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Title:
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR MODIFYING GENOMES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/030695
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Compositions and methods for modifying genomic DNA sequences are provided. The methods produce double-stranded breaks (DSBs) at pre-determined target sites in a genomic DNA sequence, resulting in mutation, insertion, and/or deletion of DNA sequences at the target site(s) in a genome. Compositions comprise DNA constructs comprising nucleotide sequences that encode a Cms1 protein operably linked to a promoter that is operable in the cells of interest. The DNA constructs can be used to direct the modification of genomic DNA at pre-determined genomic loci. Methods to use these DNA constructs to modify genomic DNA sequences are described herein. Additionally, compositions and methods for modulating the expression of genes are provided. Compositions comprise DNA constructs comprising a promoter that is operable in the cells of interest operably linked to nucleotide sequences that encode a mutated Cms1 protein with an abolished ability to produce DSBs, optionally linked to a domain that regulates transcriptional activity. The methods can be used to up- or down-regulate the expression of genes at predetermined genomic loci.

Inventors:
BEGEMANN, Matthew (1100 Corporate Square Drive, Suite 243St. Louis, MO, 63132, US)
GRAY, Benjamin Neil (1177 Great Ridge Parkway, Chapel Hill, NC, 27516, US)
Application Number:
IB2018/055972
Publication Date:
February 14, 2019
Filing Date:
August 08, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BENSON HILL BIOSYSTEMS, INC. (P.O. Box 13487, 100 Capitola Drive Suite 24, Research Triangle Park NC, 27709, US)
International Classes:
C12N15/10; C12N15/63; C12N15/82
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BUCK, B. Logan (Womble Bond Dickinson LLP, P.O. Box 7037Atlanta, GA, 30357-0037, US)
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Claims:
WE CLAIM:

1. A method of modifying a nucleotide sequence at a target site in the genome of a eukaryotic cell comprising:

introducing into said eukaryotic cell

(i) a DNA-targeting RNA, or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide; and

(ii) a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA- targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide has at least 95% identity with a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254, and has Cmsl nuclease activity, wherein said method modifies said nucleotide sequence at said target site, and wherein said genome of a eukaryotic cell is a nuclear, plastid, or mitochondrial genome.

2. A method of modifying a nucleotide sequence at a target site in the genome of a prokaryotic cell comprising:

introducing into said prokaryotic cell

(i) a DNA-targeting RNA, or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide; and

(ii) a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA- targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide has at least 95% identity with a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254, and has Cmsl nuclease activity, wherein said genome of a prokaryotic cell is a chromosomal, plasmid, or other intracellular DNA sequence, and wherein said prokaryotic cell is not the natural host of a gene encoding said Cmsl polypeptide.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein said eukaryotic cell is a plant cell.

4. The method of claim 3, further comprising:

culturing the plant cell to produce a plant under conditions in which the Cmsl polypeptide is expressed and cleaves the nucleotide sequence at the target site to produce a modified nucleotide sequence; and

selecting a plant comprising said modified nucleotide sequence.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254.

6. The method of claim 2, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein said modified nucleotide sequence comprises insertion of heterologous DNA into the genome of the cell, deletion of a nucleotide sequence from the genome of the cell, or mutation of at least one nucleotide in the genome of the cell.

8. The method of claim 2, wherein said modified nucleotide sequence comprises insertion of heterologous DNA into the genome of the cell, deletion of a nucleotide sequence from the genome of the cell, or mutation of at least one nucleotide in the genome of the cell.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein said modified nucleotide sequence comprises insertion of a polynucleotide that encodes a protein conferring antibiotic or herbicide tolerance to transformed cells.

10. The method of claim 9 wherein said polynucleotide that encodes a protein conferring antibiotic or herbicide tolerance comprises SEQ ID NO:7, or encodes a protein that comprises SEQ ID NO:8. 11. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein said polynucleotide sequence has at least 95% identity with a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176, 212-215, and 255-287, or a fragment or variant thereof, or wherein said polynucleotide sequence encodes a Cmsl polypeptide with at least 95% identity to a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254, and has Cmsl nuclease activity, and wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is heterologous to the polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide. 12. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 11 wherein said nucleic acid molecule comprising a polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176, 212-215, and 255-287, or encodes a Cmsl polypeptide that comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254.

13. A Cmsl polypeptide encoded by the nucleic acid molecule of claim 11.

14. A plant cell, eukaryotic cell, or prokaryotic cell comprising the nucleic acid molecule of claim 11.

15. A plant cell, eukaryotic cell, or prokaryotic cell comprising the nucleic acid molecule of claim 12.

16. A eukaryotic cell produced by the method of claim 1.

17. The eukaryotic cell of claim 16 wherein said eukaryotic cell is a plant cell.

18. A plant comprising the nucleic acid molecule of claim 11. 19. A plant comprising the nucleic acid molecule of claim 12.

20. A plant produced by the method of claim 3.

21. The seed of the plant of claim 18.

22. The seed of the plant of claim 20.

23. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 11 wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is codon-optimized for expression in a plant cell.

24. The method of claim 3 wherein said polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is codon- optimized for expression in a plant cell.

Description:
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR MODIFYING GENOMES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for editing genomic sequences at pre-selected locations and for modulating gene expression.

REFERENCE TO A SEQUENCE LISTING SUBMITTED AS A TEXT FILE VIA EFS-WEB The official copy of the sequence listing is submitted concurrently with the specification as a text file via EFS-Web, in compliance with the American Standard Code for Information

Interchange (ASCII), with a file name of BHP017P5 Sequence Listing_ST25.txt, a creation date of August 3, 2018, and a size of 1,848 Kb. The sequence listing filed via EFS-Web is part of the specification and is hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference herein.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Modification of genomic DNA is of immense importance for basic and applied research.

Genomic modifications have the potential to elucidate and in some cases to cure the causes of disease and to provide desirable traits in the cells and/or individuals comprising said modifications. Genomic modification may include, for example, modification of plant, animal, fungal, and/or prokaryotic genomic modification. The most common methods for modifying genomic DNA tend to modify the DNA at random sites within the genome, but recent discoveries have enabled site- specific genomic modification. Such technologies rely on the creation of a DSB at the desired site. This DSB causes the recruitment of the host cell's native DNA-repair machinery to the DSB. The DNA-repair machinery may be harnessed to insert heterologous DNA at a pre-determined site, to delete native genomic DNA, or to produce point mutations, insertions, or deletions at a desired site. Of particular interest for site-specific genomic modifications are Clustered, Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) nucleases. CRISPR nucleases use a guide molecule, often a guide RNA molecule, that interacts with the nuclease and base pairs with the targeted DNA, allowing the nuclease to produce a double-stranded break (DSB) at the desired site. The production of DSBs requires the presence of a protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sequence; following recognition of the PAM sequence, the CRISPR nuclease is able to produce the desired DSB. Cmsl CRISPR nucleases are a class of CRISPR nucleases that have certain desirable properties relative to other CRISPR nucleases such as Cas9 nucleases. One area in which genomic modification is practiced is in the modification of plant genomic DNA. Modification of plant genomic DNA is of immense importance to both basic and applied plant research. Transgenic plants with stably modified genomic DNA can have new traits such as herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, and/or accumulation of valuable proteins including pharmaceutical proteins and industrial enzymes imparted to them. The expression of native plant genes may be up- or down-regulated or otherwise altered (e.g., by changing the tissue(s) in which native plant genes are expressed), their expression may be abolished entirely, DNA sequences may be altered (e.g., through point mutations, insertions, or deletions), or new non-native genes may be inserted into a plant genome to impart new traits to the plant.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Compositions and methods for modifying genomic DNA sequences using Cmsl CRISPR systems are provided. As used herein, genomic DNA refers to linear and/or chromosomal DNA and/or to plasmid or other extrachromosomal DNA sequences present in the cell or cells of interest. The methods produce double- stranded breaks (DSBs) at pre-determined target sites in a genomic DNA sequence, resulting in mutation, insertion, and/or deletion of DNA sequences at the target site(s) in a genome. Compositions comprise DNA constructs comprising nucleotide sequences that encode a Cmsl protein operably linked to a promoter that is operable in the cells of interest. In some embodiments, a Cmsl protein comprises at least one amino acid motif selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 177-186. In other embodiments, a Cmsl protein comprises at least one amino acid motif selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:288-289 and 187- 201. In other embodiments, a Cmsl protein comprises at least one amino acid motif selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:290-296. In certain preferred embodiments, a Cmsl protein comprises more than one amino acid motif selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 177- 186. In certain preferred embodiments, a Cmsl protein comprises more than one amino acid motif selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:288-289 and 187-201. In certain preferred embodiments, a Cmsl protein comprises more than one amino acid motif selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:290-296. Particular Cmsl protein sequences are set forth in SEQ ID NOs: 10, 11, 20-23, 30-69, 154-156, 208-211, and 222-254; particular Cms 1 protein-encoding polynucleotide sequences are set forth in SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176, 212-215, and 255-287. In certain preferred embodiments, a Cmsl protein has at least about 80% identity with a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174- 176, 212-215, and 255-287. The DNA constructs comprising polynucleotide sequences that encode the Cmsl proteins of the invention, or the Cmsl proteins of the invention themselves, can be used to direct the modification of genomic DNA at pre-determined genomic loci. Methods to use these DNA constructs to modify genomic DNA sequences are described herein. Modified eukaryotes and eukaryotic cells, including yeast, amoebae, insects, fungi, mammals, plants, plant cells, plant parts and seeds as well as modified prokaryotes, including bacteria and archaea, are also

encompassed. Compositions and methods for modulating the expression of genes are also provided. The methods target protein(s) to pre-determined sites in a genome to effect an up- or down-regulation of a gene or genes whose expression is regulated by the targeted site in the genome. Compositions comprise DNA constructs comprising nucleotide sequences that encode a modified Cmsl protein with diminished or abolished nuclease activity, optionally fused to a transcriptional activation or repression domain. Methods to use these DNA constructs to modify gene expression are described herein.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 shows a phylogenetic tree drawn from a RuvC-anchored MUSCLE alignment of the Type V nuclease amino acid sequences indicated. Sm-type, Sulf-type, and Unk40-type Cmsl nucleases are indicated.

Fig. 2 shows a summary of amino acid motifs shared among Sm-type Cmsl proteins. The weblogo figures in boxes 1-10 correspond to SEQ ID NOs: 177-186, respectively, and their locations on the

SmCmsl protein (SEQ ID NO: 10) are shown.

Fig. 3 shows a summary of amino acid motifs shared among Sulf-type Cmsl proteins. The weblogo figures in boxes 1-17 correspond to SEQ ID NOs: 288-289 and SEQ ID NOs: 187-201, respectively, and their locations on the SulfCmsl protein (SEQ ID NO: 11) are shown.

Fig. 4 shows a summary of amino acid motifs shared among Unk40-type Cmsl proteins. The weblogo figures in boxes 1-7 correspond to SEQ ID NOs: 290-296, respectively, and their locations on the Unk40Cms 1 protein (SEQ ID NO:68) are shown.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Methods and compositions are provided herein for the control of gene expression involving sequence targeting, such as genome perturbation or gene-editing, that relate to the CRISPR-Cms system and components thereof. The CRISPR enzymes of the invention are selected from a Cms enzyme, e.g. a Cmsl ortholog or a mutated Cmsl enzyme. Cmsl is an abbreviation for CRISPR from Microgenomates and Smithella, and is so named because some bacterial species in these groups encode Cmsl nucleases; the terms Csml and Cmsl are used interchangeably herein. Cmsl nucleases may also be referred to as Casl2f nucleases. The methods and compositions include nucleic acids to bind target DNA sequences. This is advantageous as nucleic acids are much easier and less expensive to produce than, for example, peptides, and the specificity can be varied according to the length of the stretch where homology is sought. Complex 3-D positioning of multiple fingers, for example is not required.

Also provided are nucleic acids encoding the Cmsl polypeptides, as well as methods of using Cmsl polypeptides to modify chromosomal (i.e., genomic) or organellar DNA sequences of host cells including plant cells. The Cmsl polypeptides interact with specific guide RNAs (gRNAs), which direct the Cmsl endonuclease to a specific target site, at which site the Cmsl endonuclease introduces a double-stranded break that can be repaired by a DNA repair process such that the DNA sequence is modified. Since the specificity is provided by the guide RNA, the Cmsl polypeptide is universal and can be used with different guide RNAs to target different genomic sequences. Cmsl endonucleases have certain advantages over the Cas nucleases (e.g., Cas9) traditionally used with CRISPR arrays. For example, Cmsl -associated CRISPR arrays are processed into mature crRNAs without the requirement of an additional trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA). Also, Cmsl-crRNA complexes can cleave target DNA preceded by a short protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) that is often T-rich, in contrast to the G-rich PAM following the target DNA for many Cas9 systems. Further, Cmsl nucleases can introduce a staggered DNA double-stranded break. The methods disclosed herein can be used to target and modify specific chromosomal sequences and/or introduce exogenous sequences at targeted locations in the genome of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The methods can further be used to introduce sequences or modify regions within organelles (e.g., chloroplasts and/or mitochondria). Furthermore, the targeting is specific with limited off target effects. I. Cmsl endonucleases

Provided herein are Cmsl endonucleases, and fragments and variants thereof, for use in modifying genomes including plant genomes. As used herein, the term Cmsl endonucleases or Cmsl polypeptides refers to homologs, orthologs, and variants of the Cmsl polypeptide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NOs: 10, 11, 20-23, 30-69, 154-156, 208-211, and 222-254. Typically, Cmsl endonucleases can act without the use of tracrRNAs and can introduce a staggered DNA double- strand break. In general, Cms 1 polypeptides comprise at least one RNA recognition and/or RNA binding domain. RNA recognition and/or RNA binding domains interact with guide RNAs.

Typically the guide RNA comprises a region with a stem-loop structure that interacts with the Cmsl polypeptide. This stem-loop often comprises the sequence UCUACNs-sGUAGAU (SEQ ID NOs:312-314, encoded by SEQ ID NOs:315-317), with "UCUAC" and "GUAGA" base-pairing to form the stem of the stem-loop. N 3 _5 denotes that any base may be present at this location, and 3, 4, or 5 nucleotides may be included at this location. Cmsl polypeptides can also comprise nuclease domains (i.e., DNase or RNase domains), DNA binding domains, helicase domains, RNAse domains, protein-protein interaction domains, dimerization domains, as well as other domains. In specific embodiments, a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, comprises: an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA-targeting RNA, and an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity, such as a RuvC endonuclease domain.

Cmsl polypeptides can be wild type Cmsl polypeptides, modified Cmsl polypeptides, or a fragment of a wild type or modified Cmsl polypeptide. The Cmsl polypeptide can be modified to increase nucleic acid binding affinity and/or specificity, alter an enzymatic activity, and/or change another property of the protein. For example, nuclease (i.e., DNase, RNase) domains of the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified, deleted, or inactivated. Alternatively, the Cmsl polypeptide can be truncated to remove domains that are not essential for the function of the protein.

In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be derived from a wild type Cmsl polypeptide or fragment thereof. In other embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be derived from a modified Cmsl polypeptide. For example, the amino acid sequence of the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified to alter one or more properties (e.g., nuclease activity, affinity, stability, etc.) of the protein. Alternatively, domains of the Cmsl polypeptide not involved in RNA-guided cleavage can be eliminated from the protein such that the modified Cmsl polypeptide is smaller than the wild type Cmsl polypeptide.

In general, a Cmsl polypeptide comprises at least one nuclease (i.e., DNase) domain, but need not contain an HNH domain such as the one found in Cas9 proteins. For example, a Cmsl polypeptide can comprise a RuvC or RuvC-like nuclease domain. In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified to inactivate the nuclease domain so that it is no longer functional. In some embodiments in which one of the nuclease domains is inactive, the Cmsl polypeptide does not cleave double- stranded DNA. In specific embodiments, the mutated Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more mutations in a position corresponding to positions 701 or 922 of SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10) or to positions 848 and 1213 of SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) when aligned for maximum identity that reduces or eliminates the nuclease activity. The nuclease domain can be modified using well-known methods, such as site-directed mutagenesis, PCR-mediated

mutagenesis, and total gene synthesis, as well as other methods known in the art. Cmsl proteins with inactivated nuclease domains (dCmsl proteins) can be used to modulate gene expression without modifying DNA sequences. In certain embodiments, a dCmsl protein may be targeted to particular regions of a genome such as promoters for a gene or genes of interest through the use of appropriate gRNAs. The dCmsl protein can bind to the desired region of DNA and may interfere with RNA polymerase binding to this region of DNA and/or with the binding of transcription factors to this region of DNA. This technique may be used to up- or down-regulate the expression of one or more genes of interest. In certain other embodiments, the dCmsl protein may be fused to a repressor domain to further downregulate the expression of a gene or genes whose expression is regulated by interactions of RNA polymerase, transcription factors, or other transcriptional regulators with the region of chromosomal DNA targeted by the gRNA. In certain other embodiments, the dCmsl protein may be fused to an activation domain to effect an upregulation of a gene or genes whose expression is regulated by interactions of RNA polymerase, transcription factors, or other transcriptional regulators with the region of chromosomal DNA targeted by the gRNA.

The Cmsl polypeptides disclosed herein can further comprise at least one nuclear localization signal (NLS). In general, an NLS comprises a stretch of basic amino acids. Nuclear localization signals are known in the art (see, e.g., Lange et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2007) 282:5101- 5105). The NLS can be located at the N-terminus, the C-terminus, or in an internal location of the Cmsl polypeptide. In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can further comprise at least one cell-penetrating domain. The cell-penetrating domain can be located at the N-terminus, the C- terminus, or in an internal location of the protein.

The Cmsl polypeptide disclosed herein can further comprise at least one plastid targeting signal peptide, at least one mitochondrial targeting signal peptide, or a signal peptide targeting the Cms 1 polypeptide to both plastids and mitochondria. Plastid, mitochondrial, and dual-targeting signal peptide localization signals are known in the art (see, e.g., Nassoury and Morse (2005) Biochim Biophys Acta 1743:5-19; Kunze and Berger (2015) Front Physiol 6:259; Herrmann and Neupert (2003) IUBMB Life 55:219-225; Soil (2002) Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:529-535; Carrie and Small (2013) Biochim Biophys Acta 1833:253-259; Carrie et al. (2009) FEBS J 276: 1187-1195; Silva-Filho (2003) Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:589-595; Peeters and Small (2001) Biochim Biophys Acta 1541:54-63; Murcha et al. (2014) Exp Bot 65:6301-6335; Mackenzie (2005) Trends Cell Biol 15:548-554; Glaser et al. (1998) Plant Mol Biol 38:311-338). The plastid, mitochondrial, or dual-targeting signal peptide can be located at the N-terminus, the C-terminus, or in an internal location of the Cmsl polypeptide.

In still other embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can also comprise at least one marker domain. Non-limiting examples of marker domains include fluorescent proteins, purification tags, and epitope tags. In certain embodiments, the marker domain can be a fluorescent protein. Non limiting examples of suitable fluorescent proteins include green fluorescent proteins (e.g., GFP, GFP-2, tagGFP, turboGFP, EGFP, Emerald, Azami Green, Monomeric Azami Green, CopGFP, AceGFP, ZsGreenl), yellow fluorescent proteins (e.g. YFP, EYFP, Citrine, Venus, YPet, PhiYFP, ZsYellowl), blue fluorescent proteins (e.g. EBFP, EBFP2, Azurite, mKalamal, GFPuv, Sapphire, T-sapphire), cyan fluorescent proteins (e.g. ECFP, Cerulean, CyPet, AmCyanl, Midoriishi-Cyan), red fluorescent proteins (mKate, mKate2, mPlum, DsRed monomer, mCherry, mRFPl, DsRed- Express, DsRed2, DsRed-Monomer, HcRed-Tandem, HcRedl, AsRed2, eqFP611, mRasberry, mStrawberry, Jred), and orange fluorescent proteins (mOrange, mKO, Kusabira-Orange,

Monomeric Kusabira-Orange, mTangerine, tdTomato) or any other suitable fluorescent protein. In other embodiments, the marker domain can be a purification tag and/or an epitope tag. Exemplary tags include, but are not limited to, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), chitin binding protein (CBP), maltose binding protein, thioredoxin (TRX), poly(NANP), tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag, myc, AcV5, AU1, AU5, E, ECS, E2, FLAG, HA, nus, Softag 1, Softag 3, Strep, SBP, Glu-Glu, HSV, KT3, S, S I, T7, V5, VSV-G, 6xHis, biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and calmodulin.

In certain embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide may be part of a protein-RNA complex comprising a guide RNA. The guide RNA interacts with the Cmsl polypeptide to direct the Cmsl polypeptide to a specific target site, wherein the 5' end of the guide RNA can base pair with a specific protospacer sequence of the nucleotide sequence of interest in the plant genome, whether part of the nuclear, plastid, and/or mitochondrial genome. As used herein, the term "DNA-targeting RNA" refers to a guide RNA that interacts with the Cmsl polypeptide and the target site of the nucleotide sequence of interest in the genome of a plant cell. A DNA-targeting RNA, or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, can comprise: a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA, and a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide.

The polynucleotides encoding Cmsl polypeptides disclosed herein can be used to isolate corresponding sequences from other prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms, or from

metagenomically-derived sequences whose native host organism is unclear or unknown. In this manner, methods such as PCR, hybridization, and the like can be used to identify such sequences based on their sequence homology or identity to the sequences set forth herein. Sequences isolated based on their sequence identity to the entire Cmsl sequences set forth herein or to variants and fragments thereof are encompassed by the present invention. Such sequences include sequences that are orthologs of the disclosed Cmsl sequences. "Orthologs" is intended to mean genes derived from a common ancestral gene and which are found in different species as a result of speciation. Genes found in different species are considered orthologs when their nucleotide sequences and/or their encoded protein sequences share at least about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 91%, about 92%, about 93%, about 94%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%, about 98%, about 99%, or greater sequence identity. Functions of orthologs are often highly conserved among species. Thus, isolated polynucleotides that encode polypeptides having Cmsl endonuclease activity and which share at least about 75% or more sequence identity to the sequences disclosed herein, are encompassed by the present invention. As used herein, Cmsl endonuclease activity refers to CRISPR endonuclease activity wherein, a guide RNA (gRNA) associated with a Cmsl polypeptide causes the Cmsl -gRNA complex to bind to a pre-determined nucleotide sequence that is complementary to the gRNA; and wherein Cmsl activity can introduce a double- stranded break at or near the site targeted by the gRNA. In certain embodiments, this double-stranded break may be a staggered DNA double- stranded break. As used herein a "staggered DNA double-stranded break" can result in a double strand break with about 1, about 2, about 3, about 4, about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, or about 10 nucleotides of overhang on either the 3' or 5' ends following cleavage. In specific embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide introduces a staggered DNA double- stranded break with a 5' overhang. The double strand break can occur at or near the sequence to which the DNA-targeting RNA (e.g., guide RNA) sequence is targeted.

Fragments and variants of the Cmsl polynucleotides and Cmsl amino acid sequences encoded thereby that retain Cmsl nuclease activity are encompassed herein. By "Cmsl nuclease activity" is intended the binding of a pre-determined DNA sequence as mediated by a guide RNA. In embodiments wherein the Cmsl nuclease retains a functional RuvC domain, Cmsl nuclease activity can further comprise double-strand break induction. By ""fragment" is intended a portion of the polynucleotide or a portion of the amino acid sequence. "Variants" is intended to mean substantially similar sequences. For polynucleotides, a variant comprises a polynucleotide having deletions (i.e., truncations) at the 5' and/or 3' end; deletion and/or addition of one or more nucleotides at one or more internal sites in the native polynucleotide; and/or substitution of one or more nucleotides at one or more sites in the native polynucleotide. As used herein, a "native" polynucleotide or polypeptide comprises a naturally occurring nucleotide sequence or amino acid sequence, respectively. Generally, variants of a particular polynucleotide of the invention will have at least about 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity to that particular polynucleotide as determined by sequence alignment programs and parameters as described elsewhere herein.

"Variant" amino acid or protein is intended to mean an amino acid or protein derived from the native amino acid or protein by deletion (so-called truncation) of one or more amino acids at the N-terminal and/or C -terminal end of the native protein; deletion and/or addition of one or more amino acids at one or more internal sites in the native protein; or substitution of one or more amino acids at one or more sites in the native protein. Variant proteins encompassed by the present invention are biologically active, that is they continue to possess the desired biological activity of the native protein. Biologically active variants of a native polypeptide will have at least about 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity to the amino acid sequence for the native sequence as determined by sequence alignment programs and parameters described herein. A biologically active variant of a protein of the invention may differ from that protein by as few as 1-15 amino acid residues, as few as 1-10, such as 6-10, as few as 5, as few as 4, 3, 2, or even 1 amino acid residue.

Variant sequences may also be identified by analysis of existing databases of sequenced genomes. In this manner, corresponding sequences can be identified and used in the methods of the invention.

Methods of alignment of sequences for comparison are well known in the art. Thus, the determination of percent sequence identity between any two sequences can be accomplished using a mathematical algorithm. Non-limiting examples of such mathematical algorithms are the algorithm of Myers and Miller (1988) CABIOS 4: 11-17; the local alignment algorithm of Smith et al. (1981) Adv. Appl. Math. 2:482; the global alignment algorithm of Needleman and Wunsch (1970) J. Mol. Biol. 48:443-453; the search-for-local alignment method of Pearson and Lipman (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:2444-2448; the algorithm of Karlin and Altschul (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:2264-2268, modified as in Karlin and Altschul (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:5873-5877.

Computer implementations of these mathematical algorithms can be utilized for comparison of sequences to determine sequence identity. Such implementations include, but are not limited to: CLUSTAL in the PC/Gene program (available from Intelligenetics, Mountain View, California); the ALIGN program (Version 2.0) and GAP, BESTFIT, BLAST, FASTA, and TFASTA in the GCG Wisconsin Genetics Software Package, Version 10 (available from Accelrys Inc., 9685 Scranton Road, San Diego, California, USA). Alignments using these programs can be performed using the default parameters. The CLUSTAL program is well described by Higgins et al. (1988) Gene 73:237-244; Higgins et al. (1989) CABIOS 5: 151-153; Corpet et al. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16: 10881-90; Huang et al. (1992) CABIOS 8: 155-65; and Pearson et al. (1994) Meth. Mol. Biol. 24:307-331. The ALIGN program is based on the algorithm of Myers and Miller (1988) supra. A PAM120 weight residue table, a gap length penalty of 12, and a gap penalty of 4 can be used with the ALIGN program when comparing amino acid sequences. The MUSCLE algorithm for multiple sequence alignment may be used for comparisons of multiple nucleic acid or protein sequences (Edgar (2004) Nucleic Acids Research 32: 1792-1797). The BLAST programs of Altschul et al (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 215:403 are based on the algorithm of Karlin and Altschul (1990) supra.

BLAST nucleotide searches can be performed with the BLASTN program, score = 100, wordlength = 12, to obtain nucleotide sequences homologous to a nucleotide sequence encoding a protein of the invention. BLAST protein searches can be performed with the BLASTX program, score = 50, wordlength = 3, to obtain amino acid sequences homologous to a protein or polypeptide of the invention. To obtain gapped alignments for comparison purposes, Gapped BLAST (in BLAST 2.0) can be utilized as described in Altschul et al. (1997) Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389. Alternatively, PSI-BLAST (in BLAST 2.0) can be used to perform an iterated search that detects distant relationships between molecules. See Altschul et al. (1997) supra. When utilizing BLAST, Gapped BLAST, PSI-BLAST, the default parameters of the respective programs (e.g., BLASTN for nucleotide sequences, BLASTX for proteins) can be used. See the website at

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Alignment may also be performed manually by inspection.

The nucleic acid molecules encoding Cmsl polypeptides, or fragments or variants thereof, can be codon optimized for expression in a plant of interest or other cell or organism of interest. A "codon-optimized gene" is a gene having its frequency of codon usage designed to mimic the frequency of preferred codon usage of the host cell. Nucleic acid molecules can be codon optimized, either wholly or in part. Because any one amino acid (except for methionine and tryptophan) is encoded by a number of codons, the sequence of the nucleic acid molecule may be changed without changing the encoded amino acid. Codon optimization is when one or more codons are altered at the nucleic acid level such that the amino acids are not changed but expression in a particular host organism is increased. Those having ordinary skill in the art will recognize that codon tables and other references providing preference information for a wide range of organisms are available in the art (see, e.g., Zhang et al. (1991) Gene 105:61-72; Murray et al. (1989) Nucl. Acids Res. 17:477-508). Methodology for optimizing a nucleotide sequence for expression in a plant is provided, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,015,891, and the references cited therein.

Examples of codon optimized polynucleotides for expression in a plant are set forth in: SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 110-120, and 174-176. II. Fusion proteins

Fusion proteins are provided herein comprising a Cmsl polypeptide, or a fragment or variant thereof, and an effector domain. The Cmsl polypeptide can be directed to a target site by a guide RNA, at which site the effector domain can modify or effect the targeted nucleic acid sequence. The effector domain can be a cleavage domain, an epigenetic modification domain, a transcriptional activation domain, or a transcriptional repressor domain. The fusion protein can further comprise at least one additional domain chosen from a nuclear localization signal, plastid signal peptide, mitochondrial signal peptide, signal peptide capable of protein trafficking to multiple subcellular locations, a cell-penetrating domain, or a marker domain, any of which can be located at the N-terminus, C-terminus, or an internal location of the fusion protein. The Cmsl polypeptide can be located at the N-terminus, the C-terminus, or in an internal location of the fusion protein. The Cmsl polypeptide can be directly fused to the effector domain, or can be fused with a linker. In specific embodiments, the linker sequence fusing the Cmsl polypeptide with the effector domain can be at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 amino acids in length. For example, the linker can range from 1-5, 1-10, 1-20, 1-50, 2-3, 3-10, 3-20, 5-20, or 10-50 amino acids in length.

In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide of the fusion protein can be derived from a wild type Cmsl protein. The Cmsl -derived protein can be a modified variant or a fragment. In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified to contain a nuclease domain (e.g. a RuvC or RuvC-like domain) with reduced or eliminated nuclease activity. For example, the Cmsl- derived polypeptide can be modified such that the nuclease domain is deleted or mutated such that it is no longer functional (i.e., the nuclease activity is absent). Particularly, a Cmsl polypeptide can have a mutation in a position corresponding to positions 701 or 922 of SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10) or to positions 848 and 1213 of SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) when aligned for maximum identity. The nuclease domain can be inactivated by one or more deletion mutations, insertion mutations, and/or substitution mutations using known methods, such as site-directed mutagenesis, PCR- mediated mutagenesis, and total gene synthesis, as well as other methods known in the art. In an exemplary embodiment, the Cmsl polypeptide of the fusion protein is modified by mutating the RuvC-like domain such that the Cmsl polypeptide has no nuclease activity.

The fusion protein also comprises an effector domain located at the N-terminus, the C- terminus, or in an internal location of the fusion protein. In some embodiments, the effector domain is a cleavage domain. As used herein, a "cleavage domain" refers to a domain that cleaves DNA. The cleavage domain can be obtained from any endonuclease or exonuclease. Non-limiting examples of endonucleases from which a cleavage domain can be derived include, but are not limited to, restriction endonucleases and homing endonucleases. See, for example, New England Biolabs Catalog or Belfort et al. (1997) Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3379-3388. Additional enzymes that cleave DNA are known (e.g., S I Nuclease; mung bean nuclease; pancreatic DNase I; micrococcal nuclease; yeast HO endonuclease). See also Linn et al. (eds.) Nucleases, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1993. One or more of these enzymes (or functional fragments thereof) can be used as a source of cleavage domains.

In some embodiments, the cleavage domain can be derived from a type II-S endonuclease. Type II-S endonucleases cleave DNA at sites that are typically several base pairs away from the recognition site and, as such, have separable recognition and cleavage domains. These enzymes generally are monomers that transiently associate to form dimers to cleave each strand of DNA at staggered locations. Non-limiting examples of suitable type II-S endonucleases include Bfil, Bpml, Bsal, Bsgl, BsmBI, Bsml, BspMI, Fokl, Mboll, and Sapl.

In certain embodiments, the type II-S cleavage can be modified to facilitate dimerization of two different cleavage domains (each of which is attached to a Cmsl polypeptide or fragment thereof). In embodiments wherein the effector domain is a cleavage domain the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified as discussed herein such that its endonuclease activity is eliminated. For example, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified by mutating the RuvC-like domain such that the polypeptide no longer exhibits endonuclease activity.

In other embodiments, the effector domain of the fusion protein can be an epigenetic modification domain. In general, epigenetic modification domains alter histone structure and/or chromosomal structure without altering the DNA sequence. Changes in histone and/or chromatin structure can lead to changes in gene expression. Examples of epigenetic modification include, without limit, acetylation or methylation of lysine residues in histone proteins, and methylation of cytosine residues in DNA. Non-limiting examples of suitable epigenetic modification domains include histone acetyltansferase domains, histone deacetylase domains, histone methyltransferase domains, histone demethylase domains, DNA methyltransferase domains, and DNA demethylase domains.

In embodiments in which the effector domain is a histone acetyltansferase (HAT) domain, the HAT domain can be derived from EP300 (i.e., E1A binding protein p300), CREBBP (i.e.,

CREB-binding protein), CDY1, CDY2, CDYL1, CLOCK, ELP3, ESA1, GCN5 (KAT2A), HAT1, KAT2B, KAT5, MYST1, MYST2, MYST3, MYST4, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, NCOAT, P/CAF, Tip60, TAFII250, or TF3C4. In embodiments wherein the effector domain is an epigenetic modification domain, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified as discussed herein such that its endonuclease activity is eliminated. For example, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified by mutating the RuvC-like domain such that the polypeptide no longer possesses nuclease activity.

In some embodiments, the effector domain of the fusion protein can be a transcriptional activation domain. In general, a transcriptional activation domain interacts with transcriptional control elements and/or transcriptional regulatory proteins (i.e., transcription factors, RNA polymerases, etc.) to increase and/or activate transcription of one or more genes. In some embodiments, the transcriptional activation domain can be, without limit, a herpes simplex virus VP16 activation domain, VP64 (which is a tetrameric derivative of VP16), a NFKB p65 activation domain, p53 activation domains 1 and 2, a CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) activation domain, an E2A activation domain, and an NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) activation domain. In other embodiments, the transcriptional activation domain can be Gal4, Gcn4, MLL, Rtg3, Gln3, Oafl, Pip2, Pdrl, Pdr3, Pho4, and Leu3. The transcriptional activation domain may be wild type, or it may be a modified version of the original transcriptional activation domain. In some embodiments, the effector domain of the fusion protein is a VP 16 or VP64 transcriptional activation domain. In embodiments wherein the effector domain is a transcriptional activation domain, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified as discussed herein such that its endonuclease activity is eliminated. For example, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified by mutating the RuvC- like domain such that the polypeptide no longer possesses nuclease activity.

In still other embodiments, the effector domain of the fusion protein can be a transcriptional repressor domain. In general, a transcriptional repressor domain interacts with transcriptional control elements and/or transcriptional regulatory proteins (i.e., transcription factors, RNA polymerases, etc.) to decrease and/or terminate transcription of one or more genes. Non-limiting examples of suitable transcriptional repressor domains include inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) domains, Kruppel-associated box A (KRAB-A) repressor domains, YY1 glycine rich repressor domains, Spl-like repressors, E(spl) repressors, I.kappa.B repressor, and MeCP2. In embodiments wherein the effector domain is a transcriptional repressor domain, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified as discussed herein such that its endonuclease activity is eliminated. For example, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified by mutating the RuvC-like domain such that the polypeptide no longer possesses nuclease activity.

In some embodiments, the fusion protein further comprises at least one additional domain.

Non-limiting examples of suitable additional domains include nuclear localization signals, cell- penetrating or translocation domains, and marker domains.

When the effector domain of the fusion protein is a cleavage domain, a dimer comprising at least one fusion protein can form. The dimer can be a homodimer or a heterodimer. In some embodiments, the heterodimer comprises two different fusion proteins. In other embodiments, the heterodimer comprises one fusion protein and an additional protein.

The dimer can be a homodimer in which the two fusion protein monomers are identical with respect to the primary amino acid sequence. In one embodiment where the dimer is a homodimer, the Cmsl polypeptide can be modified such that the endonuclease activity is eliminated. In certain embodiments wherein the Cms 1 polypeptide is modified such that endonuclease activity is eliminated, each fusion protein monomer can comprise an identical Cmsl polypeptide and an identical cleavage domain. The cleavage domain can be any cleavage domain, such as any of the exemplary cleavage domains provided herein. In such embodiments, specific guide RNAs would direct the fusion protein monomers to different but closely adjacent sites such that, upon dimer formation, the nuclease domains of the two monomers would create a double stranded break in the target DNA.

The dimer can also be a heterodimer of two different fusion proteins. For example, the Cmsl polypeptide of each fusion protein can be derived from a different Cmsl polypeptide or from an orthologous Cmsl polypeptide. For example, each fusion protein can comprise a Cmsl polypeptide derived from a different source. In these embodiments, each fusion protein would recognize a different target site (i.e., specified by the protospacer and/or PAM sequence). For example, the guide RNAs could position the heterodimer to different but closely adjacent sites such that their nuclease domains produce an effective double stranded break in the target DNA.

Alternatively, two fusion proteins of a heterodimer can have different effector domains. In embodiments in which the effector domain is a cleavage domain, each fusion protein can contain a different modified cleavage domain. In these embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide(s) can be modified such that their endonuclease activities are eliminated. The two fusion proteins forming a heterodimer can differ in both the Cmsl polypeptide domain and the effector domain.

In any of the above-described embodiments, the homodimer or heterodimer can comprise at least one additional domain chosen from nuclear localization signals (NLSs), plastid signal peptides, mitochondrial signal peptides, signal peptides capable of trafficking proteins to multiple subcellular locations, cell-penetrating, translocation domains and marker domains, as detailed above. In any of the above-described embodiments, one or both of the Cmsl polypeptides can be modified such that endonuclease activity of the polypeptide is eliminated or modified.

The heterodimer can also comprise one fusion protein and an additional protein. For example, the additional protein can be a nuclease. In one embodiment, the nuclease is a zinc finger nuclease. A zinc finger nuclease comprises a zinc finger DNA binding domain and a cleavage domain. A zinc finger recognizes and binds three (3) nucleotides. A zinc finger DNA binding domain can comprise from about three zinc fingers to about seven zinc fingers. The zinc finger DNA binding domain can be derived from a naturally occurring protein or it can be engineered. See, for example, Beerli et al. (2002) Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 135-141; Pabo et al. (2001) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 70:313-340; Isalan et al. (2001) Nat. Biotechnol. 19:656-660; Segal et al. (2001) Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 12:632-637; Choo et al. (2000) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 10:411-416; Zhang et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275(43):33850-33860; Doyon et al. (2008) Nat. Biotechnol. 26:702-708; and Santiago et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:5809-5814. The cleavage domain of the zinc finger nuclease can be any cleavage domain detailed herein. In some embodiments, the zinc finger nuclease can comprise at least one additional domain chosen from nuclear localization signals, plastid signal peptides, mitochondrial signal peptides, signal peptides capable of trafficking proteins to multiple subcellular locations, cell-penetrating or translocation domains, which are detailed herein.

In certain embodiments, any of the fusion proteins detailed above or a dimer comprising at least one fusion protein may be part of a protein-RNA complex comprising at least one guide RNA. A guide RNA interacts with the Cmsl polypeptide of the fusion protein to direct the fusion protein to a specific target site, wherein the 5' end of the guide RNA base pairs with a specific protospacer sequence.

III. Nucleic Acids Encoding Cmsl Polypeptides or Fusion Proteins

Nucleic acids encoding any of the Cmsl polypeptides or fusion proteins described herein are provided. The nucleic acid can be RNA or DNA. Examples of polynucleotides that encode Cmsl polypeptides are set forth in SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176, 212-215, and 255- 287. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein is mRNA. The mRNA can be 5' capped and/or 3' polyadenylated. In another embodiment, the nucleic acid encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein is DNA. The DNA can be present in a vector.

Nucleic acids encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion proteins can be codon optimized for efficient translation into protein in the plant cell of interest. Programs for codon optimization are available in the art (e.g., OPTIMIZER at genomes.urv.es/OPTIMIZER; OptimumGene.TM. from GenScript at www.genscript.com/codon_opt.html).

In certain embodiments, DNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein can be operably linked to at least one promoter sequence. The DNA coding sequence can be operably linked to a promoter control sequence for expression in a host cell of interest. In some

embodiments, the host cell is a plant cell. "Operably linked" is intended to mean a functional linkage between two or more elements. For example, an operable linkage between a promoter and a coding region of interest (e.g., region coding for a Cmsl polypeptide or guide RNA) is a functional link that allows for expression of the coding region of interest. Operably linked elements may be contiguous or non-contiguous. When used to refer to the joining of two protein coding regions, by operably linked is intended that the coding regions are in the same reading frame. The promoter sequence can be constitutive, regulated, growth stage-specific, or tissue- specific. It is recognized that different applications can be enhanced by the use of different promoters in the nucleic acid molecules to modulate the timing, location and/or level of expression of the Cmsl polypeptide and/or guide RNA. Such nucleic acid molecules may also contain, if desired, a promoter regulatory region (e.g., one conferring inducible, constitutive, environmentally- or developmentally-regulated, or cell- or tissue- specific/selective expression), a transcription initiation start site, a ribosome binding site, an RNA processing signal, a transcription termination site, and/or a polyadenylation signal.

In some embodiments, the nucleic acid molecules provided herein can be combined with constitutive, tissue-preferred, developmentally-preferred or other promoters for expression in plants. Examples of constitutive promoters functional in plant cells include the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S transcription initiation region, the Γ- or 2'-promoter derived from T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the ubiquitin 1 promoter, the Smas promoter, the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase promoter (U.S. Pat. No. 5,683,439), the Nos promoter, the pEmu promoter, the rubisco promoter, the GRPl-8 promoter and other transcription initiation regions from various plant genes known to those of skill. If low level expression is desired, weak promoter(s) may be used. Weak constitutive promoters include, for example, the core promoter of the Rsyn7 promoter (WO 99/43838 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,072,050), the core 35S CaMV promoter, and the like. Other constitutive promoters include, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,608,149; 5,608,144; 5,604,121;

5,569,597; 5,466,785; 5,399,680; 5,268,463; and 5,608,142. See also, U.S. Pat. No. 6,177,611, herein incorporated by reference.

Examples of inducible promoters are the Adhl promoter which is inducible by hypoxia or cold stress, the Hsp70 promoter which is inducible by heat stress, the PPDK promoter and the pepcarboxylase promoter which are both inducible by light. Also useful are promoters which are chemically inducible, such as the In2-2 promoter which is safener induced (U.S. Pat. No.

5,364,780), the ERE promoter which is estrogen induced, and the Axigl promoter which is auxin induced and tapetum specific but also active in callus (PCT US01/22169).

Examples of promoters under developmental control in plants include promoters that initiate transcription preferentially in certain tissues, such as leaves, roots, fruit, seeds, or flowers. A "tissue specific" promoter is a promoter that initiates transcription only in certain tissues. Unlike constitutive expression of genes, tissue- specific expression is the result of several interacting levels of gene regulation. As such, promoters from homologous or closely related plant species can be preferable to use to achieve efficient and reliable expression of transgenes in particular tissues. In some embodiments, the expression comprises a tissue-preferred promoter. A "tissue preferred" promoter is a promoter that initiates transcription preferentially, but not necessarily entirely or solely in certain tissues.

In some embodiments, the nucleic acid molecules encoding a Cmsl polypeptide and/or guide RNA comprise a cell type specific promoter. A "cell type specific" promoter is a promoter that primarily drives expression in certain cell types in one or more organs. Some examples of plant cells in which cell type specific promoters functional in plants may be primarily active include, for example, BETL cells, vascular cells in roots, leaves, stalk cells, and stem cells. The nucleic acid molecules can also include cell type preferred promoters. A "cell type preferred" promoter is a promoter that primarily drives expression mostly, but not necessarily entirely or solely in certain cell types in one or more organs. Some examples of plant cells in which cell type preferred promoters functional in plants may be preferentially active include, for example, BETL cells, vascular cells in roots, leaves, stalk cells, and stem cells. The nucleic acid molecules described herein can also comprise seed-preferred promoters. In some embodiments, the seed-preferred promoters have expression in embryo sac, early embryo, early endosperm, aleurone, and/or basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL).

Examples of seed-preferred promoters include, but are not limited to, 27 kD gamma zein promoter and waxy promoter, Boronat, A. et al. (1986) Plant Sci. 47:95-102; Reina, M. et al. Nucl. Acids Res. 18(21):6426; and Kloesgen, R. B. et al. (1986) Mol. Gen. Genet. 203:237-244.

Promoters that express in the embryo, pericarp, and endosperm are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No.

6,225,529 and PCT publication WO 00/12733. The disclosures for each of these are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Promoters that can drive gene expression in a plant seed-preferred manner with expression in the embryo sac, early embryo, early endosperm, aleurone and/or basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) can be used in the compositions and methods disclosed herein. Such promoters include, but are not limited to, promoters that are naturally linked to Zea mays early endosperm 5 gene, Zea mays early endosperm 1 gene, Zea mays early endosperm 2 gene, GRMZM2G 124663, GRMZM2G006585, GRMZM2G 120008, GRMZM2G157806, GRMZM2G176390,

GRMZM2G472234, GRMZM2G138727, Zea mays CLAVATA1, Zea mays MRP1, Oryza sativa PR602, Oryza sativa PR9a, Zea mays BET1, Zea mays BETL-2, Zea mays BETL-3, Zea mays BETL-4, Zea mays BETL-9, Zea mays BETL- 10, Zea mays MEG1, Zea mays TCCR1, Zea mays ASP1, Oryza sativa ASP1, Triticum durum PR60, Triticum durum PR91, Triticum durum GL7, AT3G10590, AT4G18870, AT4G21080, AT5G23650, AT3G05860, AT5G42910, AT2G26320, AT3G03260, AT5G26630, AtIPT4, AtIPT8, AtLEC2, LFAH12. Additional such promoters are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 7803990, 8049000, 7745697, 7119251, 7964770, 7847160, 7700836, U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. 20100313301, 20090049571, 20090089897,

20100281569, 20100281570, 20120066795, 20040003427; PCT Publication Nos.

WO/1999/050427, WO/2010/129999, WO/2009/094704, WO/2010/019996 and WO/2010/147825, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes. Functional variants or functional fragments of the promoters described herein can also be operably linked to the nucleic acids disclosed herein.

Chemical-regulated promoters can be used to modulate the expression of a gene through the application of an exogenous chemical regulator. Depending upon the objective, the promoter may be a chemical-inducible promoter, where application of the chemical induces gene expression, or a chemical-repressible promoter, where application of the chemical represses gene expression.

Chemical-inducible promoters are known in the art and include, but are not limited to, the maize In2-2 promoter, which is activated by benzenesulfonamide herbicide safeners, the maize GST promoter, which is activated by hydrophobic electrophilic compounds that are used as pre-emergent herbicides, and the tobacco PR-la promoter, which is activated by salicylic acid. Other chemical- regulated promoters of interest include steroid-responsive promoters (see, for example, the glucocorticoid-inducible promoter in Schena et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 10421- 10425 and McNellis et al. (1998) Plant J. 14(2):247-257) and tetracycline-inducible and

tetracycline -repressible promoters (see, for example, Gatz et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 227:229- 237, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,814,618 and 5,789,156), herein incorporated by reference.

Tissue-preferred promoters can be utilized to target enhanced expression of an expression construct within a particular tissue. In certain embodiments, the tissue-preferred promoters may be active in plant tissue. Tissue-preferred promoters are known in the art. See, for example,

Yamamoto et al. (1997) Plant J. 12(2):255-265; Kawamata et al. (1997) Plant Cell Physiol.

38(7):792-803; Hansen et al. (1997) Mol. Gen Genet. 254(3):337-343; Russell et al. (1997) Transgenic Res. 6(2): 157-168; Rinehart et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(3): 1331-1341 ; Van Camp et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(2):525-535; Canevascini et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(2):513- 524; Yamamoto et al. (1994) Plant Cell Physiol. 35(5):773-778; Lam (1994) Results Probl. Cell Differ. 20:181-196; Orozco et al. (1993) Plant Mol Biol. 23(6): 1129-1138; Matsuoka et al. (1993) Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90(20):9586-9590; and Guevara-Garcia et al. (1993) Plant J. 4(3):495- 505. Such promoters can be modified, if necessary, for weak expression.

Leaf -preferred promoters are known in the art. See, for example, Yamamoto et al. (1997) Plant J. 12(2):255-265; Kwon et al. (1994) Plant Physiol. 105:357-67; Yamamoto et al. (1994) Plant Cell Physiol. 35(5):773-778; Gotor et al. (1993) Plant J. 3:509-18; Orozco et al. (1993) Plant Mol. Biol. 23(6): 1129-1138; and Matsuoka et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90(20):9586- 9590. In addition, the promoters of cab and rubisco can also be used. See, for example, Simpson et al. (1958) EMBO J 4:2723-2729 and Timko et al. (1988) Nature 318:57-58.

Root-preferred promoters are known and can be selected from the many available from the literature or isolated de novo from various compatible species. See, for example, Hire et al. (1992) Plant Mol. Biol. 20(2):207-218 (soybean root-specific glutamine synthetase gene); Keller and

Baumgartner (1991) Plant Cell 3(10): 1051-1061 (root- specific control element in the GRP 1.8 gene of French bean); Sanger et al. (1990) Plant Mol. Biol. 14(3):433-443 (root- specific promoter of the mannopine synthase (MAS) gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens); and Miao et al. (1991) Plant Cell 3(1): 11-22 (full-length cDNA clone encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS), which is expressed in roots and root nodules of soybean). See also Bogusz et al. (1990) Plant Cell 2(7):633- 641, where two root-specific promoters isolated from hemoglobin genes from the nitrogen-fixing nonlegume Parasponia andersonii and the related non-nitrogen-fixing nonlegume Trema tomentosa are described. The promoters of these genes were linked to a β-glucuronidase reporter gene and introduced into both the nonlegume Nicotiana tabacum and the legume Lotus

corniculatus, and in both instances root-specific promoter activity was preserved. Leach and

Aoyagi (1991) describe their analysis of the promoters of the highly expressed roIC and roID root- inducing genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (see Plant Science (Limerick) 79(l):69-76). They concluded that enhancer and tissue-preferred DNA determinants are dissociated in those promoters. Teeri et al. (1989) used gene fusion to lacZ to show that the Agrobacterium T-DNA gene encoding octopine synthase is especially active in the epidermis of the root tip and that the TR2' gene is root specific in the intact plant and stimulated by wounding in leaf tissue, an especially desirable combination of characteristics for use with an insecticidal or larvicidal gene (see EMBO J.

8(2):343-350). The TR1' gene, fused to nptll (neomycin phosphotransferase II) showed similar characteristics. Additional root-preferred promoters include the VfENOD-GRP3 gene promoter (Kuster et al. (1995) Plant Mol. Biol. 29(4):759-772); and roIB promoter (Capana et al. (1994) Plant Mol. Biol. 25(4):681-691. See also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,837,876; 5,750,386; 5,633,363;

5,459,252; 5,401,836; 5,110,732; and 5,023,179. The phaseolin gene (Murai et al. (1983) Science 23:476-482 and Sengopta-Gopalen et al. (1988) PNAS 82:3320-3324.The promoter sequence can be wild type or it can be modified for more efficient or efficacious expression.

The nucleic acid sequences encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein can be operably linked to a promoter sequence that is recognized by a phage RNA polymerase for in vitro mRNA synthesis. In such embodiments, the in vitro-transcribed RNA can be purified for use in the methods of genome modification described herein. For example, the promoter sequence can be a T7, T3, or SP6 promoter sequence or a variation of a T7, T3, or SP6 promoter sequence. In some embodiments, the sequence encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein can be operably linked to a promoter sequence for in vitro expression of the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein in plant cells. In such embodiments, the expressed protein can be purified for use in the methods of genome modification described herein.

In certain embodiments, the DNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein also can be linked to a polyadenylation signal (e.g., SV40 polyA signal and other signals functional in the cells of interest) and/or at least one transcriptional termination sequence. Additionally, the sequence encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein also can be linked to a sequence encoding at least one nuclear localization signal, at least one plastid signal peptide, at least one mitochondrial signal peptide, at least one signal peptide capable of trafficking proteins to multiple subcellular locations, at least one cell-penetrating domain, and/or at least one marker domain, described elsewhere herein.

The DNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein can be present in a vector.

Suitable vectors include plasmid vectors, phagemids, cosmids, artificial/mini-chromosomes, transposons, and viral vectors (e.g., lentiviral vectors, adeno-associated viral vectors, etc.). In one embodiment, the DNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein is present in a plasmid vector. Non-limiting examples of suitable plasmid vectors include pUC, pBR322, pET, pBluescript, pCAMBIA, and variants thereof. The vector can comprise additional expression control sequences (e.g., enhancer sequences, Kozak sequences, polyadenylation sequences, transcriptional termination sequences, etc.), selectable marker sequences (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes), origins of replication, and the like. Additional information can be found in "Current Protocols in Molecular Biology" Ausubel et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2003 or "Molecular Cloning: A

Laboratory Manual" Sambrook & Russell, Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 3rd edition, 2001.

In some embodiments, the expression vector comprising the sequence encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein can further comprise a sequence encoding a guide RNA. The sequence encoding the guide RNA can be operably linked to at least one transcriptional control sequence for expression of the guide RNA in the plant or plant cell of interest. For example, DNA encoding the guide RNA can be operably linked to a promoter sequence that is recognized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Examples of suitable Pol III promoters include, but are not limited to, mammalian U6, U3, HI, and 7SL RNA promoters and rice U6 and U3 promoters.

IV. Methods for Modifying a Nucleotide Sequence in a Genome

Methods are provided herein for modifying a nucleotide sequence of a genome. Non- limiting examples of genomes include cellular, nuclear, organellar, plasmid, and viral genomes. The methods comprise introducing into a genome host (e.g., a cell or organelle) one or more DNA- targeting polynucleotides such as a DNA-targeting RNA ("guide RNA," "gRNA," "CRISPR RNA," or "crRNA") or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA- targeting polynucleotide comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide and also introducing to the genome host a Cmsl polypeptide, or a

polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the a Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) a polynucleotide -binding portion that interacts with the gRNA or other DNA-targeting

polynucleotide; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity. The genome host can then be cultured under conditions in which the Cmsl polypeptide is expressed and cleaves the nucleotide sequence that is targeted by the gRNA. It is noted that the system described herein does not require the addition of exogenous Mg 2+ or any other ions. Finally, a genome host comprising the modified nucleotide sequence can be selected.

The methods disclosed herein comprise introducing into a genome host at least one Cmsl polypeptide or a nucleic acid encoding at least one Cmsl polypeptide, as described herein. In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be introduced into the genome host as an isolated protein. In such embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can further comprise at least one cell-penetrating domain, which facilitates cellular uptake of the protein. In some embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be introduced into the genome host as a nucleoprotein in complex with a guide polynucleotide (for instance, as a ribonucleoprotein in complex with a guide RNA). In other embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be introduced into the genome host as an mRNA molecule that encodes the Cmsl polypeptide. In still other embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide can be introduced into the genome host as a DNA molecule comprising an open reading frame that encodes the Cmsl polypeptide. In general, DNA sequences encoding the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein described herein are operably linked to a promoter sequence that will function in the genome host. The DNA sequence can be linear, or the DNA sequence can be part of a vector. In still other embodiments, the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein can be introduced into the genome host as an RNA-protein complex comprising the guide RNA or a fusion protein and the guide RNA.

In certain embodiments, mRNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide may be targeted to an organelle (e.g., plastid or mitochondria). In certain embodiments, mRNA encoding one or more guide RNAs may be targeted to an organelle (e.g., plastid or mitochondria). In certain

embodiments, mRNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide and one or more guide RNAs may be targeted to an organelle (e.g., plastid or mitochondria). Methods for targeting mRNA to organelles are known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Patent Application 2011/0296551; U.S. Patent Application 2011/0321187; Gomez and Pallas (2010) PLoS One 5:el2269), and are incorporated herein by reference.

In certain embodiments, DNA encoding the Cmsl polypeptide can further comprise a sequence encoding a guide RNA. In general, each of the sequences encoding the Cmsl polypeptide and the guide RNA is operably linked to one or more appropriate promoter control sequences that allow expression of the Cmsl polypeptide and the guide RNA, respectively, in the genome host. The DNA sequence encoding the Cmsl polypeptide and the guide RNA can further comprise additional expression control, regulatory, and/or processing sequence(s). The DNA sequence encoding the Cmsl polypeptide and the guide RNA can be linear or can be part of a vector.

Methods described herein further can also comprise introducing into a genome host at least one guide RNA or DNA encoding at least one polynucleotide such as a guide RNA. A guide RNA interacts with the Cmsl polypeptide to direct the Cmsl polypeptide to a specific target site, at which site the guide RNA base pairs with a specific DNA sequence in the targeted site. Guide RNAs can comprise three regions: a first region that is complementary to the target site in the targeted DNA sequence, a second region that forms a stem loop structure, and a third region that remains essentially single- stranded. The first region of each guide RNA is different such that each guide RNA guides a Cmsl polypeptide to a specific target site. The second and third regions of each guide RNA can be the same in all guide RNAs.

One region of the guide RNA is complementary to a sequence (i.e., protospacer sequence) at the target site in the targeted DNA such that the first region of the guide RNA can base pair with the target site. In various embodiments, the first region of the guide RNA can comprise from about 8 nucleotides to more than about 30 nucleotides. For example, the region of base pairing between the first region of the guide RNA and the target site in the nucleotide sequence can be about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 22, about 23, about 24, about 25, about 27, about 30 or more than 30 nucleotides in length. In an exemplary embodiment, the first region of the guide RNA is about 23, 24, or 25 nucleotides in length. The guide RNA also can comprise a second region that forms a secondary structure. In some embodiments, the secondary structure comprises a stem or hairpin. The length of the stem can vary. For example, the stem can range from about 5, to about 6, to about 10, to about 15, to about 20, to about 25 base pairs in length. The stem can comprise one or more bulges of 1 to about 10 nucleotides. In some preferred embodiments, the hairpin structure comprises the sequence UCUACN 3 - 5 GUAGAU (SEQ ID NOs:312-314, encoded by SEQ ID NOs:315-317), with "UCUAC" and "GUAGA" base-pairing to form the stem. "N 3 _ 5 " indicates 3, 4, or 5 nucleotides. Thus, the overall length of the second region can range from about 14 to about 25 nucleotides in length. In certain embodiments, the loop is about 3, 4, or 5 nucleotides in length and the stem comprises about 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 base pairs.

The guide RNA can also comprise a third region that remains essentially single- stranded. Thus, the third region has no complementarity to any nucleotide sequence in the cell of interest and has no complementarity to the rest of the guide RNA. The length of the third region can vary. In general, the third region is more than about 4 nucleotides in length. For example, the length of the third region can range from about 5 to about 60 nucleotides in length. The combined length of the second and third regions (also called the universal or scaffold region) of the guide RNA can range from about 30 to about 120 nucleotides in length. In one aspect, the combined length of the second and third regions of the guide RNA range from about 40 to about 45 nucleotides in length.

In some embodiments, the guide RNA comprises a single molecule comprising all three regions. In other embodiments, the guide RNA can comprise two separate molecules. The first RNA molecule can comprise the first region of the guide RNA and one half of the "stem" of the second region of the guide RNA. The second RNA molecule can comprise the other half of the

"stem" of the second region of the guide RNA and the third region of the guide RNA. Thus, in this embodiment, the first and second RNA molecules each contain a sequence of nucleotides that are complementary to one another. For example, in one embodiment, the first and second RNA molecules each comprise a sequence (of about 6 to about 25 nucleotides) that base pairs to the other sequence to form a functional guide RNA. In specific embodiments, the guide RNA is a single molecule (i.e., crRNA) that interacts with the target site in the chromosome and the Cmsl polypeptide without the need for a second guide RNA (i.e., a tracrRNA).

In certain embodiments, the guide RNA can be introduced into the genome host as an RNA molecule. The RNA molecule can be transcribed in vitro. Alternatively, the RNA molecule can be chemically synthesized. In other embodiments, the guide RNA can be introduced into the genome host as a DNA molecule. In such cases, the DNA encoding the guide RNA can be operably linked to one or more promoter sequences for expression of the guide RNA in the genome host. For example, the RNA coding sequence can be operably linked to a promoter sequence that is recognized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III).

The DNA molecule encoding the guide RNA can be linear or circular. In some

embodiments, the DNA sequence encoding the guide RNA can be part of a vector. Suitable vectors include plasmid vectors, phagemids, cosmids, artificial/mini-chromosomes, transposons, and viral vectors. In an exemplary embodiment, the DNA encoding the guide RNA is present in a plasmid vector. Non-limiting examples of suitable plasmid vectors include pUC, pBR322, pET, pBluescript, pCAMBIA, and variants thereof. The vector can comprise additional expression control sequences (e.g., enhancer sequences, Kozak sequences, polyadenylation sequences, transcriptional termination sequences, etc.), selectable marker sequences (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes), origins of replication, and the like.

In embodiments in which both the Cms 1 polypeptide and the guide RNA are introduced into the genome host as DNA molecules, each can be part of a separate molecule (e.g., one vector containing Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein coding sequence and a second vector containing guide RNA coding sequence) or both can be part of the same molecule (e.g., one vector containing coding (and regulatory) sequence for both the Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein and the guide RNA).

A Cmsl polypeptide in conjunction with a guide RNA is directed to a target site in a genome host, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide introduces a double- stranded break in the targeted DNA. The target site has no sequence limitation except that the sequence is immediately preceded (upstream) by a consensus sequence. This consensus sequence is also known as a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Examples of PAM sequences include, but are not limited to, TTTN, NTTN, TTTV, and NTTV (wherein N is defined as any nucleotide and V is defined as A, G, or C). It is well-known in the art that a suitable PAM sequence must be located at the correct location relative to the targeted DNA sequence to allow the Cmsl nuclease to produce the desired double-stranded break. For all Cmsl nucleases characterized to date, the PAM sequence has been located

immediately 5' to the targeted DNA sequence. The PAM site requirements for a given Cmsl nuclease cannot at present be predicted computationally, and instead must be determined experimentally using methods available in the art (Zetsche et al. (2015) Cell 163:759-771; Marshall et al. (2018) Mol Cell 69: 146-157). It is well-known in the art that PAM sequence specificity for a given nuclease enzyme is affected by enzyme concentration (Karvelis et al. (2015) Genome Biol 16:253). Thus, modulating the concentrations of Cmsl protein delivered to the cell or in vitro system of interest represents a way to alter the PAM site or sites associated with that Cmsl enzyme. Modulating Cmsl protein concentration in the system of interest may be achieved, for instance, by altering the promoter used to express the Cmsl-encoding gene, by altering the concentration of ribonucleoprotein delivered to the cell or in vitro system, or by adding or removing introns that may play a role in modulating gene expression levels. As detailed herein, the first region of the guide RNA is complementary to the protospacer of the target sequence. Typically, the first region of the guide RNA is about 19 to 21 nucleotides in length. The target site can be in the coding region of a gene, in an intron of a gene, in a control region of a gene, in a non-coding region between genes, etc. The gene can be a protein coding gene or an RNA coding gene. The gene can be any gene of interest as described herein.

In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein further comprise introducing at least one donor polynucleotide into a genome host. A donor polynucleotide comprises at least one donor sequence. In some aspects, a donor sequence of the donor polynucleotide corresponds to an endogenous or native sequence found in the targeted DNA. For example, the donor sequence can be essentially identical to a portion of the DNA sequence at or near the targeted site, but which comprises at least one nucleotide change. Thus, the donor sequence can comprise a modified version of the wild type sequence at the targeted site such that, upon integration or exchange with the native sequence, the sequence at the targeted location comprises at least one nucleotide change. For example, the change can be an insertion of one or more nucleotides, a deletion of one or more nucleotides, a substitution of one or more nucleotides, or combinations thereof. As a consequence of the integration of the modified sequence, the genome host can produce a modified gene product from the targeted chromosomal sequence.

The donor sequence of the donor polynucleotide can alternatively correspond to an exogenous sequence. As used herein, an "exogenous" sequence refers to a sequence that is not native to the genome host, or a sequence whose native location in the genome host is in a different location. For example, the exogenous sequence can comprise a protein coding sequence, which can be operably linked to an exogenous promoter control sequence such that, upon integration into the genome, the genome host is able to express the protein coded by the integrated sequence. For example, the donor sequence can be any gene of interest, such as those encoding agronomically important traits as described elsewhere herein. Alternatively, the exogenous sequence can be integrated into the targeted DNA sequence such that its expression is regulated by an endogenous promoter control sequence. In other iterations, the exogenous sequence can be a transcriptional control sequence, another expression control sequence, or an RNA coding sequence. Integration of an exogenous sequence into a targeted DNA sequence is termed a "knock in." The donor sequence can vary in length from several nucleotides to hundreds of nucleotides to hundreds of thousands of nucleotides.

In some embodiments, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide is flanked by an upstream sequence and a downstream sequence, which have substantial sequence identity to sequences located upstream and downstream, respectively, of the targeted site. Because of these sequence similarities, the upstream and downstream sequences of the donor polynucleotide permit homologous recombination between the donor polynucleotide and the targeted sequence such that the donor sequence can be integrated into (or exchanged with) the targeted DNA sequence.

The upstream sequence, as used herein, refers to a nucleic acid sequence that shares substantial sequence identity with a DNA sequence upstream of the targeted site. Similarly, the downstream sequence refers to a nucleic acid sequence that shares substantial sequence identity with a DNA sequence downstream of the targeted site. As used herein, the phrase "substantial sequence identity" refers to sequences having at least about 75% sequence identity. Thus, the upstream and downstream sequences in the donor polynucleotide can have about 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% sequence identity with sequence upstream or downstream to the targeted site. In an exemplary embodiment, the upstream and downstream sequences in the donor polynucleotide can have about 95% or 100% sequence identity with nucleotide sequences upstream or downstream to the targeted site. In one embodiment, the upstream sequence shares substantial sequence identity with a nucleotide sequence located immediately upstream of the targeted site (i.e., adjacent to the targeted site). In other embodiments, the upstream sequence shares substantial sequence identity with a nucleotide sequence that is located within about one hundred (100) nucleotides upstream from the targeted site. Thus, for example, the upstream sequence can share substantial sequence identity with a nucleotide sequence that is located about 1 to about 20, about 21 to about 40, about 41 to about 60, about 61 to about 80, or about 81 to about 100 nucleotides upstream from the targeted site. In one embodiment, the downstream sequence shares substantial sequence identity with a nucleotide sequence located immediately downstream of the targeted site (i.e., adjacent to the targeted site). In other embodiments, the downstream sequence shares substantial sequence identity with a nucleotide sequence that is located within about one hundred (100) nucleotides downstream from the targeted site. Thus, for example, the downstream sequence can share substantial sequence identity with a nucleotide sequence that is located about 1 to about 20, about 21 to about 40, about 41 to about 60, about 61 to about 80, or about 81 to about 100 nucleotides downstream from the targeted site.

Each upstream or downstream sequence can range in length from about 20 nucleotides to about 5000 nucleotides. In some embodiments, upstream and downstream sequences can comprise about 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2500, 2600, 2800, 3000, 3200, 3400, 3600, 3800, 4000, 4200, 4400, 4600, 4800, or 5000 nucleotides. In exemplary embodiments, upstream and downstream sequences can range in length from about 50 to about 1500 nucleotides. Donor polynucleotides comprising the upstream and downstream sequences with sequence similarity to the targeted nucleotide sequence can be linear or circular. In embodiments in which the donor polynucleotide is circular, it can be part of a vector. For example, the vector can be a plasmid vector.

In certain embodiments, the donor polynucleotide can additionally comprise at least one targeted cleavage site that is recognized by the Cmsl polypeptide. The targeted cleavage site added to the donor polynucleotide can be placed upstream or downstream or both upstream and downstream of the donor sequence. For example, the donor sequence can be flanked by targeted cleavage sites such that, upon cleavage by the Cmsl polypeptide, the donor sequence is flanked by overhangs that are compatible with those in the nucleotide sequence generated upon cleavage by the Cmsl polypeptide. Accordingly, the donor sequence can be ligated with the cleaved nucleotide sequence during repair of the double stranded break by a non-homologous repair process.

Generally, donor polynucleotides comprising the targeted cleavage site(s) will be circular (e.g., can be part of a plasmid vector).

The donor polynucleotide can be a linear molecule comprising a short donor sequence with optional short overhangs that are compatible with the overhangs generated by the Cmsl polypeptide. In such embodiments, the donor sequence can be ligated directly with the cleaved chromosomal sequence during repair of the double- stranded break. In some instances, the donor sequence can be less than about 1,000, less than about 500, less than about 250, or less than about 100 nucleotides. In certain cases, the donor polynucleotide can be a linear molecule comprising a short donor sequence with blunt ends. In other iterations, the donor polynucleotide can be a linear molecule comprising a short donor sequence with 5' and/or 3' overhangs. The overhangs can comprise 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 nucleotides.

In some embodiments, the donor polynucleotide will be DNA. The DNA may be single- stranded or double-stranded and/or linear or circular. The donor polynucleotide may be a DNA plasmid, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), a viral vector, a linear piece of DNA, a PCR fragment, a naked nucleic acid, or a nucleic acid complexed with a delivery vehicle such as a liposome or poloxamer. In certain embodiments, the donor polynucleotide comprising the donor sequence can be part of a plasmid vector. In any of these situations, the donor polynucleotide comprising the donor sequence can further comprise at least one additional sequence.

In some embodiments, the method can comprise introducing one Cmsl polypeptide (or encoding nucleic acid) and one guide RNA (or encoding DNA) into a genome host, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide introduces one double-stranded break in the targeted DNA. In embodiments in which an optional donor polynucleotide is not present, the double-stranded break in the nucleotide sequence can be repaired by a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair process. Because NHEJ is error-prone, deletions of at least one nucleotide, insertions of at least one nucleotide, substitutions of at least one nucleotide, or combinations thereof can occur during the repair of the break.

Accordingly, the targeted nucleotide sequence can be modified or inactivated. For example, a single nucleotide change (SNP) can give rise to an altered protein product, or a shift in the reading frame of a coding sequence can inactivate or "knock out" the sequence such that no protein product is made. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is present, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide can be exchanged with or integrated into the nucleotide sequence at the targeted site during repair of the double-stranded break. For example, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by upstream and downstream sequences having substantial sequence identity with upstream and downstream sequences, respectively, of the targeted site in the nucleotide sequence, the donor sequence can be exchanged with or integrated into the nucleotide sequence at the targeted site during repair mediated by homology-directed repair process.

Alternatively, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by compatible overhangs (or the compatible overhangs are generated in situ by the Cmsl polypeptide) the donor sequence can be ligated directly with the cleaved nucleotide sequence by a non-homologous repair process during repair of the double- stranded break. Exchange or integration of the donor sequence into the nucleotide sequence modifies the targeted nucleotide sequence or introduces an exogenous sequence into the targeted nucleotide sequence.

The methods disclosed herein can also comprise introducing one or more Cmsl

polypeptides (or encoding nucleic acids) and two guide polynucleotides (or encoding DNAs) into a genome host, wherein the Cmsl polypeptides introduce two double-stranded breaks in the targeted nucleotide sequence. The two breaks can be within several base pairs, within tens of base pairs, or can be separated by many thousands of base pairs. In embodiments in which an optional donor polynucleotide is not present, the resultant double-stranded breaks can be repaired by a nonhomologous repair process such that the sequence between the two cleavage sites is lost and/or deletions of at least one nucleotide, insertions of at least one nucleotide, substitutions of at least one nucleotide, or combinations thereof can occur during the repair of the break(s). In embodiments in which an optional donor polynucleotide is present, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide can be exchanged with or integrated into the targeted nucleotide sequence during repair of the double-stranded breaks by either a homology-based repair process (e.g., in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by upstream and downstream sequences having substantial sequence identity with upstream and downstream sequences, respectively, of the targeted sites in the nucleotide sequence) or a non-homologous repair process (e.g., in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by compatible overhangs).

A. Methods for Modifying a Nucleotide Sequence in a Plant Genome

Plant cells possess nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes. The compositions and methods of the present invention may be used to modify the sequence of the nuclear, plastid, and/or mitochondrial genome, or may be used to modulate the expression of a gene or genes encoded by the nuclear, plastid, and/or mitochondrial genome. Accordingly, by "chromosome" or

"chromosomal" is intended the nuclear, plastid, or mitochondrial genomic DNA. "Genome" as it applies to plant cells encompasses not only chromosomal DNA found within the nucleus, but organelle DNA found within subcellular components (e.g., mitochondria or plastids) of the cell. Any nucleotide sequence of interest in a plant cell, organelle, or embryo can be modified using the methods described herein. In specific embodiments, the methods disclosed herein are used to modify a nucleotide sequence encoding an agronomically important trait, such as a plant hormone, plant defense protein, a nutrient transport protein, a biotic association protein, a desirable input trait, a desirable output trait, a stress resistance gene, a disease/pathogen resistance gene, a male sterility, a developmental gene, a regulatory gene, a gene involved in photosynthesis, a DNA repair gene, a transcriptional regulatory gene or any other polynucleotide and/or polypeptide of interest. Agronomically important traits such as oil, starch, and protein content can also be modified.

Modifications include increasing content of oleic acid, saturated and unsaturated oils, increasing levels of lysine and sulfur, providing essential amino acids, and also modification of starch.

Hordothionin protein modifications are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,703,049, 5,885,801, 5,885,802, and 5,990,389, herein incorporated by reference. Another example is lysine and/or sulfur rich seed protein encoded by the soybean 2S albumin described in U.S. Patent No. 5,850,016, and the chymotrypsin inhibitor from barley, described in Williamson et al. (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 165:99-106, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference.

The Cmsl polypeptide (or encoding nucleic acid), the guide RNA(s) (or encoding DNA), and the optional donor polynucleotide(s) can be introduced into a plant cell, organelle, or plant embryo by a variety of means, including transformation. Transformation protocols as well as protocols for introducing polypeptides or polynucleotide sequences into plants may vary depending on the type of plant or plant cell, i.e., monocot or dicot, targeted for transformation. Suitable methods of introducing polypeptides and polynucleotides into plant cells include microinjection (Crossway et al. (1986) Biotechniques 4:320-334), electroporation (Riggs et al. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5602-5606, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (U.S. Patent No. 5,563,055 and U.S. Patent No. 5,981,840), direct gene transfer (Paszkowski et al. (1984) EMBO J. 3:2717- 2722), and ballistic particle acceleration (see, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 4,945,050; U.S. Patent No. 5,879,918; U.S. Patent No. 5,886,244; and, 5,932,782; Tomes et al. (1995) in Plant Cell, Tissue, and Organ Culture: Fundamental Methods, ed. Gamborg and Phillips (Springer- Verlag, Berlin); McCabe et al. (1988) Biotechnology 6:923-926); and Lecl transformation (WO 00/28058). Also see Weissinger et al. (1988) Ann. Rev. Genet. 22:421-477; Sanford et al. (1987) Particulate Science and Technology 5:27-37 (onion); Christou et al. (1988) Plant Physiol. 87:671-674

(soybean); McCabe et al. (1988) Bio/Technology 6:923-926 (soybean); Finer and McMullen (1991) In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 27P: 175-182 (soybean); Singh et al. (1998) Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:319-324 (soybean); Datta et al. (1990) Biotechnology 8:736-740 (rice); Klein et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:4305-4309 (maize); Klein et al. (1988) Biotechnology 6:559-563 (maize); U.S. Patent Nos. 5,240,855; 5,322,783; and, 5,324,646; Klein et al. (1988) Plant Physiol. 91:440-444 (maize); Fromm et al. (1990) Biotechnology 8:833-839 (maize); Hooykaas-Van Slogteren et al. (1984) Nature (London) 311:763-764; U.S. Patent No. 5,736,369 (cereals); Bytebier et al. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:5345-5349 (Liliaceae); De Wet et al. (1985) in The Experimental

Manipulation of Ovule Tissues, ed. Chapman et al. (Longman, New York), pp. 197-209 (pollen); Kaeppler et al. (1990) Plant Cell Reports 9:415-418 and Kaeppler et al. (1992) Theor. Appl. Genet. 84:560-566 (whisker-mediated transformation); D'Halluin et al. (1992) Plant Cell 4: 1495-1505 (electroporation); Li et al. (1993) Plant Cell Reports 12:250-255 and Christou and Ford (1995) Annals of Botany 75:407-413 (rice); Osjoda et al. (1996) Nature Biotechnology 14:745-750 (maize via Agrobacterium tumefaciens); all of which are herein incorporated by reference. Site-specific genome editing of plant cells by biolistic introduction of a ribonucleoprotein comprising a nuclease and suitable guide RNA has been demonstrated (Svitashev et al (2016) Nat Commun 7: 13274); these methods are herein incorporated by reference. "Stable transformation" is intended to mean that the nucleotide construct introduced into a plant integrates into the genome of the plant and is capable of being inherited by the progeny thereof. The nucleotide construct may be integrated into the nuclear, plastid, or mitochondrial genome of the plant. Methods for plastid transformation are known in the art (see, e.g., Chloroplast Biotechnology: Methods and Protocols (2014) Pal Maliga, ed. and U.S. Patent Application 2011/0321187), and methods for plant mitochondrial

transformation have been described in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Patent Application 2011/0296551), herein incorporated by reference.

The cells that have been transformed may be grown into plants (i.e., cultured) in accordance with conventional ways. See, for example, McCormick et al. (1986) Plant Cell Reports 5:81-84. In this manner, the present invention provides transformed seed (also referred to as "transgenic seed") having a nucleic acid modification stably incorporated into their genome.

"Introduced" in the context of inserting a nucleic acid fragment (e.g., a recombinant DNA construct) into a cell, means "transfection" or "transformation" or "transduction" and includes reference to the incorporation of a nucleic acid fragment into a plant cell where the nucleic acid fragment may be incorporated into the genome of the cell (e.g., nuclear chromosome, plasmid, plastid chromosome or mitochondrial chromosome), converted into an autonomous replicon, or transiently expressed (e.g., transfected mRNA).

The present invention may be used for transformation of any plant species, including, but not limited to, monocots and dicots (i.e., monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, respectively). Examples of plant species of interest include, but are not limited to, corn (Zea mays), Brassica sp. (e.g., B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea), particularly those Brassica species useful as sources of seed oil, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), rye (Secale cereale), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum vulgare), camelina (Camelina sativa), millet (e.g., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), finger millet (Eleusine coracana)), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), chicory (Cichorium intybus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), cotton (Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium hirsutum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), cassava (Manihot esculenta), coffee (Coffea spp.), coconut (Cocos nucifera), pineapple (Ananas comosus), citrus trees (Citrus spp.), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), tea (Camellia sinensis), banana (Musa spp.), avocado (Persea americana), fig (Ficus casica), guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), olive (Olea europaea), papaya (Carica papaya), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia), almond (Prunus amygdalus), sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), poplar (Populus spp.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.), oats (Avena sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), vegetables, ornamentals, and conifers.

The Cms l polypeptides (or encoding nucleic acid), the guide RNA(s) (or DNAs encoding the guide RNA), and the optional donor polynucleotide(s) can be introduced into the plant cell, organelle, or plant embryo simultaneously or sequentially. The ratio of the Cms l polypeptides (or encoding nucleic acid) to the guide RNA(s) (or encoding DNA) generally will be about

stoichiometric such that the two components can form an RNA-protein complex with the target DNA. In one embodiment, DNA encoding a Cms l polypeptide and DNA encoding a guide RNA are delivered together within the plasmid vector. The compositions and methods disclosed herein can be used to alter expression of genes of interest in a plant, such as genes involved in photosynthesis. Therefore, the expression of a gene encoding a protein involved in photosynthesis may be modulated as compared to a control plant. A "subject plant or plant cell" is one in which genetic alteration, such as a mutation, has been effected as to a gene of interest, or is a plant or plant cell which is descended from a plant or cell so altered and which comprises the alteration. A "control" or "control plant" or "control plant cell" provides a reference point for measuring changes in phenotype of the subject plant or plant cell. Thus, the expression levels are higher or lower than those in the control plant depending on the methods of the invention.

A control plant or plant cell may comprise, for example: (a) a wild-type plant or cell, i.e., of the same genotype as the starting material for the genetic alteration which resulted in the subject plant or cell; (b) a plant or plant cell of the same genotype as the starting material but which has been transformed with a null construct (i.e. with a construct which has no known effect on the trait of interest, such as a construct comprising a marker gene); (c) a plant or plant cell which is a non- transformed segregant among progeny of a subject plant or plant cell; (d) a plant or plant cell genetically identical to the subject plant or plant cell but which is not exposed to conditions or stimuli that would induce expression of the gene of interest; or (e) the subject plant or plant cell itself, under conditions in which the gene of interest is not expressed.

While the invention is described in terms of transformed plants, it is recognized that transformed organisms of the invention also include plant cells, plant protoplasts, plant cell tissue cultures from which plants can be regenerated, plant calli, plant clumps, and plant cells that are intact in plants or parts of plants such as embryos, pollen, ovules, seeds, leaves, flowers, branches, fruit, kernels, ears, cobs, husks, stalks, roots, root tips, anthers, and the like. Grain is intended to mean the mature seed produced by commercial growers for purposes other than growing or reproducing the species. Progeny, variants, and mutants of the regenerated plants are also included within the scope of the invention, provided that these parts comprise the introduced

polynucleotides.

Derivatives of coding sequences can be made using the methods disclosed herein to increase the level of preselected amino acids in the encoded polypeptide. For example, the gene encoding the barley high lysine polypeptide (BHL) is derived from barley chymotrypsin inhibitor, U.S.

Application Serial No. 08/740,682, filed November 1, 1996, and WO 98/20133, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference. Other proteins include methionine-rich plant proteins such as from sunflower seed (Lilley et al. (1989) Proceedings of the World Congress on Vegetable Protein Utilization in Human Foods and Animal Feedstuff s, ed. Applewhite (American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, Illinois), pp. 497-502; herein incorporated by reference); corn (Pedersen et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261:6279; Kirihara et al. (1988) Gene 71:359; both of which are herein incorporated by reference); and rice (Musumura et al. (1989) Plant Mol. Biol. 12: 123, herein incorporated by reference). Other agronomically important genes encode latex, Floury 2, growth factors, seed storage factors, and transcription factors.

The methods disclosed herein can be used to modify herbicide resistance traits including genes coding for resistance to herbicides that act to inhibit the action of acetolactate synthase (ALS), in particular the sulfonylurea-type herbicides {e.g., the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene containing mutations leading to such resistance, in particular the S4 and/or Hra mutations), genes coding for resistance to herbicides that act to inhibit action of glutamine synthase, such as phosphinothricin or basta {e.g., the bar gene); glyphosate {e.g., the EPSPS gene and the GAT gene; see, for example, U.S. Publication No. 20040082770 and WO 03/092360); or other such genes known in the art. The bar gene encodes resistance to the herbicide basta, the nptll gene encodes resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and geneticin, and the ALS-gene mutants encode resistance to the herbicide chlorsulfuron. Additional herbicide resistance traits are described for example in U.S. Patent Application 2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference.

Sterility genes can also be modified and provide an alternative to physical detasseling. Examples of genes used in such ways include male tissue-preferred genes and genes with male sterility phenotypes such as QM, described in U.S. Patent No. 5,583,210. Other genes include kinases and those encoding compounds toxic to either male or female gametophytic development. Additional sterility traits are described for example in U.S. Patent Application 2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference.

The quality of grain can be altered by modifying genes encoding traits such as levels and types of oils, saturated and unsaturated, quality and quantity of essential amino acids, and levels of cellulose. In corn, modified hordothionin proteins are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,703,049, 5,885,801, 5,885,802, and 5,990,389.

Commercial traits can also be altered by modifying a gene or that could increase for example, starch for ethanol production, or provide expression of proteins. Another important commercial use of modified plants is the production of polymers and bioplastics such as described in U.S. Patent No. 5,602,321. Genes such as β-Ketothiolase, PHBase (polyhydroxyburyrate synthase), and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (see Schubert et al. (1988) J. Bacteriol. 170:5837-5847) facilitate expression of polyhyroxyalkanoates (PHAs).

Exogenous products include plant enzymes and products as well as those from other sources including prokaryotes and other eukaryotes. Such products include enzymes, cofactors, hormones, and the like. The level of proteins, particularly modified proteins having improved amino acid distribution to improve the nutrient value of the plant, can be increased. This is achieved by the expression of such proteins having enhanced amino acid content.

The methods disclosed herein can also be used for insertion of heterologous genes and/or modification of native plant gene expression to achieve desirable plant traits. Such traits include, for example, disease resistance, herbicide tolerance, drought tolerance, salt tolerance, insect resistance, resistance against parasitic weeds, improved plant nutritional value, improved forage digestibility, increased grain yield, cytoplasmic male sterility, altered fruit ripening, increased storage life of plants or plant parts, reduced allergen production, and increased or decreased lignin content. Genes capable of conferring these desirable traits are disclosed in U.S. Patent Application 2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference.

B. Methods for Modifying a Nucleotide Sequence in a Non-Plant Eukaryotic Genome

Methods are provided herein for modifying a nucleotide sequence of a non-plant eukaryotic cell, or non-plant eukaryotic organelle. In some embodiments, the non-plant eukaryotic cell is a mammalian cell. In particular embodiments, the non-plant eukaryotic cell is a non-human mammalian cell. The methods comprise introducing into a target cell or organelle a DNA-targeting RNA or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide and also introducing to the target cell or organelle a Cms 1 polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA-targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity. The target cell or organelle can then be cultured under conditions in which the chimeric nuclease polypeptide is expressed and cleaves the nucleotide sequence. It is noted that the system described herein does not require the addition of exogenous Mg 2+ or any other ions. Finally, a non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle comprising the modified nucleotide sequence can be selected.

In some embodiments, the method can comprise introducing one Cmsl polypeptide (or encoding nucleic acid) and one guide RNA (or encoding DNA) into a non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle wherein the Cmsl polypeptide introduces one double- stranded break in the target nucleotide sequence of the nuclear or organellar chromosomal DNA. In some embodiments, the method can comprise introducing one Cmsl polypeptide (or encoding nucleic acid) and at least one guide RNA (or encoding DNA) into a non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle wherein the Cms 1 polypeptide introduces more than one double-stranded break (i.e., two, three, or more than three double-stranded breaks) in the target nucleotide sequence of the nuclear or organellar chromosomal DNA. In embodiments in which an optional donor polynucleotide is not present, the double- stranded break in the nucleotide sequence can be repaired by a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair process. Because NHEJ is error-prone, deletions of at least one nucleotide, insertions of at least one nucleotide, substitutions of at least one nucleotide, or combinations thereof can occur during the repair of the break. Accordingly, the targeted nucleotide sequence can be modified or inactivated. For example, a single nucleotide change (SNP) can give rise to an altered protein product, or a shift in the reading frame of a coding sequence can inactivate or "knock out" the sequence such that no protein product is made. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is present, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide can be exchanged with or integrated into the nucleotide sequence at the targeted site during repair of the double-stranded break. For example, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by upstream and downstream sequences having substantial sequence identity with upstream and downstream sequences, respectively, of the targeted site in the nucleotide sequence of the non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle, the donor sequence can be exchanged with or integrated into the nucleotide sequence at the targeted site during repair mediated by homology-directed repair process.

Alternatively, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by compatible overhangs (or the compatible overhangs are generated in situ by the Cmsl polypeptide) the donor sequence can be ligated directly with the cleaved nucleotide sequence by a non-homologous repair process during repair of the double- stranded break. Exchange or integration of the donor sequence into the nucleotide sequence modifies the targeted nucleotide sequence or introduces an exogenous sequence into the targeted nucleotide sequence of the non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle.

In some embodiments, the double-stranded breaks caused by the action of the Cmsl nuclease or nucleases are repaired in such a way that DNA is deleted from the chromosome of the non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle. In some embodiments one base, a few bases (i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 bases), or a large section of DNA (i.e., more than 10, more than 50, more than 100, or more than 500 bases) is deleted from the chromosome of the non-plant eukaryotic cell or organelle.

In some embodiments, the expression of non-plant eukaryotic genes may be modulated as a result of the double-stranded breaks caused by the Cmsl nuclease or nucleases. In some

embodiments, the expression of non-plant eukaryotic genes may be modulated by variant Cmsl enzymes comprising a mutation that renders the Cmsl nuclease incapable of producing a double- stranded break. In some preferred embodiments, the variant Cmsl nuclease comprising a mutation that renders the Cmsl nuclease incapable of producing a double- stranded break may be fused to a transcriptional activation or transcriptional repression domain.

In some embodiments, a eukaryotic cell comprising mutations in its nuclear and/or organellar chromosomal DNA caused by the action of a Cmsl nuclease or nucleases is cultured to produce a eukaryotic organism. In some embodiments, a eukaryotic cell in which gene expression is modulated as a result of one or more Cmsl nucleases, or one or more variant Cmsl nucleases, is cultured to produce a eukaryotic organism. Methods for culturing non-plant eukaryotic cells to produce eukaryotic organisms are known in the art, for instance in U.S. Patent Applications

2016/0208243 and 2016/0138008, each herein incorporated by reference.

The present invention may be used for transformation of any eukaryotic species, including, but not limited to animals (including but not limited to mammals, insects, fish, birds, and reptiles), fungi, amoeba, and yeast.

Methods for the introduction of nuclease proteins, DNA or RNA molecules encoding nuclease proteins, guide RNAs or DNA molecules encoding guide RNAs, and optional donor sequence DNA molecules into non-plant eukaryotic cells or organelles are known in the art, for instance in U.S. Patent Application 2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference. Exemplary genetic modifications to non-plant eukaryotic cells or organelles that may be of particular value for industrial applications are also known in the art, for instance in U.S. Patent Application

2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference.

C. Methods for Modifying a Nucleotide Sequence in a Prokaryotic Genome

Methods are provided herein for modifying a nucleotide sequence of a prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial or archaeal) cell. The methods comprise introducing into a target cell a DNA-targeting RNA or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide and also introducing to the target cell a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA -binding portion that interacts with the DNA-targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity. The target cell can then be cultured under conditions in which the Cmsl polypeptide is expressed and cleaves the nucleotide sequence. It is noted that the system described herein does not require the addition of exogenous Mg 2+ or any other ions. Finally, prokaryotic cells comprising the modified nucleotide sequence can be selected. It is further noted that he prokaryotic cells comprising the modified nucleotide sequence or sequences are not the natural host cells of the polynucleotides encoding the Cms 1 polypeptide of interest, and that a non-naturally occurring guide RNA is used to effect the desired changes in the prokaryotic nucleotide sequence or sequences. It is further noted that the targeted DNA may be present as part of the prokaryotic chromosome(s) or may be present on one or more plasmids or other non-chromosomal DNA molecules in the prokaryotic cell.

In some embodiments, the method can comprise introducing one Cmsl polypeptide (or encoding nucleic acid) and one guide RNA (or encoding DNA) into a prokaryotic cell wherein the Cmsl polypeptide introduces one double-stranded break in the target nucleotide sequence of the prokaryotic cellular DNA. In some embodiments, the method can comprise introducing one Cmsl polypeptide (or encoding nucleic acid) and at least one guide RNA (or encoding DNA) into a prokaryotic cell wherein the Cmsl polypeptide introduces more than one double- stranded break (i.e., two, three, or more than three double-stranded breaks) in the target nucleotide sequence of the prokaryotic cellular DNA. In embodiments in which an optional donor polynucleotide is not present, the double- stranded break in the nucleotide sequence can be repaired by a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair process. Because NHEJ is error-prone, deletions of at least one nucleotide, insertions of at least one nucleotide, substitutions of at least one nucleotide, or combinations thereof can occur during the repair of the break. Accordingly, the targeted nucleotide sequence can be modified or inactivated. For example, a single nucleotide change (SNP) can give rise to an altered protein product, or a shift in the reading frame of a coding sequence can inactivate or "knock out" the sequence such that no protein product is made. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is present, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide can be exchanged with or integrated into the nucleotide sequence at the targeted site during repair of the double-stranded break. For example, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by upstream and downstream sequences having substantial sequence identity with upstream and downstream sequences, respectively, of the targeted site in the nucleotide sequence of the prokaryotic cell, the donor sequence can be exchanged with or integrated into the nucleotide sequence at the targeted site during repair mediated by homology-directed repair process.

Alternatively, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by compatible overhangs (or the compatible overhangs are generated in situ by the Cmsl polypeptide) the donor sequence can be ligated directly with the cleaved nucleotide sequence by a non-homologous repair process during repair of the double- stranded break. Exchange or integration of the donor sequence into the nucleotide sequence modifies the targeted nucleotide sequence or introduces an exogenous sequence into the targeted nucleotide sequence of the prokaryotic cellular DNA. In some embodiments, the double-stranded breaks caused by the action of the Cmsl nuclease or nucleases are repaired in such a way that DNA is deleted from the prokaryotic cellular DNA. In some embodiments one base, a few bases (i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 bases), or a large section of DNA (i.e., more than 10, more than 50, more than 100, or more than 500 bases) is deleted from the prokaryotic cellular DNA.

In some embodiments, the expression of prokaryotic genes may be modulated as a result of the double- stranded breaks caused by the Cmsl nuclease or nucleases. In some embodiments, the expression of prokaryotic genes may be modulated by variant Cmsl nucleases comprising a mutation that renders the Cmsl nuclease incapable of producing a double-stranded break. In some preferred embodiments, the variant Cmsl nuclease comprising a mutation that renders the Cmsl nuclease incapable of producing a double- stranded break may be fused to a transcriptional activation or transcriptional repression domain.

The present invention may be used for transformation of any prokaryotic species, including, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, Corynebacterium sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Mycobacterium sp., Streptomyces sp., Thermobifida sp., Chlamydia sp., Prochlorococcus sp., Synechococcus sp., Thermosynechococcus sp., Thermus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium sp., Geobacillus sp.,

Lactobacillus sp., Listeria sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Fusobacterium sp.,

Agrobacterium sp., Bradyrhizobium sp., Ehrlichia sp., Mesorhizobium sp., Nitrobacter sp., Rickettsia sp., Wolbachia sp., Zymomonas sp., Burkholderia sp., Neisseria sp., Ralstonia sp., Acinetobacter sp., Erwinia sp., Escherichia sp., Haemophilus sp., Legionella sp., Pasteurella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Psychrobacter sp., Salmonella sp., Shewanella sp., Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., Xanthomonas sp., Xylella sp., Yersinia sp., Campylobacter sp., Desulfovibrio sp., Helicobacter sp., Geobacter sp., Leptospira sp., Treponema sp., Mycoplasma sp., and Thermotoga sp.

Methods for the introduction of nuclease proteins, DNA or RNA molecules encoding nuclease proteins, guide RNAs or DNA molecules encoding guide RNAs, and optional donor sequence DNA molecules into prokaryotic cells or organelles are known in the art, for instance in U.S. Patent Application 2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference. Exemplary genetic modifications to prokaryotic cells that may be of particular value for industrial applications are also known in the art, for instance in U.S. Patent Application 2016/0208243, herein incorporated by reference.

D. Methods for Modifying a Nucleotide Sequence in a Viral Genome

Methods are provided herein for modifying a nucleotide sequence of a viral genome. The methods comprise introducing into a cell that comprises a virus of interest a DNA-targeting RNA or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide and also introducing to the target cell a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA -binding portion that interacts with the DNA-targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity. The target cell comprising the virus of interest can then be cultured under conditions in which the Cmsl polypeptide is expressed and cleaves the viral nucleotide sequence. Alternatively, the viral genome may be manipulated in vitro, wherein the guide polynucleotide, Cmsl

polypeptide, and optional donor polynucleotide are incubated with a viral DNA sequence of interest outside of a cellular host.

V. Methods for Modulating Gene Expression

The methods disclosed herein further encompass modification of a nucleotide sequence or regulating expression of a nucleotide sequence in a genome host. The methods can comprise introducing into the genome host at least one fusion protein or nucleic acid encoding at least one fusion protein, wherein the fusion protein comprises a Cmsl polypeptide or a fragment or variant thereof and an effector domain, and (b) at least one guide RNA or DNA encoding the guide RNA, wherein the guide RNA guides the Cmsl polypeptide of the fusion protein to a target site in the targeted DNA and the effector domain of the fusion protein modifies the chromosomal sequence or regulates expression of one or more genes in near the targeted DNA sequence.

Fusion proteins comprising a Cmsl polypeptide or a fragment or variant thereof and an effector domain are described herein. In general, the fusion proteins disclosed herein can further comprise at least one nuclear localization signal, plastid signal peptide, mitochondrial signal peptide, or signal peptide capable of trafficking proteins to multiple subcellular locations. Nucleic acids encoding fusion proteins are described herein. In some embodiments, the fusion protein can be introduced into the genome host as an isolated protein (which can further comprise a cell- penetrating domain). Furthermore, the isolated fusion protein can be part of a protein-RNA complex comprising the guide RNA. In other embodiments, the fusion protein can be introduced into the genome host as a RNA molecule (which can be capped and/or polyadenylated). In still other embodiments, the fusion protein can be introduced into the genome host as a DNA molecule. For example, the fusion protein and the guide RNA can be introduced into the genome host as discrete DNA molecules or as part of the same DNA molecule. Such DNA molecules can be plasmid vectors. In some embodiments, the method further comprises introducing into the genome host at least one donor polynucleotide as described elsewhere herein. Means for introducing molecules into genome hosts such as cells, as well as means for culturing cells (including cells comprising organelles) are described herein.

In certain embodiments in which the effector domain of the fusion protein is a cleavage domain, the method can comprise introducing into the genome host one fusion protein (or nucleic acid encoding one fusion protein) and two guide RNAs (or DNA encoding two guide RNAs). The two guide RNAs direct the fusion protein to two different target sites in the chromosomal sequence, wherein the fusion protein dimerizes (e.g., forms a homodimer) such that the two cleavage domains can introduce a double stranded break into the targeted DNA sequence. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is not present, the double-stranded break in the targeted DNA sequence can be repaired by a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair process. Because NHEJ is error-prone, deletions of at least one nucleotide, insertions of at least one nucleotide, substitutions of at least one nucleotide, or combinations thereof can occur during the repair of the break.

Accordingly, the targeted chromosomal sequence can be modified or inactivated. For example, a single nucleotide change (SNP) can give rise to an altered protein product, or a shift in the reading frame of a coding sequence can inactivate or "knock out" the sequence such that no protein product is made. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is present, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide can be exchanged with or integrated into the targeted DNA sequence at the targeted site during repair of the double- stranded break. For example, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by upstream and downstream sequences having substantial sequence identity with upstream and downstream sequences, respectively, of the targeted site in the targeted DNA sequence, the donor sequence can be exchanged with or integrated into the targeted DNA sequence at the targeted site during repair mediated by homology-directed repair process.

Alternatively, in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by compatible overhangs (or the compatible overhangs are generated in situ by the Cmsl polypeptide) the donor sequence can be ligated directly with the cleaved targeted DNA sequence by a non-homologous repair process during repair of the double-stranded break. Exchange or integration of the donor sequence into the targeted DNA sequence modifies the targeted DNA sequence or introduces an exogenous sequence into the targeted DNA sequence.

In other embodiments in which the effector domain of the fusion protein is a cleavage domain, the method can comprise introducing into the genome host two different fusion proteins (or nucleic acid encoding two different fusion proteins) and two guide RNAs (or DNA encoding two guide RNAs). The fusion proteins can differ as detailed elsewhere herein. Each guide RNA directs a fusion protein to a specific target site in the targeted DNA sequence, wherein the fusion proteins can dimerize (e.g., form a heterodimer) such that the two cleavage domains can introduce a double stranded break into the targeted DNA sequence. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is not present, the resultant double- stranded breaks can be repaired by a non- homologous repair process such that deletions of at least one nucleotide, insertions of at least one nucleotide, substitutions of at least one nucleotide, or combinations thereof can occur during the repair of the break. In embodiments in which the optional donor polynucleotide is present, the donor sequence in the donor polynucleotide can be exchanged with or integrated into the chromosomal sequence during repair of the double- stranded break by either a homology-based repair process (e.g., in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by upstream and downstream sequences having substantial sequence identity with upstream and downstream sequences, respectively, of the targeted sites in the chromosomal sequence) or a non-homologous repair process (e.g., in embodiments in which the donor sequence is flanked by compatible overhangs).

In certain embodiments in which the effector domain of the fusion protein is a

transcriptional activation domain or a transcriptional repressor domain, the method can comprise introducing into the genome host one fusion protein (or nucleic acid encoding one fusion protein) and one guide RNA (or DNA encoding one guide RNA). The guide RNA directs the fusion protein to a specific targeted DNA sequence, wherein the transcriptional activation domain or a

transcriptional repressor domain activates or represses expression, respectively, of a gene or genes located near the targeted DNA sequence. That is, transcription may be affected for genes in close proximity to the targeted DNA sequence or may be affected for genes located at further distance from the targeted DNA sequence. It is well-known in the art that gene transcription can be regulated by distantly located sequences that may be located thousands of bases away from the transcription start site or even on a separate chromosome (Harmston and Lenhard (2013) Nucleic Acids Res 41:7185-7199).

In alternate embodiments in which the effector domain of the fusion protein is an epigenetic modification domain, the method can comprise introducing into the genome host one fusion protein (or nucleic acid encoding one fusion protein) and one guide RNA (or DNA encoding one guide RNA). The guide RNA directs the fusion protein to a specific targeted DNA sequence, wherein the epigenetic modification domain modifies the structure of the targeted DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications include acetylation, methylation of histone proteins and/or nucleotide methylation. In some instances, structural modification of the chromosomal sequence leads to changes in expression of the chromosomal sequence. VI. Organisms Comprising a Genetic Modification

A. Eukaryotes

Provided herein are eukaryotes, eukaryotic cells, organelles, and plant embryos comprising at least one nucleotide sequence that has been modified using a Cmsl polypeptide-mediated or fusion protein-mediated process as described herein. Also provided are eukaryotes, eukaryotic cells, organelles, and plant embryos comprising at least one DNA or RNA molecule encoding Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein targeted to a chromosomal sequence of interest or a fusion protein, at least one guide RNA, and optionally one or more donor polynucleotide(s). The genetically modified eukaryotes disclosed herein can be heterozygous for the modified nucleotide sequence or homozygous for the modified nucleotide sequence. Eukaryotic cells comprising one or more genetic modifications in organellar DNA may be heteroplasmic or homoplasmic.

The modified chromosomal sequence of the eukaryotes, eukaryotic cells, organelles, and plant embryos may be modified such that it is inactivated, has up-regulated or down-regulated expression, or produces an altered protein product, or comprises an integrated sequence. The modified chromosomal sequence may be inactivated such that the sequence is not transcribed and/or a functional protein product is not produced. Thus, a genetically modified eukaryote comprising an inactivated chromosomal sequence may be termed a "knock out" or a "conditional knock out." The inactivated chromosomal sequence can include a deletion mutation (i.e., deletion of one or more nucleotides), an insertion mutation (i.e., insertion of one or more nucleotides), or a nonsense mutation (i.e., substitution of a single nucleotide for another nucleotide such that a stop codon is introduced). As a consequence of the mutation, the targeted chromosomal sequence is inactivated and a functional protein is not produced. The inactivated chromosomal sequence comprises no exogenously introduced sequence. Also included herein are genetically modified eukaryotes in which two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more chromosomal sequences are inactivated.

The modified chromosomal sequence can also be altered such that it codes for a variant protein product. For example, a genetically modified eukaryote comprising a modified chromosomal sequence can comprise a targeted point mutation(s) or other modification such that an altered protein product is produced. In one embodiment, the chromosomal sequence can be modified such that at least one nucleotide is changed and the expressed protein comprises one changed amino acid residue (missense mutation). In another embodiment, the chromosomal sequence can be modified to comprise more than one missense mutation such that more than one amino acid is changed. Additionally, the chromosomal sequence can be modified to have a three nucleotide deletion or insertion such that the expressed protein comprises a single amino acid deletion or insertion. The altered or variant protein can have altered properties or activities compared to the wild type protein, such as altered substrate specificity, altered enzyme activity, altered kinetic rates, etc.

In some embodiments, the genetically modified eukaryote can comprise at least one

chromosomally integrated nucleotide sequence. A genetically modified eukaryote comprising an integrated sequence may be termed a "knock in" or a "conditional knock in." The nucleotide sequence that is integrated sequence can, for example, encode an orthologous protein, an endogenous protein, or combinations of both. In one embodiment, a sequence encoding an orthologous protein or an endogenous protein can be integrated into a nuclear or organellar chromosomal sequence encoding a protein such that the chromosomal sequence is inactivated, but the exogenous sequence is expressed. In such a case, the sequence encoding the orthologous protein or endogenous protein may be operably linked to a promoter control sequence. Alternatively, a sequence encoding an orthologous protein or an endogenous protein may be integrated into a nuclear or organellar chromosomal sequence without affecting expression of a chromosomal sequence. For example, a sequence encoding a protein can be integrated into a "safe harbor" locus. The present disclosure also encompasses genetically modified eukaryotes in which two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more sequences, including sequences encoding protein(s), are integrated into the genome. Any gene of interest as disclosed herein can be introduced integrated into the chromosomal sequence of the eukaryotic nucleus or organelle. In particular embodiments, genes that increase plant growth or yield are integrated into the chromosome.

The chromosomally integrated sequence encoding a protein can encode the wild type form of a protein of interest or can encode a protein comprising at least one modification such that an altered version of the protein is produced. For example, a chromosomally integrated sequence encoding a protein related to a disease or disorder can comprise at least one modification such that the altered version of the protein produced causes or potentiates the associated disorder. Alternatively, the chromosomally integrated sequence encoding a protein related to a disease or disorder can comprise at least one modification such that the altered version of the protein protects the eukaryote or eukaryotic cell against the development of the associated disease or disorder.

In certain embodiments, the genetically modified eukaryote can comprise at least one modified chromosomal sequence encoding a protein such that the expression pattern of the protein is altered. For example, regulatory regions controlling the expression of the protein, such as a promoter or a transcription factor binding site, can be altered such that the protein is over-expressed, or the tissue- specific or temporal expression of the protein is altered, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, the expression pattern of the protein can be altered using a conditional knockout system. A non- limiting example of a conditional knockout system includes a Cre-lox recombination system. A Cre-lox recombination system comprises a Cre recombinase enzyme, a site-specific DNA recombinase that can catalyze the recombination of a nucleic acid sequence between specific sites (lox sites) in a nucleic acid molecule. Methods of using this system to produce temporal and tissue specific expression are known in the art.

B. Prokaryotes

Provided herein are prokaryotes and prokaryotic cells comprising at least one nucleotide sequence that has been modified using a Cmsl polypeptide-mediated or fusion protein-mediated process as described herein. Also provided are prokaryotes and prokaryotic cells comprising at least one DNA or RNA molecule encoding Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein targeted to a DNA sequence of interest or a fusion protein, at least one guide RNA, and optionally one or more donor polynucleotide(s).

The modified DNA sequence of the prokaryotes and prokaryotic cells may be modified such that it is inactivated, has up-regulated or down-regulated expression, or produces an altered protein product, or comprises an integrated sequence. The modified DNA sequence may be inactivated such that the sequence is not transcribed and/or a functional protein product is not produced. Thus, a genetically modified prokaryote comprising an inactivated chromosomal sequence may be termed a "knock out" or a "conditional knock out." The inactivated DNA sequence can include a deletion mutation (i.e., deletion of one or more nucleotides), an insertion mutation (i.e., insertion of one or more nucleotides), or a nonsense mutation (i.e., substitution of a single nucleotide for another nucleotide such that a stop codon is introduced). As a consequence of the mutation, the targeted DNA sequence is inactivated and a functional protein is not produced. The inactivated DNA sequence comprises no exogenously introduced sequence. Also included herein are genetically modified prokaryotes in which two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more DNA sequences are inactivated.

The modified DNA sequence can also be altered such that it codes for a variant protein product. For example, a genetically modified prokaryote comprising a modified DNA sequence can comprise a targeted point mutation(s) or other modification such that an altered protein product is produced. In one embodiment, the DNA sequence can be modified such that at least one nucleotide is changed and the expressed protein comprises one changed amino acid residue (missense mutation). In another embodiment, the DNA sequence can be modified to comprise more than one missense mutation such that more than one amino acid is changed. Additionally, the DNA sequence can be modified to have a three nucleotide deletion or insertion such that the expressed protein comprises a single amino acid deletion or insertion. The altered or variant protein can have altered properties or activities compared to the wild type protein, such as altered substrate specificity, altered enzyme activity, altered kinetic rates, etc.

In some embodiments, the genetically modified prokaryote can comprise at least one integrated nucleotide sequence. A genetically modified prokaryote comprising an integrated sequence may be termed a "knock in" or a "conditional knock in." The nucleotide sequence that is integrated sequence can, for example, encode an orthologous protein, an endogenous protein, or combinations of both. In one embodiment, a sequence encoding an orthologous protein or an endogenous protein can be integrated into a prokaryotic DNA sequence encoding a protein such that the prokaryotic sequence is inactivated, but the exogenous sequence is expressed. In such a case, the sequence encoding the orthologous protein or endogenous protein may be operably linked to a promoter control sequence. Alternatively, a sequence encoding an orthologous protein or an endogenous protein may be integrated into a prokaryotic DNA sequence without affecting expression of a native prokaryotic sequence. For example, a sequence encoding a protein can be integrated into a "safe harbor" locus. The present disclosure also encompasses genetically modified prokaryotes in which two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more sequences, including sequences encoding protein(s), are integrated into the prokaryotic genome or plasmids hosted by the prokaryote. Any gene of interest as disclosed herein can be introduced integrated into the DNA sequence of the prokaryotic chromosome, plasmid, or other extrachromosomal DNA.

The integrated sequence encoding a protein can encode the wild type form of a protein of interest or can encode a protein comprising at least one modification such that an altered version of the protein is produced. For example, an integrated sequence encoding a protein related to a disease or disorder can comprise at least one modification such that the altered version of the protein produced causes or potentiates the associated disorder. Alternatively, the integrated sequence encoding a protein related to a disease or disorder can comprise at least one modification such that the altered version of the protein reduces the infectivity of the prokaryote.

In certain embodiments, the genetically modified prokaryote can comprise at least one modified DNA sequence encoding a protein such that the expression pattern of the protein is altered. For example, regulatory regions controlling the expression of the protein, such as a promoter or a transcription factor binding site, can be altered such that the protein is over-expressed, or the temporal expression of the protein is altered, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, the expression pattern of the protein can be altered using a conditional knockout system. A non-limiting example of a conditional knockout system includes a Cre-lox recombination system. A Cre-lox

recombination system comprises a Cre recombinase enzyme, a site-specific DNA recombinase that can catalyze the recombination of a nucleic acid sequence between specific sites (lox sites) in a nucleic acid molecule. Methods of using this system to produce temporal expression are known in the art.

C. Viruses

Provided herein are viruses and viral genomes comprising at least one nucleotide sequence that has been modified using a Cmsl polypeptide-mediated or fusion protein-mediated process as described herein. Also provided are viruses and viral genomes comprising at least one DNA or RNA molecule encoding Cmsl polypeptide or fusion protein targeted to a DNA sequence of interest or a fusion protein, at least one guide RNA, and optionally one or more donor

polynucleotide(s).

The modified DNA sequence of the viruses and viral genomes may be modified such that it is inactivated, has up-regulated or down-regulated expression, or produces an altered protein product, or comprises an integrated sequence. The modified DNA sequence may be inactivated such that the sequence is not transcribed and/or a functional protein product is not produced. Thus, a genetically modified virus comprising an inactivated chromosomal sequence may be termed a "knock out" or a "conditional knock out." The inactivated DNA sequence can include a deletion mutation (i.e., deletion of one or more nucleotides), an insertion mutation (i.e., insertion of one or more nucleotides), or a nonsense mutation (i.e., substitution of a single nucleotide for another nucleotide such that a stop codon is introduced). As a consequence of the mutation, the targeted DNA sequence is inactivated and a functional protein is not produced. The inactivated DNA sequence comprises no exogenously introduced sequence. Also included herein are genetically modified viruses in which two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more viral sequences are inactivated.

The modified DNA sequence can also be altered such that it codes for a variant protein product. For example, a genetically modified virus comprising a modified DNA sequence can comprise a targeted point mutation(s) or other modification such that an altered protein product is produced. In one embodiment, the DNA sequence can be modified such that at least one nucleotide is changed and the expressed protein comprises one changed amino acid residue (missense mutation). In another embodiment, the DNA sequence can be modified to comprise more than one missense mutation such that more than one amino acid is changed. Additionally, the DNA sequence can be modified to have a three nucleotide deletion or insertion such that the expressed protein comprises a single amino acid deletion or insertion. The altered or variant protein can have altered properties or activities compared to the wild type protein, such as altered substrate specificity, altered enzyme activity, altered kinetic rates, etc. In some embodiments, the genetically modified virus can comprise at least one integrated nucleotide sequence. A genetically modified virus comprising an integrated sequence may be termed a "knock in" or a "conditional knock in." The nucleotide sequence that is integrated sequence can, for example, encode an orthologous protein, an endogenous protein, or combinations of both. In one embodiment, a sequence encoding an orthologous protein or an endogenous protein can be integrated into a viral DNA sequence encoding a protein such that the viral sequence is inactivated, but the exogenous sequence is expressed. In such a case, the sequence encoding the orthologous protein or endogenous protein may be operably linked to a promoter control sequence. Alternatively, a sequence encoding an orthologous protein or an endogenous protein may be integrated into a viral DNA sequence without affecting expression of a native viral sequence. For example, a sequence encoding a protein can be integrated into a "safe harbor" locus. The present disclosure also encompasses genetically modified viruses in which two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more sequences, including sequences encoding protein(s), are integrated into the viral genome. Any gene of interest as disclosed herein can be introduced integrated into the DNA sequence of the viral genome.

The integrated sequence encoding a protein can encode the wild type form of a protein of interest or can encode a protein comprising at least one modification such that an altered version of the protein is produced. For example, an integrated sequence encoding a protein related to a disease or disorder can comprise at least one modification such that the altered version of the protein produced causes or potentiates the associated disorder. Alternatively, the integrated sequence encoding a protein related to a disease or disorder can comprise at least one modification such that the altered version of the protein reduces the infectivity of the virus.

In certain embodiments, the genetically modified virus can comprise at least one modified DNA sequence encoding a protein such that the expression pattern of the protein is altered. For example, regulatory regions controlling the expression of the protein, such as a promoter or a transcription factor binding site, can be altered such that the protein is over-expressed, or the temporal expression of the protein is altered, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, the expression pattern of the protein can be altered using a conditional knockout system. A non-limiting example of a conditional knockout system includes a Cre-lox recombination system. A Cre-lox recombination system comprises a Cre recombinase enzyme, a site-specific DNA recombinase that can catalyze the recombination of a nucleic acid sequence between specific sites (lox sites) in a nucleic acid molecule. Methods of using this system to produce temporal expression are known in the art. All publications and patent applications mentioned in the specification are indicative of the level of skill of those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains. All publications and patent applications are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be obvious that certain changes and modifications may be practiced within the scope of the appended claims.

Embodiments of the invention include:

1. A method of modifying a nucleotide sequence at a target site in the genome of a eukaryotic cell comprising:

introducing into said eukaryotic cell

(i) a DNA-targeting RNA, or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide; and

(ii) a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA- targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity.

2. A method of modifying a nucleotide sequence at a target site in the genome of a prokaryotic cell comprising:

introducing into said prokaryotic cell

(i) a DNA-targeting RNA, or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide; and

(ii) a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA- targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity, wherein said prokaryotic cell is not the native host of a gene encoding said Cmsl polypeptide. 3. A method of modifying a nucleotide sequence at a target site in the genome of a plant cell comprising:

introducing into said plant cell

(i) a DNA-targeting RNA, or a DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA, wherein the DNA-targeting RNA comprises: (a) a first segment comprising a nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the target DNA; and (b) a second segment that interacts with a Cmsl polypeptide; and

(ii) a Cmsl polypeptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide comprises: (a) an RNA-binding portion that interacts with the DNA- targeting RNA; and (b) an activity portion that exhibits site-directed enzymatic activity.

4. The method of embodiment 3, further comprising:

culturing the plant under conditions in which the Cmsl polypeptide is expressed and cleaves the nucleotide sequence at the target site to produce a modified nucleotide sequence; and

selecting a plant comprising said modified nucleotide sequence.

5. The method of any one of embodiments 1-4, wherein cleaving of the nucleotide sequence at the target site comprises a double strand break at or near the sequence to which the DNA-targeting RNA sequence is targeted.

6. The method of embodiment 5, wherein said double strand break is a staggered double strand break.

7. The method of embodiment 6, wherein said staggered double strand break creates a 5' overhang of 3-6 nucleotides.

8. The method of any one of embodiments 1-7, wherein said DNA-targeting RNA is a guide RNA (gRNA). 9. The method of any one of embodiments 1-8, wherein said modified nucleotide sequence comprises insertion of heterologous DNA into the genome of the cell, deletion of a nucleotide sequence from the genome of the cell, or mutation of at least one nucleotide in the genome of the cell. 10. The method of any one of embodiments 1-9, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide is selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs:20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254.

11. The method of any one of embodiments 1-10, wherein said polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174- 176, 212-215, and 255-287.

12. The method of any one of embodiments 1-11, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide has at least 80% identity with one or more polypeptide sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254.

13. The method of any one of embodiments 1-12, wherein said polynucleotide encoding a Cms 1 polypeptide has at least 70% identity with one or more nucleic acid sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176, 212-215, and 255-287.

14. The method of any one of embodiments 1-13, wherein the Cmsl polypeptide forms a homodimer or heterodimer.

15. The method of embodiment 3, wherein said plant cell is from a monocotyledonous species.

16. The method of embodiment 3, wherein said plant cell is from a dicotyledonous species.

17. The method of any one of embodiments 1-16, wherein the expression of the Cmsl polypeptide is under the control of an inducible or constitutive promoter.

18. The method of any one of embodiments 1-17, wherein the expression of the Cmsl polypeptide is under the control of a cell type-specific or developmentally-preferred promoter.

19. The method of any one of embodiments 1-18, wherein the PAM sequence comprises 5'- TTN, wherein N can be any nucleotide.

20. The method of embodiment 3, wherein said nucleotide sequence at a target site in the genome of a plant cell encodes an SBPase, FBPase, FBP aldolase, AGPase large subunit, AGPase small subunit, sucrose phosphate synthase, starch synthase, PEP carboxylase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase, transketolase, rubisco small subunit, or rubisco activase protein, or encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of one or more genes encoding an SBPase, FBPase, FBP aldolase, AGPase large subunit, AGPase small subunit, sucrose phosphate synthase, starch synthase, PEP carboxylase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase, transketolase, rubisco small subunit, or rubisco activase protein.

21. The method of any one of embodiments 1-20, the method further comprising contacting the target site with a donor polynucleotide, wherein the donor polynucleotide, a portion of the donor polynucleotide, a copy of the donor polynucleotide, or a portion of a copy of the donor

polynucleotide integrates into the target DNA.

22. The method of any one of embodiments 1-21, wherein the target DNA is modified such that nucleotides within the target DNA are deleted. 23. The method of any one of embodiments 1-22, wherein said polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is codon optimized for expression in a plant cell.

24. The method of any one of embodiments 1-23, wherein the expression of said nucleotide sequence is increased or decreased.

25. The method of any one of embodiments 1-24, wherein the polynucleotide encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is constitutive, cell specific, inducible, or activated by alternative splicing of a suicide exon. 26. The method of any one of embodiments 1-25, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more mutations that reduce or eliminate the nuclease activity of said Cmsl polypeptide.

27. The method of embodiment 26, wherein said mutated Cmsl polypeptide comprises a mutation in a position corresponding to positions 701 or 922 of SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10) or to positions 848 or 1213 of SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) when aligned for maximum identity.

28. The method of embodiment 27, wherein said mutations in positions corresponding to positions 701 or 922 of SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10) are D701A and E922A, respectively, or wherein said mutations in positions corresponding to positions 848 and 1213 of SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) are D848A and D1213A, respectively.

29. The method of any one of embodiments 26-28, wherein the mutated Cmsl polypeptide is fused to a transcriptional activation domain.

30. The method of embodiment 29, wherein the mutated Cmsl polypeptide is directly fused to a transcriptional activation domain or fused to a transcriptional activation domain with a linker. 31. The method of any one of embodiments 26-28, wherein the mutated Cmsl polypeptide is fused to a transcriptional repressor domain.

32. The method of embodiment 31, wherein the mutated Cmsl polypeptide is fused to a transcriptional repressor domain with a linker.

33. The method of any one of embodiments 1-32 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a nuclear localization signal.

34. The method of embodiment 33 wherein said nuclear localization signal comprises SEQ ID NO: l, or is encoded by SEQ ID NO:2.

35. The method of any one of embodiments 1-32 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a chloroplast signal peptide. 36. The method of any one of embodiments 1-32 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a mitochondrial signal peptide.

37. The method of any one of embodiments 1-32 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a signal peptide that targets said Cmsl polypeptide to multiple subcellular locations.

38. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein said polynucleotide sequence has been codon optimized for expression in a plant cell. 39. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein said polynucleotide sequence has been codon optimized for expression in a eukaryotic cell. 40. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide, wherein said polynucleotide sequence has been codon optimized for expression in a prokaryotic cell, wherein said prokaryotic cell is not the natural host of said Cmsl polypeptide.

41. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-40, wherein said polynucleotide sequence is selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176,

212-215, and 255-287, or a fragment or variant thereof, or wherein said polynucleotide sequence encodes a Cmsl polypeptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254, and wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is heterologous to the polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide.

42. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-40, wherein said variant polynucleotide sequence has at least 70% sequence identity to a polynucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 16-19, 24-27, 70-146, 174-176, 212-215, and 255-287, or wherein said polynucleotide sequence encodes a Cmsl polypeptide that has at least 80% sequence identity to a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30- 69, 208-211, and 222-254, and wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is heterologous to the polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide.

43. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-40, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254, or a fragment or variant thereof. 44. The nucleic acid molecule of embodiment 43, wherein said variant polypeptide sequence has at least 70% sequence identity to a polypeptide sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 20-23, 30-69, 208-211, and 222-254. 45. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-44, wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cms 1 polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is active in a plant cell. 46. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-44, wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cms 1 polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is active in a eukaryotic cell.

47. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-44, wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide is operably linked to a promoter that is active in a prokaryotic cell.

48. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-44, wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cms 1 polypeptide is operably linked to a constitutive promoter, inducible promoter, cell type-specific promoter, or developmentally-preferred promoter.

49. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-44, wherein said nucleic acid molecule encodes a fusion protein comprising said Cmsl polypeptide and an effector domain. 50. The nucleic acid molecule of embodiment 49, wherein said effector domain is selected from the group consisting of: transcriptional activator, transcriptional repressor, nuclear localization signal, and cell penetrating signal.

51. The nucleic acid molecule of embodiment 50, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide is mutated to reduce or eliminate nuclease activity.

52. The nucleic acid molecule of embodiment 51, wherein said mutated Cmsl polypeptide comprises a mutation in a position corresponding to positions 701 or 922 of SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10) or to positions 848 and 1213 of SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) when aligned for maximum identity.

53. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 49-52, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide is fused to said effector domain with a linker. 54. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-53, wherein said Cmsl polypeptide forms a dimer.

55. A fusion protein encoded by the nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 49-54.

56. A Cmsl polypeptide encoded by the nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38- 44.

57. A Cmsl polypeptide mutated to reduce or eliminate nuclease activity.

58. The Cmsl polypeptide of embodiment 57, wherein said mutated Cmsl polypeptide comprises a mutation in a position corresponding to positions 701 or 922 of SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10) or to positions 848 and 1213 of SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) when aligned for maximum identity.

59. A plant cell, eukaryotic cell, or prokaryotic cell comprising the nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54.

60. A plant cell, eukaryotic cell, or prokaryotic cell comprising the fusion protein or polypeptide of any one of embodiments 55-58.

61. A plant cell produced by the method of any one of embodiments 1 and 3-37.

62. A plant comprising the nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54.

63. A plant comprising the fusion protein or polypeptide of any one of embodiments 55-58.

64. A plant produced by the method of any one of embodiments 1 and 3-37. 65. The seed of the plant of any one of embodiments 62-64.

66. The method of any one of embodiments 1 and 3-37 wherein said modified nucleotide sequence comprises insertion of a polynucleotide that encodes a protein conferring antibiotic or herbicide tolerance to transformed cells. 67. The method of embodiment 66 wherein said polynucleotide that encodes a protein conferring antibiotic or herbicide tolerance comprises SEQ ID NO:7, or encodes a protein that comprises SEQ ID NO:8.

68. The method of any one of embodiments 3-37 wherein said target site in the genome of a plant cell comprises SEQ ID NO: 12, or shares at least 80% identity with a portion or fragment of SEQ ID NO: 12. 69. The method of any one of embodiments 1-37 wherein said DNA polynucleotide encoding a DNA-targeting RNA comprises SEQ ID NO: 15.

70. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a polynucleotide sequence encoding a nuclear localization signal.

71. The nucleic acid molecule of embodiment 70 wherein said nuclear localization signal comprises SEQ ID NO: l or is encoded by SEQ ID NO:2. 72. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a polynucleotide sequence encoding a chloroplast signal peptide.

73. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a polynucleotide sequence encoding a mitochondrial signal peptide.

74. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said polynucleotide sequence encoding a Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a polynucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide that targets said Cmsl polypeptide to multiple subcellular locations.

75. The fusion protein of embodiment 55 wherein said fusion protein further comprises a nuclear localization signal, chloroplast signal peptide, mitochondrial signal peptide, or signal peptide that targets said Cmsl polypeptide to multiple subcellular locations. 76. The Cmsl polypeptide of any one of embodiments 56-58 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide further comprises a nuclear localization signal, chloroplast signal peptide, mitochondrial signal peptide, or signal peptide that targets said Cmsl polypeptide to multiple subcellular locations.

77. The method of any one of embodiments 1-37 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more sequence motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 177-186.

78. The method of any one of embodiments 1-37 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more sequence motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:288-289 and 187-201.

79. The method of any one of embodiments 1-37 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more sequence motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:290-296. 80. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more sequence motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 177-186.

81. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more sequence motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:288-289 and 187-201.

82. The nucleic acid molecule of any one of embodiments 38-54 wherein said Cmsl polypeptide comprises one or more sequence motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:290-296.

The following examples are offered by way of illustration and not by way of limitation.

EXPERIMENTAL

Example 1 - Cloning plant transformation constructs

Cmsl -containing constructs are summarized in Table 1. Briefly, the Cmsl genes were plant codon optimized, de novo synthesized by GenScript (Piscataway, NJ) and amplified by PCR to add an N-terminal SV40 nuclear localization tag (SEQ ID NO: 2) in frame with the Cmsl coding sequence of interest as well as restriction enzyme sites for cloning. Using the appropriate restriction enzyme sites, each individual Cms l gene was cloned downstream of the 2x35s promoter (SEQ ID NO:3). It is noted that SEQ ID NO: 16, encoding the ADurb. l60Cms l protein (SEQ ID NO:20), was derived from an organism that appears to use TGA codons to encode glycine rather than a stop codon as in the universal genetic code used by most organisms. Hence, the native gene encoding the ADurb. l60Cmsl protein (SEQ ID NO:24) includes what appear to be multiple premature stop codons; analysis of this gene with TGA encoding glycine, however, uncovers a full-length open reading frame. Similarly, SEQ ID NOs:82, 91, 92, 100, 105, 213, 255, 259, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 275, 276, 277, 279, 280, 284, 285, and 286 also appear to use a non-universal genetic code, with TGA codons encoding glycine. Plasmids encoding guide RNAs targeted to a region of the rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake)

CAOl gene (SEQ ID NO: 12) were synthesized with the guide RNA flanked by the rice U6 (OsU6) promoter (SEQ ID NO:5) at its 5' end and the OsU6 terminator (SEQ ID NO:6) at its 3' end. The guide RNA had the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 15. Guide RNA plasmids are summarized in Table 2.

Plasmid 131632, containing repair donor cassette (SEQ ID NO: 13), was designed with approximately 1,000-base pair homology upstream and downstream of the targeted site within the OsCAOl gene. The repair donor cassette included the maize ubiquitin promoter (SEQ ID NO:9) operably linked to a hygromycin resistance gene (SEQ ID NO:7, encoding SEQ ID NO:8), which was flanked at its 3' end by the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S polyA sequence (SEQ ID NO:4). Plasmid 131592 was designed similarly to plasmid 131632, but without any homology arms up- or down-stream of the hygromycin cassette. As such, plasmid 131592 contains nucleotides 1,001- 4,302 from SEQ ID NO: 13, including the maize ubiquitin promoter (SEQ ID NO:9) operably linked to a hygromycin resistance gene (SEQ ID NO:7, encoding SEQ ID NO:8), flanked at its 3' end by the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S polyA sequence (SEQ ID NO:4).

Table 1 : Cmsl vectors

NO: 30)

Unk2Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 111, encoding SEQ ID

132438 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:31)

Unk3Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 112, encoding SEQ ID

132439 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:32)

Unk4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 113, encoding SEQ ID

132455 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:33)

Unk5Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 114, encoding SEQ ID

132463 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:34)

Unk6Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 115, encoding SEQ ID

132470 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:35)

Unk7Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 116, encoding SEQ ID

132456 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:36)

Unk8Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 117, encoding SEQ ID

132464 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:37)

Unk9Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 118, encoding SEQ ID

132465 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:38)

UnklOCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 119, encoding SEQ ID

132457 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:39)

Unkl lCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 120, encoding SEQ ID

132466 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:40)

Unk4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:221, encoding SEQ ID

132502 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:33)

Unkl4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 122, encoding SEQ ID

132504 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:42)

Unkl5Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 123, encoding SEQ ID

132505 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:43)

Unkl6Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 124, encoding SEQ ID

132506 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:44)

Unkl7Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 125, encoding SEQ ID

132507 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:45)

Unkl8Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 126, encoding SEQ ID

132508 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:46)

Unkl9Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 127, encoding SEQ ID

132509 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:47)

Unk20Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 128, encoding SEQ ID

132510 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:48)

Unk21Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 129, encoding SEQ ID

132511 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:49)

Unk22Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 130, encoding SEQ ID

132512 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:50)

Unk23Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 131, encoding SEQ ID

132513 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:51)

132514 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) Unk24Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 132, encoding SEQ ID 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4) NO:52)

Unk25Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 133, encoding SEQ ID

132515 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:53)

Unk26Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 134, encoding SEQ ID

132516 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:54)

Unk27Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 135, encoding SEQ ID

132517 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:55)

Unk28Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 136, encoding SEQ ID

132518 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:56)

Unk29Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 137, encoding SEQ ID

132519 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:57)

Unk30Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 138, encoding SEQ ID

132520 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:58)

Unk31Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 139, encoding SEQ ID

132521 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:59)

Unk32Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 140, encoding SEQ ID

132522 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:60)

Unk33Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 141, encoding SEQ ID

132523 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:61)

Unk34Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 142, encoding SEQ ID

132524 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:62)

Unk35Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 143, encoding SEQ ID

132525 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:63)

Unk36Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 144, encoding SEQ ID

132526 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:64)

Unk37Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 145, encoding SEQ ID

132527 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:65)

Unk38Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 146, encoding SEQ ID

132528 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:66)

Unk39Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 174, encoding SEQ ID

132529 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:67)

Unk40Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 175, encoding SEQ ID

132530 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:68)

Unk41Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 176, encoding SEQ ID

132531 2X 35S (SEQ ID NO: 3) 35S poly A (SEQ ID NO: 4)

NO:69)

1 - Each Cmsl gene was fused in-frame with the SV40 nuclear localization signal (SEQ ID NO: 2, encoding the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1) at its 5' end. Table 2: Guide RNA vectors

Example 2 - Rice Transformation

For introduction of the Cmsl cassette, gRNA-containing plasmid, and repair donor cassette into rice cells, particle bombardment was used. For bombardment, 2 mg of 0.6 μιη gold particles were weighed out and transferred to sterile 1.5-mL tubes. 500 mL of 100% ethanol was added, and the tubes were sonicated for 10-15 seconds. Following centrifugation, the ethanol was removed. One milliliter of sterile, double-distilled water was then added to the tube containing the gold beads. The bead pellet was briefly vortexed and then was re-formed by centrifugation, after which the water was removed from the tube. In a sterile laminar flow hood, DNA was coated onto the beads. Table 3 shows the amounts of DNA added to the beads. The plasmid containing the Cmsl cassette, the gRNA-containing plasmid, and the repair donor cassette were added to the beads and sterile, double-distilled water was added to bring the total volume to 50 μL·. To this, 20 μΐ ^ of spermidine (1 M) was added, followed by 50 μΐ ^ of CaCl 2 (2.5 M). The gold particles were allowed to pellet by gravity for several minutes, and were then pelleted by centrifugation. The supernatant liquid was removed, and 800 μΐ ^ of 100% ethanol was added. Following a brief sonication, the gold particles were allowed to pellet by gravity for 3-5 minutes, then the tube was centrifuged to form a pellet. The supernatant was removed and 30 μΐ ^ of 100% ethanol was added to the tube. The DNA- coated gold particles were resuspended in this ethanol by vortexing, and 10 μΐ ^ of the resuspended gold particles were added to each of three macro-carriers (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The macro- carriers were allowed to air-dry for 5-10 minutes in the laminar flow hood to allow the ethanol to evaporate.

Table 3: Amounts of DNA used for particle bombardment experiments (all amounts are per 2 mg of gold particles)

Rice callus tissue was used for bombardment. The rice callus was maintained on callus induction medium (CIM; 3.99 g/L N6 salts and vitamins, 0.3 g/L casein hydrolysates, 30 g/L sucrose, 2.8 g/L L-proline, 2 mg/L 2,4-D, 8 g/L agar, adjusted to pH 5.8) for 4-7 days at 28°C in the dark prior to bombardment. Approximately 80-100 callus pieces, each 0.2-0.3 cm in size and totaling 1-1.5 g by weight, were arranged in the center of a Petri dish containing osmotic solid medium (CIM supplemented with 0.4 M sorbitol and 0.4 M mannitol) for a 4-hour osmotic pretreatment prior to particle bombardment. For bombardment, the macro-carriers containing the DNA-coated gold particles were assembled into a macro-carrier holder. The rupture disk (1,100 psi), stopping screen, and macro-carrier holder were assembled according to the manufacturer's instructions. The plate containing the rice callus to be bombarded was placed 6 cm beneath the stopping screen and the callus pieces were bombarded after the vacuum chamber reached 25-28 in. Hg. Following bombardment, the callus was left on osmotic medium for 16-20 hours, then the callus pieces were transferred to selection medium (CIM supplemented with 50 mg/L hygromycin and 100 mg/L timentin). The plates were transferred to an incubator and held at 28°C in the dark to begin the recovery of transformed cells. Every two weeks, the callus was sub-cultured onto fresh selection medium. Hygromycin-resistant callus pieces began to appear after approximately five to six weeks on selection medium. Individual hygromycin-resistant callus pieces were transferred to new selection plates to allow the cells to divide and grow to produce sufficient tissue to be sampled for molecular analysis. Table 4 summarizes the combinations of DNA vectors that were used for these rice bombardment experiments.

Table 4: Summary of rice particle bombardment experiments

217 132456 131608 131632

218 132457 131608 131632

220 132463 131608 131632

221 132464 131608 131632

222 132465 131608 131632

223 132466 131608 131632

224 132470 131608 131632

231 132502 131608 131632

233 132504 131608 131632

234 132505 131608 131632

238 132506 131608 131632

239 132507 131608 131632

240 132508 131608 131632

241 132509 131608 131632

247 132510 131608 131632

248 132511 131608 131632

249 132512 131608 131632

251 132513 131608 131632

252 132514 131608 131632

253 132515 131608 131632

254 132516 131608 131632

255 132517 131608 131632

256 132518 131608 131632

257 132519 131608 131632

258 132520 131608 131632

259 132521 131608 131632

260 132522 131608 131632

261 132523 131608 131632

262 132524 131608 131632

264 132525 131608 131632

265 132526 131608 131632

266 132527 131608 131632

270 132522 131608 131592 271 132523 131608 131592

272 132524 131608 131592

273 132525 131608 131592

278 132526 131608 131592

279 132527 131608 131592

280 132528 131608 131592

283 132456 131608 131592

284 132463 131608 131592

293 132529 131608 131592

294 132530 131608 131592

295 132531 131608 131592

300 132464 131608 131592

Example 3 - Rice molecular analysis

After the individual hygromycin-resistant callus pieces from each transformation experiment were transferred to new plates, they grew to a size that was sufficient for sampling. A small amount of tissue was harvested from each individual piece of hygromycin-resistant rice callus and DNA was extracted from these tissue samples for PCR, DNA sequencing, and T7 endonuclease (T7EI) analyses. The PCR analyses were designed using primers that do not produce an amplicon from wild-type rice DNA, nor from the repair donor plasmid alone, but instead have one primer binding site that lies in the rice genome outside of the homology arm and another primer binding site in the insertion cassette, and thus are indicative of an insertion event at the rice CAOl locus.

Sanger sequencing and/or next- generation sequencing of the PCR amplicons produced from the PCR analyses described above was performed to confirm that the PCR amplicon was actually indicative of an insertion at the intended genomic locus and not simply an experimental artifact. Table 5 summarizes the results of these sequencing analyses.

Table 5 - summary of rice callus genome editing experimental results

LAHSCmsl (SEQ ID NO:18, encoding SEQ ID NO:22) 188 -431 (SEQ ID NO:29)

UnklCmsl (SEQ ID NO:110, encoding SEQ ID NO:30) 201 -431 (SEQ ID NO:202)

Unk2Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:lll, encoding SEQ ID NO:31) 202 -314/+116 (SEQ ID NO:203)

Unk3Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:112, encoding SEQ ID NO:32) 211 -63 (SEQ ID NO:204)

Unk3Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:112, encoding SEQ ID NO:32) 211 -42 (SEQ ID NO:205)

Unk4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:113, encoding SEQ ID NO:33) 212 -22 (SEQ ID NO:13)

Unk7Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:116, encoding SEQ ID NO:36) 217 -26 (SEQ ID NO:318)

UnklOCmsl (SEQ ID NO:119, encoding SEQ ID NO:39) 218 -38/+257 (SEQ ID NO:214)

Unk5Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:114, encoding SEQ ID NO:34) 220 -4 (SEQ ID NO:319)

Unk8Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:117, encoding SEQ ID NO:37) 221 -22 (SEQ ID NO:320)

Unk9Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:118, encoding SEQ ID NO:38) 222 -244 (SEQ ID NO:208)

UnkllCmsl (SEQ ID NO:120, encoding SEQ ID NO:40) 223 -216 (SEQ ID NO:209)

Unk6Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:115, encoding SEQ ID NO:35) 224 -216 (SEQ ID NO:210)

Unk4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:221, encoding SEQ ID NO:33) 231 -24 (SEQ ID NO:211)

Unkl4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:122, encoding SEQ ID NO:42) 233 -293 (SEQ ID NO:207)

Unkl5Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:123, encoding SEQ ID NO:43) 234 -124 (SEQ ID NO:321)

Unkl6Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:124, encoding SEQ ID NO:44) 238 -8 (SEQ ID NO:322)

Unkl7Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:125, encoding SEQ ID NO:45) 239 -392/+349 (SEQ ID NO:213)

Unkl8Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:126, encoding SEQ ID NO:46) 240 -16 (SEQ ID NO:323)

Unkl9Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:127, encoding SEQ ID NO:47) 241 -397/+356 (SEQ ID NO:215)

Unk20Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:128, encoding SEQ ID NO:48) 247 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk21Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:129, encoding SEQ ID NO:49) 248 -305/+402 (SEQ ID NO:216)

Unk22Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:130, encoding SEQ ID NO:50) 249 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk23Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:131, encoding SEQ ID NO:51) 251 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk24Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:132, encoding SEQ ID NO:52) 252 -364/+95 (SEQ ID NO:217)

Unk25Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:133, encoding SEQ ID NO:53) 253 -304 (SEQ ID NO:219)

Unk27Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:135, encoding SEQ ID NO:55) 255 -284/+1 (SEQ ID NO:220)

Unk28Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:136, encoding SEQ ID NO:56) 256 -470/+238 (SEQ ID NO:218)

Unk29Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:137, encoding SEQ ID NO:57) 257 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk30Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:138, encoding SEQ ID NO:58) 258 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk31Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:139, encoding SEQ ID NO:59) 259 -4 (SEQ ID NO:319)

Unk32Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:140, encoding SEQ ID NO:60) 270 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk33Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:141, encoding SEQ ID NO:61) 271 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324) Unk34Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 142, encoding SEQ ID NO:62) 272 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk35Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 143, encoding SEQ ID NO:63) 273 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk36Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:144, encoding SEQ ID NO:64) 278 -26 (SEQ ID NO:324)

Unk37Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 145, encoding SEQ ID NO:65) 279 -16 (SEQ ID NO:323)

Unk38Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 146, encoding SEQ ID NO:66) 280 -29 (SEQ ID NO:325)

In addition to the PCR and DNA sequencing analyses, T7EI analyses were performed to detect the presence of small insertions and/or deletions at the CAOl locus. T7EI analyses were performed as described previously (Begemann et al. (2017) Sci Reports 7: 11606). For callus samples whose T7EI analyses were indicative of a potential insertion or deletion, DNA sequencing analyses were performed to detect the presence of insertions and/or deletions at the CAOl locus.

Example 4 - Regeneration of Rice Plants with a Genetic Modification at the CAOl Locus

Rice callus transformed as described above is cultured on tissue culture medium to produce shoots. These shoots are subsequently transferred to rooting medium, and the rooted plants are transferred to soil for cultivation in a greenhouse. DNA is extracted from the rooted plants for PCR and DNA sequencing analyses. T0-generation plants are grown to maturity and self-pollinated to produce Tl -generation seeds. These Tl -generation seeds are planted and the resulting Tl- generation plants are genotyped to identify homozygous, hemizygous, and null segregant plants. The plants are phenotyped to detect the yellow leaf phenotype associated with a homozygous knockout of the CAOl gene (Lee et al. (2005) Plant Mol Biol 57:805-818).

Example 5 - Editing pre-determined genomic loci in maize (Zea mays)

One or more gRNAs is designed to anneal with a desired site in the maize genome and to allow for interaction with one or more Cmsl proteins. These gRNAs are cloned in a vector such that they are operably linked to a promoter that is operable in a plant cell (the "gRNA cassette"). One or more genes encoding a Cmsl protein is cloned in a vector such that they are operably linked to a promoter that is operable in a plant cell (the "Cmsl cassette"). The gRNA cassette and the Cmsl cassette are cloned into a single vector, or alternatively are cloned into two separate vectors that are suitable for plant transformation, and this vector or these vectors are subsequently transformed into Agrobacterium cells. These cells are brought into contact with maize tissue that is suitable for transformation. Following this incubation with the Agrobacterium cells, the maize cells are cultured on a tissue culture medium that is suitable for regeneration of intact plants. Maize plants are regenerated from the cells that were brought into contact with Agrobacterium cells harboring the vector that contained the Cmsl cassette and gRNA cassette. Following regeneration of the maize plants, plant tissue is harvested and DNA is extracted from the tissue. T7EI assays, PCR assays, and/or sequencing assays are performed, as appropriate, to determine whether a change in the DNA sequence has occurred at the desired genomic location.

Alternatively, particle bombardment is used to introduce the Cmsl cassette and gRNA cassette into maize cells. A single vector containing a Cmsl cassette and a gRNA cassette, or separate vectors containing a Cmsl cassette and a gRNA cassette, respectively, are coated onto gold beads or titanium beads that are then used to bombard maize tissue that is suitable for regeneration. Following bombardment, the maize tissue is transferred to tissue culture medium for regeneration of maize plants. Following regeneration of the maize plants, plant tissue is harvested and DNA is extracted from the tissue. T7EI assays, PCR assays, and/or sequencing assays are performed, as appropriate, to determine whether a change in the DNA sequence has occurred at the desired genomic location.

Example 6 - Computational Analyses of Cmsl Nucleases and other Type V Nucleases CRISPR nucleases are often classified by type, with, e.g., Cas9 nucleases classified as Type

II nucleases and Cpf 1 nucleases classified as Type V (Koonin et al. (2017) Curr Opin Microbiol 37:67-78). Examination of Cmsl nuclease protein sequences suggests that these nucleases should be grouped as Type V nucleases based in part on the presence of a RuvC domain and absence of an HNH domain. Multiple groups of Type V nucleases have been described in the scientific literature to date, including Cpfl (also referred to as Type V-A), C2cl (also referred to as Type V-B), C2c3 (also referred to as Type V-C), CasY (also referred to as Type V-D), and CasX (also referred to as Type V-E).

MUSCLE alignments of Type V amino acid sequences typically failed to correctly align the catalytic residues of the RuvCI, RuvCII, and RuvCIII domains in these proteins. Given the central importance of these domains in the function of the proteins, correct alignment of these residues is imperative. The RuvCI, RuvCII, and RuvCIII catalytic residues were identified for the amino acid sequences of the Cmsl nucleases disclosed herein and in U.S. Patent 9,896,696 (SEQ ID NOs: 10, 11, 20-23, 30-69, and 154-156), three Cpfl nucleases (SEQ ID NOs: 147-149), C2cl nucleases (SEQ ID NOs: 150 and 157-164), C2c3 nucleases (SEQ ID NOs: 152 and 166-168) (Shmakov et al. (2016) Mol Cell 60:385-397), CasX nucleases (SEQ ID NOs: 151 and 165), and CasY nucleases (SEQ ID NOs: 153 and 169-173) (Burstein et al. (2017) Nature 542:237-241). Table 6 shows the catalytic residue for each of these domains as well as the three amino acids immediately preceding the catalytic residue and the three amino acids immediately following the catalytic residue.

Table 6: summary of RuvCI, RuvCII, and RuvCIII catalytic residues for Type V nucleases

Unk31Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:59) LGIDNGE WKEAFD HRNDGIA

Unk32Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 60) YGIDRGD MFLENKK KSGDDLA

Unk39Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 67) FGIDNGE IAKEGFG HSNDGIA

Unk42Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:208) LGIDNGE IVKEGFD HSNDGVA

Unk43Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:209) YGLDKGT IVREGLG KSGDDLA

Unk44Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:210) IGIDTGT IAFEGFD DCNDKVA

Unk45Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:211) FGIDRGN INLENLH DNSDSVA

Unk46Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:222) YFIDIWE IIISNFI unclear

Unk47Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:223) FGIDNGE IIKEGFG HSNDGIA

Unk49Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:225) YGIDRGD INLENLH KNSDDVA

Unk52Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:228) YGIDRGS WLENLK SDPDKIA

Unk54Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:229) FGLDNGE IVKEGFD HSNDGIA

LbCmslCmsl (SEQ ID NO:232) YGIDVGQ IFLEDLK DNPDSLA

Unk58Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:234) YGIDRGI IYLENLE INYDSIA

Unk60Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:236) YGLDRGK MCFENLN DNSDSVA

Unk61Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:237) YWIDKWT ICYETLD KSWDDLA

Unk65Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:241) YGIDTGI ITIEYLD DSNDKVA

Unk67Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:243) YWIDKWD MFLENKK KSWDDLA

Unk69Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:245) LGIDNGE IVKEGFD HSNNGVA

Unk72Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:248) YGIDRGQ INLENLT KNSDEVA

Unk74Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:250) FGIDTGE IAIENLA HSNDAVA

Unk75Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:251) YWFDKWE FVFEDKT HSWDDLA

Unk77Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:253) YGIDRGI IFLENLD LNYDSIA

Unk78Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:254) YGIDRGE IILEDIE DDPDKVA

Unk79Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:41) YGLDRGK VAFENLD DNSDKVA

SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11) IGIDRGL ISLEDLS HNGDDNG

AuxCmsl (SEQ ID NO:21) IGIDRGQ ISLEDLS KSGDDNA

LAHSCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 22) FGIDRGQ ISLEDLS KSGDDNA

Unk2Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 31) FGIDRGQ ISLEDLS KSGDDNA

Unk6Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 35) FGIDRGQ ISLEDLT KSGDDNA

Unk7Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 36) IGIDRGL ISIENLT SNGDENG

UnkllCmsl (SEQ ID NO:40) IGIDRGI IALEDLT TDGDQNG

Unkl4Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:42) FGIDRGI ISLENLS KNGDDNA

Unkl7Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:45) FGIDRGL ISLEDLT QNGDENG

Unk33Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 61) IGIDRGI IALEDLT TDGDQNG

Unk34Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 62) FGIDRGQ IALEDLT KSGDDNA

Unk35Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 63) IGIDRGL VSLEDLS HNGDDNG

Unk36Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 64) FGIDRGQ ISLEDLS KSGDDNA Unk37Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 65) FGIDRGI ITLENLN KNGDDNA

Unk38Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 66) IGIDRGL VSLEDLS HNGDDNG

Unk41Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 69) YGIDRGI IVLENIA RSGDQSA

Unk51Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:227) FGIDRGQ IALEDLT KNGDDNA

Unk55Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:230) FGIDRGI ISFEDLT TNGDDNG

Unk56Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:231) IGIDRGI IALEDLT TDGDQNG

Unk59Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:235) FGIDSWI ISLEDLS KNWDDNG

Unk63Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:239) FGIDSWI ISLENLS KNGDDNA

Unk64Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:240) FGIDSWI ISLENLS NNYKKQC

Unk66Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:242) FGIDSWI ISLEDLS KNWDDNG

Unk68Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:244) FGIDSWI ISLEDLS KNGDDNG

Unk71Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:247) FGIDSWI IVLENLS KNWDDNG

Unk40Cmsl (SEQ ID NO: 68) VGLDRGE VSLENLN NGGDVLA

Unk48Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:224) IGLDRGE VSLENLN TGGDTLA

Unk50Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:226) VGIDLGE IVFENLD KSCDEIA

Unk57Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:233) IGLDRGE VSFENLN NGGDVLA

Unk62Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:238) IGIDLGE IVFENLD KSCDEIA

Unk70Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:246) IGIDLWE IVFENLD KSCDEIA

Unk73Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:249) LGMDRGE IVLEDLD KTGDDLA

Unk76Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:252) IGLDRGE FIFENQT KSGDNLA

AsCpfl (SEQ ID NO: 148) IGIDRGE WLENLN MDADANG

FnCpfl (SEQ ID NO: 147) LSIDRGE WFEDLN QDADANG

LbCpfl (SEQ ID NO: 149) IGIDRGE IALEDLN KNADANG

CasY.l (SEQ ID NO:153) LGLDVGE IIYEISI TDADIQA

CasY.2 (SEQ ID NO: 172) MGIDIGE PVYEFEI SDADIQA

CasY.3 (SEQ ID NO: 173) IGIDIGE LSFEYEV SHADKQA

CasY.4 (SEQ ID NO: 169) LGIDIGE IVYELEV ADADIQA

CasY.5 (SEQ ID NO:171) AVVDVLD AANELHR unclear

CasY.6 (SEQ ID NO: 170) LGLDAGE WHEESV unclear

CasX_Delta (SEQ ID NO: 151) IGVDRGE LVFENLS VHADEQA

CasX_Plancto (SEQ ID

IGIDRGE LIFENLS THADEQA NO: 165)

C2c3_AUXO (SEQ ID NO: 152) VSIDQGE PILEKQV QHADVNA

C2c3_CEVA (SEQ ID NO: 167) VAIDLGE PVLESSV CHADENA C2c3_CEPX (SEQ ID NO: 1 66 ) VAIDLGE PVLEFQI GHADENA

C2c3_CEPS (SEQ ID NO: 1 68 ) LAIDLGE PVLESSV GHADENA

AcoC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 157 ) MSVDLGV ILFEDLS VHADINA

ObC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 1 60 ) LGVDLGT WIENLS MQADLNA

DbC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 1 64 ) LSVDLGH WIENLA IHADLNA

DiC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 158 ) LSVDLGM ILFEDLA IHADMNA

DtC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 159 ) LSVDLGV ILFEDLA IHADINA

AacC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 150 ) MSVDLGL ILLEELS IHADLNA

BsplC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 1 63 ) MSIDLGL ILFENLS LQADINA

TcC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 1 61 ) MSVDLGQ VLFEDLS THADINA

BtC2cl (SEQ ID NO: 1 62 ) MSIDLGQ ILFEDLS THADINA

Sequence alignments and other computational analyses did not show clear RuvCIII catalytic residues for CasY.5 or CasY.6. The putative catalytic residues in Unk64 and Unk69 are a lysine and an asparagine, respectively, while all others have an invariant aspartic acid residue at this position. For the remaining Type V nucleases, the RuvC catalytic residues summarized in Table 6 were used to generate RuvC-anchored sequence alignments in which the catalytic residues served as fixed anchors, using methods described previously (Begemann et al. (2017) BioRxiv doi:

10.1101/192799). The resulting RuvC-anchored amino acid alignments were used to construct a phylogenetic tree, shown in Figure 1. As this figure shows, the Cmsl nucleases are on separate clades from the other Type V nucleases. Further, there are at least three separate groups of Cmsl nucleases that cluster together in this analysis (in Table 6, these groups comprise MicroCmsl through Unk78Cmsl, SulfCmsl through Unk71Cmsl, and Unk40Cmsl through Unk76Cmsl, respectively), suggesting the existence of at least three groups of Cmsl nucleases within this larger grouping. These three groups are labeled as "Sm-type," "Sulf-type," and "Unk40-type,"

respectively, for the groups of nucleases that include SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10), SulfCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 11), and Unk40Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:68), respectively.

Cmsl nuclease amino acid sequence alignments were examined to identify motifs within the protein sequences that are well-conserved among these nucleases. It was observed that Cmsl nucleases were found in three fairly well-separated clades on the phylogenetic tree shown in Fig. 1. One of these clades includes SmCmsl (SEQ ID NO: 10), another includes SulfCmsl (SEQ ID

NO: 11), and another includes Unk40Cmsl (SEQ ID NO:68). Members of each of these clades were therefore aligned separately to identify partially and/or completely conserved amino acid motifs among these nucleases. For the alignment of SmCmsl-like nucleases, SEQ ID NOs: 10, 20, 23, 30, 32-34, 37-39, 41, 43, 44, 46-60, 67, 154-156, 208-211, 222, 223, 225, 228, 229, 232, 234, 236, 237,

241, 243, 245, 248, 250, 251, 253, and 254 were aligned. For the alignment of SulfCmsl-like nucleases, SEQ ID NOs: 11, 21, 22, 31, 35, 36, 40, 42, 45, 61-66, 69, 227, 230, 231, 235, 239, 240,

242, 244, and 247 were aligned. For the alignment of Unk40-like nucleases, SEQ ID NOs: 68, 224, 226, 233, 238, 246, 249, and 252 were aligned. These alignments were performed using MUSCLE and the resulting alignments were examined manually to identify regions that showed conservation among all of the aligned proteins. The amino acid motifs shown in SEQ ID NOs: 177- 186 were identified from the alignment of SmCmsl-like nucleases; the amino acid motifs shown in SEQ ID NOs:288-289 and 187-201 were identified from the alignment of SulfCmsl-like nucleases; the amino acid motifs shown in SEQ ID NOs:290-296 were identified from the alignment of

Unk40Cmsl-like nucleases. Weblogos were created using the sequence alignments and are depicted graphically in Figs. 2-4 (SmCmsl-like, SulfCmsl-like, and Unk40Cmsl-like sequence motifs, respectively; weblogo.berkeley.edu) along with schematic diagrams showing the locations of these conserved motifs on the SmCmsl, SulfCmsl, and Unk40Cmsl protein sequences. Editing of plant genomes with Cmsl nucleases as described herein suggested that, consistent with some other descriptions of Type V nucleases, TTTN or TTN PAM sites were accessible by many if not all Cmsl nucleases. Computational analyses were performed to identify BLAST hits that corresponded to CRISPR spacers present on the contigs that encoded Cmsl nucleases. CRISPR spacers were identified using CRISPRfinder online (crispr.i2bc.paris- saclay.fr/Server/); these spacers were used as seeds for BLAST searches against metagenomes. BLAST hits were identified for CRISPR spacers from the contigs that encode AuxCmsl,

Unkl5Cmsl, Unkl9Cmsl, and Unk40Cmsl (SEQ ID NOs:297-300, respectively). These BLAST hits are shown in SEQ ID NOs:301-307 and summarized in Table 7 along with the nucleotides that precede and follow the BLAST hits. Table 7: summary of BLAST hits with CRISPR spacers from Cmsl-encoding contigs

ID NO:298)

Unkl5 (SEQ CATTTAGAGGAAATCTATAGTCATGTTTTGTTAAGAGATTT 303 1971-1999 ID NO:298)

Unkl9 (SEQ TCTTTACCAAGTCCCCCCGCAACATCATAAAACATTTTAGA 304 4823-4850 ID NO:299)

Unkl9 (SEQ TATTTCTAGCAACCCACTCAGCATAATCGTTTTCCGGAACG 304 5831-5859 ID NO:299)

Unkl9 (SEQ CCATTAACCTGGCGGAGGCTAACCCTCCGCCTATAAACAAA 305 1487-1514 ID NO:299)

Unkl9 (SEQ ACTTTAGAATACTTATCAATAACCTGCTCTTCGGTTTGGTT 306 725-752 ID NO:299)

Unk40 (SEQ CGTTTATATTCGGTTGCCACTCCTCGAAGTATTGCTTATAG 307 209-236 ID NO:300)

Unk54 (SEQ CTTTTAATCCACGCGCCGCCCACTATGATAACTTGCCGGAA 309 6064-6092 ID NO:308)

Unk54 (SEQ TGGTTAATAATTCATTGTTTATTTTTGGGTTAAAAATTTCG 310 4102-4131 ID NO:308)

Unk54 (SEQ TCGTTAATAATTGGTGAATATGATTTACAACAAATGGCTGC 311 17-44 ID NO:308)

In Table 7, the underlined bases represent the CRISPR spacer BLAST hit. Notably, the bases immediately 5' of the BLAST hits all show TTA or TTC, and 7 of the 11 BLAST hits in this table show TTTA or TTTC. These data, combined with the plant genome editing data described above, strongly suggests that at least these Cmsl nucleases (and possibly most or all Cmsl nucleases) can access target sites downstream from at least TTM PAM sites with a preference for TTTM PAM sites. Notably, these types of computationally-identified PAM sites take into account not only nuclease PAM requirements, but also the CRISPR spacer acquisition machinery requirements, so it is possible that the nucleases may be able to access a broader set of PAM sites than those computationally identified here.




 
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