred food products of the present invention comprise spray dried roe as herein defined in an amount of 0.5 wt% to 50 wt%, more preferably 1 wt% to 40 wt%, yet more preferably 1 wt% to 20 wt%, and still more preferably 1 wt% to 10 wt%, based on the total weight of the food product. Most preferably the food product of the present invention comprises spray dried roe as hereinbefore defined in an amount of 1 wt% to 5 wt%, based on the total weight of the food product.

When the composition of the invention is a dietary supplement, the supplement may be in any conventional form. Representative examples of suitable forms include pills, powders, drinks or bars. Generally the dietary supplement is in a form suitable for ingestion.

Preferred dietary supplements of the present invention comprise spray dried roe as herein defined in an amount of 1 wt% to 80 wt%, more preferably 5 wt% to 70 wt%, yet more preferably 10 wt% to 60 wt%, and still more preferably 15 wt% to 50 wt%, based on the total weight of the dietary supplement.

Preferred dietary supplements further comprise one or more nutraceutical agents. The person skilled in the art can readily identify suitable agents. Representative examples of suitable agents include thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic add pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12, lipoic acid, ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamine pyrophosphates (TPP), flavin mononucleotide (FMM), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), coenzyme A (CoA), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), pyridoxal phosphate, biocytin, tetrahydrofolic acid, coenzyme B 12, lipoyllysine, 1 1 -cis-retinal, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, carnitine, alfa carotene, beta carotene, gamma carotene, black currant, ginseng, ginko biloba and cinnamon. These agents may also be present in other compositions of the invention, i.e. nutritional supplements and food products.

When the composition of the invention is a nutritional supplement, the supplement may be in any conventional form. Preferably the nutritional supplement of the present invention is in the form of food, e.g. a meal, a snack or a drink. Preferred nutritional supplements of the present invention further comprise carbohydrate, protein, fat and mixtures thereof. Conventional sources of carbohydrate, protein and fat may be used.

Preferred nutritional supplements of the present invention comprise spray dried roe as herein defined in an amount of 0.5 wt% to 50 wt%, more preferably 1 wt% to 40 wt%, yet more preferably 1 wt% to 20 wt%, and still more preferably 1 wt% to 10 wt%, based on the total weight of the nutritional supplement.

Preferred compositions, and particularly preferred dietary supplements, nutritional supplements and food products, further comprise one or more further substances. The preferred further substances depend on the type of the composition. Generally, however, the one or more further substances are selected from flavourings, sweeteners, minerals, binders, smell modifiers, fillers, surfactants, preservatives, colourings, antioxidants, sorbents and mixtures thereof. Antioxidants are a particularly preferred further substance.

Particularly preferred compositions comprise one or more antioxidants. Preferred antioxidants are selected from rosemary, vitamin E, astaxanthine, carnitine, ascorbyl palmitate, spermine, curcumin and mixtures thereof, more preferably curcumin and spermine and mixtures thereof and still more preferably circumin. Particularly preferred compositions comprise curcumin in an amount from 10 to 500 mg curcumin/100 g of the composition, more preferably in an amount from 50 to 250 mg curcumin/100 g of the composition and still more preferably in an amount from 100 to 200 mg curcumin/100 g of the composition. The addition of antioxidants (e.g. curcumin) advantageously enhances the stability (e.g. prevents oxidation) of the spray dried roe, enabling the composition to be stored for extended periods of time.

A significant advantage of the spray dried roe of the present invention is its oxidation and flavour stability. Without wishing to be bound by theory, this is thought to be due to the largely intact structure achieved by the spray drying process and the naturally high content of antioxidants, which are optionally supplemented.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention further comprise flavourings, and preferably comprise flavourings selected from volatile oils, synthetic flavor oils, flavoring aromatics, oils, liquids, oleoresins and extracts derived from plants leaves, flowers, fruits, citric oils, lemon, orange, grape, lime and grape fruit, fruit essences including apple, pear, peach, banana, grape, berry, strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, blackberry, cherry, plum, pineapple, apricot, other fruit flavors such as aldehydes and esters, benzaldehyde (cherry almond), citral, alpha-central (lemon lime), neral, beta-citral (lemon lime), decanal (orange lemon), aldehyde C-8 (citrus fruits), aldehyde C-9 (citrus fruits), aldehyde C-12 (citrus fruits), tolyl aldehyde (cherry almond), 2,6-dimethyloctanal (green fruit), 2-dodedenal (citrus mandarin), chocolate, cocoa, almond, cashew, macadamia nut, coconut, mint, chili pepper, pepper, cinnamon, vanilla and tooty fruity, diacetyl acetylpropionyl, acetoin, isoamyl acetate, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, ethyl propionate, methyl anthranilate, limonene, ethyl decadienoate, allyl hexanoate, ethyl maltol, ethylvanillin, methyl salicylate, salt, sugar, glutamic acid salts, glycine salts, guanylic acid salts, inosinic acid salts, 5’- ribonucleotide salts, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, phosphoric acid and tartaric acid.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention further comprise sweeteners. Preferred sweeteners are selected from glucose, invert sugar, fructose, saccharin and its various salts, cyclamic acid and its various salts, aspartame, dihydrochalcone, sugar alcohols including sorbitol syrup, luo han, cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, mogorosides, brazzein, curculin, erythritol, fructooligosaccharide, glycyrrhizin, glycerol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, inulin, isomalt, isomaltooligosaccharide, isomaltulose, lactitol, mogroside mix, mabinlin, maltitol, maltodextrin, mannitol, miraculin, monatin, monellin, osladin, pentadin, polydextrose, psicose, sorbitol, stevia, tagatose, thaumatin, xylitol, acesulfame potassium, advantame, alitame, salt of aspartame-acesulfame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, glucin, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame, P-4000 and saccharin.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention further comprise minerals. Preferred minerals are selected from calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, copper, iodine, magnesium, phosphorus and chromium

Some preferred compositions of the present invention further comprise preservatives. Preferred preservatives are selected from organic acid salts, vitamins, essential oils, sorbic acid, sorbates, sodium sorbate, benzoic acid, benzoates, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoates, sulfur dioxide, sulphites, nitrites, nitrates, lactic acid, propionic acid, sodium propionate, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, gallic acid, sodium gallate, tocopherols, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, retinyl palmitate, selenium, amino acids including cysteine and methionine, citric acid, sodium citrates, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and nisin. Suitable preservative processes include fermentation, margination, and acidification.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention further comprise colourings. Preferred colourings are selected from natural colourings and artificial colourings such as E104 (Quinoline yellow), E122 (carrmoisine), E124 (ponceau 4R), E131 (Patent Blue V), E142 (Green S), FD&C Blue No. 1 , FD&C Blue No.2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No.3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No.5, FD&C Yellow No.6, beet juice, beet powder, Beta-Apo-8'-carotenal, Beta carotene, Canthaxanthin, caramel, carmine, carrot oil, cochineal extract, cottonseed flour, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, fruit juice, grape colour extract, lycopene, tomato extract, paprika, paprika oleoresin, riboflavin, saffron, spirulina extract, tumeric, tumeric oleoresin, vegetable juice.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention comprise binders. Preferred binders are selected from potato starch, flour, eggs and tapioca flour.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention comprise sorbents. Particularly suitable sorbents include free-radical scavengers and oxygen scavengers.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention comprise smell modifiers. Any suitable conventional smell modifiers may be used.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention comprise surfactants. Any suitable conventional surfactants may be used.

Some preferred compositions of the present invention comprise fillers. Any suitable conventional fillers may be used.

Description of roe

The present invention provides spray dried roe in the form of a powder. Preferably the powder is dry powder. Preferably the powder is a dehydrated powder. Preferably the powder is free flowing and can therefore be handled and manipulated without the particles comprising the powder sticking together.

The spray dried roe of the present invention advantageously contains all the desirable nutritional components of fresh roe in a form with an attractive texture and flavour profile and good stability (e.g. to oxidation). Roe has an ideally balanced and highly attractive nutritional profile with high amounts of phospholipids, predominantly phosphatidylcholine, with a very high percentage of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, potent lipophilic antioxidants with carotenoid structures (e.g. astaxanthin, canthaxanthin) and a large portion of protein with an attractive amino acid profile. The spray dried roe of the present invention is highly advantageous in that it comprises the same ideal balance of ingredients as fresh roe but may be stably stored for longer periods of time. Advantageously the spray drying process employed in the present invention does not cause oxidation, e.g. of the lipids, does not induce the generation of smelly amines, and does not destroy the overall composition of the fresh roe.

The spray dried roe of the present invention comprises less than 10 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Preferably the spray dried roe comprises less than 8 wt% water, more preferably less than 7 wt% water and still more preferably less than 6 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Most preferably the spray dried roe comprises less than 5 wt% water, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. The minimum amount of water may be, for example, 0.5 or 0.1 wt%, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe.

Advantageously the spray dried roe of the invention comprises all the components of fresh roe minus the majority, e.g. all, of the water. Thus the spray dried roe provides the nutrients of fresh roe but in a form which is stable, lightweight, easy to store and transport, and suitable for use in many compositions and applications. Preferably the spray dried roe of the present invention comprises at least 90 wt% ingredients derived from fresh roe, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. More preferably the spray dried roe of the present invention comprises at least 92 wt%, still more preferably at least 93 wt% and yet more preferably at least 94 wt% ingredients derived from fresh roe, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Most preferably the spray dried roe of the present invention comprises at least 95 wt% ingredients derived from fresh roe, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. The maximum amount of ingredients derived from fresh roe may be 100 wt%, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. In a preferred spray dried roe of the present invention the spray dried roe consists essentially of, e.g. consists of, ingredients derived from fresh roe. Preferably the composition of the spray dried roe of the present invention is substantially the same as, e.g. is the same as, the composition of the fresh roe from which the spray dried roe is derived, except for the water content.

The spray dried roe of the present invention is preferably non-encapsulated. Encapsulation is often used when formulating fish oils to improve their solubility and/or bioavailability. Encapsulation (e.g. microencapsulation) materials, however, generally have no nutritional value and can make up a significant weight proportion of an encapsulated product. Additionally, encapsulation (e.g. microencapsulation) of marine extracts that contain a high level of phospholipids can lead to an undesirable rubberlike appearance and/or texture. Advantageously the spray dried roe of the present invention provides a free flowing powder and does not require encapsulation.

The spray dried roe of the present invention is in the form of a powder, preferably a free flowing powder. Preferably the spray dried roe has a particle size (e.g. an average diameter) of less than 400 pm, more preferably less than 300 pm, and still more preferably less than 250 pm (e.g. less than 200 pm). Preferably the spray dried roe has a particle size (e.g. an average diameter) of greater than 20 pm, more preferably greater than 40 pm, and still more preferably greater than 50 pm (e.g. greater than 75 pm). Preferably the spray dried roe of the present invention has a particle size (e.g. an average diameter) of 20 to 400 pm, more preferably 40 to 250 pm, and still more preferably 50 pm to 200 pm. Yet more preferably the spray dried roe has a particle size (e.g. an average diameter) of 75 pm to 125 pm, more preferably about 100 pm. Alternatively the spray dried roe may have a preferred particle size of 1 to 50 pm, more preferably 5 to 25 pm and still more preferably about 10 pm.

The spray dried roe of the present invention may be derived from various marine species, e.g. fish or shellfish. The spray dried roe may be derived from saltwater or freshwater species. Preferably in the spray dried roe of the present invention the roe is selected from capelin roe, cod roe, herring roe, saithe roe, shrimp roe or salmon roe, preferably capelin roe, cod roe, herring roe or salmon roe, more preferably herring roe. Herring roe is particularly preferred as it provides an ideal balance of nutritional properties.

The spray dried roe of the present invention may be derived from unripe roe or ripe roe.

The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises a large proportion of protein. Preferably the spray dried roe comprises 60 wt% to 90 wt%, more preferably 65 wt% to 85 wt% and still more preferably 70 to 80 wt% of protein based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Alternatively the spray dried roe preferably comprises 60 wt% to 80 wt%, more preferably 65 wt% to 75 wt% of protein based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Preferably all of the protein present in the spray dried roe is derived from the roe per se, i.e. no external protein is added.

Preferably the proteins, peptides and polypeptides (e.g. proteins) in the spray dried roe of the present invention are in their original configuration (i.e. they are in the same configuration as they were in in the fresh roe from which the spray dried roe is derived). Preferably the proteins are not denatured or degraded, e.g. by hydrolytic processes, relative to their configuration in the fresh roe. Preferably 80 to 100 wt%, more preferably 90 to 100 wt%, still more preferably 95 to 100 wt% (e.g. 98 to 100 wt%) of the protein in the spray dried roe of the present invention is in its original configuration (i.e. in the same configuration as in the fresh roe).

The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises 10 wt% to 30 wt%, more preferably 10 wt% to 25 wt%, still more preferably 15 wt% to 25 wt% and yet more preferably 15 to 20 wt% of lipid, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Preferably all of the lipids present in the spray dried roe is derived from the roe per se, i.e. no external lipids are added.

Preferably the lipids in the spray dried roe of the present invention are in their original configuration (i.e. they are in the same configuration as they were in in the fresh roe from which the spray dried roe is derived). Preferably the lipids are not oxidised relative to their configuration in the fresh roe. Preferably 80 to 100 wt%, more preferably 90 to 100 wt%, still more preferably 95 to 100 wt% (e.g. 98 to 100 wt%) of the lipid in the spray dried roe of the present invention is in its original configuration (i.e. in the same configuration as in the fresh roe).

In the spray dried roe of the present invention the lipid preferably comprises 10 wt% to 40 wt%, more preferably 15 wt% to 25 wt% and still more preferably 20 wt% to 30 wt% (e.g. 22 wt% to 26 wt%) of neutral lipids, based on the total weight of the lipid. In the spray dried roe of the present invention the lipid preferably comprises 60 wt% to 90 wt%, more preferably 65 wt% to 85 wt%, still more preferably 70 wt% to 80 wt% (e.g. 74 wt% to 78 wt%) of polar lipids, based on the total weight of the lipid. The lipids preferably comprise 40 wt% to 75 wt%, more preferably 50 wt% to 70 wt%, and still more preferably 55 wt% to 65 wt% (e.g. 60 to 65 wt%) of phosphatidylcholine (PC), based on the total weight of the lipid. A high proportion of polar lipids (e.g. phosphatidylcholine) compared to neutral lipids can be beneficial as polar lipids are water soluble while neutral lipids are not, and thus polar lipids can be easier to digest, particularly in those with impaired liver or gallbladder function, as solubilisation by bile salts is not required. This is one of the many advantages achieved by incorporating the ingredients of roe into a stable spray dried form.

The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably contains a high level of omega-3 fatty acids relative to the level of omega-6 fatty acids. This is advantageous because modern diets typically contain a high ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids which can have negative health effects. The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids in a weight ratio of from 15:1 to 25:1 , preferably from 17:1 to 20:1. The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises 2 wt% to 10 wt%, preferably 3 wt% to 5 wt% of omega-3 fatty acids, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises 0.1 wt% to 0.5 wt%, preferably 0.15 wt% to 0.25 wt% of omega-6 fatty acids, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Preferably the spray dried roe of the present invention has a lipid profile substantially the same as, e.g. the same as, the lipid profile of the fresh roe from which the spray dried roe is derived.

The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in a weight ratio of from 1 :1 to 5:1 , preferably from 2:1 to 3:1 . DHA is important for neural and visual development and function. It is a structural lipid of the nervous system and a crucial component of brain, retina and other neural tissues. However, most sources of omega- 3 fatty acids are richer in EPA than DHA. The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises 1 wt% to 5 wt%, preferably 2 wt% to 3 wt%, of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), based on the total weight of said spray dried roe. The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises 0.2 wt% to 5 wt%, preferably 0.75 wt% to 1.5 wt%, of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), based on the total weight of said spray dried roe.

Fish roe has a balanced amino acid profile, beneficially including a high level of leucine. The spray dried roe of the present invention preferably comprises 3 wt% to 12 wt%, preferably 5 wt% to10 wt%, more preferably 7 wt% to 9 wt% of leucine, based on the total weight of the spray dried roe. Leucine is an essential amino acid used in the biosynthesis of proteins and which is believed to be of importance for the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. Preferably the spray dried roe of the present invention has an amino acid profile substantially the same as, e.g. the same as, the amino acid profile of the fresh roe from which the spray dried roe is derived.

In some preferred spray dried roes of the present invention the spray dried roe consists essentially of ingredients derived from fresh roe. Alternatively the spray dried roe of the present invention may comprise additional ingredients not derived from the fresh roe. Thus in some preferred spray dried roes of the present invention the spray dried roe further comprises one or more ingredients selected from flavourings, preservatives, colourings, functional excipients, antioxidants and mixtures thereof. Description of process

The present invention also provides a process for preparing spray-dried roe. Thus the present invention provides a process for preparing spray-dried roe as hereinbefore defined, comprising:

(i) obtaining roe;

(ii) pre-treating the roe; and

(iii) spray-drying the roe.

The process of the present invention comprises a step of pre-treating the roe. Advantageously the pre-treating step minimises deterioration of the raw material due to enzymatic and oxidative processes, and prepares the material for a fast drying process, enabling the roe to be spray dried effectively. Without wishing to be bound by theory it is believed that the pre-treating step disrupts the structure of the roe, specifically the outer coating present on the roe. Disrupting this outer coating is thought to enable the roe to be spray dried effectively. Thus in a preferred process of the present invention the pre-treating step disrupts the outer coating (e.g. the chorion and the vitelline membrane) present on the roe. The pre-treating step may be carried out under an air atmosphere. Alternatively the pre-treating step may be carried out under inert conditions, e.g. under a nitrogen atmosphere.

In the process of the present invention the pre-treating step may comprise any treatment which facilitates the spray-drying process, e.g. any process which disrupts the outer coating of the roe. The pre-treating step may, for example, comprise (i) mechanical crushing of the roe; and/or (ii) treating the roe with steam. However, in preferred processes of the present invention the pre-treating step comprises the steps of: (i) mechanical crushing of the roe and (ii) treating the roe with steam.

In a particularly preferred process of the present invention the pre-treating step comprises treating the roe with steam (e.g. injecting the roe with steam). Preferably, the roe is treated with steam at a temperature of 50 to 90 °C, more preferably at a temperature of 60 to 80 °C, and yet more preferably at a temperature of about 70 °C, e.g. the roe is treated with steam to a final temperature of 50 to 90 °C, more preferably to a final temperature of 60 to 80 °C, and yet more preferably to a final temperature of about 70 °C. In processes of the present invention wherein the pre-treating step comprises treating the roe with steam, the roe is preferably treated with steam for 30 minutes to 5 hours, more preferably for 1 to 4 hours, still more preferably for 1.5 to 3.5 hours and yet more preferably for 2 to 3 hours, e.g. for about 2.5 hours. Advantageously steam treatment at these temperatures and/or for these durations disrupts the outer coating of the roe with minimal denaturing of the proteins and minimal oxidation of the lipids present in the roe. Moreover it has been found that steam treatment inactivates enzymes that catalyse the formation of odour components such as trimethylamine. The use of steam treatment in the pre-treating step is cost efficient, reliable and scaleable, allowing the process of the invention to be carried out on a multi-ton scale (e.g. 100 ton scale) with minimal deterioration of the raw material.

In preferred processes of the invention, and particularly those employing a pre treating step comprising treating the roe with steam, the roe is initially frozen. Thus preferred processes of the invention comprise a further step of freezing said roe after it has been obtained. Preferred the roe is frozen at a temperature of -50 °C to -10 °C, preferably -30 °C to -10 °C. Preferably the roe is frozen after the step of obtaining the roe, and preferably prior to the pre-treating step.

In preferred processes of the present invention the roe is frozen prior to the pre treating step, and the pre-treating step preferably thaws the roe. Optionally the frozen roe is crushed, e.g. mechanically crushed, prior to pre-treating with steam. After the roe is thawed by steam, it may be subjected to further pre-treating steps or it may be spray dried without further pre-treatment. Advantageously the steaming process may be controlled so that the enzymes which generate odour components are quickly deactivated, but no denaturation of the roe proteins or oxidative stress of the roe lipid occurs

In some processes of the present invention the roe is washed. The roe can be washed with salt water. Alternatively the roe can be washed with pure water (i.e. non salt water). Preferably washing is carried out after immediately after the roe is separated from fish, i.e. after filleting. Preferably, the roe is not washed or treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (e.g. an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution). This is because washing or treating with a sodium hydroxide solution can hydrolyse and/or destroy the roe, such that it loses its functional properties.

One preferred process of the invention comprises:

(i) obtaining roe;

(ii) optionally washing said roe;

(iii) freezing said roe to produce frozen roe;

(iv) pre-treating said frozen roe with steam, preferably to thaw said frozen roe and disrupt the outer coating of the roe; and

(v) spray-drying the resulting roe. Another preferred process of the invention comprises:

(i) obtaining roe;

(ii) optionally washing said roe;

(iii) freezing said roe to produce frozen roe;

(iv) crushing said frozen roe to produce crushed frozen roe;

(v) pre-treating said crushed frozen roe with steam (e.g. to a final roe temperature of 50 to 90 q C), preferably to thaw said frozen roe and disrupt the outer coating of the roe; and

(vi) spray-drying the resulting roe.

In the process of the present invention the roe is preferably unripe roe. Whilst ripe roe can be used as caviar, unripe roe is generally a low value residual. Advantageously the present invention allows unripe roe to be transformed into a high value end product.

Advantageously the spray drying process kills bacteria and fungi in the roe. Thus the spray dried roe produced by the spray drying process may be used directly. However, optionally a sterilisation step may be carried out after the spray drying step in order to provide a completely sterile product.

Description of uses

The spray dried roe and the compositions of the present invention have a wide variety of potential applications and uses. The spray dried roe can be used per se, for example for direct oral administration or to be sprinkled over other foods.

The spray dried roe and compositions of the present invention may be used in human nutrition and/or in animal nutrition. Specific uses of the spray dried roe and compositions of the present invention in human nutrition include in snacks (e.g. crisps), in cooking (e.g. as an ingredient in a recipe), in baking (e.g. in the production of bread or other baked goods and bakery products), as an additive to flour, in sports supplements, in medical food, in food or nutritional supplements for the elderly and in maternal and infant nutrition (e.g. as a supplement for pregnant or breast feeding women or an additive to infant formula feed or baby food). Further uses of the spray dried roe and compositions of the present invention in human nutrition are as an emergency food supplement or as a component in an emergency food supplement or emergency rations (e.g. for people following disasters), and as warfare rations or as a component in warfare rations (e.g. for military personnel). Further uses of the spray dried roe and compositions of the present invention in human nutrition are in brain nutrition and clinical nutrition.

Specific uses of the spray dried roe and compositions of the present invention in animal nutrition include in animal feed (e.g. livestock feed, pet food, fish food, aquaculture, chicken feed). The spray dried roe and compositions of the present invention may also be used in feed for poultry in order to enhance the omega-3 fatty acid content in poultry products and eggs.

The spray-dried roe and compositions of the present invention may be used as a starting point for subsequent processing and applications, e.g. extracts.

Description of packaged product

The present invention also provides a package containing spray dried roe or a composition as hereinbefore defined. The package may take any form suitable to contain the spray dried roe or composition, e.g. a bag, a box, a sachet, a tub, a sack, a barrel, a jar, a bottle or a pouch. Preferably the package is air tight and/or opaque. Preferably the package is selected from aluminum bags (e.g. air-tight aluminum bags), polythene bags, polypropylene bags, foil aluminum pouches, BOPP metalized bags, matte bags, vacuum retort bags, flat bottom bags, freezer and/or sandwich bags, zip bags, grip seal bags, food storage bags, mircoperforation wicketed bread bags, biodegradable bags, compostable corn starch sacks, and barrels. Preferably the package is an aluminum bag, more preferably a laminated aluminum bag. Advantageously packaging the spray dried roe in air tight and/or opaque packaging (e.g. in a laminated aluminum bag) enables it to be stored for extended periods of time without deterioration of the product.

EXAMPLES

Materials

Herring roe was obtained from Norwegian producers of herring fillets

Example 1 : Production of spray-dried roe using pre-treatment with steam

Fresh herring roe was frozen and stored at -20 °C. The frozen roe was then crushed mechanically using conventional crushing equipment. Steam was then injected into the crushed frozen roe up to a final roe temperature of 15 °C or 70 °C. To achieve a final temperature of 70 °C, steam was injected into 60 kg of crushed frozen roe for 2.5 h. The thawed, liquefied, roe was transferred to a receiving tank prior to spray drying. The thawed roe was then spray dried using conventional spray drying equipment. Composition of spray dried roe

The composition of the spray dried roe produced using steam pre-treatment at 70 °C is shown in Table 1 below. The composition was determined using conventional techniques.

Table 1

The breakdown of the neutral and polar lipids is shown in Table 2.

Table 2 The fatty acid composition of the lipid component is shown in Table 3:

Table 3

The spray dried product has the following key characteristics:

• A high level of omega-3 fatty acids, especially DHA and EPA, bound to phospholipid (mainly choline). Additionally the spray-dried roe contains long and short chain proteins, including polypeptides, peptides and free amino acids.

• The protein fraction contains bioactive components which are kept intact · The biological functions of all of the components are able to provide all elements necessary for the creation of a functional organism, including the brain, eyes, nerve system, immune system, digestion system.

The amino acid composition of the spray dried product is outlined in Table 4. Such an amino acid composition is of importance for a number of applications of the spray dried product, in particular applications related to human nutrition, sports supplements, emergency food supplements, infant formula etc.

Example 2: Nutritional supplements

The spray dried roe made according to Example 1 has an amino acid profile that is high in essential amino acids (see Table 5 below). This fact, together with a high amount of essential fatty acids (see Table 3 above), make the spray dried roe well- suited for particular applications related to human nutrition, sports supplements, emergency food supplements, infant formula etc. Depending on the requirements of the application in question, the formulations may further comprise additives, e.g. flavourings, colourings, sweeteners (e.g. sucralose), guar gum, citric acid etc.

A normal adult requires 0.75 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. For strength and endurance athletes, protein requirements increase to around 1.2-1.7 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Table 5 below compares the essential amino acid profile of a conventional nutritional supplement (whey protein) with the spray dried roe made according to Example 1 . It can be seen that each of the essential amino acids are present in the spray dried roe in the same or greater amounts than in whey protein.

Table 5

Example 3: Production of bread containing spray dried roe

Bread was made containing 1.45 wt % spray dried roe. The ingredients used in the production of the bread are shown in Table 6 below.

Table 6

The bread was made by a conventional bread making procedure with the exception that the spray dried roe was additionally added along with the yeast.

The nutritional data for the bread is shown in Table 7 below.

Table 7

Table 7 shows that the bread contains high levels of EPA and particularly of DHA. The bread contained the equivalent of 12 omega-3 capsules of krill oil. Example 4: Production of fish burgers containing spray dried roe

The spray dried roe has been tested as an ingredient in the industrial production of fish-burgers. A test production was carried out making products that contained 3% of the spray dried roe. The ingredients used in the production of the fish burgers are shown in Table 8 below.

Table 8

The fish burgers were produced by a conventional procedure except that the spray dried roe was added at the same time as the salt and pepper.

The nutritional data for the fish burgers is shown in Table 9 below versus conventional burgers lacking the spray dried roe supplement.

Table 9

The main ingredient in this product is the white fish haddock. White fish contains very little DHA. Table 9 shows that the fish burgers produced with 3 wt% spray dried roe contained 75 mg DHA/100 g product. The product had satisfactory storage stability. Fortification of white fish products with spray dried roe provides a significant nutritional improvement of the product.

Example 5: Production of surimi and crabsticks containing spray dried roe

Imitation crab meat is a seafood product made by blending processed fish, known as surimi, with various texturizing ingredients, flavorings, and colorants. The fish used in the manufacture of imitation crab meat is most commonly white fish, such as pollock, that are low in omega-3 fatty acids. Surimi was produced using 4 wt% spray dried roe. Surimi base and water were mixed. The dry ingredients, plus the spray dried roe, and oil were added and the mixture was cut until 5 °C. Salt was added and the mixture was cut until 10 °C. The ingredients (other than the spray dried roe) are shown in Table 10 below.

Table 10 In order to produce crabsticks the resulting thick surimi paste was transformed into sheets about 25 cm wide and 1.2 mm thick, and then cooked. The thin strand was then bundled and rolled into a rope which was coloured, wrapped and cut to the desired size.