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Title:
COMPOSITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/077540
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to topical compositions comprising water, solvent, thickener, preservative and conditioning agent wherein the composition has a viscosity approximately in the range 200-6000 cP at 25°C following exposure to gamma radiation, to use of the composition in a dressing and the use of compositions and dressings in treatment or prophylaxis of burns.

Inventors:
LAIT MARK (GB)
Application Number:
IB2018/058089
Publication Date:
April 25, 2019
Filing Date:
October 18, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
WATER JEL EUROPE LLP (GB)
International Classes:
A61K8/34; A61F13/00; A61K8/02; A61K8/43; A61K8/81; A61K8/96; A61K9/70; A61K35/08; A61Q17/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2014066850A22014-05-01
WO1995017166A11995-06-29
Foreign References:
US5384125A1995-01-24
Other References:
AYELET RAZ-PASTEUR ET AL: "Central Bringing Excellence in Open Access ? ? JSM Burns and Trauma EffectofGamma-irradiation Sterilizationonthe AntibacterialEfficacyandthe PropertiesofaHybridBurn Dressing", 20 October 2016 (2016-10-20), XP055539990, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190109]
EYTAN MAZOR ET AL: "Effect of gamma-irradiation sterilization on the physical and mechanical properties of a hybrid wound dressing : Effect of Gamma-Irradiation Sterilization", POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES., vol. 28, no. 1, 24 June 2016 (2016-06-24), GB, pages 41 - 52, XP055539992, ISSN: 1042-7147, DOI: 10.1002/pat.3854
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KAYE, Samantha (GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A topical composition comprising water, solvent, thickener, preservative and conditioning agent wherein the composition has a viscosity approximately in the range 200-6000 cP at 25°C following exposure to gamma radiation.

2. A topical composition according to claim 1 comprising or consisting approximately:

85-95% purified water

- 5-10% solvent

- 0.5-1.0% thickener

0.5-2.0% preservative

0.1-1.0% conditioning agent

w/w of the composition.

3. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the solvent is propanediol.

4. A topical composition according to claim 3 wherein the propanediol comprises

approximately 8% w/w of the composition.

5. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the thickener is sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer.

6. A topical composition according to claim 5 wherein the sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer comprises approximately 0.8% w/w of the composition.

7. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the preservative is one or more selected from the group consisting: phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin and (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide.

8. A topical composition according to claim 7 comprising approximately 1.0% w/w

phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin plus an additional approximately 0.1% w/w (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide.

9. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the conditioning agent is a mineral complex.

10. A topical composition according to claim 9 wherein the mineral complex comprises

approximately 0.25% w/w of the composition.

11. A topical composition according to any preceding claim consisting approximately:

- 89.85% purified water

8% propanediol

0.8% sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer

1% phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin 0.25% mineral complex and

0.1% (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide

w/w of the composition.

12. A topical composition according to any one of claims 9 to 11 wherein the mineral complex is sea water extract.

13. A topical composition according to any one of claims 9 to 12 wherein the mineral complex comprises magnesium, potassium, sodium, boron, calcium and optionally one or more from the group consisting: copper, nickel, silicon, zinc, aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, iron, mercury, manganese, lead, antimony, selenium, tin, strontium, titanium and vanadium.

14. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the composition has a specific gravity of approximately 1.000 ±0.05 at 25°C.

15. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the composition has a pH approximately in the range 4.0-6.5 at 25°C.

16. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the gamma radiation is irradiation at approximately 25.0 to 44.5 kGy.

17. A topical composition according to any preceding claim wherein the gamma radiation is cobalt 60 irradiation.

18. A topical composition according to any preceding claim for use as a medicament.

19. A topical composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of burns.

20. The use according to claim 18 or 19 wherein the composition is applied for a prolonged period, for example up to 24 hours.

21. A burn dressing comprising a topical composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and a dressing material.

22. A burn dressing according to claim 21 wherein the dressing material comprises thermal bonded, non-woven material.

23. A burn dressing according to claim 21 or 22 wherein the dressing material comprises super absorbent material, such as super absorbent fibre.

24. A burn dressing according to any one of claims 21 to 23 wherein the dressing material comprises polypropylene fibre and rayon fibre.

25. A burn dressing according to any one of claims 22 to 24 wherein the dressing material is approximately 20% super absorbent fibre.

26. A burn dressing according to any one of claims 21 to 25 wherein the dressing material has one of more of the properties selected from the group consisting:

a weight of approximately 50gsm,

a thickness of approximately 0.63mm,

a tensile strength of approximately 4.2 N or 24.3 N,

an absorbent capacity of approximately 22.7g/g and

an absorbent volume of approximately >1150 gsm.

27. A method of sterilising a topical composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 or a burn dressing according to any one of claims 21 to 26 comprising applying gamma radiation of approximately 25.0 to 44.5 kGy to the composition or dressing.

28. A method of sterilising according to claim 27 wherein the gamma radiation is cobalt 60 irradiation.

29. A composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 or a burn dressing according to any one of claims 21 to 26 which has been sterilised using the method of claim 27 or 28.

30. A kit of parts comprising a composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 and a dressing material.

31. A method of prophylaxis or treatment of a burn comprising the step of applying a topical composition according to any one of claims 1 to 17 or a burn dressing according to any one of claims 21 to 26 to skin in need thereof.

32. A method or prophylaxis of treatment according to claim 31 wherein the composition or dressing is applied for approximately 24 hours.

Description:
COMPOSITION

The present invention relates to topical compositions comprising water, solvent, thickener, preservative and conditioning agent wherein the composition has a viscosity approximately in the range 200-6000 cP at 25°C following exposure to gamma radiation, to use of the composition in a dressing and the use of compositions and dressings in treatment or prophylaxis of burns.

BACKGROUND

Approximately 1.4 million people sustain a burn injury each year in the USA alone. Of those, an estimated 54,000 to 180,000 are hospitalised. A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids (scalds), solids or fire.

The skin is comprised of three major tissue layers: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer and has two components, the stratum corneum (comprised of anucleate cornified cells) and the Malpighian layers (viable cells under the stratum corneum). The stratum corneum acts as a barrier to microorganisms and toxins while allowing the body to retain water and electrolytes. The dermis is composed of dense fibroelastic connective tissue containing collagen, elastic fibres and grounds substance (an extracellular gel comprising mucopolysaccharides, salts, water and glycoproteins). The dermis is highly vascular and contains nerve networks and glands. Subcutaneous tissue is primarily areolar and fatty connective tissue and contains glands and hair follicles.

Burns that affect only the outermost skin layers are known as superficial or first-degree burns. They appear red without blisters and pain typically lasts around three days. When the injury extends into some of the underlying skin layer, it is termed a partial-thickness or second-degree burn. Blisters are frequently present and they are often very painful. Healing can require up to eight weeks and scarring may occur. In a full-thickness or third-degree burn, the injury extends to all layers of the skin. Often there is no pain and the burn area is stiff. Healing typically does not occur on its own, requiring skin grafting. A fourth-degree burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle, tendons, or bone. The burn is often black and frequently leads to loss of the burned part.

When skin is burned, damage to the stratum corneum allows the invasion of microorganisms. The Langerhans cells, which mediate immune response, are also damaged. In severe burn injuries, systemic immune response can be so diminished as to make the patient susceptible to serious infection.

Treatment of burns depends on the severity of the burn. Superficial burns may be managed with little more than simple pain medication, while major burns may require prolonged treatment in specialised burn centres. Early cooling (within 30 minutes of the burn), typically with tap water, reduces burn depth and pain, but care must be taken as over-cooling can result in hypothermia.

However, water is frequently not available, either at the site of the injury or in sufficient quantities. Partial-thickness burns may require cleaning with soap and water, followed by dressings. Full- thickness burns usually require surgical treatments, such as skin grafting.

The progression of burn injuries and the body's response to (thermal) burns is summarised in Edlich Many of the direct health effects of a burn are secondary to disruption in the normal functioning of the skin. They include disruption of the skin's sensation, ability to prevent water loss through evaporation and ability to control body temperature. Disruption of cell membranes causes cells to lose potassium to the spaces outside the cell and to take up water and sodium. In large burns (over 30% of the total body surface area), there is a significant inflammatory response. This results in increased leakage of fluid from the capillaries, and subsequent tissue oedema. This causes overall blood volume loss, with the remaining blood suffering significant plasma loss, making the blood more concentrated. Poor blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract may result in renal failure and stomach ulcers. Wound healing progresses via three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodelling. Following a cutaneous injury, a blood clot forms and inflammatory cells infiltrate the wound, secreting cytokines and growth factors. During granulation, fibroblasts and other cells differentiate into myofibroblast which deposit extracellular matrix proteins. At the same time, angiogenesis occurs and keratinocytes proliferate and migrate to close the wound. In the remodelling phase apoptosis eliminates myofibroblasts and extraneous blood vessels and the extracellular matrix is remodelled to resemble the original tissue. Dysregulation of the remodelling phase leads to the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis).

The healing of burns progressing in essentially the same manner as all cutaneous injuries. However, the main difference is the amount of necrotic tissue, that is, tissue which is damaged beyond repair that occurs in a burn versus a cut (for example).

It is desirable to save as much of the damaged and inflamed tissue surrounding the necrotic tissue as possible following a burn and in doing so improve and speed up the wound healing ability of surrounding cells to recuperate and form a protective barrier. This allows the healing process to begin faster and improves the healing process. It is important that any dressing applied to a burn be sterile. Irradiation is a common method of sterilising, typically employing gamma radiation. Sterilisation by gamma irradiation is aimed at reducing the bioburden (that is, the CFUs). Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for a composition or formulation to lose its integrity following irradiation, for example, a composition may become discoloured or less viscous or active ingredients be denatured. It can be a significant challenge to formulate a composition that is resistant to irradiation.

Patent EP0521143 discloses a burn dressing that can be applied to a burn in place of cool water. The dressing comprises a composition comprising tea tree oil and a carrier which is a two-layer non- woven material. The product is known to be suitable for treatment of both wet and dry burns since they stop the burning process, cool the burned area, relieve pain, prevent further injury and do not contribute to hypothermia or interfere with debridement (removal of damaged tissue or foreign objects from a wound). There are no active ingredients within the composition. The dressing conforms to the uneven burn surface and draws the heat out of a burn by spreading it over the whole gel surface.

Thus, there is a requirement for a composition suitable for application to a burn or a burn dressing that can be applied immediately following a burn injury to cool the burn whilst providing long term benefits to improve wound healing. It is further essential that the composition or dressing be sterile or sterilisable, preferably by means of gamma irradiation.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

In a first aspect there is provided a topical composition comprising water, solvent, thickener, preservative and conditioning agent wherein the composition has a viscosity approximately in the range 200-6000 cPs at 25°C following exposure to gamma radiation.

The topical composition has particular benefits for the treatment or prophylaxis of burns.

Advantageously, a composition comprising water, solvent, thickener, preservative and conditioning agent is robust during irradiation to sterilise the composition or dressing when the composition is absorbed onto a dressing material. For example, using gamma radiation the composition is substantially unchanged following irradiation. Specifically, the composition following irradiation is a slightly viscous formulation able to sit on the skin following application to a discrete area or to be absorbed onto a dressing material.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition for primary treatment of burns. Primary treatment as employed herein means treatment immediately following or shortly after a burn, for example within a few seconds to a few hours of the burn, such as within 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1 hour or less, particularly within less than 1 hour.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition for moisturising and maintaining the integrity of the affected skin. In a further aspect there is provided a topical composition according to the disclosure for use as a medicament.

In a further aspect there is provided a topical composition according to the invention for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of burns.

In a yet further aspect there is provided a burn dressing comprising a topical composition according to the invention and a dressing material.

In a further aspect there is provided a method of sterilising a topical composition or a burn dressing according to the invention comprising applying gamma radiation of approximately 25.0 to 44.5 kGy to the composition or dressing.

In a yet further aspect there is provided a composition or a burn dressing according to the disclosure which has been sterilised using the method of the disclosure.

In a further aspect there is provided a kit of parts comprising a composition according to the disclosure and a dressing material.

In a yet further aspect there is provided a method of prophylaxis or treatment of a burn comprising the step of applying a topical composition or a burn dressing according to the invention to skin in need thereof.

The present disclosure for the first time provides a specialised and safe composition or dressing for soothing and promoting healing and regeneration of burn damaged tissue. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 shows the results of a wound healing assay - Human Primary Dermal Fibroblast data plot Cell index v time.

Figure 2 shows Human Primary Keratinocyte cells cell index v time. Figure 3a shows T2 qPCR of fibroblast monoculture comparing cells exposed to WJ24 versus a control (untreated cells).

Figure 3b shows RT2 qPCR of fibroblast monoculture comparing cells exposed to WJ24 at higher concentration versus a control (untreated cells).

Figure 4 shows a representation of the LabSkin system including a cross section through the striated skin. Well insert contains cultured cells in 3D fibrin scaffold.

Figure 5a shows the brass weights that we employed in inflicting thermal burn injury and Figure 5b shows the location of subsequent skin biopsies following burn injury.

Figures 6a and 6b show the damaged (burned) skin 24 hours after burn inflicted.

Figure 7a shows tissue dielectric constant (TDC) as an index of localised skin water content in control model (Figure 7a) and when treated with mineral complex (Figure 7b).

Figure 8a shows wound healing PCR arrays revealing up- and down-regulated genes in 3D skin models in response to thermal burn injury (no treatment) vs healthy skin. Total RNA from 3D skin models were characterised, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples (burn vs healthy skin) are plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot. Figure 8b shows wound healing PCR arrays revealing up- and down-regulated genes in 3D skin models in response to treatment with NB105-146 (gel formulation without mineral complex) for thermal burn injury. Total RNA from 3D skin models were characterised, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples (treated vs burn (untreated) skin) are plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot. Figure 8c shows wound healing PCR arrays revealing up- and down-regulated genes in 3D skin models in response to treatment with NB105-142 (gel formulation with mineral complex) for thermal burn injuries. Total RNA from 3D skin models were characterised, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples (treated vs Burn (untreated) skin) are plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot. DESCRIPTION

Burn as employed herein means an injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Compositions of the present disclosure are particularly beneficial in the treatment and prophylaxis of thermal and radiation burns although they can be employed in the treatment of any burn, including chemical burns. In one embodiment the composition is suitable for the treatment or prophylaxis of burns, such as thermal or radiation burns, particularly thermal burns. In one embodiment there is provided a composition for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of burns, such as thermal or radiation burns, particularly thermal burns.

As employed herein thermal burns refers to burns that are not chemical or radiation burns.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition for use in the prophylaxis of radiation burns. Prophylaxis as employed herein refers to the prevention of condition aimed at stopping the condition developing or progressing, such as a burn or burns.

Treatment as employed herein refers to the reversal of a condition, amelioration or relief of symptoms associated with a condition or prevention of further development/worsening of a condition, such as a burn or burns. Composition

In one embodiment there is provided a topical composition comprising water, solvent, thickener, preservative and conditioning agent wherein the composition has a viscosity approximately in the range 200-6000 cP at 25°C following exposure to gamma radiation.

Topical composition as employed herein means preparation that is applied to the surface of the body, such as the skin, including but not limited to a cream, foam, ointment, paste, lotion or gel, including a hydrogel.

In one embodiment the topical composition is a fluid or a gel.

Water as employed herein typically refers to purified water that has been cleaned and/or filtered to be suitable for topical application. Water may refer to tap water, purified water, sterile water, halogenated water (especially chlorinated water), and mixtures thereof. As employed herein, water has a heat-absorbing function, aimed at cooling the sensation of heat in the skin following a burn. The water also acts as a solvent. Water as employed herein has the CAS number 7732-18-5 as defined by the chemical abstract service.

In one embodiment the water is purified water. In one embodiment the water is present at approximately 85-95% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 85.5, 86, 86.5, 87, 87.5, 88, 88.5, 89.5, 90, 90.5, 91, 91.5, 92, 92.5, 93, 93.5, 94 or 94.5% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 89.45% w/w of the total composition. In one embodiment, the balance of the composition, following addition of other components, is water.

Solvent as employed herein means a substance (a liquid) that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

In one embodiment the solvent is present at approximately 5-10% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 6, 7, 8 or 9% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 8% w/w of the total composition.

In one embodiment the solvent is propanediol. In one embodiment the propanediol comprises approximately 5-10% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 6, 7, 8 or 9% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 8% w/w of the total composition. Propanediol as employed herein means 1,3-propanediol, a chemical according to formula (I)

Propanediol as employed herein has the CAS number 504-63-2.

Thickener or thickening agent as employed herein is an ingredient or ingredients that increase the viscosity of a composition without substantially altering its other properties. Examples of thickening agents include polysaccharides such as gums, starches, in particular corn starch, carbomers, gelling agents and acrylates such as sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer (Aristoflex AVS ® ).

In one embodiment the thickener comprises approximately 0.5-1.0% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9 or 0.95% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 0.8% w/w of the total composition.

In one embodiment the thickener is sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer. Sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer as employed herein has the CAS number 1176663-96-9. In one embodiment the sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer comprises approximately 0.5-1.0% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9 or 0.95% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 0.8% w/w of the total composition.

Preservative as employed herein refers to a substance that prevents decomposition or

contamination either by microorganisms or by chemical change. Typical preservatives suitable for topical compositions include, but are not limited to, phenoxyethanol, ethylhexylglycerine, caprylyl glycol, chlorphenesin, quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, cetrimide, dequalinium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride; mercurial agents, such as phenylmercuric nitrate, phenylmercuric acetate, and thimerosal; alcoholic agents, for example, chlorobutanol, phenylethyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol; antibacterial esters, other examples include, esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid; and other anti-microbial agents such as chlorhexidine, chlorocresol, benzoic acid and polymyxin.

In one embodiment the preservative comprises approximately 0.5-2.0% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9, 0.95, 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, 1.15, 1.2, 1.25, 1.3, 1.35, 1.4, 1.45, 1.5, 1.55, 1.6, 1.65, 1.7, 1.75, 1.8, 1.85, 1.9 or 1.95% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 1.5% w/w of the total composition. In one embodiment the composition comprises one or more preservatives from the group consisting: phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin (commercially known as Mikrokill ® COS) and (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide.

In one embodiment the preservative is phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin (Mikrokill ® ) and (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide.

In one embodiment the phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin (Mikrokill ® COS) comprises approximately 0.5-1.5% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9, 0.95, 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, 1.15, 1.2, 1.25, 1.3, 1.35, 1.4 or 1.45% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 1.0% w/w of the total composition.

As employed herein phenoxyethanol & caprylyl glycol & chlorphenesin is the INCI name for Mikrokill ® COS and has the CAS number 122-99-6/1117-86-8/104-29-0. The composition may comprise approximately 0.25-0.75% (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide, in particular approximately 0.5% (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide.

The composition may comprise approximately 0.05-0.15% (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide, in particular approximately 0.1% (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide.

In one embodiment the (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide comprises approximately 0.25-0.75% w/w of the total composition, such as 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6, 0.65 or 0.7% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 0.5% w/w of the total composition. (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide as employed herein has the CAS number 133029-32-0/27083-27-8. polyaminopropyl biguanide is the INCI name. PHMB (polyhexamethylene biguanide) is the chemical name. In one embodiment the (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide is provided as a 20% solution, thus 0.5% of the solution contains 0.1% (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide on a pure basis.

In one embodiment the (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide comprises approximately 0.05-0.15% w/w of the total composition, such as 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.11, 0.12, 0.13 or 0.14 % w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 0.1% w/w of the total composition. (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide as employed herein has the CAS number 133029-32-0/27083-27-8. polyaminopropyl biguanide is the INCI name. PHMB (polyhexamethylene biguanide) is the chemical name. Typically, the (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide is provided as a 20% solution, thus 0.1% of the solution contains 0.02% (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide on a pure basis.

In one embodiment there is provided a topical composition comprising approximately 1.0% w/w phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin plus an additional approximately 0.5% w/w (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide (20% solution).

In one embodiment there is provided a topical composition comprising approximately 1.0% w/w phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin plus an additional approximately 0.1% w/w (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide (20% solution).

Conditioning agent as employed herein means an agent designed to improve the condition of the skin. In some embodiments the conditioning agent is beneficial to wound healing, specifically to burn healing.

In one embodiment the conditioning agent comprises approximately 0.1-1.0% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9 or 0.95% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 0.25% w/w of the total composition.

In some embodiments the conditioning agent is a mineral complex. In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises approximately 0.1-1.0% w/w of the total composition, such as approximately 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0Λ, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9 or 0.95% w/w of the total composition, for example approximately 0.25% w/w of the total composition.

Mineral complex as employed herein refers to a complex of several minerals, typically including, but not limited to magnesium, potassium, sodium, boron, calcium. The conditioning agent/mineral complex is described in further detail below.

Viscosity as employed herein is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. It corresponds to a notional "thickness" of a liquid and is measured in cP (centipoise). Centipoise is a measure of viscosity on the CGS (centimetre gram second) scale. Water has a viscosity of 1 cP at 20°C. Viscosity can be measured using a Brookfield viscometer, such as a Brookfield DV II Pro. Generally, viscosity is measured at room temperature, such as 20 to 25°C, preferably 25°C.

In one embodiment there is provided a topical composition with a viscosity (at approximately 25°C) in the range approximately 100 to 6000 cP, such as approximately 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, 950, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2500, 2600, 2700, 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3500, 3600, 3700, 3800, 3900, 4000, 4100, 4200, 4300, 4400, 4500, 4600, 4700, 4800, 4900, 5000, 5100, 5200, 5300, 5400, 5500, 5600, 5700, 5800 or 5900 cP, for example approximately 200- 6000 cP.

In one embodiment the composition has a viscosity in the range 200 to 6000 cP measure using spindle #63 spindle @ 12 PM.

As employed herein, in relation to the constituents of the composition, all % are % w/w of the total composition.

Exposure to gamma radiation as employed herein means exposure to electromagnetic radiation typically having energy above 100 keV, frequencies above 10 exahertz (or >1019 Hz) and wavelengths less than 10 picometers (10 -11 m). Typically, the gamma radiation is employed as irradiation to sterilise the composition or dressing.

In one embodiment the gamma radiation sterilises the composition or dressing. In one embodiment the gamma radiation is bacteriostatic. In one embodiment the gamma radiation is fungistatic. In one embodiment the gamma radiation reduces or eliminates the bioburden of the composition or dressing. In one embodiment the gamma irradiation is cobalt 60 irradiation.

In one embodiment the gamma radiation is irradiation at approximately 20-50 kGy, such as approximately 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 or 49 kGy, for example approximately 25-44.5 kGy or 25 kGy or more.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition comprising or consisting approximately: 85-95% purified water, 5-10% solvent, 0.5-1.0% thickener, 0.5-2.0% preservative, 0.1-1.0% conditioning agent wherein each % means % w/w of the total composition.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition consisting essentially of 89.45% purified water, 8% propanediol, 0.8% sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer, 1% phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin, 0.25% mineral complex and 0.5% (PHMB) polyaminopropyl biguanide (20% solution). In one embodiment the viscosity of the composition is approximately in the range 200 to 6000 cP.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition consisting essentially of 8% propanediol, 0.8% sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer, 1% phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin, 0.25% mineral complex and 0.1% (PHM B) polyaminopropyl biguanide (20% solution) and purified water to make to 100%, such as approximately 89.85% purified water. In one embodiment the viscosity of the composition is approximately in the range 200 to 6000 cP.

The high water content of the composition enables it to absorb heat from the skin. Whilst not wishing to be bound by theory, the present inventors believe that this helps to reduce the development of burn by reducing the layers of skin cells permeated by the heat associated with burns.

In one embodiment the composition has a specific gravity of approximately 1.000±0.05 at 25°C.

In one embodiment the composition has a pH of approximately 5.5-7.5 at 25°C, such as

approximately 5.0, 5.5, 6.5, 6.5 or 7.0, for example approximately 5.0-7.0.

In one embodiment the composition has a pH of approximately 4.0-6.5 at 25°C, such as

approximately 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0, for example approximately 4.0-6.5.

In one embodiment the topical composition is a fluid.

Fluid as employed herein means a low viscosity topical composition for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams and gels, including hydrogels, have a higher viscosity.

Advantageously, a lower viscosity means that the fluid is more easily absorbed by the skin and is easier to spread on the skin because it is less likely to drag the skin surface. This can be particularly useful where the patient is suffering pain or loss of skin integrity at the treatment site.

In one embodiment the composition is cooling. In one embodiment the composition is anti-inflammatory.

In one embodiment the composition relieves pain.

In one embodiment the composition hydrates the skin.

A critical aspect of the present disclosure is the absorption of heat from the skin by the composition.

Thus, a critical aspect of the present disclosure is the reduction of the loss of skin fluid/moisture and structure by the composition.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition according to the disclosure for use as a medicament.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition according to the disclosure for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of burns. In one embodiment the burn is a thermal burn. In one embodiment the burn is a radiation burn. In one embodiment the burn is a chemical burn. In one embodiment treatment with the composition relieves pain. In one embodiment treatment with the composition reduces burning. In one embodiment treatment with the composition reduces itching.

In one embodiment the composition is antimicrobial. In one embodiment the composition is antibacterial. In one embodiment the composition is antifungal.

As employed herein antimicrobial means that the composition is microbistatic or microbicidal. That is, it hinders the growth of, or kills microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, amoebae and slime molds.

In one embodiment the composition increases perfusion. That is, is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to the skin, such as the site of the burn.

In one embodiment the composition reduces cell death. Advantageously, reducing cell death reduces the extent and severity of the burn.

In one embodiment the composition reduces scarring. Without wishing to be bound by theory, the inventors believe that the composition reduces dysregulation of tissue remodelling phase of wound healing.

In one embodiment the composition is antithrombotic.

In one embodiment the composition reduces the depth of a burn.

In one embodiment the composition accelerates healing of the burn.

In one embodiment the composition decreases the likelihood of a biofilm forming. In one embodiment the composition reduces tissue necrosis.

In one embodiment the composition reduces bioburden of the burn.

In one embodiment the composition has substantially no oral toxicity.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition comprising water and one or more ingredients from the list consisting: propanediol, sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP crosspolymer, phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol and chlorphenesin, mineral complex and (PHMB)

polyaminopropyl biguanide. Optionally the composition has a viscosity in the range 200-6000 cP. Optionally the viscosity of the composition is measured following exposure to gamma radiation.

Conditioning Agent

Conditioning agents may have beneficial properties for wound healing. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that, following a burn injury, the body withdraws minerals from the skin it considers to be lost (that is, skin that will become necrotic). By replacing those minerals, in a bioavailable form, externally, it is possible to save more of the skin from becoming necrotic and hence lost, thus requiring grafting therapy, or developing scarring. Thus, in one embodiment the conditioning agent is a mineral complex. In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises bioavailable minerals, such as ion, free ions, elemental, or bound minerals, for example free ions.

Advantageously, it has been found that providing bioavailable minerals to a burn wound helps rebalance the immune response by reducing the inflammatory response.

In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises magnesium, potassium, sodium, boron, calcium and optionally one or more from the group consisting: copper, nickel, silicon, zinc, aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, iron, mercury, manganese, lead, antimony, selenium, tin, strontium, titanium and vanadium. In one embodiment the mineral complex is sea water extract. As employed herein sea water extract is the INCI name.

As employed herein sea water extract may be harvested from a deep sea source. Typically, the sea water extract is a concentrated solution of deep sea water minerals wherein the amount of sodium and/or chlorine has been reduced and/or substantially eliminated. In one embodiment the sea water extract is dead sea salt, Cornish sea salt, Maldon sea salt, Himalayan sea salt and the like.

In one embodiment the mineral complex is Epsom salts.

In one embodiment the sea water extract is the INCI and lUPAC name.

In one embodiment the sea water extract is Deep Sea Water provided by Morechem. In one embodiment the sea water extract is Eau de Source Marine SC, Ocaline or Ocaline XP provided by Soliance (Givaudan) or the like.

In one embodiment the conditioning agent is added to the composition in liquid form, such as a concentrate of sea water.

In one embodiment the conditioning agent is added to the composition in dried form. For example, as dried, concentrate of sea water.

In one embodiment the mineral complex does not comprise bound minerals such a magnesium sulphate/oxide/citrate.

In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises free magnesium, such a Mg 2+ ions. In one embodiment the major component of the mineral complex is magnesium. In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises potassium, such as free potassium, such as K + ions.

In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises sodium, such as free sodium, such as Na + ions.

In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises boron, such as free boron, such as boron anions or boron cations. In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises calcium, for example free calcium, such as Ca 2+ ions.

A further aspect is the healing of the skin by the mineral complex.

It is known that magnesium depletion and hypocalcaemia (calcium depletion) occur in children and adults with (severe) burns. These losses occur through the burn wound and possibly through abnormal intestinal secretion. Increases in metabolism in burn patients may promote Mg uptake, thereby reducing Mg serum levels. Thus, it is hypothesised that providing magnesium (and calcium) to the site of a burn helps to compensate for the depletion that otherwise occurs. Given that Mg is an important cofactor in cyclic AMP production (which is obviously increased as metabolism increases), depletion of Mg can lead to hindered cAMP production.

Thus, without being bound by theory, it is proposed that providing magnesium at the site of the burn helps improve the wound healing process.

In one embodiment the mineral complex provides bioavailable minerals, such as magnesium.

In one embodiment the mineral complex has substantially no chloride or chlorine. In one embodiment the sea water extract is Oriel sea water extract (orielmarineextracts.com) provided by Oriel Sea Salt Co.

In one embodiment the sea water extract has a pH of approximately 7 to 8, such as approximately 7.4.

In one embodiment the sea water extract has a density of approximately 40%.

Table 1 shows the components of sea water.

Table 1

In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises approximately: 66% magnesium, 23.8% potassium, 9.8% sodium, 0.002% boron, 0.0006% calcium, 0.00002% copper, 0.000012% nickel, 0.0000087% silicon and 0.000001% zinc. Wherein approximately is defined to be ±15%. In one embodiment the mineral complex further comprises trace elements. In one embodiment the trace elements include one or more from the group: aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, iron, mercury, manganese, lead, antimony, selenium, tin, strontium, titanium and vanadium. In one embodiment the trace elements may be any element selected from table 1.

In one embodiment the mineral complex comprises one or more minerals according to table 1. Dressing Material

A burn dressing in accordance with the present disclosure is formed by impregnating a suitable dressing material with the composition of the disclosure.

Dressing material as employed herein means a fabric carrier capable of holding a chosen volume of composition. Preferably the dressing material is a non-woven synthetic material that will hold a substantial quantity of the composition to apply an effective amount of the composition to a burn. The dressing material must be capable of being sterilised, typically by irradiation, such as gamma irradiation and non-irritating to burned skin.

In one embodiment there is provided a burn dressing comprising a topical composition according to the disclosure and a dressing material.

In one embodiment the dressing material comprises thermal bonded, non-woven material.

In one embodiment the dressing material is polyester, PET (polyethylene terephthalate) or the like, such as medical grade non-woven 100% polyester fabric, for example polypropylene or rayon.

Thermal bonded as employed herein means a fabric wherein heat energy is used to stimulate an adhesive, which in turn flows to thermoplastic fibre juncture and interlocks the fibres upon cooling.

Non-woven as employed herein refers to sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fibre or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibres or from molten plastic or plastic film.

In one embodiment the dressing material comprises super absorbent material, such as super absorbent fibre.

Super absorbent materials have an absorbent capacity of several times their weight. Super absorbent fibres are fibrous form of super absorbent material which can be incorporated into woven or non-woven materials.

In one embodiment the dressing material comprises polypropylene fibre and rayon fibre. In one embodiment the dressing material comprises super absorbent fibre, polypropylene fibre and rayon fibre.

In one embodiment the dressing material comprises approximately 10-40% super absorbent fibre, such as approximately 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 or 39% super absorbent fibre, for example approximately 20% super absorbent fibre.

In one embodiment the dressing material has one of more of the properties selected from the group consisting: a weight of approximately 50gsm, a thickness of approximately 0.63mm, a tensile strength of approximately 4.2 N or 24.3 N, an absorbent capacity of approximately 22.7g/g and an absorbent volume of approximately >1150 gsm. In one embodiment the dressing material is type 2741 fabric as provided by Technical Absorbents. In one embodiment the dressing has a width of approximately 5cm to 50cm and a length of approximately 5cm to 50cm. Such as approximately 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, or 49 cm width and/or length. In one embodiment the dressing material holds approximately 15 to 30 grams of composition per gram, such as approximately 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 or 29 grams of composition per gram, for example approximately 22.7g/g.

In one embodiment the dressing material holds approximately 1000 to 2000 g of composition per square metre of dressing material, such as approximately 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800 or 1900 g of composition per square metre of dressing material. For example, approximately 1674 g of composition per square metre of dressing material.

In one embodiment the dressing is of shape and dimension suitable for application to the face. In such embodiment the dressing may have slots or holes for the eyes and/or nose and/or mouth.

In one embodiment the dressing material has pockets in which the composition may be placed. For examples, see EP0521143 which is incorporated herein by reference.

Sterilisation

In one embodiment the composition or dressing is sterilised, for example by heat (such as by steam or dry heat), irradiation (such as electron beam or gamma radiation), gas (such as ethylene oxide or formaldehyde) or low temperature oxidative sterilisation (such as vaporised hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide/ gas plasma).

In one embodiment the composition or dressing is sterilised by gamma irradiation.

In one embodiment the gamma irradiation is cobalt 60 or caesium 137 radiation, particularly cobalt 60 radiation.

In one embodiment the composition or dressing is irradiated to meet 10E6 sterility assurance level (SAL).

In one embodiment the sterilisation method is AAM I 11137-2 compliant.

Advantageously, compositions and dressing that have been sterilised employing the method have substantially zero bioburden. That is, they have zero CFUs. Such as no microbe that can replicate or grow. Packaging

In one embodiment the burn dressing as disclosed herein is packaged into a storage pouch.

Advantageously, the storage pouch permits the dressing to remain sterile and be easily transported, for example is a first aid kit or medical kit, such as for use by a paramedic.

Typically, the storage pouch has a three-layer construction of a layer of polyester having a layer of aluminium thereon and a layer of, for example, Scotchpak ® heat sealable polyester film thereof. The three layers are adhered with adhesive. The compositions, dressings and methods of the present disclosure when employed help maintain skin integrity, minimise the deleterious effects of burns and reduce opportunistic infections that may occur when skin is damaged.

The maintenance of moisture around the burn may also minimise scarring and prevent reduced flexibility in the area of skin damage. This is advantageous because it may reduce pain associated with scar tissue and avoids skin thickening and reduced skin elasticity which, in skin folds, can be problematic.

It is desirable to avoid skin toughness that can arise following damage to the skin because toughened skin is prone to flaking and cracking which in turn can lead to inflammation and infection. In one embodiment the topical composition or dressing has an anti-inflammatory effect.

Advantageously this reduces the pain associated with burns.

In one embodiment the topical composition or dressing protects against a decrease in cell viability. Inflammatory impact is known to reduce cell viability, detectable by MTT assay. In one embodiment the mineral complex in the topical composition increases cell viability relative to untreated cells. In one embodiment this improvement in cell viability or reduced decrease in cell viability is obtained when the topical composition is applied either prophylactically or following burn injury.

In one embodiment damaged cells treated with the topical composition or dressing recover viability more quickly than untreated cells. In one embodiment cell viability is restored more quickly in cells treated with the topical composition or dressing. In one embodiment there is provided a burn dressing for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of burns. Typically, the burn dressing comprises a composition as disclosed herein absorbed and carried on or in a dressing material as described herein.

Ideally the composition or dressing as described herein is applied to a burn as soon as possible following the burn. Preferably the composition or dressing is applied immediately, such as within a minute of the burn. The composition or dressing may be applied within a few hours of the burn injury.

In some situations, the composition or dressing may be applied following treatment by a medical professional. That is, the composition or dressing may be employed other than as a first aid treatment. For example, the composition or dressing may be employed for prolonged use, for example, to keep a burn wound sterile and/or hydrated. Such use of the composition or dressing supports the skin cells by providing external bioavailable minerals which, it is thought, supports the increased metabolism of the cells.

In one embodiment the composition or dressing is applied once, twice, three or four a day.

In one embodiment the composition or dressing is applied to skin, such as the area of the burn, and left for approximately 10 minutes to 36 hours, for example approximately 20, 30, 40 or 50 minutes or approximately 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 or 35 hours. In one embodiment the composition or dressing is applied to a burn for up to approximately 24 hours. In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing for use in treatment of a burn wherein the treatment is prolonged treatment.

In one embodiment there is provided a method of prophylaxis or treatment wherein the

composition or dressing is applied to a burn for approximately 24 hours. For example approximately 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36 hours or more.

In one embodiment treatment with the composition or dressing continues for about 2 to 10 weeks following each burn injury, such as 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 weeks following burn injury.

Typically, the composition or dressing is changed daily and a new composition or dressing according to the disclosure applied to the burn injury.

In one embodiment the composition or dressing provide bioavailable minerals to the skin. In one embodiment the minerals include magnesium. It is believed that bioavailable magnesium helps prevent magnesium depletion which is known to be a complicating factor in burn injuries. In one embodiment the minerals include calcium. It is believed that bioavailable calcium helps prevent hypocalcaemia which is known to be a complication factor in burn injuries.

In one embodiment the composition or dressing promote faster healing of the burn wound. In one embodiment use of the composition or dressing results in reduced scarring.

It is hypothesised that the present composition or dressing, especially the mineral complex, affects the expression of certain genes associated with the healing of wounds, including burns. For example, it is believed that the composition or dressing increases the expression of type IV collagen, alpha 3 subunit. This gene plays a role in forming the structure of the cutaneous basal lamina during wound healing.

Thus, in one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in increasing expression of type IV collagen, alpha 3 subunit. In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in forming the structure of cutaneous basal lamina.

It is believed that the composition or dressing decreases expression of PTEN, a tumour suppressor which is a regulator of PI3K signalling. PTEN and PI3K play a role in cell polarisation and directional cell migration during wound healing.

Thus, in one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in decreasing expression of PTEN.lt is believed that the composition or dressing targets beta-catenin which, it is hypothesised, impairs healing. Thus, reducing the amount present at a burn wound site promotes healing.

It is also believed that the composition or dressing down regulates SE PINE1 which plays a role in fibrosis and pathological scarring. Thus, leading to reduced scarring at a burn wound site.

Thus, in one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in decreasing expression of SERPINE1. In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in reducing scarring.

It has been shown that CSF2 is knocked out upon treatment with the presently disclosed composition. Upregulated expression of CSF2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of heterotropic ossification of war wounds and burns. Thus, it is believed that the composition or dressing reduces the likelihood of heterotropic wound or burn ossification.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in the prevention or reduction of heterotropic wound or burn ossification.

Treatment of burns with the presently disclosed composition ameliorates the overexpression of IL6, which is implicated in burn inflammation and infection. Thus, it is believed that the composition or dressing reduces burn inflammation and/or infection.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in the prevention or reduction of burn inflammation and/or infection.

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) increased 24-fold upon treatment of wounds with the presently disclosed composition. Thus, it is believed that the composition or dressing increases EGF expression.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in increasing EGF expression.

A 76-fold increase in Insulin Like Growth Factor 1, upon treatment of wounds/burns with the presently disclosed composition. Thus, it is believed that the composition or dressing increases IGF-1 expression.

Growth factors are important in regulating a variety of biological processes including cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGFl) and related family members play an important role in wound healing by stimulating fibroblast mitogenesis, helping to maintain epidermal homeostasis, and inducing keratinocytes to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, and survive. Treatment of wounds with IGFl has been shown to accelerate healing by stimulating fibroblast collagen synthesis, in addition to its mitogenic effect on both keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

In one embodiment there is provided a composition or dressing as disclosed herein for use in increasing IGF-1 expression.

Thus, there is provided a composition or dressing for direct application to a burn wound. The dressing can be employed to cover the entire burn. Debridement of the burn is not necessary prior to application of the composition or dressing. The composition rapidly penetrates clothing and wets, cools and soothes a burn. The burn is wet, cooled and soothed, not only on the surface but beneath the surface, thereby reducing progression of the burn. The burn dressing cools by heat transference and helps create an isothermic environment. Additionally, the composition or burn dressing helps reduce contamination of the burn by covering the burn and blocking air-borne microbes. Clothing and skin do not adhere to the burn dressing when it is removed, thereby limiting pain and skin damage when the dressing is removed.

The composition and dressing are non-toxic, water-soluble and retain properties after extended storage. Advantageously, the composition and dressing are easy to use. In the context of this specification "comprising" is to be interpreted as "including".

Approximately, as used herein, means ±10%.

Aspects of the invention comprising certain elements are also intended to extend to alternative embodiments "consisting" or "consisting essentially" of the relevant elements.

Where technically appropriate, embodiments of the invention may be combined. Embodiments are described herein as comprising certain features/elements. The disclosure also extends to separate embodiments consisting or consisting essentially of said features/elements.

Technical references such as patents and applications are incorporated herein by reference.

Any embodiments specifically and explicitly recited herein may form the basis of a disclaimer either alone or in combination with one or more further embodiments. The present invention is further described by way of illustration only in the following examples: EXAMPLES Example 1

Following several failed attempts to formulate a composition with suitable viscosity and other properties to function as a burn treatment, the Inventors obtained stable compositions which were sent for testing to assess stability under gamma radiation.

OVERVIEW: To incorporate: Polyaminopropyl biguanide (I NCI name); Chemical name:

Polyhexamethylene Biguanide Hydrochloride (PHM B) and later Oriel sea mineral complex into a gel formula that can withstand the impact of gamma radiation sterilisation.

5 rounds of formulas were sent out for gamma radiations as outlined below. Round 1 Summary: Started with our current BD (Burn Dressing) Gel with hyaluronic acid (HA) formula to which various ingredients were added.

The table below shows the key ingredients added to BD gel w/ HA formula to determine their impact on gamma radiation resistance (Experiments A through L). Experiment L containing Carbopol and water only, shows that PHM B @1% (20% solution) is incompatible with Carbopol (thickening agent). The gel curdles. Carbopol is the thickening agent used in BD Gel with HA, the only experiment in round 1 to which PH M B was added. Experiment Key ingredients Ingredient 1 NCI/ Name Function Discolouration (Round 1) BD and following Y HA plus: radiation (1- 10)

A Glycerin Glycerin Humectant 1.2

B Propylene glycol 1,2-Propanediol Humectant 1.0

C Tinoguard HS Sodium Benzotriazolyl UV absorber 4.0

(BASF) Butylphenol Sulfonate

D Cibafash H Sodium Benzotriazolyl UV absorber 3.5

Liquid(BASF) Butylphenol Sulfonate

E Tinoguard TT Penaerythityl Tetra-di-t- UV absorber 2.5 (slightly

(BASF) butyl hazy)

Hydroxyhydrocinnamate

F PHMB Polyaminoproyl biguanide Preservative 3 (off white, hazy)

G A,B,C,D,E See above See above 3.5 (off white, hazy)

H A,B,C,D,E,F See above See above 1.5

1 microsilver Not sent for radiation - too dark

J Control - 1.2

additional

ingredients

K Control - just Carbopol and water, not irradiated

L Control - just 6.0

Carbopol, water

and trolamine

Table 2

After gamma results: Discolouration was measured on a scale of 1 (no discolouration) to 10 (intense discolouration) UV absorbers showed some discolouration; propylene glycol showed little or no change following gamma radiation. Round 2 Summary: Since PHM B was incompatible with Carbopol, new formulas containing various other thickeners were tried. Since propylene glycol, a humectant helped, another humectant (propanediol) was tried. For all the experimental batches made, only the stable formulas were sent out for gamma radiation. Only some of round 2 formulas contain PHMB (20% solution) @0.2%

The base gel employed in experiments is water plus thickener (Natrosol or Laponite for example).

Key Ingredients (Round 2) Ingredient INCI/Chemical Function

Name

Natrosol 250 HHX Pharm hydroxyethylcellulose Thickening agent

Propylene glycol Propylene glycol(l,2- humectant

Propanediol)

Laponite XL 21 Sodium Magnesium Thickening agent

Fluorosilicate

Propanediol Propanediol (1,3-Propanediol) Solvent

Xanthan gum Xanthan gum Thickening agent Carrageenan Carrageenan Thickening agent

Aculyn 21 Acrylates/Steareth-20 Thickening agent

Methacrylate Copolymer

Agar powder Agar Thickening agent

Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 Surfactant/Thickening agent

Glycerin Glycerin Humectant

Table 3

Formulas with xanthan gum carrageenan, aculyn 46 N, poloxamer 188 and agar were

unstable/thinned out or discoloured (thickening agents not compatible with PHMB) and therefore gels were not sent out for gamma radiation.

After gamma radiation results: Formulas containing Natrosol 250 HHX completely loss viscosity and became "water thin" but gel was not discoloured. Formulas with propylene glycol were clear but also had a pinkish hue. Formulas with propanediol remained clear; those with glycerin acquired a yellowish hue

Round 3 Summary: For round 3 experiments, 2 new thickening agents (Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellose and Aristoflex AVS) were tested.

Table 4

All the formulas in round 3 contained PHMB 0.2% (20% solution). Only stable formulas were sent out for gamma radiation. After gamma radiation results: Formulas containing sodium carboxymethyl cellose became watery. Although the combination of Carbopol and Natrosol 250 HHX showed some promising results (Exp. G), the best result was EXP.F which contained a combination of propanediol and Aristoflex AVS. Round 4 Summary: In round 4 experiments, Oriel sea mineral extract was introduced into the formulas. This ingredient lowers the viscosity of the gel. As in Round 3 experiments, PHM B was still used @ 0.2% (20% solution). Experiment F, (Round 3) having the best results from round 3 was the starting point. The level of Aristoflex AVS (thickening agent) was varied to compensate for the viscosity reducing effect of the Oriel sea mineral extract. The levels of propanediol were also varied from 5% to 12% to see what if any effect that had on the gamma radiation results as well on overall product appearance.

Table 5

Only stable formulas were sent out for gamma radiation.

After gamma results: All the experiments containing a combination of Aristoflex AVS, PHMB and propanediol showed good results regardless of the level of propanediol. Compositions with propanediol and Carbopol but without PHM B had good results. Compositions with

propanediol/Carbopol/PHMB combination showed a significant decrease in viscosity.

Round 5 Summary: Round 5 experiments involved: (a) optimising the viscosity of the product to work more efficiently with the new absorbent material, (b) Increasing the level of PHMP from 0.2% to 0.5% (20 % solution), (c) Making formulas for preservative challenge without the main preservative Microkill COS but with PHMB along with various levels of propanediol (which has preservative properties). Note: Final formula contains Microkill COS. (d) Optimising the

manufacturing process.

Table 6

In round 5, the final formula was determined from a selection of which were sent out for gamma radiation with acceptable results. All the formulas are similar except for their levels of Aristoflex AVS (thickening agent) varying from 1.0%, 0.9% and 0.8% respectively. A decision was made to go with a formula with 0.8% Aristoflex AVS (final formula), the least viscous formula. In order to test physical integrity of the composition following gamma radiation, the viscosity at room temperature and 40°C can be tested and compared to a control which was not irradiated.

Example 2

Wound healing progresses via three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and tissue remodelling. After cutaneous injury, a blood clot forms, and inflammatory cells infiltrate the wound, secreting cytokines and growth factors to promote the inflammation phase. During the granulation phase, fibroblasts and other cells differentiate into myofibroblasts, which deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Simultaneously, angiogenesis occurs, and keratinocytes proliferate and migrate to close the wound. In the final tissue-remodelling phase, apoptosis eliminates

myofibroblasts and extraneous blood vessels, and the ECM is remodelled to resemble the original tissue. Dysregulation of this last tissue remodelling phase leads to fibrosis.

In order to monitor this cytotoxicity, behaviour, impact and biofunctionality of the composition in (1) Human Vascular Endothelial Cells, (2) Human Dermal Fibroblasts and (3) Human Dermal

Keratinocytes we employed an electrical-impedance based technique that monitors and quantifies in real-time the behaviour of cells, which is also amenable to high throughput. Giaever and Keese first described a technique for measuring fluctuations in impedance based on the principle of population cell growth on a specialized electrode surface. The xCELLigence instrument, established and optimised in the laboratory of Dr onan Murphy (Dublin City University), utilises a similar technique to measure changes in electrical impedance. Through preliminary studies and data from working with the 'mineral-complex' active ingredient, we have determined protocols and conditions that are optimal for cell functionality and activation in all three cell types. For this we used a 2.5D model on e-plates. Briefly, as cells attach and spread in a culture dish covered with a gold microelectrode array that covers approximately 80% of the area on the bottom of a well. As cells attach and spread on the electrode surface, it leads to an increase in electrical impedance. The impedance is displayed as a dimensionless parameter termed cell-index, which is directly proportional to the total area of tissue- culture well that is covered by cells. Hence, the cell-index can be used to monitor many critical stages of cell behaviour such as wound healing: cell adhesion, spreading, morphological changes, detachment, proliferation, migration, apoptosis and cell density.

The standard wound healing assay was utilised in this study based on changes in electrical impedance at the electrode/cell interphase, as a population of cells migrates an advanced double chamber apparatus know as a CIM plate. Cell migration, fate, function and behaviour lead to large changes in impedance. These changes directly correlate with the wound healing capacity of the three cell types, i.e., migration and tissue/ECM remodelling by cells lead to large changes in cell impedance and vice versa. This advanced wound-healing assay involved a two-chamber system (xCELLigence CIM (cell invasion and migration) plate) to monitor and measure transmigration as well as initial surface layer disruption. This technique provides a two-fold advantage over existing methods of measuring invasion, such as Boyden chamber and matrigel assays: firstly, the Cell-Extra Cellular Matrix interactions and remodelling more closely mimics the in vivo process, and secondly, the data was obtained in real-time and is more easily quantifiable, as opposed to end-point analysis for other methods.

Dermal fibroblasts are cells that lay within the dermis layer of skin and are responsible for generating connective tissue and allowing the skin to recover from injury.Dermal fibroblasts generate and maintain the connective tissue which unites separate cell layers, particularly via the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Crucially, it is these dermal fibroblasts that produce the protein molecules, including laminin and fibronectin, which comprise the extracellular matrix (ECM). Hence, by creating the ECM between the dermis and epidermis, fibroblasts facilitate the epithelial cells of the epidermis to affix the matrix, thereby allowing the epidermal cells to effectively join together to form the top layer of the skin.

In our experiments, dermal fibroblast cells were grown in culture, starving them of magnesium for 24 hours before treating them to WJ24-(NB105-142) & appropriate controls. Cells were seeded onto 0.32cm2 wells of the xCELLigence real-time monitoring system, upon which, a minimal layer of ECM had been permitted to form. Cells were then allowed to adhere to the electrode surface and migrate accordingly. Results are presented In Figures 1 and 2.

Example 3

We employed the Wound Healing RT2 Profiler PCR Array to assess the effect of the composition on gene expression during the process outlined in Example 2. This time both fibroblast monoculture (Example 3a) and our established human LabSkin model (see Duffy Et al, 2017, Cosmetics, 4, 44) was used (Example 3b).

This array contains genes important for each of the three phases of wound healing, including ECM remodelling factors, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as growth factors and major signalling molecules. Using real-time PCR, you can easily and reliably analyse the expression of a focused panel of genes involved in wound healing, tissue injury and repair with this array. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array System is the most reliable and accurate tool for analysing the expression of a focused panel of genes using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR. It brings together the quantitative performance of real-time PCR and the multiple gene profiling capability of microarrays. Each PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes relevant to a specific pathway or disease state- in this case Wound Healing. Expression levels are measured by gene-specific RT2 qPCR Primer Assays optimized for simultaneous use in the PCR Array System. RT2 qPCR Primer Assays are key components in the PCR Array System. Each qPCR assay on the array is uniquely designed for use in SYBR Green real-time PCR analysis. The assay design criteria ensure that each qPCR reaction will generate single, gene- specific amplicons and prevent the co-amplification of non-specific products. The qPCR Assays used in PCR Arrays are optimised to work under standard conditions enabling a large number of genes to be assayed simultaneously. This system is specifically designed to meet the unique challenges of profiling pathway-focused sets of genes using real-time PCR. Simultaneous gene expression analyses require similar qPCR efficiencies for accurate comparison among genes. RT 2 qPCR Primer Assays are designed with an amplicon size ranging from 100 to 250 bp and with PCR efficiencies uniformly greater than 90%. Overall, more than 10 thermodynamic criteria are included in the design of each RT 2 qPCR Primer Assay to ensure the most reliable and accurate results for pathway-based gene expression analysis in the PCR Array System. The array layout is shown in Table 7 below.

Position Ref/Seq Number Symbol Description

A01 NM_001613 ACTA2 Actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta

A02 NM_005159 ACTC1 Actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1

A03 NM_001146 ANGPT1 Angiopoietin 1

A04 NM_002982 CCL2 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 A05 NM_006273 CCL7 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7

A06 NM_000074 CD40LG CD40 ligand

A07 NM_004360 CDH1 Cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)

A08 NM_021110 COL14A1 Collagen, type XIV, alpha 1

A09 NM_000088 COL1A1 Collagen, type I, alpha 1

A10 NM_000089 COL1A2 Collagen, type I, alpha 2

All NM_000090 COL3A1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1

A12 NM_001845 COL4A1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1

B01 NM_000091 COL4A3 Collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen)

B02 NM_000093 COL5A1 Collagen, type V, alpha 1

B03 NM_000393 COL5A2 Collagen, type V, alpha 2

B04 NM_015719 COL5A3 Collagen, type V, alpha 3

B05 NM_000758 CSF2 Colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage)

B06 NM_000759 CSF3 Colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte)

B07 NM_001901 CTGF Connective tissue growth factor

B08 NM_001904 CTNNB1 Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa

B09 NM_001911 CTSG Cathepsin G

BIO NM_000396 CTSK Cathepsin K

Bll NM_001333 CTSV Cathepsin L2

B12 NM_001511 CXCLl Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha)

C01 NM_005409 CXCL11 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11

C02 NM_002089 CXCL2 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2

C03 NM_002994 CXCL5 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5

C04 NM_001963 EGF Epidermal growth factor

C05 NM_005228 EGF Epidermal growth factor receptor

C06 NM_000129 F13A1 Coagulation factor XIII, Al polypeptide

C07 NM_001993 F3 Coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor)

C08 NM_000508 FGA Fibrinogen alpha chain

C09 NM_004465 FGF10 Fibroblast growth factor 10

CIO NM_002006 FGF2 Fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic)

Cll NM_002009 FGF7 Fibroblast growth factor 7

C12 NM_001945 HBEGF Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor

D01 NM_000601 HGF Hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)

D02 NM_000619 IFNG Interferon, gamma

D03 NM_000618 IGF1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C)

D04 NM_000572 IL10 Interleukin 10

D05 NM_000576 IL1B Interleukin 1, beta

D06 NM_000586 IL2 Interleukin 2

D07 NM_000589 IL4 Interleukin 4

D08 NM_000600 IL6 Interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2)

D09 NM_002184 IL6ST Interleukin 6 signal transducer (gpl30, oncostatin M receptor)

D10 NM_181501 ITGA1 Integrin, alpha 1

Dll NM_002203 ITGA2 Integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)

D12 NM_002204 ITGA3 Integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor) E01 NM_000885 ITGA4 Integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor) E02 NM_002205 ITGA5 Integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide)

E03 NM_000210 ITGA6 Integrin, alpha 6

E04 NM_002210 ITGAV Integrin, alpha V (vitronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide, antigen CD51) E05 NM_002211 ITGBl Integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) E06 NM_000212 ITGB3 Integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein Ilia, antigen CD61)

E07 NM_002213 ITGB5 Integrin, beta 5

E08 NM_000888 ITGB6 Integrin, beta 6

E09 NM_002745 MAPK1 Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1

E10 NM_002746 MAPK3 Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3

Ell NM_002415 M IF Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (glycosylation-inhibiting factor)

E12 NM_002421 MMP1 Matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase)

FOl NM_004530 MMP2 Matrix metallopeptidase 2 (gelatinase A, 72kDa gelatinase, 72kDa type IV collagenase)

F02 NM_002423 MMP7 Matrix metallopeptidase 7 (matrilysin, uterine)

F03 NM_004994 MMP9 Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase)

F04 NM_002607 PDGFA Platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide

F05 NM_000930 PLAT Plasminogen activator, tissue

F06 NM_002658 PLAU Plasminogen activator, urokinase

F07 NM_002659 PLAU Plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor

F08 NM_000301 PLG Plasminogen

F09 NM_000314 PTEN Phosphatase and tensin homolog

F10 NM_000963 PTGS2 Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)

Fll NM_006908 RAC1 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Racl)

F12 NM_001664 RHOA Ras homolog gene family, member A

G01 NM_000602 SERPINE1 Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1

G02 NM_003150 STAT3 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor)

G03 NM_003186 TAGLN Transgelin

G04 NM_003236 TGFA Transforming growth factor, alpha

G05 NM_000660 TGFB1 Transforming growth factor, beta 1

G06 NM_003243 TGFBR3 Transforming growth factor, beta receptor III

G07 NM_003254 TIM P1 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1

G08 NM_000594 TNF Tumor necrosis factor

G09 NM_003376 VEGFA Vascular endothelial growth factor A

G10 NM_000638 VTN Vitronectin

Gil NM_003882 WISP1 WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1

G12 NM_003392 WNT5A Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A

Table 7

Example 3a

In fibroblast monoculture, 2 genes were found to be upregulated and 22 were downregulated when treated with WJ24 versus the control. Results are shown in Figure 3a and Table 8 below.

When the concentration of WJ24 was doubled, it was found that the effect was more pronounced additional or different genes being up or down regulated. 4 genes were upregulated and 47 downregulated. The results are shown in Figure 3b and Table 9 below.

Table 9

Example 3b Development of in vitro Human 3D Deep-Skin Technology & Application in Burn Research

A highly advanced 3D living skin equivalent model (developed by Dr Ronan Murphy's team at Dublin City University) is unique in providing unrivalled opportunities for non-animal testing and research. The fully differentiated epidermis is supported by a dermal component consisting of fibroblasts in a fibrin matrix. The model also allows micro-organisms to be grown on its surface, mimicking infection or the skin's natural microflora. This configuration ensures we can assess topical formulations with possibly the most comprehensive range of tests available in an in vitro model. A schematic of the system is shown in Figure 4. Culture medium 10 sits below the skin 20 to provide nutrients for growth. The resulting skin is stratified as shown in the cross section 30.

Skin Model Burn Protocol

Custom 3.66g brass weights were milled from brass stock with a surface contact area of 10 mm and a protrusion for handling with tweezers (see Figure 5a). The weights were heated to 100°C on a heating block (Stuart) and temperature checked using an I thermometer. Skin models were removed from the 6-well plate and placed onto a plastic surface in a laminar hood to avoid heat dissipation. Brass weights were removed from the heating block using tweezers and immediately placed on the centre of each 2.5cm model for 10 seconds. After 10 seconds, the brass weight was removed and the appropriate treatment was applied.

Each treatment consisted of custom cut 2.5cm gauze disks (Water-jel) soaked in different formulations.

Model skin turned white in the centre following removal of the weight. Figures 6a and 6b show photographs of the models 24 hours after the burn infliction.

All models were biopsied using a 3mm biopsy punch (Miltex) in the centre and at the burn boundary 24 and 48 hours after the burn was inflicted (see Figure 5b), and conditioned media was sampled. Genes associated with wound (burn) repair are:

Extracellular Matrix & Cell Adhesion:

ECM Components: COL14A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL4A1, COL4A3, COL5A1, COL5A2, COL5A3, VTN.

Remodelling Enzymes: CTSG, CTSK, CTSL2, F13A1, F3 (Tissue Factor), FGA (Fibrinogen), MMP1, MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, PLAT (tPA), PLAU (uPA), PLAUR (uPAR), PLG, SERPINE1 (PAI-1), TIMP1.

Cellular Adhesion: CDH1 (E-cadherin), ITGA1, ITGA2, ITGA3, ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGA6, ITGAV, ITGB1, ITGB3,

ITGB5, ITGB6.

Cytoskeleton: ACTA2 (a-SMA), ACTC1, RAC1, RHOA, TAGLN. Inflammatory Cytokines & Chemokines: CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL7 (MCP-3), CD40LG (TNFSF5), CXCL1, CXCL11 (ITAC/IP-9), CXCL2, CXCL5 (ENA-78/LIX), IFNG, IL10, IL1B, IL2, IL4, IL6.

Growth Factors: ANGPT1, CSF2 (GM-CSF), CSF3 (GCSF), CTGF, EGF, FGF10, FGF2, FGF7, HBEGF (DTR), HGF, IGF1, MIF, PDGFA, TGFA, TGFB1, TNF, VEGFA

Signal Transduction:

TGFR: TGFB1, TGFBR3, STAT3.

WNT: CTNNB1, WISP1, WNT5A. Phosphorylation: MAPK1 (E K2), MAPK3 (ERK1), PTEN.

Receptors: EGFR, IL6ST (GP130).

Other: PTGS2.

Firstly, RT2 qPCR was first employed to compared burned skin to healthy skin to obtain a baseline. Figure 8a shows up- and down-regulated genes in 3D skin models in response to thermal burn injury (no treatment) vs healthy skin. Total RNA from 3D skin models was characterised, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples (burn vs healthy skin) plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot. Table 10 shows 22 genes that are upregulated in burned skin relative to unburned skin. Table 11 shows 49 genes that are down regulated in thermally injured (burned) skin relative to unburned skin.

Table 10

Position Gene Fold Change Position Gene Fold Change

A07 CDH1 -565.25 E01 ITGA4 -5.22

E08 ITGB6 -239.99 G03 TAGLN -5.02

E03 ITGA6 -144.31 F12 RHOA -4.91 C12 HBEGF -122.9 A03 ANGPT1 -4.56

Bll CTSV -118.6 All C0L3A1 -4.43

D12 ITGA3 -91.25 A08 C0L14A1 -4.25

F06 PLAU -30.44 G06 TGFBR3 -4.17

D03 IGF1 -27.01 F08 PLG -4.06

F04 PDGFA -24.48 E07 ITGB5 -3.96

Dll ITGA2 -19.13 E09 MAPK1 -3.95

D04 IL10 -17.43 A10 C0L1A2 -3.81

Fll AC1 -16 B03 COL5A2 -3.79

B09 CTSG -15.86 F03 M MP9 -3.77

G04 TGFA -11.3 E02 ITGA5 -3.76

G10 VTN -10.43 B02 C0L5A1 -3.43

B08 CTNNB1 -8.7 E10 MAPK3 -3.37

F09 PTEN -8.28 CIO FGF2 -3.26

B04 COL5A3 -8.16 A01 ACTA2 -2.89

G02 STAT3 -8.12 C05 EGFR -2.83

A02 ACTC1 -7.78 D10 ITGA1 -2.8

E04 ITGAV -7.62 D01 HGF -2.44

B01 COL4A3 -6.28 A05 CCL7 -2.3

A12 C0L4A1 -5.87 Gil WISP1 -2.21

C07 F3 -5.42 B07 CTGF -2.18

A09 C0L1A1 -5.37

Table 11 Next, wound healing PCR arrays revealed up- and down-regulated genes in 3D skin models in response to treatment with NB105-146 for thermal burn injury.

Total RNA from 3D skin models were characterised, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples (burn (untreated) vs burned and treated with gel without mineral complex) are plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot. Results are shown in Figure 8b and Tables 12 and 13.

Table 12 shows 12 genes that are up-regulated in response to treatment with NB105-146 relative to thermal burn injured (untreated) skin. Table 13 shows 57 genes that are down-regulated in response to NB105-146 treated versus untreated thermal burn injured skin.

Table 12

Position Gene Fold Change Position Gene Fold Change

G01 SERPINE1 -499.23 G02 STAT3 -24.3

F10 PTGS2 -246.35 E09 MAPK1 -23.23

B05 CSF2 -238.7 G12 WNT5A -21.34

C07 F3 -180.08 B10 CTSK -21.29 D08 IL6 -169.09 F12 RHOA -21.12

B08 CTNNBl -110.64 A04 CCL2 -20.78

E12 MMP1 -106.16 F03 M MP9 -17.38

B12 CXCL1 -102.5 Gil WISP1 -14.98

C03 CXCL5 -99.01 D10 ITGA1 -14.98

G09 VEGFA -83.69 E02 ITGA5 -14.58

C02 CXCL2 -76.57 B06 CSF3 -13.47

F07 PLAU -64.15 Cll FGF7 -12.97

F02 MMP7 -64.13 F09 PTEN -11.23

G07 TIMP1 -61.21 Fll RAC1 -11.19

E05 ITGB1 -50.11 B07 CTGF -9.55

F01 MMP2 -50.02 A10 C0L1A2 -9.38

HOI ACTB -47.39 G03 TAGLN -8.99

A01 ACTA2 -45.62 F06 PLAU -8.37

Ell MIF -40.95 E04 ITGAV -8.13

D05 IL1B -39.86 H09 RTC -7.88

C05 EGFR -39.4 G04 TGFA -6.52

H05 RPLPO -33.51 B03 COL5A2 -5.72

E07 ITGB5 -32.45 D12 ITGA3 -4.66

B02 COL5A1 -29.47 F04 PDGFA -4.24

A12 COL4A1 -28.78 Bll CTSV -3.99

F05 PLAT -28.73 A09 C0L1A1 -3.94

E10 MAPK3 -26.37 CIO FGF2 -3.67 G05 TGFB1 -25.26 A03 ANGPT1 -3.66

D09 IL6ST -24.61

Ta Die 13

Finally, wound healing PC arrays revealed up- and down-regulated genes in 3D skin models in response to treatment with NB105-142 (WJ24) for thermal burn injuries. Total RNA from 3D skin models was characterised, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples (WJ + Oriel vs Burn) were plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot, results are shown in Figure 8c and Tables 14 and 15.

Table 14 shows 38 genes that are up-regulated in response to treatment with NB105-146 relative to thermal burn injured (untreated) skin. Table 15 shows 26 genes that are down-regulated in response to NB105-146 treated versus untreated thermal burn injured skin.

Position Gene Fold Change Position Gene Fold Change

D03 IGF1 75.98 C12 HBEGF 5.12

B09 CTSG 50.93 E06 ITGB3 5.03

D06 IL2 40.07 B03 COL5A2 4.97

C09 FGF10 38.70 A10 COL1A2 4.71

C08 FGA 33.71 G06 TGFBR3 4.67

E08 ITGB6 29.08 D01 HGF 4.52

A07 CDH1 26.53 H08 RTC 4.48

C04 EGF 23.98 D07 IL4 4.44

C06 F13A1 19.38 A08 COL14A1 4.19

B01 COL4A3 15.06 F04 PDGFA 4.00

D02 IFNG 14.21 E03 ITGA6 3.65

All COL3A1 12.14 G10 VTN 3.16

A02 ACTC1 12.00 D12 ITGA3 3.02

A09 COL1A1 11.47 A03 ANGPT1 2.97

F08 PLG 8.99 Bll CTSV 2.73

A06 CD40LG 7.86 E01 ITGA4 2.69 B04 COL5A3 7.62 Gil WISP1 2.62

D04 IL10 7.59 Dll ITGA2 2.50

H09 TC 5.53 G03 TAGLN 2.00

Ta Die 14

Position Gene Fold Change Position Gene Fold Change

B05 CSF2 -10845.5 Cll FGF7 -5.68

G09 VEGFA -7722.46 A04 CCL2 -5.3

A05 CCL7 -98.27 A01 ACTA2 -4.24

D08 IL6 -83.67 G08 TNF -3.56

B06 CSF3 -64.95 D05 IL1B -3.24

F10 PTGS2 -60.18 F03 M MP9 -3

C02 CXCL2 -21.04 C05 EGFR -2.78

B12 CXCL1 -12.87 G07 TIM P1 -2.62

E12 MMP1 -8.49 D10 ITGA1 -2.29

F02 MMP7 -8.01 D09 IL6ST -2.22

C03 CXCL5 -7.12 B08 CTNNB1 -2.21

G01 SERPINE1 -6.69 F07 PLAU -2.14

C07 F3 -6.02 E05 ITGB1 -2.06

Ta Die 15

Example 4

Tissue dielectric constant of burned skin models was tested at time intervals following exposure to (treatment with) the mineral complex active ingredient (Figure 7b) versus control (treatment with nothing) (Figure 7a).