Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING CNS DISORDERS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/126741
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Provided herein are compounds of Formula (I-I): and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; wherein p, R1, R3a, R2a, R11a, R11b, R6a, and R6b are defined herein. Also provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of Formula (I-X) and methods of using the compounds, e.g., in the treatment of CNS-related disorders.

Inventors:
ROBICHAUD, Albert, Jean (1 Franklin St, Unit 4105Boston, MA, 02110, US)
SALITURO, Francesco, G. (25 Baker Drive, Marlborough, MA, 01752, US)
BLANCO-PILLADO, Maria, Jesus (72 Thesda Street, Arlington, MA, 02474, US)
LA, Daniel (51 Randolph Road, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, US)
HARRISON, Boyd, L. (9 Wheatston Court, Princeton, NJ, 08550, US)
Application Number:
US2018/067277
Publication Date:
June 27, 2019
Filing Date:
December 21, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SAGE THERAPEUTICS, INC. (215 First Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, US)
International Classes:
C07J43/00; A61K31/56; A61K31/57; A61K31/575; A61K31/58; A61P25/00; C07J5/00; C07J7/00; C07J9/00; C07J41/00; C07J1/00; C07J3/00; C07J13/00; C07J17/00; C07J21/00; C07J51/00; C07J71/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1998005337A11998-02-12
WO2016134301A22016-08-25
WO2016134301A22016-08-25
WO2013056181A12013-04-18
Foreign References:
US20140249120A12014-09-04
US4029777A1977-06-14
US5376645A1994-12-27
Other References:
CRISTINA SUÑOL ET AL: "Activity of B-Nor Analogues of Neurosteroids on the GABA A Receptor in Primary Neuronal Cultures", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 49, no. 11, 1 June 2006 (2006-06-01), US, pages 3225 - 3234, XP055570705, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/jm060002f
HAN MINGCHENG ET AL: "Neurosteroid Analogs. 4. The Effect of Methyl Substitution at the C-5 and C-10 Positions of Neurosteroids on Electrophysiological Activity at GABAA Receptors", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 39, 1 January 1996 (1996-01-01), pages 4218 - 4232, XP002176148, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/JM960304P
ADRIANA VELEIRO ET AL: "Structure-Activity Relationships of Neuroactive Steroids Acting on the GABAA Receptor", CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 16, no. 4, 1 February 2009 (2009-02-01), NL, pages 455 - 472, XP055570602, ISSN: 0929-8673, DOI: 10.2174/092986709787315522
LAN, N. C. ET AL., NEUROCHEM. RES., vol. 16, 1991, pages 347 - 356
MAJEWSKA, M. D. ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 232, 1986, pages 1004 - 1007
HARRISON, N. L. ET AL., JPHARMACOL. EXP. THER., vol. 241, 1987, pages 346 - 353
"Handbook of Chemistry and Physics"
THOMAS SORRELL: "Organic Chemistry", 1999, UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BOOKS
SMITH; MARCH: "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry", 2001, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
LAROCK: "Comprehensive Organic Transformations", 1989, VCH PUBLISHERS, INC.
CARRUTHERS: "Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis", 1987, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
JACQUES ET AL.: "Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions", 1981, WILEY INTERSCIENCE
WILEN ET AL., TETRAHEDRON, vol. 33, 1977, pages 2725
ELIEL: "Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds", 1962, MCGRAW-HILL
WILEN: "Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions", 1972, UNIV. OF NOTRE DAME PRESS, pages: 268
BERGE ET AL., J. PHARM. SCI., vol. 66, no. 1, 1977, pages 1 - 79
T. W. GREENE; P. G. M. WUTS: "Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis", 1999, JOHN WILEY & SONS
"Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences", 1985, MACK PUBLISHING COMPANY
E. W. MARTIN: "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences", 1980, MACK PUBLISHING CO.
"Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy", 2005, LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
T. W. GREENE; P. G. M. WUTS: "Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis", 1991, WILEY
GEE ET AL.: "J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.", vol. 241, 1987, pages: 346 - 353
HAWKINSON ET AL., MOL. PHARMACOL., vol. 46, 1994, pages 977 - 985
LEWIN, A.H ET AL., MOL. PHARMACOL., vol. 35, 1989, pages 189 - 194
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
UITTO, Olivia, D. et al. (Goodwin Procter LLP, 100 Northern AvenueBoston, MA, 02210, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed:

1. A compound of Formula (I-X):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein: p is 0, 1, or 2;

R19 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

R1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -SRX1, -N(RX1)2,-0C(=0)RX1, -0C(=0)0RX1, -0C(=0)SRX1, -0C(=0)N(RX1)2, -SC(=0)RX2, -SC(=0)0RX1, -SC(=0)SRX1, -SC(=0)N(RX1)2,-NHC(=0)RX1, - NHC(=0)0RX1, -NHC(=0)SRX1, -NHC(=0)N(RX1)2, -0S(=0)2RX2, -0S(=0)20RX1, -S- S(=0)2RX2, -S-S(=0)20Rx1, -S(=0)RX2, -S02RX2, or -S(=0)20RX1, wherein each instance of RX1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two RX1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and each instance of RX2 is independently substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

R3a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocyclyl;

R2a is hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted Cl-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocyclyl, or -OR42, wherein RA2 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocyclyl;

Rlla is hydrogen or -OR43, wherein R43 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocyclyl, and Rllb is hydrogen; or Rlla and Rllb are joined to form an oxo (=0) group; and each instance of R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, or halogen.

2. The compound of claim 1, wherein R19 is hydrogen.

3. The compound of claim 1, wherein R19 is methyl.

4. The compound of any one of claims 1-3, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstitued alkyl.

5. The compound of any one of claims 1-3, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl.

6. The compound of any one of claims 1-3, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl, wherein the heteroaryl contains at least one nitrogen atom.

7. The compound of any one of claims 1-3, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl, wherein the heteroaryl is a bicyclic.

8. A compound of Formula (I-I):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein:

R3a, R2a, R6a, R6b, Rlla, Rllb are as defined in claim 1; and each instance of Rm, Rn, and Rx is, independently, hydrogen, halogen, -N02, -CN, - ORga, -N(Rga)2, -C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -0C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, - N(RGA)C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)0Rga, -N(RGA)C(=0)N(Rga)2. -SRga, - S(=0) Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)20Rga, -0S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)2N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)S(=0)2Rga, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl (e.g., haloalkyl), substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl; and each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring. 9. The compound of any one of claims 1-8 , wherein R3a is Ci-6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkoxy or one to two halo groups (e.g., fluoro), and at least one of Rm, Rn, and Rx is halogen

C(=0)0Rga, -SR S(=0)2N(Rga)2, substituted or unsubstituted Cl-6 alkyl (e.g., -CH3, -CH2CH3, haloalkyl, e.g., -

CF3) , wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-2 alkyl.

10. The compound of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the compound is selected from a compound of Formula (I-I-A):

11. The compound of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the compound is selected from a compound of Formula (I-I-B):

12. The compound of any one of claims 1-11, wherein R3a is unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl. 13. The compound of any one of claims 1-12, wherein R3a is a Ci-6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkoxy.

14. The compound of any one of claims 1-13, wherein R3a is a Ci-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or two halo (e.g., fluoro).

15. The compound of any one of claims 1-14, wherein R3a is -CH3 -CH2CH3, -CH2F, - CHF2, -CH20 CH2CH3, or -CH2OCH3.

16. The compound of any one of claims 1-15, wherein R3a is -CH3.

17. The compound of any one of claims 1-16, wherein R2a is -OH, -OC¾, -OCH2CH3, -

OCH2CH2CH3, -CH3, -CH2CH3, -CH2CH2CH3, substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. 18. The compound of any one of claims 1-17, wherein R2a is -CH3 or -OCH3.

19. The compound of any one of claims 1-18, wherein R2a is -OCH3.

20. The compound of any one of claims 1-19, wherein R2a is hydrogen.

21. The compound of any one of claims 1-20, wherein Rlla and Rllb are both hydrogen.

22. The compound any one of claims 1-21, wherein at least one of Rm, Rn, and Rx is hydrogen.

23. The compound of any one of claims 1-22, wherein at least two of Rm, Rn, and Rx are hydrogen.

24. The compound of any one of claims 1-23, wherein all of Rm, Rn, and Rx are hydrogen.

25. The compound of any one of claims 1-24, wherein at least one of Rm, Rn, and Rx is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-2 alkyl (e.g., -CF3), -C02RGA, -C(=0)RGA, -CN, -NO2, halogen, -SRGA, -S(=0) RGA, -S(=0)2RGA, -S(=0)20RGA, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2, wherein RGA is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-2 alkyl.

26. The compound of any one of claims 1-25, wherein at least one of Rm, Rn, and Rx is - CN. 27. The compound of any one of claims 1-26, wherein at least one of Rm, Rn, and Rx is -

SRga, -S(=0) Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)2ORga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2, wherein RGA is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-2 alkyl.

28. The compound of any one of claims 1-27, wherein at least one of Rm, Rn, and Rx is - S(=0)2Rga. 29. The compound of any one of claims 1-28, wherein R is -CH3.

30. The compound of any one of claims 1-29, wherein Rm and Rx are hydrogen.

31. The compound of any one of claims 1-30, wherein Rn is halogen (e.g., -F, -Cl, -Br), - N02, -CN, -ORga, -N(Rga)2, -C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)ORga, -SRga, -S(=0) Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, - S(=0)2ORga, -OS(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)2N(Rga)2, substituted or unsubstituted Cl-6 alkyl (e.g., - CH3, -CH2CH3, haloalkyl, e.g., -CF3) , wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-2 alkyl.

32. The compound of any one of claims 1-31, wherein Rn is -SRGA, -S(=0) RGA, - S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)2ORga, or -S(=0)2N(Rga)2, wherein RGA is substituted or unsubstituted C1-2 alkyl.

33. The compound of any one of claims 1-32, wherein Rn is halogen (e.g., -F, -Cl, -Br), - N02, -CN, or substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl (e.g., -CH3, -CH2CH3, haloalkyl, e.g., -

CF3) , wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Cl-2 alkyl.

34. The compound of any one of claims 1-33, wherein R2a, Rlla, Rllb, R6a, and R6b are hydrogen.

35. The compound of any one of claims 1-34, wherein at least three of R2a, Rlla, Rllb, R6a, R6b, Rm, Rn, and Rx are hydrogen.

36. The compound of any one of claims 1-35, wherein at least four of R2a, Rlla, Rllb, R6a, R6b, Rm, Rn, and Rx are hydrogen.

37. The compound of any one of claims 1-36, wherein at least five of R2a, Rlla, Rllb, R6a, R6b, Rm, Rn, and Rx are hydrogen. 38. The compound of any one of claims 1-37, wherein , Rn is halogen (e.g., -F, -Cl, -Br), -

N02, -CN, -C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -SRga, -S(=0) Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl (e.g., -CH3, -CH2CH3, haloalkyl, e.g., -CF3) , wherein RGA is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-2 alkyl.

39. The compound of any one of claims 1-38, wherein Rn is -SRGA, -S(=0) RGA, - S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)20Rga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2, wherein RGA is substituted or unsubstituted

C1-2 alkyl.

40. The compound of any one of claims 1-39, wherein Rn is -CN.

41. The compound of any one of claims 1-40, wherein R3a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl (e.g., haloalkyl, e.g., -CF3, -CHF2, -CH2F) or alkoxy.

42. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of:

43. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof of any one of the preceding claims, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

44. A method for treating a CNS-related disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1 to 43.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, or tinnitus.

46. The method of claim 44 wherein the compound is administered orally,

subcutaneously, intravenously, or intramuscularly.

47. The method of claim 44 wherein the compound is administered chronically.

48. A compound of Formula (II-I):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein:

t is 1, 2, or 3;

n is 0, 1 or 2;

R19 is substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkynyl;

R5 is hydrogen or methyl, or when - is a double bond, R5 is absent;

R3 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

each of R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, or R6a and R6b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group;

R1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted

wherein each instance of RA1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two RA1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and RA2 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

each of R2a, R2b, R4a, R4b, R7a, Fkb, Rlla, Rllb, R12a, R12b or R17b, is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or

unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two Rm groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic ring; or any one of R2a and R2b, R4a and R4b, R7a and R7b, Rlla and Rllb, and R12a and R12b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group;

each of R15a, R15b, R16a and R16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -ORA1, -SRA1, -N(Ra1)2, -N(RA1),-CN(RA1)2, -C(0)Ra1, -OC(=0)Ra1, -OC(=0)ORa1, - OC(=0)SRA1, -OC(=0)N(Ra1)2, -SC(=0)RA2, -SC(=0)ORa1, -SC(=0)SRa1, - SC(=0)N(RA1)2,-NHC(=0)RA1, -NHC(=0)ORa1, -NHC(=0)SRa1, -NHC(=0)N(Ra1)2, - 0S(=0)2RA2, -0S(=0)20Ra1, -S-S(=0)2RA2, -S-S(=0)20Ra1, -S(=0)RA2, -S02RA2, or - S(=0)20RA1, wherein each instance of RA1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, -S02RA2, -C(0)RA2, or two RA1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and RA2 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; and wherein - represents a single or double bond, provided if a double bond is present in Ring B, then one of R6a or R6b is absent.

49. The compound of claim 48, wherein R2a and R2b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, - ORD 1 ,-0C(=0)RD 1 , -NH2, -N(RDl)2, or -NRDlC(=0)RDl, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or

unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

50. The compound of claim 48 or 49, wherein R2a and R2b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -ORD l,-OC(=0)RDl, -NH2, or -N(RDl)2, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or

unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

51. The compound of any one of claim 48-50, wherein R2a and R2b is each

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -ORD l,-OC(=0)RDl, -NH2, - N(RDl)2, or -NRDlC(=0)RDl, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

52. The compound of any one of claim 48-51, wherein R2a and R2b are both hydrogen.

53. The compound of any one of claim 48-52, wherein R2a and R2b is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

54. The compound of any one of claim 48-53, wherein each of R2a and R2b is independently hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

55. The compound of any one of claim 48-54, wherein R2a and R2b is -CH3, -CH2CH3, -OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2.

56. The compound of any one of claim 48-55, wherein R4a and R4b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RDl,-0C(=0)RDl, -NH2, -N(RDl)2, or -NRD 1 C(=0)RD 1 , wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

57. The compound of any one of claim 48-56, wherein R4a and R4b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -0RDl,-0C(=0)RDl, -NH2, or -N(RDl)2, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

58. The compound of any one of claim 48-57, wherein R4a and R4b is each

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -0RDl,-0C(=0)RDl, -NH2, - N(RDl)2, or -NRDlC(=0)RDl, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

59. The compound of any one of claim 48-58, wherein R4a and R4b are both hydrogen.

60. The compound of any one of claim 48-59, wherein R4a and R4b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

61. The compound of any one of claim 48-60, wherein each of R4a and R4b is independently hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

62. The compound of any one of claims 48-61, wherein R4a and R4b is -CH3, - CH2CH3, -OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2.

63. he compound of any one of claims 48-62, wherein Rl la or Rl lb is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RDl,-0C(=0)RDl, -NH2, -N(RDl)2, or -NRD 1 C(=0)RD 1 , wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

64. The compound of any one of claims 48-63, wherein Rl la or Rl lb is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -ORDl,-OC(=0)RDl, -NH2, or -N(RDl)2, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

65. The compound of any one of claims 48-64, wherein Rl la or Rl lb is each

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -ORDl,-OC(=0)RDl, -NH2, - N(RDl)2, or -NRDlC(=0)RDl, wherein each instance of RD1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

66. The compound of any one of claims 48-65, wherein Rllaor Rllb are both hydrogen.

67. The compound of any one of claims 48-66, wherein Rllaor Rllb is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

68. The compound of any one of claims 48-67, wherein each of Rllaor Rllb is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

69. The compound of any one of claims 48-68, wherein Rllaor Rllb is -CH3, -CH2CH3, - OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2.

70. The compound of any one of claims 48-69, wherein Rlla and Rllb can together form oxo.

71. The compound of any one of claims 48-70, wherein R7a or R b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or

unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

72. The compound of any one of claims 48-71, wherein R7a and R7b are both hydrogen. 73. The compound of any one of claims 48-72, wherein R7aand R7b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

74. The compound of any one of claims 48-73, wherein each of R7aand R7b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH. 75. The compound of any one of claims 48-74, wherein R7aor R713 is -CH3, -CH2CH3, -

OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2.

76. The compound of any one of claims 48-75, wherein R5 is hydrogen in the cis position, relative to the C19 position.

77. The compound of any one of claims 48-76, wherein R5 is hydrogen in the trans position, relative to the C 19 position. 78. The compound of any one of claims 48-77, wherein R5 is methyl in the cis position, relative to the C19 position.

79. The compound of any one of claims 48-78, wherein R5 is methyl in the trans position, relative to the C19 position.

80. The compound of any one of claims 48-79, wherein t is 1. 81. The compound of any one of claims 48-80, wherein t is 2.

82. The compound of any one of claims 48-81, wherein n is 1.

83. The compound of any one ofclaims 48-82, wherein n is 2.

84. The compound of any one of claims 48-83, wherein R3 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

85. The compound of any one of claims 48-84, wherein R3 is substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

86 The compound of any one of claims 48-85, wherein R3 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

87. The compound of any one of claims 48-86, wherein R3 is hydrogen.

88 The compound of any one of claims 48-87, wherein R3 is substituted alkyl.

89. The compound of any one of claims 48-88, wherein R3 is unsubstituted alkyl.

90. The compound of any one of claims 48-89, wherein R3 is methyl. 91. The compound of any one of claims 48-90, wherein R19 is ethyl.

92. The compound of any one of claims 48-91, wherein R19 is substituted C2-C6 alkyl.

93. The compound of any one of claims 48-92, wherein R19 is unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl.

94. The compound of any one of claims 48-93, wherein R19 is substituted C2-C6 alkenyl.

95. The compound of any one of claims 48-94, wherein R19 is unsubstituted C2-C6 alkenyl.

96. The compound of any one of claims 48-95, wherein R19 is substituted C2-C6 alkynyl.

97. The compound of any one of claims 48-96, wherein R19 is unsubstituted C2-C6 alkynyl.

98. The compound of any one of claims 48-97, wherein R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

99. The compound of any one of claims 48-98, wherein R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen or substituted alkyl.

100. The compound of any one of claims 48-99, wherein R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen or unsubstituted alkyl.

101. The compound of any one of claims 48-100, wherein both R6a and R6b are hydrogen.

102. The compound of any one of claims 48-101, wherein R6a is halo or alkyl and R6b is hydrogen.

103. The compound of any one of claims 48-102, wherein R6a and R6b are both halo. 104. The compound of any one of claims 48-103, wherein R6a and R6b are both alkyl.

105. The compound of any one of claims 48-104, wherein R12aand R12b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

106. The compound of any one of claims 48-105, wherein R12a and R12b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

107. The compound of any one of claims 48-106, wherein R12a and R12b is each

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

108. The compound of any one of claims 48-107, wherein R12a and R12b are both hydrogen.

109. The compound of any one of claims 48-108, wherein R12a and R12b is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

110. The compound of any one of claims 48-109, wherein each of R12a and R12b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

111. The compound of any one of claim 48-110, wherein R12a and R12b is -CH3, -CH2CH3, -OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2.

112. The compound of any one of claims 48-111, wherein R12a and R12b are both hydrogen.

113. The compound of any one of claims 48-112, wherein R12a and R12b together form oxo.

114. The compound of any one of claims 48-113, wherein R12a and R12b is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

115. The compound of any one of claims 48-114, wherein R17b is fluorine, hydroxyl, methyl, or hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen could be optionally be replaced with deuterium. 116. The compound of any one of claims 48-115, wherein R1 is substituted or

unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. 117. The compound of any one of claims 48-116, wherein R1 is

wherein each instance of R2o is, independently hydrogen, halogen, -N02,

N(Rga)2, -C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -0C(=0)Rga, -0C(

N(RGA)C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)0Rga, -S(=0)2Rga,

0S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)2N(Rga)2, or -N(RGA)S(=0)2RGA, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, C5-io substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted 5- to 10- membered

heteroaryl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring;

wherein each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and

e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 and n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

118. The compound of any one of claim 48-117, wherein R1 is

wherein each instance of R20 is, independently, halogen, -N02, -CN, -ORGA, -N(RGA)2, - C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -0C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)0Rga, -N(RGA)C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)0Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)20Rga, -0S(=0)2Rga, - S(=0)2N(Rga)2, or -N(RGA)S(=0)2Rga; substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C3-4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, C . io substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted 5- to 10- membered

heteroaryl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring;

wherein each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and

e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 and n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

119. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula (II- la):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

120. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula (Il-Ib)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

121. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula

(II-Ic)

122. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula

(II-Ie)

wherein m is 0, 1, 2 or 3;

p is 0, 1, or 3;

each R32 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

123. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula

(P-Ig)

(P-Ig) wherein u is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(RN)-, -C(RN)2-, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(Rn)- wherein RNis independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -S(=0)2Rga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

124. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula (II-Iga)

wherein u is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(RN)-, -C(RN)2-, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(Rn)- wherein RNis independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -S(=0)2Rga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

125. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula (Il-Ih)

wherein each R35 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano; and r is 0, 1, 2 or 3; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

126. The compound of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula (II-I) is of Formula (Il-Ii)

wherein s is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(RN)-, -C(RN)2-, -0-, -S-, -N-, or

N(Rn)- wherein RNis independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)ORga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -S(=0)2Rga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

127. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 48-126 or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

128. A method of treating a CNS-related disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 48-127 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

129. The method of claim 128, wherein the CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, tinnitus, or status epilepticus.

130. The method of claim 129, wherein the CNS-related disorder is depression.

131. The method of claim 129, wherein the CNS-related disorder is postpartum depression.

132. The method of claim 129, wherein the CNS-related disorder is major depressive disorder.

133. The method of claim 129, wherein the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder.

134. The method of claim 129, wherein the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder.

135. A compound of F ormula (III-I) :

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein:

n is 0, 1 or 2; R3a is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

R18 is substituted alkyl, or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

R19 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

R5 is hydrogen or methyl, or when - is a double bond, R5 is absent;

each of R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, or R6a and R6b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group;

R1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -ORA1, -SRA1, -N(RA1)2, -N(RA1), -OC(=0)RA1, -OC(=0)ORA1, -OC(=0)SRA1,

wherein each instance of RA1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two RA1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and RA2 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

each of Rla, Rlb, R2a, R2b, R4a, R4b, R7a, R , Rlla, Rllb, R12a, R12b, R15a, R15b, R16a, or R16b is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two Rm groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic ring; or any one of R2a and R2b, R4a and R4b, R7a and R7b, Rlla and Rl lb, and R12a and R12b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group; and

wherein - represents a single or double bond, provided if a double bond is present in Ring B, then one of R6a or R6b is absent.

136. A compound of Formula (III-II):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein variables R18, n, R5, R1, Rla, Rlb, R2a, R2b, R4a, R4b, R6a, R6b, R7a, R7b, Rl la, Rllb, R12a,

R12b R15a R15b R16a and R16b

are defined as in Formula III-I of claim 1 ; and

R3a is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; and

R19 is hydrogen, Ci-C6 substituted alkyl, C2-C6 unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

provided that if n is 0, R1 is methyl, and Rla, Rlb, R2a, R2b, R4a, R4b, R6a, R6b, R7a, R713,

Rl la, Rllb, R12a, R12b, R15a, R15b, R16a and R16b are hydrogen, then R18 is substituted Ci-C6 alkyl, unsubstituted C3-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, wherein if R18 is substituted methyl, then methyl is substituted with halogen, -CN, -N02,-S02H, -S03H, -ORaa, -ON(Rbb)2, -N(Rbb)2,-C(=0)Raa, -C(0)H, -

C02H, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein each instance of Raa is, independently, selected from Ci_io alkyl, Ci_io haloalkyl, C2_io alkenyl, C2_io alkynyl, C3_io carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C6-i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two Raa groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring and each instance of Rbb is, independently, selected from hydrogen, -OH, -ORaa, - N(Rcc)2, -CN, -C(=0)Raa, -C(=0)N(Rcc)2, -C02Raa, -S02Raa, or -C(=NRcc)ORaa. 137. The compound of claim 135, wherein R3a is not trifluorom ethyl.

138. The compound of any one of claims 135-137, wherein R18 is alkyl substituted with halogen, cyano, -C02H, or phenyl.

139. The compound of any one of claims 135-138, wherein R2a and R2b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

140. The compound of any one of claims 135-139, wherein R2a and R2b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

141. The compound of any one of claims 135-140, wherein R2a and R2b is each

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

142. The compound of any one of claims 135-141, wherein R2a and R2b are both hydrogen.

143. The compound of any one of claims 135-142, wherein R2a and R2b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

144. The compound of any one of claims 135-143, wherein each of R2a and R2b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

145. The compound of any one of claims 135-144, wherein R2a and R2b is -CH3, -CH2CH3, -OH, -OCHs, or -CH(CH3)2.

146. The compound of any one of claims 135-145, wherein R18 is substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl. 147. The compound of any one of claims 135-146, wherein R18 is substituted C2-C6 alkyl.

148. The compound of any one of claims 135-147, wherein R18 is unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl.

149. The compound of any one of claims 135-148, wherein R18 is substituted propyl.

150. The compound of any one of claims 135-149, wherein R18 is substituted butyl. 151. The compound of any one of claims 135-150, wherein Rla or Rlb is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

152. The compound of any one of claims 135-151, wherein Rla or Rlb is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

153. The compound of any one of claims 135-152, wherein Rla or Rlb is each

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

154. The compound of any one of claims 135-153, wherein Rla or Rlb is each

independently hydrogen.

155. The compound of any one of claims 135-154, wherein Rla or Rlb is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

156. The compound of any one of claims 135-155, wherein each of Rla or Rlb is each independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

157. The compound of any one of claims 135-156, wherein Rla or Rlb is each

independently -C¾, -CH2CH3, -OH, -OC¾, or -CH(CH3)2.

158. The compound of any one of claims 135-157 wherein R4a or R4b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

159. The compound of any one of claims 135-158, wherein R4a and R4b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

160. The compound of any one of claims 135-159, wherein R4a and R4b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

161. The compound of any one of claims 135-160, wherein R4a and R4b are both hydrogen.

162. The compound of any one of claims 135-161, wherein R4a and R4b is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. 163. The compound of any one of claims 135-162, wherein each of R4a and R4b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

164. The compound of any one of claims 135-163, wherein R4a and R4b is -C¾, -CH2CH3, -OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2. 165. The compound of any one of claims 135-164, wherein Rllaor Rllb is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

166. The compound of any one of claims 135-165, wherein Rllaor Rllb is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

167. The compound of any one of claims 135-166, wherein Rlla or Rllb is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

168. The compound of any one of claims 135-167, wherein Rlla or Rllb is each

independently hydrogen.

169. The compound of any one of claims 135-168, wherein Rlla or Rllb is each

independently is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

170. The compound of any one of claims 135-169, wherein each of Rlla or Rllb is each independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

171. The compound of any one of claims 135-170, wherein Rlla or Rllb is each

independently -C¾, -CH2CH3, -OH, -OC¾, or -CH(CH3)2.

172. The compound of any one of claims 135-171, wherein R15a or R15b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

173. The compound of any one of claims 135-172, wherein R15a or R15b is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

174. The compound of any one of claims 135-173, wherein R7a or R713 is each

independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

175. The compound of any one of claims 135-174, wherein R7a and R7b are both hydrogen.

176. The compound of any one of claims 135-175, wherein R7a and R7b is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

177. The compound of any one of claims 135-176, wherein each of R7a and R713 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

178. The compound of any one of claims 135-177, wherein R7a or R713 is -CH3, -CH2CH3, - OH, -OCHs, or -CH(CH3)2.

179. The compound of any one of claims 135-178, wherein R5 is hydrogen in the cis position, relative to the C 19 position.

180. The compound of any one of claims 135-179, wherein R5 is hydrogen in the trans position, relative to the C 19 position.

181. The compound of any one of claims 135-180, wherein R5 is methyl in the cis position, relative to the C19 position. 182. The compound of any one of claims 135-181, wherein R5 is methyl in the trans position, relative to the C19 position.

183. The compound of any one of claims 135-182, wherein n is 1 or n is 0.

184. The compound of any one of claims 135-183, wherein n is 2.

185. The compound of any one of claims 135-184, wherein R3ais hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

186. The compound of any one of claims 135-185, wherein R3a is substituted or

unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or

unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

187. The compound of any one of claims 135-186, wherein R3a is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

188. The compound of any one of claims 136-187, wherein R3a is hydrogen.

189. The compound of any one of claims 135-188, wherein R3a is substituted alkyl.

190. The compound of any one of claims 135-189, wherein R3a is unsubstituted alkyl.

191. The compound of cl aim 135, wherein R3a i s methyl .

192. The compound of any one of claims 135-191, wherein R3a is -CH2OMe.

193. The compound of any one of claims 135-192, wherein R3a is -CH2OEt.

194. The compound of any one of claims 135-193, wherein R19 is ethyl.

195. The compound of any one of claims 135-194, wherein R19 is hydrogen.

196. The compound of any one of claims 135-195, wherein R19 is substituted alkyl.

197. The compound of any one of claims 135-196, wherein R19 is unsubstituted alkyl.

198. The compound of any one of claims 135-197, wherein R19 is substituted C2-C6 alkyl.

199. The compound of any one of claim 135-198, wherein R19 is unsubstituted C2-C6 alkyl.

200. The compound of any one of claims 135-199, wherein R19 is substituted C2-C6 alkenyl.

201. The compound of any one of claims 135-200, wherein R19 is unsubstituted C2-C6 alkenyl.

202. The compound of any one of claims 135-201, wherein R19 is substituted C2-C6 alkynyl.

203. The compound of any one of claims 135-202, wherein R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

204. The compound of any one of claims 135-203, wherein R6a and R6b is independently hydrogen or substituted alkyl.

205. The compound of any one of claims 135-204, wherein both R6a and R6b are hydrogen.

206. The compound of any one of claims 135-205, wherein R6a is halo or alkyl and R6b is hydrogen.

207. The compound of any one of claims 135-206, wherein R6a and R6b are both halo.

208. The compound of any one of claims 135-207, wherein R6a and R6b are both alkyl.

209. The compound of any one of claims 135-208, wherein R12a and R12b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

210. The compound of any one of claims 135-209, wherein R12a and R12b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

211. The compound of any one of claims 135-210, wherein R12a and R12b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -ORD1,-OC(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

212. The compound of any one of claims 135-211, wherein R12aand R12b are both hydrogen.

213. The compound of any one of claims 1135-212, wherein R12aand R12b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. 214. The compound of any one of claims 135-213, wherein each of R12aand R12b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH.

215. The compound of any one of claims 135-214, wherein R12aand R12b is -C¾, - CH2CH3, -OH, -OCH3, or -CH(CH3)2. 216. The compound of any one of claims 135-215, wherein R12aand R12b are both hydrogen.

217. The compound of any one of claims 135-216, wherein R12a and R12b together form oxo.

218. The compound of any one of claims 135-217, wherein R12aand R12b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

219. The compound of any one of claims 135-218, wherein R12aand R12b are each H.

220. The compound of any one of claims 135-219, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

221. The compound of any one of claims 135-220, wherein R1 is

wherein each instance of R2o is, independently, halogen, -N02, -CN, -ORGA, -N(RGA)2, -

C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -0C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)0Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)20Rga, -0S(=0)2Rga, - S(=0)2N(Rga)2, or -N(RGA)S(=0)2Rga; substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C3 -4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or

unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring;

wherein each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and

e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

222. The compound of any one of claims 135-221, wherein R1 is

wherein each instance of R2o is, independently, halogen, -N02, -CN, -ORGA, -N(RGA)2, - C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -0C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)Rga, -0C(=0)N(Rga)2, -N(RGA)C(=0)0Rga, -S(=0)2Rga, -S(=0)20Rga, -0S(=0)2Rga, - S(=0)2N(Rga)2, or -N(RGA)S(=0)2Rga; substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C3-4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or

unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring;

wherein each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and

e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

223. The compound of any one of claims 135-222, wherein R16a and R16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, -N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

224. The compound of any one of claims 135-223, wherein R16aand R16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, or -N(RD1)2, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

225. The compound of any one of claims 135-224, wherein R16aand R16b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -0RD1,-0C(=0)RD1, -NH2, - N(RD1)2, or -NRD1C(=0)RD1, wherein each instance of Rm is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

226. The compound of any one of claims 135-225, wherein R16aand R16b are both hydrogen. 227. The compound of any one of claims 135-226, wherein R16a and R16b is each

independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

228. The compound of any one of claims 135-227, wherein each of R16a and R16b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6 alkoxyhalo, or - OH. 229. The compound of any one of claims 135-228, wherein R16aand R16b is -CH3, -

CH2CH3, -OH, -OCHS, or -CH(CH3)2.

230. The compound of any one of claims 135-229, wherein R18 is -CH(CH3)2.

231. The compound of any one of claims 135-230, wherein R18 is substituted alkyl.

232. The compound of claim 231, wherein the alkyl is substituted with -OCH3, -CH2CN, or -OCH(CH3)2.

233. The compound of any one of claims 135-232, wherein R18 is propyl, butyl, t-butyl, or isopropyl, or ethyl.

234. The compound of claim 135 or 136, wherein the compound of Formula (III-I) is of Formula (III-Ia)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

235. The compound of claim 135 or 136, wherein the compound of Formula (III-I) is of Formula (Ill-lb)

l-lb)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

236. The compound of claim 135 or 136, wherein the compound of Formula (III-I) is of Formula (III-Ie)

wherein m is 0, 1, 2 or 3;

p is 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R.32 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

237. The compound of claim 135 or 136, wherein the compound of Formula (III-I) is of Formula (Ill-Ig),

wherein u is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(RN)-, -C(RN)2-, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(Rn)- wherein RN is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -S(=0)2Rga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

238. The compound of claim 135 or 136, wherein the compound of Formula (III-I) is of Formula (Ill-Ih),

wherein each R35 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano; and r is 0, 1, 2 or 3; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

239. The compound of claim 135 or 136, wherein the compound of Formula (III-I) is of Formula (Ill-Ii),

wherein s is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(RN)-, -C(RN)2-, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(Rn)- wherein RN is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Cl -6 alkyl, C(=0)Rga, -C(=0)0Rga, -C(=0)N(Rga)2, -S(=0)2Rga, or -S(=0)2N(RGA)2; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

240. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 135-239 or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

241. A method of treating a CNS-related disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 135-240 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

242. The method of claim 241, wherein the CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, tinnitus, or status epilepticus.

243. The method of claim 241, wherein the CNS-related disorder is depression.

244. The method of claim 241, wherein the CNS-related disorder is postpartum depression.

245. The method of claim 241, wherein the CNS-related disorder is major depressive disorder.

246. The method of claim 241, wherein the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder.

247. The method of claim 241, wherein the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder.

Description:
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING CNS DISORDERS

Cross-Reference To Related Applications

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S.S.N. 62/734,718 filed September 21, 2018, U.S.S.N. 62/722,781 filed August 24, 2018, U.S.S.N. 62/620,095 filed January 22, 2018, U.S.S.N. 62/611,983 filed December, 29, 2017, and U.S.S.N. 62/610,069 filed December 22, 2017, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Background of the Invention

[0002] Brain excitability is defined as the level of arousal of an animal, a continuum that ranges from coma to convulsions, and is regulated by various neurotransmitters. In general, neurotransmitters are responsible for regulating the conductance of ions across neuronal membranes. At rest, the neuronal membrane possesses a potential (or membrane voltage) of approximately -70 mV, the cell interior being negative with respect to the cell exterior. The potential (voltage) is the result of ion (K + , Na + , Cl-, organic anions) balance across the neuronal semipermeable membrane. Neurotransmitters are stored in presynaptic vesicles and are released under the influence of neuronal action potentials. When released into the synaptic cleft, a change of potential from -70 mV to -50 mV occurs. This effect is mediated by postsynaptic nicotinic receptors which are stimulated by acetylcholine to increase membrane permeability to Na + ions. The reduced membrane potential stimulates neuronal excitability in the form of a postsynaptic action potential.

[0003] In the case of the GABA receptor complex (GRC), the effect on brain excitability is mediated by g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter. GABA has a profound influence on overall brain excitability because up to 40% of the neurons in the brain utilize GABA as a neurotransmitter. GABA regulates the excitability of individual neurons by regulating the conductance of chloride ions across the neuronal membrane. GABA interacts with its recognition site on the GRC to facilitate the flow of chloride ions down an electrochemical gradient of the GRC into the cell. An intracellular increase in the levels of this anion causes hyperpolarization of the transmembrane potential, rendering the neuron less susceptible to excitatory inputs, i.e., reduced neuron excitability. In other words, the higher the chloride ion concentration in the neuron, the lower the brain excitability and level of arousal.

[0004] It is well-documented that the GRC is responsible for the mediation of anxiety, seizure activity, and sedation. Thus, GABA and drugs that act like GABA or facilitate the effects of GABA (e.g., the therapeutically useful barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZs), such as Valium®) produce their therapeutically useful effects by interacting with specific regulatory sites on the GRC. Accumulated evidence has now indicated that in addition to the benzodiazepine and barbiturate binding site, the GRC contains a distinct site for neuroactive steroids. See, e.g., Lan, N. C. et al., Neurochem. Res. (1991) 16:347-356.

[0005] Neuroactive steroids can occur endogenously. The most potent endogenous neuroactive steroids are 3a-hydroxy-5-reduced pregnan-20-one and 3a-2l-dihydroxy-5- reduced pregnan-20-one, metabolites of hormonal steroids progesterone and

deoxycorticosterone, respectively. The ability of these steroid metabolites to alter brain excitability was recognized in 1986 (Majewska, M. D. et al, Science 232: 1004-1007 (1986); Harrison, N. L. et al, J Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 241 :346-353 (1987)).

[0006] New and improved compounds are needed that act as modulating agents for brain excitability, as well as agents for the prevention and treatment of CNS-related diseases. The compounds, compositions, and methods described herein are directed toward this end.

Summary of the Invention

[0007] Provided herein are compounds designed, for example, to act as GABA modulators. In some embodiments, such compounds are envisioned to be useful as therapeutic agents for treating a CNS-related disorder.

[0008] Provided herein are compounds of Formula (I-X):

[0009] or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Also provided herein are compounds of Formula (I-I):

[0010] or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[0011] In some embodiments, provided herein is a compound of Formula (II- 1)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0012] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound of Formula (Il-Ia)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0013] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound of Formula (Il-Ib)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0014] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound of

Formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0015] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of

Formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0016] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of

Formula or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0017] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of

Formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0018] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of

Formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0019] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula

-ii)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0020] In some embodiments, provided herein is a compound of Formula (III-I)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0021] In some embodiments, provided herein is a compound of Formula (III-II)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0022] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound of Formula (Ill-la)

l-la)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0023] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound of Formula (Ill-lb)

l-lb) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0024] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound of Formula (III-Ie)

pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0025] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ig)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0026] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ih)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. [0027] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ii),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0028] In some embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition comprises a compound described herein or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

[0029] In some embodiments, a method of treating a CNS-related disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound described herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In some embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, tinnitus, or status epilepticus. In some embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is depression. In some embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is postpartum depression. In some embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder.

[0030] In some embodiments, the compound is selected from the group consisting of the compounds identified in Table 1-1, Table II- 1, or Table III-l herein.

[0031] In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound described herein ( e.g ., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-I or III-II).

[0032] In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound described herein (e.g., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-I or III-II) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in an effective amount in the pharmaceutical composition. In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in a therapeutically effective amount. In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in a prophylactically effective amount.

[0033] Compounds of the present invention as described herein, act, in certain embodiments, as GABA modulators, e.g., effecting the GABA A receptor in either a positive or negative manner. As modulators of the excitability of the central nervous system (CNS), as mediated by their ability to modulate GABAA receptor, such compounds are expected to have CNS -activity.

Thus, in another aspect, provided are methods of treating a CNS-related disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of the present invention. In certain embodiments, CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, tinnitus, or status epilepticus. In certain embodiments, the CNS- related disorder is depression. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is postpartum depression. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered orally, subcutaneously, intravenously, or intramuscularly. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered orally. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered chronically. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered continuously, e.g, by continuous intravenous infusion.

Detailed Description of Certain Embodiments of the Invention

[0034] As generally described herein, the present invention provides compounds designed, for example, to act as GABAA receptor modulators. In certain embodiments, such compounds are envisioned to be useful as therapeutic agents for treating a CNS-related disorder (e.g., a disorder as described herein, for example depression, such as post-partum depression or major depressive disorder).

Definitions

Chemical definitions [0035] Definitions of specific functional groups and chemical terms are described in more detail below. The chemical elements are identified in accordance with the Periodic Table of the Elements, CAS version, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics , 75 th Ed., inside cover, and specific functional groups are generally defined as described therein.

Additionally, general principles of organic chemistry, as well as specific functional moieties and reactivity, are described in Thomas Sorrell, Organic Chemistry , ETniversity Science Books, Sausalito, 1999; Smith and March, March’.s Advanced Organic Chemistry , 5 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001; Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations , VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, 1989; and Carruthers, Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis , 3 rd Edition, Cambridge ETniversity Press, Cambridge, 1987.

[0036] Isomers, e.g. , stereoisomers, can be isolated from mixtures by methods known to those skilled in the art, including chiral high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the formation and crystallization of chiral salts; or preferred isomers can be prepared by asymmetric syntheses. See, for example, Jacques et al, Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1981); Wilen et al. , Tetrahedron 33 :2725 (1977); Eliel, Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1962); and Wilen, Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions p. 268 (E.L. Eliel, Ed., Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 1972). The invention additionally encompasses compounds described herein as individual isomers substantially free of other isomers, and alternatively, as mixtures of various isomers.

[0037] As used herein a pure enantiomeric compound is substantially free from other enantiomers or stereoisomers of the compound (i.e., in enantiomeric excess). In other words, an“S” form of the compound is substantially free from the“R” form of the compound and is, thus, in enantiomeric excess of the“R” form. The term“enantiomerically pure” or“pure enantiomer” denotes that the compound comprises more than 75% by weight, more than 80% by weight, more than 85% by weight, more than 90% by weight, more than 91% by weight, more than 92% by weight, more than 93% by weight, more than 94% by weight, more than 95% by weight, more than 96% by weight, more than 97% by weight, more than 98% by weight, more than 98.5% by weight, more than 99% by weight, more than 99.2% by weight, more than 99.5% by weight, more than 99.6% by weight, more than 99.7% by weight, more than 99.8% by weight or more than 99.9% by weight, of the enantiomer. In certain embodiments, the weights are based upon total weight of all enantiomers or stereoisomers of the compound. [0038] In the compositions provided herein, an enantiomerically pure compound can be present with other active or inactive ingredients. For example, a pharmaceutical composition comprising enantiomerically pure R-position/center/ carbon compound can comprise, for example, about 90% excipient and about 10% enantiomerically pure R- compound. In certain embodiments, the enantiomerically pure R-compound in such compositions can, for example, comprise, at least about 95% by weight R-compound and at most about 5% by weight S-compound, by total weight of the compound. For example, a pharmaceutical composition comprising enantiomerically pure S-compound can comprise, for example, about 90% excipient and about 10% enantiomerically pure S-compound. In certain embodiments, the enantiomerically pure S-compound in such compositions can, for example, comprise, at least about 95% by weight S-compound and at most about 5% by weight R- compound, by total weight of the compound. In certain embodiments, the active ingredient can be formulated with little or no excipient or carrier.

[0039] The term“diastereomierically pure” denotes that the compound comprises more than 75% by weight, more than 80% by weight, more than 85% by weight, more than 90% by weight, more than 91% by weight, more than 92% by weight, more than 93% by weight, more than 94% by weight, more than 95% by weight, more than 96% by weight, more than 97% by weight, more than 98% by weight, more than 98.5% by weight, more than 99% by weight, more than 99.2% by weight, more than 99.5% by weight, more than 99.6% by weight, more than 99.7% by weight, more than 99.8% by weight or more than 99.9% by weight, of a single diastereomer. Methods for determining diastereomeric and enantiomeric purity are well-known in the art. Diastereomeric purity can be determined by any analytical method capable of quantitatively distinguishing between a compound and its diastereomers, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

[0040] Stereoisomers”: It is also to be understood that compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the nature or sequence of bonding of their atoms or the arrangement of their atoms in space are termed“isomers.” Isomers that differ in the arrangement of their atoms in space are termed“stereoisomers.” Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another are termed“diastereomers” and those that are non- superimposable mirror images of each other are termed“enantiomers.” When a compound has an asymmetric center, for example, it is bonded to four different groups, a pair of enantiomers is possible. An enantiomer can be characterized by the absolute configuration of its asymmetric center and is described by the R- and S-sequencing rules of Cahn and Prelog, or by the manner in which the molecule rotates the plane of polarized light and designated as dextrorotatory or levorotatory (i.e., as (+) or (-)-isomers respectively). A chiral compound can exist as either individual enantiomer or as a mixture thereof. A mixture containing equal proportions of the enantiomers is called a“racemic mixture”.

[0041] The articles“a” and“an” may be used herein to refer to one or to more than one ( i.e . at least one) of the grammatical objects of the article. By way of example“an analogue” means one analogue or more than one analogue.

[0042] When a range of values is listed, it is intended to encompass each value and sub range within the range. For example“Ci_ 6 alkyl” is intended to encompass, Ci, C 2 , C 3 , C 4 ,

C 5 , C 6 , C 1-6 , C 1-5 , Ci^, C 1-3 , C 1-2 , C 2-6 , C 2-5 , C 2 ^, C 2-3 , C 3-6 , C 3-5 , C 3 ^, C 4-6 , C 4-5 , and C 5-6 alkyl.

[0043] The following terms are intended to have the meanings presented therewith below and are useful in understanding the description and intended scope of the present invention.

[0044] “Alkyl” refers to a radical of a straight-chain or branched saturated hydrocarbon group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms (“C1-20 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 12 carbon atoms (“C1-12 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 10 carbon atoms (“Ci_io alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 9 carbon atoms (“Ci_ 9 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 8 carbon atoms (“Ci_ 8 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 7 carbon atoms (“Ci_ 7 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 6 carbon atoms (“Ci_ 6 alkyl”, also referred to herein as“lower alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 5 carbon atoms (“Ci_

5 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 4 carbon atoms (“Ci_ 4 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 3 carbon atoms (“Ci_ 3 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 2 carbon atoms (“C1-2 alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 carbon atom (“Ci alkyl”). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 2 to

6 carbon atoms (“C 2-6 alkyl”). Examples of Ci_ 6 alkyl groups include methyl (Ci), ethyl (C 2 ), n-propyl (C 3 ), isopropyl (C 3 ), n-butyl (C 4 ), tert-butyl (C ), sec-butyl (C ), iso-butyl (C ), n- pentyl (C 5 ), 3-pentanyl (C 5 ), amyl (C 5 ), neopentyl (C 5 ), 3-methyl-2-butanyl (C 5 ), tertiary amyl (C 5 ), and n-hexyl (C 6 ). Additional examples of alkyl groups include n-heptyl (C 7 ), n- octyl (C 8 ) and the like. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an alkyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e ., unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted alkyl”) or substituted (a“substituted alkyl”) with one or more substituents; e.g., for instance from 1 to 5 substituents, 1 to 3 substituents, or 1 substituent. In certain embodiments, the alkyl group is unsubstituted Ci_io alkyl (e.g, -CEE). In certain embodiments, the alkyl group is substituted Ci_io alkyl. Common alkyl abbreviations include Me (-C¾), Et (-CH 2 CH 3 ), iPr (- CH(CH 3 ) 2 ), nPr (-CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ), n-Bu (-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ), or i-Bu (-CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 ).

[0045] “Alkyl ene” refers to an alkyl group wherein two hydrogens are removed to provide a divalent radical, and which may be substituted or unsubstituted. Unsubstituted alkylene groups include, but are not limited to, methylene (-CH 2 -), ethylene (-CH 2 CH 2 -), propylene (-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -), butylene (-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -), pentylene (-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 - ), hexylene (-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -), and the like. Exemplary substituted alkylene groups, e.g., substituted with one or more alkyl (methyl) groups, include but are not limited to, substituted methylene (-CH(CH 3 )-, (-C(CH 3 ) 2 -), substituted ethylene (-CH(CH 3 )CH 2 -,- CH 2 CH(CH 3 )-, -C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 -,-CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 -), substituted propylene (-CH(CH 3 )CH 2 CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 CH(CH 3 )-, -C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 -), and the like. When a range or number of carbons is provided for a particular alkylene group, it is understood that the range or number refers to the range or number of carbons in the linear carbon divalent chain. Alkylene groups may be substituted or unsubstituted with one or more substituents as described herein.

[0046] “Alkenyl” refers to a radical of a straight-chain or branched hydrocarbon group having from 2 to 20 carbon atoms, one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (e.g, 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon-carbon double bonds), and optionally one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (e.g, 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon-carbon triple bonds) (“C 2-2 o alkenyl”). In certain embodiments, alkenyl does not contain any triple bonds. In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 10 carbon atoms (“C 2 _io alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 9 carbon atoms (“C 2-9 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 8 carbon atoms (“C 2-8 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 7 carbon atoms (“C 2-7 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 6 carbon atoms (“C 2-6 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 5 carbon atoms (“C 2-5 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 4 carbon atoms (“C 2 _4 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 3 carbon atoms (“C 2-3 alkenyl”). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 carbon atoms (“C 2 alkenyl”). The one or more carbon-carbon double bonds can be internal (such as in 2-butenyl) or terminal (such as in 1- butenyl). Examples of C 2-4 alkenyl groups include ethenyl (C 2 ), l-propenyl (C 3 ), 2-propenyl (C 3 ), l-butenyl (C 4 ), 2-butenyl (C 4 ), butadienyl (C 4 ), and the like. Examples of C 2-6 alkenyl groups include the aforementioned C 2-4 alkenyl groups as well as pentenyl (C 5 ), pentadienyl (C5), hexenyl (C 6 ), and the like. Additional examples of alkenyl include heptenyl (C 7 ), octenyl (C 8 ), octatrienyl (C 8 ), and the like. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an alkenyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted alkenyl”) or substituted (a“substituted alkenyl”) with one or more substituents e.g., for instance from 1 to 5 substituents, 1 to 3 substituents, or 1 substituent. In certain

embodiments, the alkenyl group is unsubstituted C 2 -io alkenyl. In certain embodiments, the alkenyl group is substituted C 2 -io alkenyl.

[0047] “Alkynyl” refers to a radical of a straight-chain or branched hydrocarbon group having from 2 to 20 carbon atoms, one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (e.g, 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon-carbon triple bonds), and optionally one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (e.g,

1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon-carbon double bonds) (“C2-20 alkynyl”). In certain embodiments, alkynyl does not contain any double bonds. In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 10 carbon atoms (“C 2-l0 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 9 carbon atoms (“C2-9 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 8 carbon atoms (“C2-8 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 7 carbon atoms (“C2-7 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 6 carbon atoms (“C2-6 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 5 carbon atoms (“C2-5 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 4 carbon atoms (“C2-4 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 3 carbon atoms (“C 2-3 alkynyl”). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 carbon atoms (“C 2 alkynyl”). The one or more carbon- carbon triple bonds can be internal (such as in 2-butynyl) or terminal (such as in l-butynyl). Examples of C2-4 alkynyl groups include, without limitation, ethynyl (C2), l-propynyl (C 3 ), 2-propynyl (C 3 ), l-butynyl (C 4 ), 2-butynyl (C 4 ), and the like. Examples of C 2-6 alkenyl groups include the aforementioned C 2-4 alkynyl groups as well as pentynyl (C 5 ), hexynyl (C 6 ), and the like. Additional examples of alkynyl include heptynyl (C 7 ), octynyl (C 8 ), and the like. ETnless otherwise specified, each instance of an alkynyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted alkynyl”) or substituted (a “substituted alkynyl”) with one or more substituents; e.g, for instance from 1 to 5

substituents, 1 to 3 substituents, or 1 substituent. In certain embodiments, the alkynyl group is unsubstituted C2-10 alkynyl. In certain embodiments, the alkynyl group is substituted C2-10 alkynyl.

[0048] The term“heteroalkyl,” as used herein, refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, which further comprises 1 or more (e.g, 1, 2, 3, or 4) heteroatoms (e.g, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, boron, silicon, phosphorus) within the parent chain, wherein the one or more heteroatoms is inserted between adjacent carbon atoms within the parent carbon chain and/or one or more heteroatoms is inserted between a carbon atom and the parent molecule, i.e., between the point of attachment. In certain embodiments, a heteroalkyl group refers to a saturated group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms (“heteroCi_i 0 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 9 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms (“heteroCi_ 9 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms

(“heteroCi- 8 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms and 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms (“heteroCi_ 7 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms and 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms

(“heteroCi- 6 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms and 1 or 2 heteroatoms (“heteroCi- 5 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms and lor 2 heteroatoms (“heteroC i_4 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 3 carbon atoms and 1 heteroatom (“heteroCi- 3 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 to 2 carbon atoms and 1 heteroatom

(“heteroCi- 2 alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 1 carbon atom and 1 heteroatom (“heteroCi alkyl”). In some embodiments, a heteroalkyl group is a saturated group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms and 1 or 2 heteroatoms (“heteroC 2-6 alkyl”). Unless otherwise specified, each instance of a heteroalkyl group is independently

unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted heteroalkyl”) or substituted (a“substituted heteroalkyl”) with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the heteroalkyl group is an unsubstituted heteroCi_i 0 alkyl. In certain embodiments, the heteroalkyl group is a substituted heteroCi_i 0 alkyl.

[0049] “Aryl” refers to a radical of a monocyclic or polycyclic ( e.g ., bicyclic or tricyclic) 4n+2 aromatic ring system (e.g., having 6, 10, or 14 p electrons shared in a cyclic array) having 6-14 ring carbon atoms and zero heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system (“C 6-i 4 aryl”). In some embodiments, an aryl group has six ring carbon atoms (“C 6 aryl”; e.g, phenyl). In some embodiments, an aryl group has ten ring carbon atoms (“C10 aryl”; e.g, naphthyl such as l-naphthyl and 2-naphthyl). In some embodiments, an aryl group has fourteen ring carbon atoms (“C14 aryl”; e.g, anthracyl). “Aryl” also includes ring systems wherein the aryl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl groups wherein the radical or point of attachment is on the aryl ring, and in such instances, the number of carbon atoms continue to designate the number of carbon atoms in the aryl ring system. Typical aryl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from aceanthrylene, acenaphthylene, acephenanthrylene, anthracene, azulene, benzene, chrysene, coronene, fluoranthene, fluorene, hexacene, hexaphene, hexalene, as-indacene, s-indacene, indane, indene, naphthalene, octacene, octaphene, octalene, ovalene, penta-2, 4-diene, pentacene, pentalene, pentaphene, perylene, phenalene, phenanthrene, picene, pleiadene, pyrene, pyranthrene, rubicene, triphenylene, and trinaphthalene. Particularly aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl, indenyl, and tetrahydronaphthyl. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an aryl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an “unsubstituted aryl”) or substituted (a“substituted aryl”) with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the aryl group is unsubstituted C 6-i4 aryl. In certain embodiments, the aryl group is substituted C 6-i4 aryl.

[0050] In certain embodiments, an aryl group substituted with one or more of groups selected from halo, Ci-C 8 alkyl, Ci-C 8 haloalkyl, cyano, hydroxy, Ci-C 8 alkoxy, and amino.

[0051] Examples of representative substituted aryls include the following

56 51 56 57 wherein one of R and R may be hydrogen and at least one of R and R is each independently selected from Ci-C 8 alkyl, Ci-C 8 haloalkyl, 4-10 membered heterocyclyl, alkanoyl, Ci-C 8 alkoxy, heteroaryl oxy, alkylamino, arylamino, heteroarylamino, NR 58 COR 59 , NR 58 S0R 59 NR 58 S0 2 R 59 , COOalkyl, COOaryl, CONR 58 R 59 , CONR 58 OR 59 , NR 58 R 59 , S0 2 NR 58 R 59 , S-alkyl, SOalkyl, S0 2 alkyl, Saryl, SOaryl, S0 2 aryl; or R 56 and R 57 may be joined to form a cyclic ring (saturated or unsaturated) from 5 to 8 atoms, optionally containing one or more heteroatoms selected from the group N, O, or S. R 60 and R 61 are independently hydrogen, Ci-C 8 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, 4-10 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -Ci 0 aryl, substituted C 6 -Ci 0 aryl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl, or substituted 5- 10 membered heteroaryl .

[0052] “Fused aryl” refers to an aryl having two of its ring carbon in common with a second aryl or heteroaryl ring or with a carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl ring.

[0053] “Heteroaryl” refers to a radical of a 5-10 membered monocyclic or bicyclic 4n+2 aromatic ring system ( e.g having 6 or 10 p electrons shared in a cyclic array) having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur (“5-10 membered heteroaryl”). In heteroaryl groups that contain one or more nitrogen atoms, the point of attachment can be a carbon or nitrogen atom, as valency permits. Heteroaryl bicyclic ring systems can include one or more heteroatoms in one or both rings. “Heteroaryl” includes ring systems wherein the heteroaryl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl groups wherein the point of attachment is on the heteroaryl ring, and in such instances, the number of ring members continue to designate the number of ring members in the heteroaryl ring system. “Heteroaryl” also includes ring systems wherein the heteroaryl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more aryl groups wherein the point of attachment is either on the aryl or heteroaryl ring, and in such instances, the number of ring members designates the number of ring members in the fused (aryl/heteroaryl) ring system. Bicyclic heteroaryl groups wherein one ring does not contain a heteroatom ( e.g ., indolyl, quinolinyl, carbazolyl, and the like) the point of attachment can be on either ring, i.e., either the ring bearing a heteroatom (e.g., 2-indolyl) or the ring that does not contain a heteroatom (e.g, 5-indolyl).

[0054] In some embodiments, a heteroaryl group is a 5-10 membered aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (“5-10 membered heteroaryl”). In some embodiments, a heteroaryl group is a 5-8 membered aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (“5-8 membered heteroaryl”). In some embodiments, a heteroaryl group is a 5-6 membered aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (“5-6 membered heteroaryl”). In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heteroaryl has 1-3 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heteroaryl has 1-2 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heteroaryl has 1 ring heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of a heteroaryl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted heteroaryl”) or substituted (a“substituted heteroaryl”) with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl group is unsubstituted 5-14 membered heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl group is substituted 5-14 membered heteroaryl.

[0055] Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, pyrrolyl, furanyl and thiophenyl. Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, and isothiazolyl. Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing three heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazolyl, oxadiazolyl, and thiadiazolyl. Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing four heteroatoms include, without limitation, tetrazolyl. Exemplary 6-membered heteroaryl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, pyridinyl. Exemplary 6-membered heteroaryl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and pyrazinyl. Exemplary 6-membered heteroaryl groups containing three or four heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazinyl and tetrazinyl, respectively. Exemplary 7-membered heteroaryl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azepinyl, oxepinyl, and thiepinyl. Exemplary 5,6-bicyclic heteroaryl groups include, without limitation, indolyl, isoindolyl, indazolyl, benzotriazolyl, benzothiophenyl, isobenzothiophenyl, benzofuranyl, benzoisofuranyl, benzimidazolyl, benzoxazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzoxadiazolyl, benzthiazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzthiadiazolyl, indolizinyl, and purinyl. Exemplary 6,6- bicyclic heteroaryl groups include, without limitation, naphthyridinyl, pteridinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, cinnolinyl, quinoxalinyl, phthalazinyl, and quinazolinyl.

[0056] Examples of representative heteroaryls include the following:

wherein each Z is selected from carbonyl, N, NR 65 , O, and S; and R 65 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 10 cycloalkyl, 4-10 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -Ci 0 aryl, and 5-10 membered heteroaryl.

[0057] “Carbocyclyl” or“carbocyclic” refers to a radical of a non-aromatic cyclic hydrocarbon group having from 3 to 10 ring carbon atoms (“C 3 _i 0 carbocyclyl”) and zero heteroatoms in the non-aromatic ring system. In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 3 to 8 ring carbon atoms (“C 3-8 carbocyclyl”). In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 3 to 6 ring carbon atoms (“C 3-6 carbocyclyl”). In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 3 to 6 ring carbon atoms (“C 3-6 carbocyclyl”). In some embodiments, a

carbocyclyl group has 5 to 10 ring carbon atoms (“C 5 _i 0 carbocyclyl”). Exemplary C 3-6 carbocyclyl groups include, without limitation, cyclopropyl (C 3 ), cyclopropenyl (C 3 ), cyclobutyl (C 4 ), cyclobutenyl (C 4 ), cyclopentyl (C5), cyclopentenyl (C5), cyclohexyl (C 6 ), cyclohexenyl (C 6 ), cyclohexadienyl (C 6 ), and the like. Exemplary C 3-8 carbocyclyl groups include, without limitation, the aforementioned C 3-6 carbocyclyl groups as well as cycloheptyl (C 7 ), cycloheptenyl (C 7 ), cycloheptadienyl (C 7 ), cycloheptatrienyl (C 7 ), cyclooctyl (C 8 ), cyclooctenyl (C 8 ), bicyclo[2.2. l]heptanyl (C 7 ), bicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl (C 8 ), and the like. Exemplary C 3 _io carbocyclyl groups include, without limitation, the

aforementioned C 3-8 carbocyclyl groups as well as cyclononyl (C 9 ), cyclononenyl (C 9 ), cyclodecyl (C10), cyclodecenyl (C10), octahydro- 1 //-indenyl (C 9 ), decahydronaphthalenyl (C10), spiro[4.5]decanyl (C10), and the like. As the foregoing examples illustrate, in certain embodiments, the carbocyclyl group is either monocyclic (“monocyclic carbocyclyl”) or contain a fused, bridged or spiro ring system such as a bicyclic system (“bicyclic

carbocyclyl”) and can be saturated or can be partially unsaturated.“Carbocyclyl” also includes ring systems wherein the carbocyclyl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more aryl or heteroaryl groups wherein the point of attachment is on the carbocyclyl ring, and in such instances, the number of carbons continue to designate the number of carbons in the carbocyclic ring system. ETnless otherwise specified, each instance of a carbocyclyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted carbocyclyl”) or substituted (a“substituted carbocyclyl”) with one or more substituents. In certain

embodiments, the carbocyclyl group is unsubstituted C 3-l0 carbocyclyl. In certain

embodiments, the carbocyclyl group is a substituted C 3-l0 carbocyclyl.

[0058] In some embodiments,“carbocyclyl” is a monocyclic, saturated carbocyclyl group having from 3 to 10 ring carbon atoms (“C 3 _i 0 cycloalkyl”). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 3 to 8 ring carbon atoms (“C 3-8 cycloalkyl”). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 3 to 6 ring carbon atoms (“C 3-6 cycloalkyl”). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 5 to 6 ring carbon atoms (“C5-6 cycloalkyl”). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 5 to 10 ring carbon atoms (“C5-10 cycloalkyl”). Examples of C5-6 cycloalkyl groups include cyclopentyl (C 5 ) and cyclohexyl (C 5 ). Examples of C 3-6 cycloalkyl groups include the aforementioned C 5-6 cycloalkyl groups as well as cyclopropyl (C 3 ) and cyclobutyl (C 4 ). Examples of C 3-8 cycloalkyl groups include the aforementioned C 3-6 cycloalkyl groups as well as cycloheptyl (C 7 ) and cyclooctyl (C 8 ). Unless otherwise specified, each instance of a cycloalkyl group is independently unsubstituted (an “unsubstituted cycloalkyl”) or substituted (a“substituted cycloalkyl”) with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the cycloalkyl group is unsubstituted C 3 _i 0 cycloalkyl. In certain embodiments, the cycloalkyl group is substituted C 3 _i 0 cycloalkyl.

[0059] “Heterocyclyl” or“heterocyclic” refers to a radical of a 3- to lO-membered non aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1 to 4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, boron, phosphorus, and silicon (“3-10 membered heterocyclyl”). In heterocyclyl groups that contain one or more nitrogen atoms, the point of attachment can be a carbon or nitrogen atom, as valency permits. A heterocyclyl group can either be monocyclic (“monocyclic heterocyclyl”) or a fused, bridged or spiro ring system such as a bicyclic system (“bicyclic heterocyclyl”), and can be saturated or can be partially unsaturated. Heterocyclyl bicyclic ring systems can include one or more heteroatoms in one or both rings. “Heterocyclyl” also includes ring systems wherein the heterocyclyl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more carbocyclyl groups wherein the point of attachment is either on the carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl ring, or ring systems wherein the heterocyclyl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more aryl or heteroaryl groups, wherein the point of attachment is on the heterocyclyl ring, and in such instances, the number of ring members continue to designate the number of ring members in the

heterocyclyl ring system. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of heterocyclyl is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an“unsubstituted heterocyclyl”) or substituted (a“substituted heterocyclyl”) with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the heterocyclyl group is unsubstituted 3-10 membered heterocyclyl. In certain embodiments, the heterocyclyl group is substituted 3-10 membered heterocyclyl.

[0060] In some embodiments, a heterocyclyl group is a 5-10 membered non-aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, boron, phosphorus, and silicon (“5-10 membered heterocyclyl”). In some embodiments, a heterocyclyl group is a 5-8 membered non-aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (“5-8 membered heterocyclyl”). In some embodiments, a heterocyclyl group is a 5-6 membered non-aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (“5-6 membered heterocyclyl”). In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heterocyclyl has 1-3 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heterocyclyl has 1-2 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heterocyclyl has one ring heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

[0061] Exemplary 3-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azirdinyl, oxiranyl, thiorenyl. Exemplary 4-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azetidinyl, oxetanyl and thietanyl. Exemplary 5-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, tetrahydrofuranyl, dihydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl,

dihydrothiophenyl, pyrrolidinyl, dihydropyrrolyl and pyrrolyl-2,5-dione. Exemplary 5- membered heterocyclyl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, dioxolanyl, oxasulfuranyl, disulfuranyl, and oxazolidin-2-one. Exemplary 5-membered heterocyclyl groups containing three heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazolinyl, oxadiazolinyl, and thiadiazolinyl. Exemplary 6-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, dihydropyridinyl, and thianyl. Exemplary 6-membered heterocyclyl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, dithianyl, dioxanyl. Exemplary 6- membered heterocyclyl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazinanyl. Exemplary 7-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azepanyl, oxepanyl and thiepanyl. Exemplary 8-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azocanyl, oxecanyl and thiocanyl. Exemplary 5-membered heterocyclyl groups fused to a C 6 aryl ring (also referred to herein as a 5,6-bicyclic heterocyclic ring) include, without limitation, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, dihydrobenzofuranyl, dihydrobenzothienyl, benzoxazolinonyl, and the like. Exemplary 6-membered heterocyclyl groups fused to an aryl ring (also referred to herein as a 6,6-bicyclic heterocyclic ring) include, without limitation, tetrahydroquinolinyl,

tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and the like.

[0062] “Nitrogen-containing heterocyclyl” group means a 4- to 7- membered non aromatic cyclic group containing at least one nitrogen atom, for example, but without limitation, morpholine, piperidine ( e.g . 2-piperidinyl, 3 -piperidinyl and 4-piperidinyl), pyrrolidine (e.g. 2-pyrrolidinyl and 3 -pyrrolidinyl), azetidine, pyrrolidone, imidazoline, imidazolidinone, 2-pyrazoline, pyrazolidine, piperazine, and N-alkyl piperazines such as N- methyl piperazine. Particular examples include azetidine, piperidone and piperazone.

[0063] “Hetero” when used to describe a compound or a group present on a compound means that one or more carbon atoms in the compound or group have been replaced by a nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur heteroatom. Hetero may be applied to any of the hydrocarbyl groups described above such as alkyl, e.g., heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, e.g, heterocyclyl, aryl, e.g. heteroaryl, cycloalkenyl, e.g. cycloheteroalkenyl, and the like having from 1 to 5, and particularly from 1 to 3 heteroatoms.

[0064] “Acyl” refers to a radical -C(0)R 20 , where R 20 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, as defined herein.“Alkanoyl” is an acyl group wherein R 20 is a group other than hydrogen. Representative acyl groups include, but are not limited to, formyl (-CHO), acetyl (-C(=0)CH 3 ), cyclohexyl carbonyl, cyclohexylmethylcarbonyl, benzoyl (-C(=0)Ph), benzyl carbonyl (-C(=0)CH 2 Ph),— C(O)- Ci-C 8 alkyl, -C(O)-(CH 2 ) t (C 6 -Ci 0 aryl), -C(O)-(CH 2 ) t (5-l0 membered heteroaryl), -C(O)- (CH 2 ) t (C 3 -C l0 cycloalkyl), and -C(O)-(CH 2 ) t (4-l0 membered heterocyclyl), wherein t is an integer from 0 to 4. In certain embodiments, R 21 is Ci-C 8 alkyl, substituted with halo or hydroxy; or C3-C10 cycloalkyl, 4-10 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -Cio aryl, arylalkyl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl, each of which is substituted with unsubstituted Ci- C 4 alkyl, halo, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkoxy, unsubstituted C1-C4 haloalkyl, unsubstituted Ci- C 4 hydroxyalkyl, or unsubstituted C1-C4 haloalkoxy or hydroxy.

[0065] “Alkoxy” refers to the group -OR 29 where R 29 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. Particular alkoxy groups are methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, isopropoxy, n-butoxy, tert-butoxy, sec-butoxy, n-pentoxy, n- hexoxy, and l,2-dimethylbutoxy. Particular alkoxy groups are lower alkoxy, i.e. with between 1 and 6 carbon atoms. Further particular alkoxy groups have between 1 and 4 carbon atoms.

[0066] In certain embodiments, R 29 is a group that has 1 or more substituents, for instance from 1 to 5 substituents, and particularly from 1 to 3 substituents, in particular 1 substituent, selected from the group consisting of amino, substituted amino, C 6 -Cio aryl, aryloxy, carboxyl, cyano, C3-C10 cycloalkyl, 4-10 membered heterocyclyl, halogen, 5-10 membered heteroaryl, hydroxyl, nitro, thioalkoxy, thioaryloxy, thiol, alkyl-S(O)-, aryl-S(O)-, alkyl- S(0) 2 - and aryl-S(0) 2 -. Exemplary‘substituted alkoxy’ groups include, but are not limited to, -0-(CH 2 ) t (C 6 -Cio aryl), -O-(CH 2 ) t (5-l0 membered heteroaryl), -0-(CH 2 ) t (C 3 -Cio cycloalkyl), and -O-(CH 2 ) t (4-l0 membered heterocyclyl), wherein t is an integer from 0 to 4 and any aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl or heterocyclyl groups present, may themselves be substituted by unsubstituted C 1 -C 4 alkyl, halo, unsubstituted C 1 -C 4 alkoxy, unsubstituted Ci- C haloalkyl, unsubstituted Ci-C hydroxyalkyl, or unsubstituted Ci-C haloalkoxy or hydroxy. Particular exemplary‘substituted alkoxy’ groups are -OCF 3 , -OCH 2 CF 3 , -OCH 2 Ph, -OCH 2 -cyclopropyl, -OCH 2 CH 2 OH, and -OCH 2 CH 2 NMe 2 .

[0067] “Amino” refers to the radical -NH 2 .

[0068] Oxo group” refers to -C(=0)-.

[0069] Substituted amino” refers to an amino group of the formula -N(R 38 ) 2 wherein R 38 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstitued alkenyl, substituted or unsubstitued alkynyl, substituted or unsubstitued carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl, or an amino protecting group, wherein at least one of R 38 is not a hydrogen. In certain embodiments, each R 38 is independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 8 alkenyl, C 3 -C 8 alkynyl, C 6 -Cio aryl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl, 4-10 membered heterocyclyl, or C 3 -Cio cycloalkyl; or C 3 -C 8 alkyl, substituted with halo or hydroxy; C 3 -C 8 alkenyl, substituted with halo or hydroxy; C 3 -C 8 alkynyl, substituted with halo or hydroxy, or - (CH 2 ) t (C 6 -Cio aryl), -(CH 2 ) t (5-lO membered heteroaryl), -(CH 2 ) t (C 3 -Cio cycloalkyl), or - (CH 2 ) t (4-lO membered heterocyclyl), wherein t is an integer between 0 and 8, each of which is substituted by unsubstituted Ci-C alkyl, halo, unsubstituted Ci-C alkoxy, unsubstituted Ci-C 4 haloalkyl, unsubstituted C 3 -C 4 hydroxyalkyl, or unsubstituted C 3 -C 4 haloalkoxy or hydroxy; or both R 38 groups are joined to form an alkyl ene group.

[0070] Exemplary“substituted amino” groups include, but are not limited to, -NR 39 -C I - C 8 alkyl, -NR 39 -(CH 2 ) t (C 6 -Ci 0 aryl), -NR 39 -(CH 2 ) t (5-lO membered heteroaryl), -NR 39 - (CH 2 ) t (C 3 -C ! o cycloalkyl), and -NR 39 -(CH 2 ) t (4-lO membered heterocyclyl), wherein t is an integer from 0 to 4, for instance 1 or 2, each R 39 independently represents H or C 3 -C 8 alkyl; and any alkyl groups present, may themselves be substituted by halo, substituted or unsubstituted amino, or hydroxy; and any aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, or heterocyclyl groups present, may themselves be substituted by unsubstituted C 3 -C 4 alkyl, halo, unsubstituted Ci- C 4 alkoxy, unsubstituted Ci-C 4 haloalkyl, unsubstituted C 3 -C 4 hydroxyalkyl, or unsubstituted Ci-C 4 haloalkoxy or hydroxy. For the avoidance of doubt the term‘substituted amino’ includes the groups alkylamino, substituted alkylamino, alkylarylamino, substituted alkylarylamino, arylamino, substituted arylamino, dialkylamino, and substituted dialkylamino as defined below. Substituted amino encompasses both monosub stituted amino and disubstituted amino groups.

[0071] “Carboxy” refers to the radical -C(0)OH. [0072] “Cyano” refers to the radical -CN.

[0073] “Halo” or“halogen” refers to fluoro (F), chloro (Cl), bromo (Br), and iodo (I). In certain embodiments, the halo group is either fluoro or chloro.

[0074] “Haloalkyl” refers to an alkyl radical in which the alkyl group is substituted with one or more halogens. Typical haloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to,

trifluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, fluoromethyl, chloromethyl, dichloromethyl, dibromoethyl, tribromomethyl, tetrafluoroethyl, and the like.

[0075] “Hydroxy” refers to the radical -OH.

[0076] “Nitro” refers to the radical -N0 2 .

[0077] Thioketo” refers to the group =S.

[0078] Alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups, as defined herein, are optionally substituted ( e.g .,“substituted” or“unsubstituted” alkyl, “substituted” or“unsubstituted” alkenyl,“substituted” or“unsubstituted” alkynyl, “substituted” or“unsubstituted” carbocyclyl,“substituted” or“unsubstituted” heterocyclyl, “substituted” or“unsubstituted” aryl or“substituted” or“unsubstituted” heteroaryl group). In general, the term“substituted”, whether preceded by the term“optionally” or not, means that at least one hydrogen present on a group (e.g., a carbon or nitrogen atom) is replaced with a permissible substituent, e.g, a substituent which upon substitution results in a stable compound, e.g, a compound which does not spontaneously undergo transformation such as by rearrangement, cyclization, elimination, or other reaction. Unless otherwise indicated, a “substituted” group has a substituent at one or more substitutable positions of the group, and when more than one position in any given structure is substituted, the substituent is either the same or different at each position. The term“substituted” is contemplated to include substitution with all permissible substituents of organic compounds, any of the substituents described herein that results in the formation of a stable compound. The present invention contemplates any and all such combinations in order to arrive at a stable compound. For purposes of this invention, heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any suitable substituent as described herein which satisfy the valencies of the heteroatoms and results in the formation of a stable moiety.

[0079] Exemplary carbon atom substituents include, but are not limited to, halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , -S0 2 H, -S0 3 H, -OH, -OR aa , -ON(R bb ) 2 , -N(R bb ) 2 , -N(R bb ) 3 + X , -N(OR cc )R bb ,

OP(R cc ) 3 , -B(R aa ) 2 , -B(OR cc ) 2 , -BR aa (OR cc ), C H0 alkyl, Cno haloalkyl, C 2-10 alkenyl, C 2-10 alkynyl, C 3 _i 0 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-l4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups; or two geminal hydrogens on a carbon atom are replaced with the group =0, =S, =NN(R bb ) 2 ,

=NNR bb C(=0)R aa , =NNR bb C(=0)OR aa , =NNR bb S(=0) 2 R aa , =NR bb , or =NOR cc ;

[0080] each instance of R is, independently, selected from C 3— 10 alkyl, ( ' i in haloalkyl, C 2 _io alkenyl, C 2-l0 alkynyl, C 3-l0 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two R aa groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups;

[0081] each instance of R bb is, independently, selected from hydrogen, -OH, -OR aa , - N(R cc ) 2 , -CN, -C(=0)R aa , -C(=0)N(R cc ) 2 , -C0 2 R aa , -S0 2 R aa , -C(=NR cc )OR aa , - C(=NR cc )N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 R cc , -S0 2 OR cc , -SOR aa , -C(=S)N(R cc ) 2 , -C(=0)SR cc , - C(=S)SR cc , -P(=0) 2 R aa , -P(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -P(=0) 2 N(R cc ) 2 , -P(=0)(NR cc ) 2 , C H0 alkyl, C MO haloalkyl, C 2-l0 alkenyl, C 2-l0 alkynyl, C 3-l0 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two R bb groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups;

[0082] each instance of R is, independently, selected from hydrogen, C 3— 10 alkyl, ( ' i in haloalkyl, C 2-l0 alkenyl, C 2-l0 alkynyl, C 3-l0 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two R cc groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups; [0083] each instance of R dd is, independently, selected from halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , -

P(=0)(R ee ) 2 , -OP(=0)(R ee ) 2 , -OP(=0)(OR ee ) 2 , C ,_ alkyl, C^ haloalkyl, C M alkenyl, C 2-6 alkynyl, C 3-l0 carbocyclyl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-i o aryl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R ss groups, or two geminal R dd substituents can be joined to form =0 or =S;

[0084] each instance of R ee is, independently, selected from Ci_ 6 alkyl, Ci_ 6 haloalkyl, C 2 _

6 alkenyl, C 2-6 alkynyl, C 3-l0 carbocyclyl, C 6-i o aryl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, and 3-10 membered heteroaryl, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R ss groups;

[ ff

0085] each instance of R is, independently, selected from hydrogen, Ci_ 6 alkyl, Ci_ 6 haloalkyl, C 2-6 alkenyl, C 2-6 alkynyl, C 3 _i 0 carbocyclyl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-i o ff

aryl and 5-10 membered heteroaryl, or two R groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R ss groups; and

[0086] each instance of R ss is, independently, halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , -S0 2 H, -S0 3 H,

-OH, -OCi_6 alkyl, -ON(C I-6 alkyl) 2 , -N(C I-6 alkyl) 2 , -N(C I-6 alkyl) 3 + X-, -NH(C I-6 alkyl) 2 + X , -NH 2 (C I-6 alkyl) + X , -NH 3 + X , -N(OC I-6 alkyl)(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -N(OH)(C ,^ alkyl), -NH(OH), -SH, -SCi_ 6 alkyl, -SS(C ^, alkyl), -C(=0)(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -C0 2 H, -C0 2 (Ci_ 6 alkyl), -OC(=0)(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -0C0 2 (Ci_ 6 alkyl), -C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , - OC(=0)NH(C I-6 alkyl), -NHC(=0)( C ^, alkyl), -N(C ^, alkyl)C(=0)( Ci_ 6 alkyl), - NHC0 2 (C I-6 alkyl), -NHC(=0)N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -NHC(=0)NH(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -NHC(=0)NH 2 , -C(=NH)0(C 1-6 alkyl) ,-OC(=NH)(C I ^ alkyl), -OC(=NH)OC I-6 alkyl, -C(=NH)N(C I ^, alkyl) 2 , -C(=NH)NH(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -C(=NH)NH 2 , -OC(=NH)N(C I-6 alkyl) 2 , - 0C(NH)NH(C 1-6 alkyl), -OC(NH)NH 2 , -NHC(NH)N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , -NHC(=NH)NH 2 , - NHS0 2 (C I-6 alkyl), -S0 2 N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -S0 2 NH(C^, alkyl), -S0 2 NH 2 ,-S0 2 Cw, alkyl, - S0 2 OCi^ alkyl, -0S0 2 Ci_ 6 alkyl, -SOC^, alkyl, -Si(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 3 , -OSi(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 3 - C(=S)N(C !-6 alkyl) 2 , C(=S)NH(C !-6 alkyl), C(=S)NH 2 , -C(=0)S(C^ alkyl), -C(=S)SC !-6 alkyl, -SC(=S)SC !-6 alkyl, -P(=0) 2 (C 1A , alkyl), -P(=0)(C^ alkyl) 2 , -0P(=0)(C^ alkyl) 2 , - 0P(=0)(0Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , Ci_ 6 alkyl, Ci_ 6 haloalkyl, C 2-6 alkenyl, C 2-6 alkynyl, C 3 _i 0 carbocyclyl, C 6-i o aryl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl; or two geminal R ss substituents can be joined to form =0 or =S; wherein X is a counterion.

[0087] A“counterion” or“anionic counterion” is a negatively charged group associated with a cationic quaternary amino group in order to maintain electronic neutrality. Exemplary counterions include halide ions (e.g., F , CE, Br , G), N0 3 , Cl0 , OFT, H 2 P0 4 , HS0 , sulfonate ions (e.g, methansulfonate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, p-toluenesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, 10-camphor sulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate, naphthalene-l-sulfonic acid-5-sulfonate, ethan-l-sulfonic acid-2-sulfonate, and the like), and carboxylate ions (e.g, acetate, ethanoate, propanoate, benzoate, glycerate, lactate, tartrate, glycolate, and the like).

[0088] These and other exemplary substituents are described in more detail in the

Detailed Description, and Claims. The invention is not intended to be limited in any manner by the above exemplary listing of substituents.

Other definitions

[0089] As used herein, the term“modulation” refers to the inhibition or potentiation of GABA A receptor function. A“modulator” (e.g, a modulator compound) may be, for example, an agonist, partial agonist, antagonist, or partial antagonist of the GABA A receptor.

[0090] “Pharmaceutically acceptable” means approved or approvable by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government or the corresponding agency in countries other than the United States, or that is listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia or other generally recognized pharmacopoeia for use in animals, and more particularly, in humans.

[0091] “Pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to a salt of a compound of the invention that is pharmaceutically acceptable and that possesses the desired pharmacological activity of the parent compound. In particular, such salts are non-toxic may be inorganic or organic acid addition salts and base addition salts. Specifically, such salts include: (1) acid addition salts, formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like; or formed with organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, hexanoic acid, cyclopentanepropionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl) benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, l,2-ethane-disulfonic acid, 2- hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, 2- naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4-toluenesulfonic acid, camphorsulfonic acid, 4- methylbicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-2-ene-l-carboxylic acid, glucoheptonic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, trimethylacetic acid, tertiary butylacetic acid, lauryl sulfuric acid, gluconic acid, glutamic acid, hydroxynaphthoic acid, salicylic acid, stearic acid, muconic acid, and the like; or (2) salts formed when an acidic proton present in the parent compound either is replaced by a metal ion, e.g ., an alkali metal ion, an alkaline earth ion, or an aluminum ion; or coordinates with an organic base such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, N- methylglucamine and the like. Salts further include, by way of example only, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, tetraalkylammonium, and the like; and when the compound contains a basic functionality, salts of non-toxic organic or inorganic acids, such as hydrochloride, hydrobromide, tartrate, mesylate, acetate, maleate, oxalate and the like. The term“pharmaceutically acceptable cation” refers to an acceptable cationic counter ion of an acidic functional group. Such cations are exemplified by sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, tetraalkylammonium cations, and the like. See, e.g, Berge, et al, ./. Pharm. Sci. (1977) 66(1): 1-79.

[0092] The term“prodrug” is intended to encompass therapeutically inactive compounds that, under physiological conditions, are converted into the therapeutically active agents of the present invention. One method for making a prodrug is to design selected moieties that are hydrolyzed or cleaved at a targeted in vivo site of action under physiological conditions to release the desired molecule which then produces its therapeutic effect. In certain

embodiments, the prodrug is converted by an enzymatic activity of the subject.

[0093] In an alternate embodiment, the present invention provides prodrugs of compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III- II), wherein the prodrug includes a cleavable moiety on the C3 hydroxy as depicted in Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II). “Tautomers” refer to compounds that are interchangeable forms of a particular compound structure, and that vary in the displacement of hydrogen atoms and electrons. Thus, two structures may be in equilibrium through the movement of p electrons and an atom (usually H). For example, enols and ketones are tautomers because they are rapidly interconverted by treatment with either acid or base. Another example of tautomerism is the aci- and nitro- forms of phenylnitromethane, that are likewise formed in the presence of acid or base. Tautomeric forms may be relevant to the attainment of the optimal chemical reactivity and biological activity of a compound of interest. [0094] A“subject” to which administration is contemplated includes, but is not limited to, humans (i.e., a male or female of any age group, e.g., a pediatric subject (e.g, infant, child, adolescent) or adult subject (e.g, young adult, middle-aged adult or senior adult)) and/or a non-human animal, e.g. , a mammal such as primates (e.g, cynomolgus monkeys, rhesus monkeys), cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, goats, rodents, cats, and/or dogs. In certain

embodiments, the subject is a human. In certain embodiments, the subject is a non-human animal.

[0095] In certain embodiments, the substituent present on an oxygen atom is an oxygen protecting group (also referred to as a hydroxyl protecting group). Oxygen protecting groups include, but are not limited to, -R aa , -N(R bb ) 2 , -C(=0)SR aa , -C(=0)R aa , -C0 2 R aa , -

P(=0)(NR bb ) 2 , wherein R aa , R bb , and R cc are as defined herein. Oxygen protecting groups are well known in the art and include those described in detail in Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis , T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, incorporated herein by reference.

[0096] Exemplary oxygen protecting groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, methoxylmethyl (MOM), 2-methoxyethoxymethyl (MEM), benzyl (Bn), triisopropyl silyl (TIPS), /-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS), /-butylmethoxyphenylsilyl (TBMPS),

methanesulfonate (mesylate), and tosylate (Ts).

[0097] In certain embodiments, the substituent present on an sulfur atom is an sulfur protecting group (also referred to as a thiol protecting group). Sulfur protecting groups include, but are not limited to, -R aa , -N(R bb ) 2 , -C(=0)SR aa , -C(=0)R aa , -C0 2 R aa , -

P(=0)(NR bb ) 2 , wherein R aa , R bb , and R cc are as defined herein. Sulfur protecting groups are well known in the art and include those described in detail in Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis , T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, incorporated herein by reference.

[0098] In certain embodiments, the substituent present on a nitrogen atom is an amino protecting group (also referred to herein as a nitrogen protecting group). Amino protecting groups include, but are not limited to, -OH, -OR aa , -N(R CC ) 2 , -C(=0)R aa , -C(=0)OR aa , - C(=0)N(R cc ) 2 , -S(=0) 2 R aa , -C(=NR cc )R aa , -C(=NR cc )OR aa , -C(=NR cc )N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 R cc , -S0 2 OR cc , -SOR aa , -C(=S)N(R cc ) 2 , -C(=0)SR cc , -C(=S)SR cc , CI_IO alkyl, C 2 _i 0 alkenyl, C 2-i o alkynyl, C 3 _i 0 carbocyclyl, 3-l4-membered heterocyclyl, C 6-l4 aryl, and 5—14— membered heteroaryl groups, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups, and wherein R aa , R bb , R cc and R dd are as defined herein. Amino protecting groups are well known in the art and include those described in detail in Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis , T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, incorporated herein by reference.

[0099] Exemplary amino protecting groups include, but are not limited to amide groups (e.g, -C(=0)R aa ), which include, but are not limited to, formamide and acetamide;

carbamate groups (e.g, -C(=0)OR aa ), which include, but are not limited to, 9- fluorenylmethyl carbamate (Fmoc), /-butyl carbamate (BOC), and benzyl carbamate (Cbz); sulfonamide groups (e.g, -S(=0) 2 R aa ), which include, but are not limited to, p- toluenesulfonamide (Ts), methanesulfonamide (Ms), and N-\2- (trimethyl silyl )ethoxy] m ethyl amine ( SEM) .

[0100] Disease, disorder, and condition are used interchangeably herein.

[0101] As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, the terms“treat,”“treating” and “treatment” contemplate an action that occurs while a subject is suffering from the specified disease, disorder or condition, which reduces the severity of the disease, disorder or condition, or retards or slows the progression of the disease, disorder or condition .In general, the“effective amount” of a compound refers to an amount sufficient to elicit the desired biological response, e.g. , to treat a CNS-related disorder, is sufficient to induce anesthesia or sedation. As will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in this art, the effective amount of a compound of the invention may vary depending on such factors as the desired biological endpoint, the pharmacokinetics of the compound, the disease being treated, the mode of administration, and the age, weight, health, and condition of the subject.

[0102] As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, a“therapeutically effective amount” of a compound is an amount sufficient to provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of a disease, disorder or condition, or to delay or minimize one or more symptoms associated with the disease, disorder or condition. A therapeutically effective amount of a compound means an amount of therapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other therapies, which provides a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of the disease, disorder or condition. The term“therapeutically effective amount” can encompass an amount that improves overall therapy, reduces or avoids symptoms or causes of disease or condition, or enhances the therapeutic efficacy of another therapeutic agent. [0103] In an alternate embodiment, the present invention contemplates administration of the compounds of the present invention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or a pharmaceutically acceptable composition thereof, as a prophylactic before a subject begins to suffer from the specified disease, disorder or condition. As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, a“prophylactically effective amount” of a compound is an amount sufficient to prevent a disease, disorder or condition, or one or more symptoms associated with the disease, disorder or condition, or prevent its recurrence. A prophylactically effective amount of a compound means an amount of a therapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other agents, which provides a prophylactic benefit in the prevention of the disease, disorder or condition. The term“prophylactically effective amount” can encompass an amount that improves overall prophylaxis or enhances the prophylactic efficacy of another prophylactic agent.

[0104] As used herein, an“episodic dosing regimen” is a dosing regimen wherein a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) or a composition comprising a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) is administered to a subject for a finite period of time in response to the diagnosis of a disorder or symptom thereof, e.g , a diagnosis or symptom of depression an episode of major depressive disorder, bipolar depression, anxiety, or postpartum depression. In some embodiments, the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder In some embodiments, the compound is formulated as individual dosage units, each unit comprising a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) and one or more suitable pharmaceutical excipients. In some embodiments, the episodic dosing regimen has a duration of a plurality of weeks, e.g. about 8 weeks. In contrast with chronic administration as defined herein, episodic dosing of a compound occurs over a finite period of time, e.g., from about 2 weeks to about 8 weeks, in response to a diagnosis of a disorder, e.g. , depression, or a symptom thereof. In some embodiments, episodic dosing occurs once per day across a plurality of weeks, e.g. , from about 2 weeks to about 6 weeks. In one embodiment, the episodic dosing has a duration of two weeks. In some embodiments, more than one episodic dosing regimen is administered to the subject, e.g. , two or more episodic regimens throughout the subject’s life.

Compounds

[0105] It should be appreciated that formulas described herein may reference particular carbon atoms, such as Cl 7, C3, Cl 9, etc. These references are based on the position of carbon atoms according to steroid nomenclature known and used in the industry, as shown below:

For example, C17 refers to the carbon at position 17 and C3 refers to the carbon at position 3.

[0106] As described herein, in one aspect, the present invention provides compounds of

Formula (I-X):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein: p is 0, 1, or 2; R 19 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl; R 1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -SR X1 , -N(R X1 ) 2 ,-0C(=0)R X1 , - OC(=0)OR xl , -OC(=0)SR xl , -OC(=0)N(R xl ) 2 , -SC(=0)R X2 , -SC(=0)OR xl , - SC(=0)SR X1 , -SC(=0)N(R X1 ) 2 ,-NHC(=0)R X1 , -NHC(=0)OR xl , -NHC(=0)SR X1 , -

NHC(=0)N(R X1 ) 2 , -0S(=0) 2 R X2 , -OS(=0) 2 OR x1 , -S-S(=0) 2 R X2 , -S-S(=0) 2 OR x1 , - S(=0)R X2 , -SO?R X2 , or -S(=0) 2 OR xl , wherein each instance of R X1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two R X1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and each instance of R X2 is independently substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl; R 2a is hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, or -OR A2 , wherein R 42 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl; R lla is hydrogen or -OR 43 , wherein R 43 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, and R llb is hydrogen; or R lla and R llb are joined to form an oxo (=0) group; and each instance of R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, or halogen.

[0107] It should be appreciated that the stereochemistry at C17 could be depicted in any of the following but equivalent ways:

[0108] In certain embodiments of , R 19 is hydrogen in a compound of Formula (I-X); In certain embodiments, R 19 is methyl in a compound of Formula (I-X).

[0109] In certain embodiments, R 1 is substituted or unsubstitued alkyl in a compound of Formula (I-X). [0110] In certain embodiments, R 1 is substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl in a compound of Formula (I-X).

[0111] In certain embodiments, R 1 is substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl, wherein the heteroaryl contains at least one nitrogen atom in a compound of Formula (I-X). [0112] In certain embodiments, R 1 is substituted or unsubstitued heteroaryl, wherein the heteroaryl is a bicyclic in a compound of Formula (I-X).

[0113] In one aspect, the present invention provides compounds l9-nor C3,3- disubstituted C2l-pyrazolyl of Formula (I-I):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, wherein:R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl; R 2a is hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, or -OR A2 , wherein R 42 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl; R lla is hydrogen or -OR 43 , wherein R 43 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, and R llb is hydrogen; or R lla and R llb are joined to form an oxo (=0) group; each instance of R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, or halogen; each instance of R m , R n , and R x is, independently, hydrogen, halogen, -N0 2 , -CN, -OR 04 , -N(R G4 ) 2 , -C(=0)R GA , -C(=0)0R GA , - 0C(=0)R ga , -0C(=0)0R ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , -0C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , - N(R GA )C(=0)0R ga , -N(R GA )C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 -SR ga , -S(0)R ga , e. .,-S(=0)R GA , -S(=0) 2 R GA , -S(=0) 2 0R ga , -0S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R ga , substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl; and each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring.

[0114] In certain embodiments, R 3a in a l9-nor C3,3-disubstituted C2l-pyrazolyl of Formula (I-I) is Ci -6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkoxy or one to two halo groups (e.g., fluoro), or at least one of R m , R n , and R x is halogen (e.g., -F, -Cl, -Br), -N0 2 , -CN, -OR GA , - N(R ga ) 2 , -C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)0R ga , -SR ga , -S(=0) R ga , -S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 0R ga , - 0S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , substituted or unsubstituted C l-6 alkyl (e.g., -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , haloalkyl, e.g., -CF 3 ) , wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl.

[0115] It is understood, based on the aforementioned description, that steroids of Formula (I-I) encompass 3,3-disubstituted l9-nor compounds wherein the A/B ring system of the compound is cis (as provided in Formula (I-I-A), wherein the A/B ring system of the compound is trans (as provided in Formula (I-I-B):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Formula (I-X) or Formula (FI) Group R 3a

[0116] As generally defined herein, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl.

[0117] In certain embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 2 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4- 5alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C5- 6 alkyl. Exemplary R 3a Ci_ 6 alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, substituted or unsubstituted methyl (Ci), ethyl (C 2 ), n-propyl (C 3 ), isopropyl (C 3 ), n-butyl (C ), tert-butyl (C ), sec-butyl (C ), iso-butyl (C ), n-pentyl (C 5 ), 3-pentanyl (C 5 ), amyl (C 5 ), neopentyl (C5), 3-methyl-2-butanyl (C5), tertiary amyl (C5), n-hexyl (C 6 ), Ci_ 6 alkyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more fluoro groups (e.g, -CF 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 difluoroethyl, and 2,2,2-trifluoro-l, l-dimethyl-ethyl), Ci_ 6 alkyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more chloro groups (e.g, -CH 2 Cl, -CHCl 2 ), and Ci_ 6 alkyl substituted with alkoxy groups (e.g, -CH 2 OCH 3 and -CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 ). In certain embodiments, R 3a is substituted Ci -6 alkyl, e.g, R 3a is haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or aminoalkyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is Me, Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, i-Bu, fluoromethyl, chloromethyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, difluoroethyl, 2,2,2-trifluoro-l, l-dimethyl-ethyl, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, or ethoxym ethyl.

[0118] In certain embodiments, R 3a is unsubstituted Ci -3 alkyl, e.g, R 3a is -CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 .

[0119] In certain embodiments, R 3a is Ci -6 alkyl substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; e.g, R 3a is -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , or -CF 3 . In certain embodiments, R 3a is Ci -6 alkyl substituted with one or two fluorine atoms; e.g, R 3a is -CH 2 F or -CHF 2 .

[0120] In certain embodiments, R 3a is Ci -6 alkyl substituted with one or more -OR A1 groups, wherein R A1 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstitued alkyl. In certain

embodiments, R 3a is -CH 2 OR A1 , e.g, wherein R A1 is hydrogen, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , or - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , e.g, to provide a group R 3a of formula -CH 2 OH, -CH 2 OCH 3 , -CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 , or -CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 .

[0121] In certain embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, e.g., substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3- alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4-5 alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethenyl (C 2 ), propenyl (C 3 ), or butenyl (C 4 ), unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of alkyl, halo, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or hydroxyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethenyl, propenyl, or butenyl, unsubstituted or substituted with alkyl, halo, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or hydroxy. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethenyl.

[0122] In certain embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted C2 -6 alkynyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 ^alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4-5 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkynyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl, propynyl, or butynyl, unsubstituted or substituted with alkyl, halo, haloalkyl (e.g, CF 3 ), alkoxyalkyl, cycloalkyl (e.g, cyclopropyl or cyclobutyl), or hydroxyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is selected from the group consisting of

trifluoroethynyl, cyclopropyl ethynyl, cyclobutyl ethynyl, and propynyl, fluoropropynyl, and chloroethynyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl (C 2 ), propynyl (C 3 ), or butynyl (C 4 ), unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl (C 2 ), propynyl (C 3 ), or butynyl (C ) substituted with substituted phenyl. In certain embodiments, the phenyl substituent is further substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, alkyl, trifluoroalkyl, alkoxy, acyl, amino or amido. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl (C 2 ), propynyl (C 3 ), or butynyl (C 4 ) substituted with substituted or unsubstituted pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazoyl, thiazolyl, isoxazoyl, l,2,3-triazolyl, l,2,4-triazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, or tetrazolyl.

[0123] In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl, propynyl, or butynyl, unsubstituted or substituted with alkyl, halo, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or hydroxyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted aryl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with phenyl unsubstituted or substituted with halo, alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, or acyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl. In certain embodiments, R lla is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. In certain embodiments,

R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted pyridinyl, or pyrimidinyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazoyl, thiazolyl, isoxazoyl, l,2,3-triazolyl, l,2,4-triazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, tetrazolyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with substituted or unsubstituted pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, or mopholinyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is propynyl or butynyl, substituted with hydroxyl or alkoxy. In certain embodiments, R 3a is propynyl or butynyl, substituted with methoxy or ethoxy. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with chloro. In certain embodiments, R 3a is ethynyl or propynyl, substituted with trifluorom ethyl.

[0124] In certain embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 ^carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4-5 carbocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 carbocyclyl. In certain embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl or substituted or unsubstituted cyclobutyl.

Formula (I-X) or Formula (FI) Groups R 2a , R lla , R llb , R 6a , and R 6b

[0125] As generally defined herein, R 2a is hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci- 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, or -OR 42 , wherein R A2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl.

[0126] In certain embodiments, R 2a is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R 2a is halogen, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo. In certain embodiments, R 2a is fluoro or chloro. In certain embodiments, R 2a is substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 6 alkyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 2 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C^alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C5- 6 alkyl.

For example, in some embodiments, R 2a is Ci_ 6 alkyl optionally substituted with halo (e.g, bromo, chloro, fluoro (i.e., to provide a group R 2a of formula -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 )) or - OR 42 . In certain embodiments, R 42 is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , i.e., to provide a group R 2a of formula -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . In certain embodiments, R 2a is substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, In certain embodiments, R 2a is substituted or unsubstituted C 2- 6 alkynyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-4 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4-5 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkynyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted C 3- carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4 _5 carbocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C5-6 carbocyclyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl or substituted or unsubstituted cyclobutyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OR 42 . In certain embodiments, R 42 is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R 42 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, e.g., substituted or unsubstituted Ci- 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 2 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 ^alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C -5 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5 _6alkyl. In certain embodiments, R 42 is hydrogen, -CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 3 , or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , i.e., to provide a group R 2a of formula -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , or -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the alpha configuration. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the beta configuration.

[0127] As generally defined herein, R lla is hydrogen or -OR 43 , wherein R 43 is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, and R llb is hydrogen; or R lla and R llb are joined to form an oxo (=0) group.

[0128] In certain embodiments, both R lla and R llb are both hydrogen.

[0129] In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are joined to form an oxo (=0) group.

[0130] In certain embodiments, R lla is -OR 43 and R llb is hydrogen. In certain

embodiments, wherein R lla is -OR 43 , R lla is in the alpha or beta configuration. In certain embodiments, wherein R lla is -OR 43 , R lla is in the alpha configuration. In certain

embodiments, wherein R lla is -OR 43 , R lla is in the beta configuration. In certain

embodiments, R 43 is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R 43 is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 2 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 ^alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C -5 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkyl. In certain embodiments, R 43 is hydrogen, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , or - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , i.e., to provide a group R lla of formula -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , or - OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3. [0131] As generally defined herein, each instance of R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, or halogen.

Formula (I-X) Group p [0132] In some embodiments, p is 0, 1, or 2. In some embodiments, p is 0. In some embodiments, p is 1. In some embodiments, p is 2.

Formula (FI) Groups R m , R n , and R x

[0133] As generally defined herein, each instance of R m , R n , and R x is, independently, hydrogen, halogen, -N0 2 , -CN, -OR GA , -N(R GA ) 2 , -C(=0)R GA , -C(=0)OR GA , -OC(=0)R GA , - R ga , yl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl.

[0134] Furthermore, as generally defined herein, each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C l-6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring. In certain embodiments, each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 2 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4- 5alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted Cs^alkyl), substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, each instance of R is hydrogen, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted phenyl. [0135] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, at least two of R m , R n , and R x are hydrogen. In certain embodiments, all of R m , R n , and R x are hydrogen to provide an unsubstituted pyrazolyl.

[0136] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is a non-hydrogen substituent. As used herein, a R m , R n , and R x “non-hydrogen substituent” means that R m , R n , and R x are not hydrogen, but are any one of halogen, -N0 2 , -CN, -CF 3 , -OR GA , -N(R GA ) 2 , - g a ,

unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl.

[0137] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is halogen, e.g., fluoro, bromo, iodo, or chloro. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is halogen. In certain embodiments, R m is halogen, e.g, fluoro, bromo, iodo, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R n is halogen, e.g, fluoro, bromo, iodo, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R x is halogen, e.g, fluoro, bromo, iodo, or chloro.

[0138] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -N0 2 . In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -N0 2 . In certain embodiments, R m is -N0 2 . In certain embodiments, R n is -N0 2 . In certain embodiments, R x is -N0 2 .

[0139] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -CN. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -CN. In certain embodiments, R m is -CN. In certain embodiments, R n is -CN. In certain embodiments, R x is -CN.

[0140] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -OR GA , e.g., wherein R GA is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 or -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -OR GA , e.g, -OH, -OCH 3 , or -OCF 3 . In certain embodiments, R m is -OR GA , e.g, -OH, -OCH 3 , or -OCF 3 In certain embodiments, R n is - OR ga . In certain embodiments, R x is -OR GA , e.g., -OH, -OCH 3 , or -OCF 3

[0141] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -N(R GA ) 2 , e.g, wherein R is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 or -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -N(R GA ) 2 , e.g, -NH 2 , -NHCH 3 , or -N(CH 3 ) 2. In certain embodiments, R m is -N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -NH 2 , -NHCH 3 , or -N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain

embodiments, R n is -N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -NH 2 , -NHCH 3 , or -N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain embodiments, R x is -N(R ga ) 2 , e.g., -NH 2 , -NHCH 3 , or -N(CH 3 ) 2

[0142] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -C(=0)R GA , - C(=0)OR ga , or -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , e.g, wherein R GA is hydrogen or substituted or

unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 or -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -C(=0)R ga , e.g., -CHO, -C(=0)CH 3 , or -C(=0)CH 2 CH 3. In certain embodiments, R m is - C(=0)R ga , e.g., -CHO, -C(=0)CH 3 , or -C(=0)CH 2 CH 3. In certain embodiments, R n is - C(=0)R ga , e.g., -CHO, -C(=0)CH 3 , or -C(=0)CH 2 CH 3. In certain embodiments, R x is - C(=0)R ga , e.g., -CHO, -C(=0)CH 3 , or -C(=0)CH 2 CH 3. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -C(=0)OR GA , e.g, -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)OCH 3 , or -C(=0)0CH 2 CH 3 In certain embodiments, R m is -C(=0)OR GA , e.g, -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)OCH 3 , or -C(=0)0CH 2 CH 3 In certain embodiments, R n is -C(=0)OR GA , e.g., -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)OCH 3 , or - C(=0)0CH 2 CH 3 In certain embodiments, R x is -C(=0)OR GA , e.g., -C(=0)OH, -C(=0)OCH 3 , or -C(=0)0CH 2 CH 3 In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -C(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., - C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)NHCH 3 , or -C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2. In certain embodiments, R m is - C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , e.g, -C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)NHCH 3 , or -C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain

embodiments, R n is -C(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g, -C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)NHCH 3 , or -C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2. In certain embodiments, R x is -C(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)NHCH 3 , or - C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2

[0143] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -OC(=0)R GA , - 0C(=0)0R ga , or , -OC(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , e.g., wherein R GA is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 or -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -OC(=0)R ga , e.g., -OC(=0)CH 3 In certain embodiments, R m is -OC(=0)R GA , e.g., - OC(=0)CH 3 In certain embodiments, R n is -OC(=0)R GA , e.g., -OC(=0)CH 3 In certain embodiments, R x is -OC(=0)R GA , e.g, -OC(=0)CH 3. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -OC(=0)OR GA , e.g, -OC(=0)OCH 3 In certain embodiments, R m is -OC(=0)OR GA , e.g., -OC(=0)OCH 3 In certain embodiments, R n is -0C(=0)0R GA , e.g., -OC(=0)OCH 3 In certain embodiments, R x is -0C(=0)0R GA , e.g, -OC(=0)OCH 3. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -OC(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g, -OC(=0)NHCH 3 or -0C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain embodiments, R m is -OC(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -OC(=0)NHCH 3 or -0C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain embodiments, R n is -OC(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -OC(=0)NHCH 3 or -0C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain embodiments, R x is -OC(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -OC(=0)NHCH 3 or -0C(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2 [0144] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)R GA , - N(R GA )C(=0)0R GA or -N(R GA )C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , e.g., wherein R GA is hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 or -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , e.g., -NHC(=0)CH 3 In certain embodiments, R m is - N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , , e.g., -NHC(=0)CH 3. In certain embodiments, R n is -N(R GA )C(=0)R GA , e.g, -NHC(=0)CH 3. In certain embodiments, R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)R GA , e.g, -NHC(=0)CH 3. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)OR GA , e.g., -NHC(=0)OCH 3 In certain embodiments, R m is -N(R GA )C(=0)OR GA , e.g., -NHC(=0)OCH 3 In certain embodiments, R n is -N(R GA )C(=0)OR GA , e.g., -NHC(=0)OCH 3. In certain embodiments, R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)OR ga , e.g., -NHC(=0)OCH 3. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , e.g., -NHC(=0)NH 2 or -NHC(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2 In certain embodiments, R m is -N(R GA )C(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g, -NHC(=0)NH 2 or -NHC(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2. In certain embodiments, R n is -N(R GA )C(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -NHC(=0)NH 2 or - NHC(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2. In certain embodiments, R x is -N(R GA )C(=0)N(R GA ) 2 , e.g, - NHC(=0)NH 2 or -NHC(=0)N(CH 3 ) 2

[0145] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is -SR GA , -S(0)R GA , e.g,- S(=0)R ga , -S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 OR ga , -OS(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , or - N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R ga , e.g, wherein R GA is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 or -CF 3 ), substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -SR GA , e.g, -SCH 3 , or -S-Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g, -S(=0) 2 CH 3 -S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R m is -SR GA , e.g, -SCH 3 -SCF 3 ; -S(0)R ga , C. ., -S(=0)R ga , e.g, -S(=0)CH 3 -S(=0)CF 3 ; -S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g, -S(=0) 2 CH 3 -S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R n is -SR GA , e.g, -SCFF, -SCF 3 ; -S(0)R GA , e.g,- S(=0)R ga , e.g, -S(=0)CH 3 -S(=0)CF 3 ; -S(=0) 2 R ga , e.g, -S(=0) 2 CH 3, -S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or - S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments,

S(=0)CF 3 ; -S(=0) 2 R ga , e.g, -S(=0) 2 CH 3 -S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -S(=0) 2 0R ga . In certain embodiments, R m is -S(=0) 2 0R GA , e.g., -S(=0) 2 0CFl 3 - S(=0) 2 0CF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 0Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R n is -S(=0) 2 0R GA , e.g., -S(=0) 2 0CH 3 -S(=0) 2 0CF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 0Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R x is -S(=0) 2 0R GA , e.g., -S(=0) 2 0CH 3 -S(=0) 2 0CF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 0Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -0S(=0) 2 R GA . In certain embodiments, R m is -0S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g., - 0S(=0) 2 CH 3 -0S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -0S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R n is -0S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g, -0S(=0) 2 CH 3 - 0S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -0S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R x is -0S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g., -0S(=0) 2 CH 3 -0S(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -0S(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 . In certain embodiments, R m is - S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , e.g, -S(=0) 2 NHCH 3. -S(=0) 2 NHCF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 -NH-Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R n is -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., -S(=0) 2 NHCH 3 -S(=0) 2 NHCF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 -NH-Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R x is -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 , e.g., - S(=0) 2 NHCH 3 -S(=0) 2 NHCF 3 , or -S(=0) 2 -NH-Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, one of R m , R n , and R x is - N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R ga . In certain embodiments, R m is -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g, -NHS(=0) 2 CH 3. - NHS(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -NHS(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R n is -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g., -NHS(=0) 2 CH 3 - NHS(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -NHS(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, R x is -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R GA , e.g., -NHS(=0) 2 CH 3 - NHS(=0) 2 CF 3 , or -NHS(=0) 2 -Aryl, wherein Aryl is substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl.

[0146] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or

unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted Ci_ 2 alkyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 2-3 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-4 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4-5 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkyl. Exemplary Ci_ 6 alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, substituted or unsubstituted methyl (Ci), ethyl (C 2 ), n-propyl (C 3 ), isopropyl (C 3 ), n-butyl (C 4 ), tert-butyl (C 4 ), sec-butyl (C 4 ), iso-butyl (C 4 ), n-pentyl (C5), 3- pentanyl (C 5 ), amyl (C 5 ), neopentyl (C 5 ), 3-methyl-2-butanyl (C 5 ), tertiary amyl (C 5 ), n- hexyl (C 6 ), Ci_ 6 alkyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more fluoro groups (e.g., -CF 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 difluoroethyl, and 2,2,2-trifluoro-l, l-dimethyl-ethyl), Ci_ 6 alkyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more chloro groups (e.g., -CH 2 C1, -CHC1 2 ), and Ci_ 6 alkyl substituted with alkoxy groups (e.g, -CH 2 OCH 3 and -CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 ). In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted Ci -6 alkyl, e.g, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or aminoalkyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is Me, Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, i-Bu, fluoromethyl, chloromethyl,

difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, difluoroethyl, 2, 2, 2-trifluoro- 1, 1 -dimethyl- ethyl, methoxym ethyl, m ethoxy ethyl, or ethoxym ethyl.

[0147] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-3 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-4 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 4-5 alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is ethenyl (C 2 ), propenyl (C 3 ), or butenyl (C 4 ), unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of alkyl, halo, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or hydroxyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is ethenyl, propenyl, or butenyl, unsubstituted or substituted with alkyl, halo, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or hydroxy.

[0148] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, e.g, substituted or un substituted C 2-3 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3- alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C -5 alkynyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 alkynyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is ethynyl, propynyl, or butynyl, unsubstituted or substituted with alkyl, halo, haloalkyl (e.g, CF 3 ), alkoxyalkyl, cycloalkyl (e.g, cyclopropyl or cyclobutyl), or hydroxyl.

[0149] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocyclyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 ^carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted C -5 carbocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 5-6 carbocyclyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl or substituted or unsubstituted cyclobutyl.

[0150] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, e.g, substituted or unsubstituted 3-4 membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 4-5 membered heterocylyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 5-6 membered heterocylyl. [0151] In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g., -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), -C0 2 R GA , -C(=0)R GA , -CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R GA is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ).

[0152] Exemplary combinations of R m , R n , and R x as non-hydrogen substituents are contemplated herein.

[0153] For example, in certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl of formula a mono-substituted pyrazolyl ring of formula:

wherein R m , R n , and R x are each non-hydrogen substituents as defined herein.

[0154] In certain embodiments, the C21 -pyrazolyl of formula di- substituted pyrazolyl ring of formula:

wherein R m , R n , and R x are each non-hydrogen substituents as defined herein.

[0155] In certain embodiments, the C21 -pyrazolyl of formula tri sub stituted pyrazolyl ring wherein each of R m , R n , and R x are non-hydrogen substituents as defined herein. [0156] For example, in certain embodiments, wherein R 2a is hydrogen or a non-hydrogen alpha substituent, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-Al) or (I-I-Bl):

Bl) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CFF, -

CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are both hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are joined to form =0 (oxo). In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is hydrogen, fluoro, -CH 3 , or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In certain

embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are -CH 3 or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are fluoro. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is a non-hydrogen substituent and R 6b is hydrogen.

In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a di- substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), - C0 2 R ga , -C(=0)R ga , -CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R GA is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0157] In certain embodiments, wherein R 2a is hydrogen or a non-hydrogen beta substituent, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-A2) or (I-I-B2):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CH 3 - CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OH, -OC¾, -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are both hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are joined to form =0 (oxo). In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is hydrogen, fluoro, -CH 3 , or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In certain

embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are -CH 3 or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are fluoro. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is a non-hydrogen substituent and R 6b is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a di- substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), - C0 2 R ga , -C(=0)R ga , -CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R GA is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0158] In certain embodiments, wherein R lla is hydrogen or a non-hydrogen alpha substituent, and R llb is hydrogen, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-A3) or (I-I-B3):

B3) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CH 3 - CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the alpha configuration. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the beta configuration. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is hydrogen, fluoro, - CH 3 , or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are -CH 3 or -CF 3. In certain

embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are fluoro. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is a non-hydrogen substituent and R 6b is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C21- pyrazolyl ring is a di- substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), -C0 2 R GA , -C(=0)R GA , - CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , - CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0159] In certain embodiments, wherein R lla is hydrogen or a non-hydrogen beta substituent, and R llb is hydrogen, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-A4) or (I-I-B4):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CH 3 - CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the alpha configuration. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the beta configuration. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is hydrogen, fluoro, - CH 3 , or -CF 3 . In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are -CH 3 or -CF 3 . In certain

embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are fluoro. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is a non-hydrogen substituent and R 6b is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C21- pyrazolyl ring is a di- substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), -C0 2 R GA , -C(=0)R GA , - CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , - CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0160] In certain embodiments, wherein R lla and R llb are joined to form an oxo group, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-A5) or (I-I-B5):

B5), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CH 3 - CH2CH3, -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OH, -OC¾, -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the alpha configuration. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the beta configuration. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is hydrogen, fluoro, - CH 3 , or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are -CH 3 or -CF 3. In certain

embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, both of R 6a and R 6b are fluoro. In certain embodiments, wherein Ring B does not comprises a C5-C6 double bond, R 6a is a non-hydrogen substituent and R 6b is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C21- pyrazolyl ring is a di- substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), -C0 2 R GA , -C(=0)R GA , - CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci -2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , - CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0161] In certain embodiments, wherein R 6a is a non-hydrogen substituent, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-A6) or (I-I-B6):

B6), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CH 3 - CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, R 2a is -OH, -OCH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 , substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl, fluoro, or chloro. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the alpha configuration. In certain embodiments, R 2a is a non-hydrogen substituent in the beta configuration. In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are both hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R lla and R llb are joined to form =0 (oxo). In certain embodiments, R 6a is fluoro, -CH 3 , or -CF 3 and R 6b is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R 6b is fluoro, -CH 3 , or -CF 3 and R 6a is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, both of R 6a and R 6b are -CH 3 or -CF 3. In certain embodiments, both of R 6a and R 6b are fluoro. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a di -substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g., -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), -C0 2 R ga , -C(=0)R ga , -CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R GA is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0162] In certain embodiments, provided is a steroid of Formula (I-I-A7) or (I-I-B7):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, R 3a is -CH 3 - CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 , -CH 2 OCH 3 , or substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropyl. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a mono-substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is a di- substituted pyrazolyl. In certain embodiments, at least one of R m , R n , and R x is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ), - C0 2 R ga , -C(=0)R ga , -CN, -N0 2 , or halogen, wherein R GA is substituted or unsubstituted C l-2 alkyl (e.g, -CH 3 , -CF 3 ). In certain embodiments, the C2l-pyrazolyl ring is an unsubstituted pyrazolyl, wherein each instance of R m , R n , and R x is hydrogen.

[0163] In some embodiments, the compound is:

[0164]

[0165] In some embodiments, provided herein is a compound of Formula (II-I)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein

t is 1, 2, or 3; n is 0, 1 or 2;

R 19 is substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl;

R 5 is hydrogen or methyl, or when - is a double bond, R 5 is absent; R 3 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; each of R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, or R 6a and R 6b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group;

R 1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -OR A1 , -SR A1 , -N(R A1 ) 2 , -N(R A1 ), -OC(=0)R A1 , -OC(=0)OR A1 , -OC(=0)SR A1 ,

wherein each instance of R A1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two R A1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and R A2 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

each of R 2a , R 2b , R 4a , R 4b , R 7a , R 713 , R lla , R llb , R 12a , R 12b or R 17b , is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or

unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two R m groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic ring; or any one of R 2a and R 2b , R 4a and R 4b , R 7a and R 7b , R lla and R llb , and R 12a and R 12b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group;

each of R 15a , R 15b , R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -OR A1 , -SR A1 , -N(R a1 ) 2 , -N(R A1 ),-CN(R A1 ) 2 , -C(0)R a1 , -0C(=0)R a1 , -0C(=0)0R a1 , - 0C(=0)SR A1 , -0C(=0)N(R a1 ) 2 , -SC(=0)R A2 , -SC(=0)0R a1 , -SC(=0)SR a1 , - SC(=0)N(R A1 ) 2 ,-NHC(=0)R A1 , -NHC(=0)0R a1 , -NHC(=0)SR a1 , -NHC(=0)N(R a1 ) 2 , - 0S(=0) 2 R A2 , -0S(=0) 2 0R a1 , -S-S(=0) 2 R A2 , -S-S(=0) 2 0R a1 , -S(=0)R A2 , -S0 2 R A2 , or - S(=0) 2 0R A1 , wherein each instance of R A1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, -S0 2 R A2 , -C(0)R A2 , or two R A1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and R A2 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; and wherein - represents a single or double bond, provided if a double bond is present in

Ring B, then one of R 6a or R 6b and R 5 is absent.

[0166] It should be appreciated that the stereochemistry at C17 could be depicted in any of the following but equivalent ways:

Formula (I I -I) Groups R 2a and R 2b

[0167] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b are each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0168] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b are each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0169] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0170] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b are both hydrogen.

[0171] In some embodiments, R 2a and R 2b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0172] In some embodiments, R 2a and R 2b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0173] In some embodiments, R 2a and R 2b is -C¾, -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OC¾, or - CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (P-I) Groups R 4a and R 4h

[0174] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0175] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0176] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0177] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b are both hydrogen. In further embodiments, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0178] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH. In some other aspects, R 4a and R 4b is - CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (I I -I) Groups R lla and R llb

[0179] In some embodiments, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR m ,- wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0180] In some further embodiments, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -0R D1 ,-0C(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. [0181] In some aspects, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -0R D1 ,-0C(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. In some aspects, R lla and R llb are both hydrogen.

[0182] In some aspects, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R lla and R llb is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0183] In some aspects, R lla and R llb is -C¾, -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OC¾, or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

[0184] In some embodiments, R lla and R llb are joined together to form oxo (=0).

Formula (I I -I) Groups R 15a and R 15h

[0185] In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0186] In some embodiments, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, - OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0187] In some embodiments, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0188] In some further embodiments, R 15a and R 15b are both hydrogen.

[0189] In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH. In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is - CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (II -I) Groups R 16a and R 16b

[0190] In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0R D1 ,-0C(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0191] In some embodiments, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, - 0R D1 ,-0C(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0192] In some embodiments, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0193] In some further embodiments, R 16a and R 16b are both hydrogen.

[0194] In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0195] In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is -C¾, -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OC¾, or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 . Formula (I I -I) Groups R 7a and R 7b

[0196] In some embodiments, R 7a and R 713 is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, or any of R 7a and R 7b are joined together to form oxo (=0).

[0197] In some further embodiments, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0198] In some aspects, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0199] In some aspects, R 7a and R b are all hydrogen.

[0200] In some aspects, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 7a and R 7b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci- C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0201] In some aspects, R 7a and R is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

[0202] In some embodiments, any of R 7a and R 7b are joined together to form oxo (=0).

Formula (II-I) Group R 5

[0203] In some aspects, R 5 is hydrogen in the cis position, relative to the C19 position. In some other aspects, R 5 is hydrogen in the trans position relative to the C19 position. In some embodiments, R 5 is methyl in the cis position relative to the C19 position. In some further embodiments, R 5 is methyl in the trans position relative to the C19 position.

Formula (II-I) Group R 3

[0204] In some embodiments, R 3 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

[0205] In some embodiments, R 3 is substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0206] In some embodiments, R 3 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. [0207] In some embodiments, R 3 is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R 3 is substituted alkyl (e.g., -CH 2 OMe or -CH 2 OEt, etc.). In some embodiments, R 3 is unsubstituted alkyl. In some embodiments, R 3 is methyl.

Formula (II-I) Group R 19

[0208] In some aspects, R 19 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl. In some aspects, R 19 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl with a deuterium substitution.

[0209] In some embodiments, R 19 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl.

[0210] In some embodiments, R 19 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl.

[0211] In some embodiments, R 19 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl.

[0212] In some aspects, R 19 is ethyl.

Formula (II-I) Group R 6a and R 6b

[0213] In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

[0214] In some aspects, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0215] In some aspects, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen or substituted alkyl. In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0216] In some aspects, both R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In some aspects, R 6a is halo or alkyl and R 6b is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b are both halo.

[0217] In some aspects, R 6a and R 6b are both alkyl.

[0218] In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b are joined to form an oxo group.

Formula (II-I) Group R 12a and R 12b

[0219] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR m ,- wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0220] In some aspects, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0221] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0222] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b are both hydrogen.

[0223] In some further embodiments, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0224] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b are joined together to form an oxo group (=0).

Formula (II -I) Group R 17b

[0225] In some embodiments, R 17b is fluorine, hydroxyl, methyl, or hydrogen. In some further embodiments, a hydrogen at R 17b is replaced with deuterium.

Formula (I I -I) t and n

[0226] In some embodiments, t is 1. In some other embodiments, t is 2. In some other embodiments, t is 3.

[0227] In some embodiments, n is 1. In some other embodiments, n is 2.

Formula (I I -I) Group R 1

[0228] In some embodiments, R 1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. [0229] In some embodiments, R 1 is

wherein each instance of R 2 o is, independently, halogen, -N0 2 ,

N(R ga ) 2 , -C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)0R ga , -0C(=0)R ga , -0C(=0)0R ga , -C(

N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , -0C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)0R ga , -S(=0) 2 R g

0S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , or -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R GA ; substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 - 4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, C5-10 substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted 5- to 10- membered heteroaryl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; wherein each instance is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R GA groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 or n is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

[0230] In some embodiments, wherein R 1 is

wherein each instance of R 2 o is, independently, halogen, -N0 2 , -CN, -OR GA , -N(R GA ) 2 , - C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)OR ga , -OC(=0)R ga , -OC(=0)OR ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , -OC(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)OR ga , -S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 OR ga , -OS(=0) 2 R ga , - S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , or -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R ga ; substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 3 - 4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, C . io substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted 5- to 10- membered

heteroaryl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; wherein each instance is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 and n is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

[0231] In some embodiments, R 1 is substituted carbocyclyl, substituted heterocyclyl, substituted aryl, or substituted heteroaryl, wherein each substituted carbocyclyl, substituted heterocyclyl, substituted aryl, or substituted heteroaryl is independently substituted with an unsubstituted or substituted carbocyclyl, unsubstituted or substituted heterocyclyl, unsubstituted or substituted aryl, or unsubstituted or substituted heteroaryl. [0232] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of

Formula (Il-Ia),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0233] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (Il-Ib)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0234] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (II-Ic)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0235] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (II-Ie),

wherein m is 0, 1, 2 or 3; p is 0, 1, or 3; each R 32 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0236] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (Il-Ig),

wherein u is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(R N )-, -C(R N ) 2 -, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(R n )- wherein R N is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, C(=0)R GA , - C(=0)0R ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -S(=0) 2 R ga , or -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 ; and each instance of R GA is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0237] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (II-Iga)

wherein u is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(R N )-, -C(R N ) 2 -, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(R n )- wherein R N is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, C(=0)R GA , - C(=0)0R ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -S(=0) 2 R ga , or -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 ; and each instance of R GA is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0238] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (Il-Ih)

wherein each R 35 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano; and r is 0, 1, 2 or 3; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0239] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (II-I) is the compound is of Formula (Il-Ii)

wherein s is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(R N )-, -C(R N ) 2 -, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(R n )- wherein R N is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Cl -6 alkyl, C(=0)R GA , - C(=0)0R ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -S(=0) 2 R ga , or -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 ; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0240] In some embodiments, the compound is selected from the group consisting of the compounds identified in Table II-l below:

Table II-l.

74

Compounds

[0241] In some embodiments, provided herein is a compound of Formula (III-I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein:

n is 0, 1 or 2;

R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

R 18 is substituted alkyl, or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

R 19 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

R 5 is hydrogen or methyl, or when - is a double bond, R 5 is absent;

each of R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, or R 6a and R 6b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group;

R 1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, -OR A1 , -SR A1 , -N(R A1 ) 2 , -N(R A1 ), -OC(=0)R A1 , -OC(=0)OR A1 , -OC(=0)SR A1 ,

wherein each instance of R A1 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a sulfur protecting group when attached to a sulfur atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two R A1 groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring; and R A2 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;

each of R la , R lb , R 2a , R 2b , R 4a , R 4b , R 7a , R 7b , R lla , R llb , R 12a , R 12b , R 15a , R 15b , R 16a , or R 16b is independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to an oxygen atom, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to a nitrogen atom, or two R m groups are joined to form an substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic ring; or any one of R 2a and R 2b , R 4a and R 4b , R 7a and R 7b , R lla and R l lb , and R 12a and R 12b are joined to form an oxo (=0) group; and

wherein - represents a single or double bond, provided if a double bond is present in

Ring B, then one of R 6a or R 6b is absent.

[0242] In some embodiments, provided herein is a compound of Formula (III-II)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein variables R 18 , n, R 5 , R 1 , R la , R lb , R 2a , R 2b , R 4a , R 4b , R 6a , R 6b , R 7a , R 7b , R l la , R llb , R 12a , R 12b , R 15a , R 15b , R 16a and R 16b are defined as in Formula III-I above; and

R 3a is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; and

R 19 is hydrogen, Ci-C 6 substituted alkyl, C 2 -C 6 unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl;

provided that if n is 0, R 1 is methyl, and R la , R lb , R 2a , R 2b , R 4a , R 4b , R 6a , R 6b , R 7a , R 71 *, R l la , R llb , R 12a , R 12b , R 15a , R 15b , R 16a and R 16b are hydrogen, then R 18 is substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, unsubstituted C 3 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, wherein if R 18 is substituted methyl, then methyl is substituted with halogen, -CN, -N0 2 ,-S0 2 H, -S0 3 H, -OR aa , -ON(R bb ) 2 , -N(R bb ) 2 ,-C(=0)R aa , -C(0)H, - C0 2 H, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein each instance of R aa is, independently, selected from Ci_i 0 alkyl, Ci_i 0 haloalkyl, C 2 _i 0 alkenyl, C 2 _i 0 alkynyl, C 3 _i 0 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6-i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two R aa groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring and each instance of R bb is, independently, selected from hydrogen, -OH, -OR aa , - N(R cc ) 2 , -CN, -C(=0)R aa , -C(=0)N(R cc ) 2 , -C0 2 R aa , -S0 2 R aa , or -C(=NR cc )OR aa .

Formula (IP-I) and Formula (IP-II) Group R 18

[0243] In some aspects, R 18 is alkyl substituted with halogen, cyano, -C0 2 H, or phenyl.

[0244] In some embodiments, R 18 is substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl.

[0245] In some embodiments, R 18 is -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

[0246] In some embodiments, R 18 is substituted alkyl. In some embodiments, the alkyl is substituted with -OCH 3 , -CH 2 CN, or -OCH(CH 3 ) 2 .

[0247] In some embodiments, R 18 is propyl, butyl, t-butyl, or isopropyl, or ethyl.

Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R la and R lb

[0248] In some aspects, R la and R lb are each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -0R D1 ,-0C(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0249] In some aspects, R la and R lb are each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- 0C(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0250] In some aspects, R la and R lb is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0251] In some aspects, R la and R lb are both hydrogen.

[0252] In some embodiments, R la and R lb is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0253] In some embodiments, R la and R lb is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

In some embodiments, R la and R lb is -C¾, -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OC¾, or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R 2a and R 2b

[0254] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b are each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0255] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b are each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0256] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0257] In some aspects, R 2a and R 2b are both hydrogen.

[0258] In some embodiments, R 2a and R 2b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0259] In some embodiments, R 2a and R 2b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH. [0260] In some embodiments, R 2a and R 2b is -C¾, -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OC¾, or - CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R 4a and R 4b

[0261] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0262] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0263] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0264] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b are both hydrogen. In further embodiments, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0265] In some aspects, R 4a and R 4b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH. In some other aspects, R 4a and R 4b is - CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (IP-I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R lla and R llb

[0266] In some embodiments, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR m ,- wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0267] In some further embodiments, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is

independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0268] In some aspects, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. In some aspects, R lla and R llb are both hydrogen.

[0269] In some aspects, R lla and R llb is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R lla and R llb is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0270] In some aspects, R lla and R llb is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

[0271] In some embodiments, R lla and R llb are joined together to form oxo (=0).

Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R 15a and R 15b

[0272] In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0273] In some embodiments, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, - OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0274] In some embodiments, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0275] In some further embodiments, R 15a and R 15b are both hydrogen.

[0276] In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH. In some aspects, R 15a and R 15b is - CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R 16a and R 16h

[0277] In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , - NH 2 , -N(R d1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R d1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0278] In some embodiments, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, - OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0279] In some embodiments, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0280] In some further embodiments, R 16a and R 16b are both hydrogen. [0281] In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0282] In some aspects, R 16a and R 16b is -C¾, -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 . Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R 7a and R 7b

[0283] In some embodiments, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR m ,- wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, or any of R 7a and R 7b are joined together to form oxo (=0).

[0284] In some further embodiments, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0285] In some aspects, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0286] In some aspects, R 7a and R b are all hydrogen.

[0287] In some aspects, R 7a and R b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 7a and R 7b is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci- C 6 haloalkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxyhalo, or -OH.

[0288] In some aspects, R 7a and R 7b is -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -OH, -OCH 3 , or -CH(CH 3 ) 2 .

[0289] In some embodiments, any of R 7a and R b are joined together to form oxo (=0).

Formula (IP-I) and Formula (IP-II) Group R 5 [0290] In some aspects, R 5 is hydrogen in the cis position, relative to the C19 position. In some other aspects, R 5 is hydrogen in the trans position relative to the C19 position. In some embodiments, R 5 is methyl in the cis position relative to the C19 position. In some further embodiments, R 5 is methyl in the trans position relative to the C19 position.

Formula (III-I) and Formula (IP-II) Group R 3a

[0291] In some embodiments, R 3a is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.

[0292] In some embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0293] In some embodiments, R 3a is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0294] In some embodiments, R 3a is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R 3a is substituted alkyl (e.g., -CH 2 OMe or -CH 2 OEt, etc.). In some embodiments, R 3a is unsubstituted alkyl. In some embodiments, R 3a is methyl.

[0295] In some aspects, R 3a is not trifluorom ethyl

[0296] In some aspects, R 19 is substituted alkyl. In some aspects, R 19 is unsubstituted alkyl.

[0297] In some aspects, R 19 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is hydrogen. In some aspects, R 19 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl with a deuterium substitution.

[0298] In some embodiments, R 19 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkyl.

[0299] In some embodiments, R 19 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl.

[0300] In some embodiments, R 19 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl. In some embodiments, R 19 is unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl.

[0301] In some aspects, R 19 is ethyl.

Formula (III-I) and Formula (I 11 -I I) Group R 6a and R 6b

[0302] In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl. [0303] In some aspects, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0304] In some aspects, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen or substituted alkyl. In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b is independently hydrogen or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0305] In some aspects, both R 6a and R 6b are hydrogen. In some aspects, R 6a is halo or alkyl and R 6b is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b are both halo.

[0306] In some aspects, R 6a and R 6b are both alkyl.

[0307] In some embodiments, R 6a and R 6b are joined to form an oxo group.

Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Group R 12a and R 12h

[0308] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, or substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, -OR m ,- wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0309] In some aspects, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, -OR m ,- OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , or -N(R D1 ) 2 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0310] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, -OR D1 ,-OC(=0)R D1 , -NH 2 , -N(R D1 ) 2 , or -NR D1 C(=0)R D1 , wherein each instance of R m is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.

[0311] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b are both hydrogen.

[0312] In some further embodiments, R 12a and R 12b is each independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl.

[0313] In some embodiments, R 12a and R 12b are joined together to form an oxo group (=0). Formula (I 11 -I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups n

[0314] In some embodiments, n is 1. In some other embodiments, n is 2.

[0315] In some embodiments n is 0. In some embodiments n is 1. In some embodiments n is 2.

Formula (IP-I) and Formula (IP-II) Groups R 1

[0316] In some embodiments, R 1 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, sub stituted or unsub stituted heteroaryl .

[0317] In some embodiments, R 1 is

wherein each instance of R 20 is, independently, halogen, -N0 2 , -CN, -OR , - N(R ga ) 2 , -C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)OR ga , -OC(=0)R ga , -OC(=0)OR ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , - N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , -OC(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)OR ga , -S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 OR ga , -

0S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , or -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R GA ; substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 - 4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl,

or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; wherein each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

[0318] In some embodiments, wherein R 1 is

wherein each instance of R 20 is, independently, halogen, -N0 2 , -CN, -OR GA , -N(R GA ) 2 , - C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)OR ga , -OC(=0)R ga , -OC(=0)OR ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)R ga , -OC(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -N(R GA )C(=0)OR ga , -S(=0) 2 R ga , -S(=0) 2 OR ga , -OS(=0) 2 R ga , - S(=0) 2 N(R ga ) 2 , or -N(R GA )S(=0) 2 R ga ; substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 3-4 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered heterocylyl, or optionally two R are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or

unsubstituted 3- to 4- membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; wherein each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or

unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, a nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R GA groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and e is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

[0319] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-la)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. [0320] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula

(Ill-lb)

l-lb)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ie)

wherein m is 0, 1, 2 or 3;

p is 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R 32 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ig)

wherein u is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(R N )-, -C(R N ) 2 -, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(R n )- wherein R N is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)OR ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -S(=0) 2 R ga , or -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 ; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ih)

wherein each R 35 is independently halogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or cyano; and r is 0, 1, 2 or 3; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (III-I) or (III-II) is the compound is of Formula (Ill-Ii),

wherein s is 0, 1, or 2; each X is independently -C(R N )-, -C(R N ) 2 -, -0-, -S-, -N-, or N(R n )- wherein R N is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Cl -6 alkyl, C(=0)R ga , -C(=0)0R ga , -C(=0)N(R ga ) 2 , -S(=0) 2 R ga , or -S(=0) 2 N(R GA ) 2 ; and

each instance of R is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted Ci -6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2-6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3-6 carbocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3- to 6- membered heterocylyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, an oxygen protecting group when attached to oxygen, nitrogen protecting group when attached to nitrogen, or two R groups are taken with the intervening atoms to form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocylyl or heteroaryl ring;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0321] In some embodiments, the compound is selected from the group consisting of the compounds identified in Table III-l herein.

Table III-l:

[0322] In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound described herein ( e.g ., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-1 or III-2).

[0323] In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound described herein (e.g., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-I or III- II) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

[0324] In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in an effective amount in the pharmaceutical composition. In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in a therapeutically effective amount.

[0325] Compounds of the present invention as described herein, act, in certain

embodiments, as GAB A modulators, e.g, effecting the GABA A receptor in either a positive or negative manner. As modulators of the excitability of the central nervous system (CNS), as mediated by their ability to modulate GABA A receptor, such compounds are expected to have CNS -activity.

[0326] Thus, in another aspect, provided are methods of treating a CNS-related disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of the present invention. In certain embodiments, CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, tinnitus, or status epilepticus. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is depression. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is postpartum depression. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered orally, subcutaneously, intravenously, or intramuscularly. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered orally. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered chronically. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered continuously, e.g., by continuous intravenous infusion.

[0327] Exemplary compounds of the invention may be synthesized from the following known starting materials using methods known to one skilled in the art or certain references, In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound described herein (e.g., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II).

Alternative Embodiments

[0328] In an alternative embodiment, compounds described herein may also comprise one or more isotopic substitutions. For example, hydrogen may be 2 H (D or deuterium) or 3 H (T or tritium); carbon may be, for example, 13 C or 14 C; oxygen may be, for example, 18 0; nitrogen may be, for example, 15 N, and the like. In other embodiments, a particular isotope (e.g., 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 18 0, or 15 N) can represent at least 1%, at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 15%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or at least 99.9% of the total isotopic abundance of an element that occupies a specific site of the compound.

Pharmaceutical Compositions

[0329] In one aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound described herein (e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in an effective amount in the pharmaceutical composition. In certain embodiments, the compound of the present invention is provided in a therapeutically effective amount.

[0330] In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition comprises an effective amount of the active ingredient. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of the active ingredient.

[0331] The pharmaceutical compositions provided herein can be administered by a variety of routes including, but not limited to, oral (enteral) administration, parenteral (by injection) administration, rectal administration, transdermal administration, intradermal administration, intrathecal administration, subcutaneous (SC) administration, intravenous (IV)

administration, intramuscular (IM) administration, and intranasal administration.

[0332] Generally, the compounds provided herein are administered in an effective amount. The amount of the compound actually administered will typically be determined by a physician, in the light of the relevant circumstances, including the condition to be treated, the chosen route of administration, the actual compound administered, the age, weight, and response of the individual patient, the severity of the patient’s symptoms, and the like.

[0333] When used to prevent the onset of a CNS-disorder, the compounds provided herein will be administered to a subject at risk for developing the condition, typically on the advice and under the supervision of a physician, at the dosage levels described above. Subjects at risk for developing a particular condition generally include those that have a family history of the condition, or those who have been identified by genetic testing or screening to be particularly susceptible to developing the condition.

[0334] The pharmaceutical compositions provided herein can also be administered chronically (“chronic administration”). Chronic administration refers to administration of a compound or pharmaceutical composition thereof over an extended period of time, e.g., for example, over 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 5 years, etc , or may be continued indefinitely, for example, for the rest of the subject’s life. In certain embodiments, the chronic administration is intended to provide a constant level of the compound in the blood, e.g, within the therapeutic window over the extended period of time.

[0335] The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be further delivered using a variety of dosing methods. For example, in certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may be given as a bolus, e.g, in order to raise the concentration of the compound in the blood to an effective level. The placement of the bolus dose depends on the systemic levels of the active ingredient desired throughout the body, e.g, an intramuscular or subcutaneous bolus dose allows a slow release of the active ingredient, while a bolus delivered directly to the veins (e.g, through an IV drip) allows a much faster delivery which quickly raises the concentration of the active ingredient in the blood to an effective level. In other embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may be administered as a continuous infusion, e.g, by IV drip, to provide maintenance of a steady-state concentration of the active ingredient in the subject’s body. Furthermore, in still yet other embodiments, the

pharmaceutical composition may be administered as first as a bolus dose, followed by continuous infusion. The compositions for oral administration can take the form of bulk liquid solutions or suspensions, or bulk powders. More commonly, however, the compositions are presented in unit dosage forms to facilitate accurate dosing. The term“unit dosage forms” refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human subjects and other mammals, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect, in association with a suitable pharmaceutical excipient. Typical unit dosage forms include prefilled, premeasured ampules or syringes of the liquid compositions or pills, tablets, capsules or the like in the case of solid compositions. In such compositions, the compound is usually a minor component (from about 0.1 to about 50% by weight or preferably from about 1 to about 40% by weight) with the remainder being various vehicles or excipients and processing aids helpful for forming the desired dosing form.

[0336] With oral dosing, one to five and especially two to four and typically three oral doses per day are representative regimens. Using these dosing patterns, each dose provides from about 0.01 to about 20 mg/kg of the compound provided herein, with preferred doses each providing from about 0.1 to about 10 mg/kg, and especially about 1 to about 5 mg/kg.

[0337] Transdermal doses are generally selected to provide similar or lower blood levels than are achieved using injection doses, generally in an amount ranging from about 0.01 to about 20% by weight, preferably from about 0.1 to about 20% by weight, preferably from about 0.1 to about 10% by weight, and more preferably from about 0.5 to about 15% by weight.

[0338] Injection dose levels range from about 0.1 mg/kg/hour to at least 20 mg/kg/hour, all for from about 1 to about 120 hours and especially 24 to 96 hours. A preloading bolus of from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg or more may also be administered to achieve adequate steady state levels. The maximum total dose is not expected to exceed about 5 g/day for a 40 to 80 kg human patient.

[0339] Liquid forms suitable for oral administration may include a suitable aqueous or nonaqueous vehicle with buffers, suspending and dispensing agents, colorants, flavors and the like. Solid forms may include, for example, any of the following ingredients, or compounds of a similar nature: a binder such as microcrystalline cellulose, gum tragacanth or gelatin; an excipient such as starch or lactose, a disintegrating agent such as alginic acid, Primogel, or corn starch; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; a glidant such as colloidal silicon dioxide; a sweetening agent such as sucrose or saccharin; or a flavoring agent such as peppermint, methyl salicylate, or orange flavoring.

[0340] Injectable compositions are typically based upon injectable sterile saline or phosphate-buffered saline or other injectable excipients known in the art. As before, the active compound in such compositions is typically a minor component, often being from about 0.05 to 10% by weight with the remainder being the injectable excipient and the like.

[0341] Transdermal compositions are typically formulated as a topical ointment or cream containing the active ingredient(s). When formulated as an ointment, the active ingredients will typically be combined with either a paraffinic or a water-miscible ointment base. Alternatively, the active ingredients may be formulated in a cream with, for example an oil- in-water cream base. Such transdermal formulations are well-known in the art and generally include additional ingredients to enhance the dermal penetration of stability of the active ingredients or Formulation. All such known transdermal formulations and ingredients are included within the scope provided herein.

[0342] The compounds provided herein can also be administered by a transdermal device. Accordingly, transdermal administration can be accomplished using a patch either of the reservoir or porous membrane type, or of a solid matrix variety.

[0343] The above-described components for orally administrable, injectable or topically administrable compositions are merely representative. Other materials as well as processing techniques and the like are set forth in Part 8 of Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences , 17th edition, 1985, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvania, which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0344] The compounds of the present invention can also be administered in sustained release forms or from sustained release drug delivery systems. A description of

representative sustained release materials can be found in Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.

[0345] The present invention also relates to the pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt of a compound of the present invention. The acid which may be used to prepare the pharmaceutically acceptable salt is that which forms a non-toxic acid addition salt, i.e., a salt containing pharmacologically acceptable anions such as the hydrochloride, hydroiodide, hydrobromide, nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, citrate, tartrate, succinate, maleate, fumarate, benzoate, para-toluenesulfonate, and the like.

[0346] In another aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the present invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, e.g. , a composition suitable for injection, such as for intravenous (IV) administration.

[0347] Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include any and all diluents or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surface active agents, isotonic agents, preservatives, lubricants and the like, as suited to the particular dosage form desired, e.g. , injection. General considerations in the formulation and/or manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions agents can be found, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences , Sixteenth Edition, E. W. Martin (Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., 1980), and Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 2 I st Edition (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005). [0348] For example, injectable preparations, such as sterile injectable aqueous suspensions, can be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. Exemplary excipients that can be employed include, but are not limited to, water, sterile saline or phosphate-buffered saline, or Ringer's solution.

[0349] In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition further comprises a cyclodextrin derivative. The most common cyclodextrins are a- b- and g- cyclodextrins consisting of 6, 7 and 8 a-l ,4-linked glucose units, respectively, optionally comprising one or more substituents on the linked sugar moieties, which include, but are not limited to, substituted or unsubstituted methylated, hydroxyalkylated, acylated, and sulfoalkylether substitution. In certain embodiments, the cyclodextrin is a sulfoalkyl ether b-cyclodextrin, e.g ., for example, sulfobutyl ether b-cyclodextrin, also known as CAPTISOL®. See, e.g. , U.S. 5,376,645. In certain embodiments, the composition comprises hexapropyl-b- cyclodextrin. In a more particular embodiment, the composition comprises hexapropyl-b- cyclodextrin (10-50% in water).

[0350] The injectable composition can be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial-retaining filter, or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use.

[0351] Generally, the compounds provided herein are administered in an effective amount. The amount of the compound actually administered will typically be determined by a physician, in the light of the relevant circumstances, including the condition to be treated, the chosen route of administration, the actual compound administered, the age, weight, response of the individual patient, the severity of the patient’s symptoms, and the like.

[0352] The compositions are presented in unit dosage forms to facilitate accurate dosing.

The term“unit dosage forms” refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human subjects and other mammals, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect, in association with a suitable pharmaceutical excipient. Typical unit dosage forms include pre-filled, pre measured ampules or syringes of the liquid compositions. In such compositions, the compound is usually a minor component (from about 0.1% to about 50% by weight or preferably from about 1% to about 40% by weight) with the remainder being various vehicles or carriers and processing aids helpful for forming the desired dosing form. [0353] The compounds provided herein can be administered as the sole active agent, or they can be administered in combination with other active agents. In one aspect, the present invention provides a combination of a compound of the present invention and another pharmacologically active agent. Administration in combination can proceed by any technique apparent to those of skill in the art including, for example, separate, sequential, concurrent, and alternating administration.

[0354] Although the descriptions of pharmaceutical compositions provided herein are principally directed to pharmaceutical compositions which are suitable for administration to humans, it will be understood by the skilled artisan that such compositions are generally suitable for administration to animals of all sorts. Modification of pharmaceutical compositions suitable for administration to humans in order to render the compositions suitable for administration to various animals is well understood, and the ordinarily skilled veterinary pharmacologist can design and/or perform such modification with ordinary experimentation. General considerations in the formulation and/or manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions can be found, for example, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 2 I st ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

[0355] In one aspect, provided is a kit comprising a composition (e.g., a solid composition) comprising a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II).

Methods of Use and Treatment

[0356] In an aspect, compounds described herein, e.g. , compounds of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), are envisioned to be useful as therapeutic agents for treating a CNS- related disorder (e.g, sleep disorder, a mood disorder such as depression, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, epileptogenesis, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, or tinnitus) in a subject in need (e.g, a subject with Rett syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, or Angelman syndrome). Exemplary CNS conditions related to GABA- modulation include, but are not limited to, sleep disorders [e.g, insomnia], mood disorders [e.g, depression (e.g, major depressive disorder (MDD)), dysthymic disorder (e.g, mild depression), bipolar disorder (e.g, I and/or II), anxiety disorders (e.g, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder), stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compulsive disorders (e.g, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD))], schizophrenia spectrum disorders [e.g, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder], convulsive disorders [e.g, epilepsy ( e.g ., status epilepticus (SE)), seizures], disorders of memory and/or cognition [e.g., attention disorders (e.g, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)), dementia (e.g, Alzheimer’s type dementia, Lewis body type dementia, vascular type dementia], movement disorders [e.g, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease], personality disorders [e.g, anti-social personality disorder, obsessive compulsive personality disorder], autism spectrum disorders (ASD) [e.g, autism, monogenetic causes of autism such as synaptophathy’s, e.g, Rett syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Angelman syndrome], pain [e.g, neuropathic pain, injury related pain syndromes, acute pain, chronic pain], traumatic brain injury (TBI), vascular diseases [e.g, stroke, ischemia, vascular malformations], substance abuse disorders and/or withdrawal syndromes [e.g, addition to opiates, cocaine, and/or alcohol], and tinnitus.

[0357] In certain embodiments, CNS-related disorder is a sleep disorder, a mood disorder, a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a convulsive disorder, a disorder of memory and/or cognition, a movement disorder, a personality disorder, autism spectrum disorder, pain, traumatic brain injury, a vascular disease, a substance abuse disorder and/or withdrawal syndrome, tinnitus, or status epilepticus. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is depression. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is postpartum depression. In certain embodiments, the CNS-related disorder is major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the major depressive disorder is moderate major depressive disorder. In certain embodiments, the major depressive disorder is severe major depressive disorder.

[0358] In an aspect, provided is a method of alleviating or preventing seizure activity in a subject, comprising administering to the subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound of the present invention. In some embodiments, the method alleviates or prevents epileptogenesis.

[0359] In yet another aspect, provided is a combination of a compound of the present invention and another pharmacologically active agent. The compounds provided herein can be administered as the sole active agent or they can be administered in combination with other agents. Administration in combination can proceed by any technique apparent to those of skill in the art including, for example, separate, sequential, concurrent and alternating administration.

[0360] In another aspect, provided is a method of treating or preventing brain excitability in a subject susceptible to or afflicted with a condition associated with brain excitability, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound of the present invention to the subject. [0361] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of treating or preventing stress or anxiety in a subject, comprising administering to the subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound of the present invention, or a composition thereof.

[0362] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of alleviating or preventing insomnia in a subject, comprising administering to the subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound of the present invention, or a composition thereof.

[0363] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of inducing sleep and maintaining substantially the level of REM sleep that is found in normal sleep, wherein substantial rebound insomnia is not induced, comprising administering an effective amount of a compound of the present invention.

[0364] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of alleviating or preventing premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or postnatal depression (PND) in a subject, comprising administering to the subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound of the present invention.

[0365] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of treating or preventing mood disorders in a subject, comprising administering to the subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of a compound of the present invention. In certain embodiments the mood disorder is depression.

[0366] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of cognition enhancement or treating memory disorder by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present invention. In certain embodiments, the disorder is Alzheimer’s disease. In certain embodiments, the disorder is Rett syndrome.

[0367] In yet another aspect, provided is a method of treating attention disorders by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present invention. In certain embodiments, the attention disorder is ADHD.

[0368] In certain embodiments, the compound is administered to the subject chronically. In certain embodiments, the compound is administered to the subject orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously.

Neuroendocrine Disorders and Dysfunction

[0369] Provided herein are methods that can be used for treating neuroendocrine disorders and dysfunction. As used herein,“neuroendocrine disorder” or“neuroendocrine dysfunction” refers to a variety of conditions caused by imbalances in the body’s hormone production directly related to the brain. Neuroendocrine disorders involve interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. Because the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are two areas of the brain that regulate the production of hormones, damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, e.g., by traumatic brain injury, may impact the production of hormones and other neuroendocrine functions of the brain. In some embodiments, the neuroendocrine disorder or dysfunction is associated with a women’s health disorder or condition (e.g., a women’s health disorder or condition described herein).

In some embodiments, the neuroendocrine disorder or dysfunction is associated with a women’s health disorder or condition is polycystic ovary syndrome.

[0370] Symptoms of neuroendocrine disorder include, but are not limited to, behavioral, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms, symptoms related to reproductive function, and somatic symptoms; including but not limited to fatigue, poor memory, anxiety, depression, weight gain or loss, emotional lability, lack of concentration, attention difficulties, loss of lipido, infertility, amenorrhea, loss of muscle mass, increased belly body fat, low blood pressure, reduced heart rate, hair loss, anemia, constipation, cold intolerance, and dry skin. Neurodegenerative Diseases and Disorders

[0371] The methods described herein can be used for treating neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. The term“neurodegenerative disease” includes diseases and disorders that are associated with the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, or death of neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases and disorders include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s disease (including the associated symptoms of mild, moderate, or severe cognitive impairment); amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); anoxic and ischemic injuries; ataxia and convulsion (including for the treatment and prevention and prevention of seizures that are caused by schizoaffective disorder or by drugs used to treat schizophrenia); benign forgetfulness; brain edema; cerebellar ataxia including McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome (MLS); closed head injury; coma; contusive injuries (e.g, spinal cord injury and head injury); dementias including multi-infarct dementia and senile dementia; disturbances of consciousness; Down syndrome; drug-induced or medication-induced Parkinsonism (such as neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia, acute dystonia, Parkinsonism, or tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or medication-induced postural tremor); epilepsy; fragile X syndrome; Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome; head trauma; hearing impairment and loss; Huntington’s disease;

Lennox syndrome; levodopa-induced dyskinesia; mental retardation; movement disorders including akinesias and akinetic (rigid) syndromes (including basal ganglia calcification, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy, Parkinsonism-ALS dementia complex, Parkinson’s disease, postencephalitic parkinsonism, and progressively supranuclear palsy); muscular spasms and disorders associated with muscular spasticity or weakness including chorea (such as benign hereditary chorea, drug-induced chorea, hemiballism, Huntington’s disease, neuroacanthocytosis, Sydenham’s chorea, and symptomatic chorea), dyskinesia (including tics such as complex tics, simple tics, and symptomatic tics), myoclonus

(including generalized myoclonus and focal cyloclonus), tremor (such as rest tremor, postural tremor, and intention tremor) and dystonia (including axial dystonia, dystonic writer's cramp, hemiplegic dystonia, paroxysmal dystonia, and focal dystonia such as blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, and spasmodic dysphonia and torticollis); neuronal damage including ocular damage, retinopathy or macular degeneration of the eye; neurotoxic injury which follows cerebral stroke, thromboembolic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral ischemia, cerebral vasospasm, hypoglycemia, amnesia, hypoxia, anoxia, perinatal asphyxia and cardiac arrest; Parkinson’s disease; seizure; status epilecticus; stroke; tinnitus; tubular sclerosis, and viral infection induced neurodegeneration ( e.g caused by acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and encephalopathies). Neurodegenerative diseases also include, but are not limited to, neurotoxic injury which follows cerebral stroke, thromboembolic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral ischemia, cerebral vasospasm, hypoglycemia, amnesia, hypoxia, anoxia, perinatal asphyxia and cardiac arrest. Methods of treating or preventing a neurodegenerative disease also include treating or preventing loss of neuronal function characteristic of neurodegenerative disorder.

Mood disorders

[0372] Also provided herein are methods for treating a mood disorder, for example clinical depression, postnatal depression or postpartum depression, perinatal depression, atypical depression, melancholic depression, psychotic major depression, cataonic depression, seasonal affective disorder, dysthymia, double depression, depressive personality disorder, recurrent brief depression, minor depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or manic depressive disorder, depression caused by chronic medical conditions, treatment-resistant depression, refractory depression, suicidality, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior. In some embodiments, the method described herein provides therapeutic effect to a subject suffering from depression (e.g., moderate or severe depression). In some embodiments, the mood disorder is associated with a disease or disorder described herein (e.g., neuroendocrine diseases and disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders (e.g., epilepsy), movement disorders, tremor (e.g., Parkinson’s Disease), women’s health disorders or conditions). [0373] Clinical depression is also known as major depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), severe depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, and recurrent depression, and refers to a mental disorder characterized by pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. Some people with clinical depression have trouble sleeping, lose weight, and generally feel agitated and irritable. Clinical depression affects how an individual feels, thinks, and behaves and may lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems.

Individuals with clinical depression may have trouble doing day-to-day activities and make an individual feel as if life is not worth living.

[0374] Peripartum depression refers to depression in pregnancy. Symptoms include irritability, crying, feeling restless, trouble sleeping, extreme exhaustion (emotional and/or physical), changes in appetite, difficulty focusing, increased anxiety and/or worry, disconnected feeling from baby and/or fetus, and losing interest in formerly pleasurable activities.

[0375] Postnatal depression (PND) is also referred to as postpartum depression (PPD), and refers to a type of clinical depression that affects women after childbirth.

Symptoms can include sadness, fatigue, changes in sleeping and eating habits, reduced sexual desire, crying episodes, anxiety, and irritability. In some embodiments, the PND is a treatment-resistant depression (e.g., a treatment-resistant depression as described herein). In some embodiments, the PND is refractory depression (e.g., a refractory depression as described herein).

[0376] In some embodiments, a subject having PND also experienced depression, or a symptom of depression during pregnancy. This depression is referred to herein as) perinatal depression. In an embodiment, a subject experiencing perinatal depression is at increased risk of experiencing PND.

[0377] Atypical depression (AD) is characterized by mood reactivity (e.g., paradoxical anhedonia) and positivity, significant weight gain or increased appetite. Patients suffering from AD also may have excessive sleep or somnolence (hypersomnia), a sensation of limb heaviness, and significant social impairment as a consequence of hypersensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection.

[0378] Melancholic depression is characterized by loss of pleasure (anhedonia) in most or all activities, failures to react to pleasurable stimuli, depressed mood more pronounced than that of grief or loss, excessive weight loss, or excessive guilt. [0379] Psychotic major depression (PMD) or psychotic depression refers to a major depressive episode, in particular of melancholic nature, where the individual experiences psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations.

[0380] Catatonic depression refers to major depression involving disturbances of motor behavior and other symptoms. An individual may become mute and stuporose, and either is immobile or exhibits purposeless or bizarre movements.

[0381] Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) refers to a type of seasonal depression wherein an individual has seasonal patterns of depressive episodes coming on in the fall or winter.

[0382] Dysthymia refers to a condition related to unipolar depression, where the same physical and cognitive problems are evident. They are not as severe and tend to last longer ( e.g at least 2 years).

[0383] Double depression refers to fairly depressed mood (dysthymia) that lasts for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression.

[0384] Depressive Personality Disorder (DPD) refers to a personality disorder with depressive features.

[0385] Recurrent Brief Depression (RBD) refers to a condition in which individuals have depressive episodes about once per month, each episode lasting 2 weeks or less and typically less than 2-3 days.

[0386] Minor depressive disorder or minor depression refers to a depression in which at least 2 symptoms are present for 2 weeks.

[0387] Bipolar disorder or manic depressive disorder causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). During periods of mania the individual may feel or act abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable. They often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced. During periods of depression there may be crying, poor eye contact with others, and a negative outlook on life. The risk of suicide among those with the disorder is high at greater than 6% over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30-40%. Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorder and substance use disorder are commonly associated with bipolar disorder.

[0388] Depression caused by chronic medical conditions refers to depression caused by chronic medical conditions such as cancer or chronic pain, chemotherapy, chronic stress.

[0389] Treatment-resistant depression refers to a condition where the individuals have been treated for depression, but the symptoms do not improve. For example, antidepressants or physchological counseling (psychotherapy) do not ease depression symptoms for individuals with treatment-resistant depression. In some cases, individuals with treatment- resistant depression improve symptoms, but come back. Refractory depression occurs in patients suffering from depression who are resistant to standard pharmacological treatments, including tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs, SSRIs, and double and triple uptake inhibitors and/or anxiolytic drugs, as well as non-pharmacological treatments (e.g., psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, vagus nerve stimulation and/or transcranial magnetic stimulation).

[0390] Post-surgical depression refers to feelings of depression that follow a surgical procedure (e.g., as a result of having to confront one’s mortality). For example, individuals may feel sadness or empty mood persistently, a loss of pleasure or interest in hobbies and activities normally enjoyed, or a persistent felling of worthlessness or hopelessness.

[0391] Mood disorder associated with conditions or disorders of women’s health refers to mood disorders (e.g., depression) associated with (e.g., resulting from) a condition or disorder of women’s health (e.g., as described herein).

[0392] Suicidality, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior refers to the tendency of an individual to commit suicide. Suicidal ideation concerns thoughts about or an unusual preoccupation with suicide. The range of suicidal ideation varies greatly, from e.g., fleeting thoughts to extensive thoughts, detailed planning, role playing, incomplete attempts.

Symptoms include talking about suicide, getting the means to commit suicide, withdrawing from social contact, being preoccupied with death, feeling trapped or hopeless about a situation, increasing use of alcohol or drugs, doing risky or self-destructive things, saying goodbye to people as if they won’t be seen again.

[0393] Symptoms of depression include persistent anxious or sad feelings, feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, pessimism, worthlessness, low energy, restlessness, difficulty sleeping, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, motor challenges, loss of interest in pleasurable activities or hobbies, loss of concentration, loss of energy, poor self-esteem, absence of positive thoughts or plans, excessive sleeping, overeating, appetite loss, insomnia, self-harm, thoughts of suicide, and suicide attempts. The presence, severity, frequency, and duration of symptoms may vary on a case to case basis. Symptoms of depression, and relief of the same, may be ascertained by a physician or psychologist (e.g., by a mental state examination).

[0394] In some embodiments, the method comprises monitoring a subject with a known depression scale, e.g., the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) scale, the Clinical Global

Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI), and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). In some embodiments, a therapeutic effect can be determined by reduction in Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) total score exhibited by the subject. Reduction in the HAM-D total score can happen within 4, 3, 2, or 1 days; or 96, 84, 72, 60, 48, 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, 8 hours or less. The therapeutic effect can be assessed across a specified treatment period. For example, the therapeutic effect can be determined by a decrease from baseline in HAM-D total score after administering a compound described herein, e.g ., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) (e.g., 12, 24, or 48 hours after administration; or 24, 48, 72, or 96 hours or more; or 1 day, 2 days, 14 days, 21 days, or 28 days; or 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, or 4 weeks; or 1 month, 2 months, 6 months, or 10 months; or 1 year, 2 years, or for life).

[0395] In some embodiments, the subject has a mild depressive disorder, e.g. , mild major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the subject has a moderate depressive disorder, e.g. , moderate major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the subject has a severe depressive disorder, e.g. , severe major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the subject has a very severe depressive disorder, e.g. , very severe major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the baseline HAM-D total score of the subject (i.e., prior to treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) is at least 24. In some embodiments, the baseline HAM-D total score of the subject is at least 18. In some embodiments, the baseline HAM-D total score of the subject is between and including 14 and 18. In some embodiments, the baseline HAM-D total score of the subject is between and including 19 and 22. In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score of the subject before treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I- X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is greater than or equal to 23. In some embodiments, the baseline score is at least 10, 15, or 20. In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score of the subject after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is about 0 to 10 (e.g., less than 10; 0 to 10, 0 to 6, 0 to 4, 0 to 3, 0 to 2, or 1.8). In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is less than 10, 7, 5, or 3.

In some embodiments, the decrease in HAM-D total score is from a baseline score of about 20 to 30 (e.g., 22 to 28, 23 to 27, 24 to 27, 25 to 27, 26 to 27) to a HAM-D total score at about 0 to 10 (e.g., less than 10; 0 to 10, 0 to 6, 0 to 4, 0 to 3, 0 to 2, or 1.8) after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II). In some embodiments, the decrease in the baseline HAM-D total score to HAM-D total score after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 25, 40, 50, or 100 fold). In some embodiments, the percentage decrease in the baseline HAM-D total score to HAM-D total score after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g ., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-I or III-P), is at least 50% (e.g., 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90%). In some embodiments, the therapeutic effect is measured as a decrease in the HAM-D total score after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), relative to the baseline HAM-D total score (e.g., 12, 24, 48 hours after administration; or 24, 48, 72, 96 hours or more; or 1 day, 2 days, 14 days, or more) is at least 10, 15, or 20 points.

[0396] In some embodiments, the method of treating a depressive disorder, e.g., major depressive disorder provides a therapeutic effect (e.g., as measured by reduction in Hamilton Depression Score (HAM-D)) within 14, 10, 4, 3, 2, or 1 days, or 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, or 8 hours or less. In some embodiments, the method of treating the depressive disorder, e.g., major depressive disorder, provides a therapeutic effect (e.g, as determined by a statistically significant reduction in HAM-D total score) within the first or second day of the treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II). In some embodiments, the method of treating the depressive disorder, e.g., major depressive disorder, provides a therapeutic effect (e.g, as determined by a statistically significant reduction in HAM-D total score) within less than or equal to 14 days since the beginning of the treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II). In some embodiments, the method of treating the depressive disorder, e.g., major depressive disorder, provides a therapeutic effect (e.g, as determined by a statistically significant reduction in HAM-D total score) within less than or equal to 21 days since the beginning of the treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II). In some embodiments, the method of treating the depressive disorder, e.g., major depressive disorder, provides a therapeutic effect (e.g, as determined by a statistically significant reduction in HAM-D total score) within less than or equal to 28 days since the beginning of the treatment with a compound described herein, e.g., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II). In some embodiments, the therapeutic effect is a decrease from baseline in HAM-D total score after treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II) (e.g., treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), once a day for 14 days). In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score of the subject before treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is at least 24. In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score of the subject before treatment with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or PI-II), is at least 18. In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score of the subject before treatment with a compound described herein, e.g ., a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-I or III- II), is between and including 14 and 18. In some embodiments, the decrease in HAM- D total score after treating the subject with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II- 1, III-I or III- II), relative to the baseline HAM-D total score is at least 10. In some embodiments, the decrease in HAM-D total score after treating the subject with a compound described herein, e.g. , a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), relative to the baseline HAM-D total score is at least 15 (e.g, at least 17). In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score associated with treating the subject with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is no more than a number ranging from 6 to 8. In some embodiments, the HAM-D total score associated with treating the subject with a compound described herein, e.g, a compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III-II), is no more than 7.

[0397] In some embodiments, the method provides therapeutic effect (e.g., as measured by reduction in Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI)) within 14, 10, 4, 3, 2, or 1 days, or 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, or 8 hours or less. In some embodiments, the CNS-disorder is a depressive disorder, e.g, major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the method of treating the depressive disorder, e.g, major depressive disorder provides a therapeutic effect within the second day of the treatment period. In some embodiments, the therapeutic effect is a decrease from baseline in CGI score at the end of a treatment period (e.g., 14 days after administration).

[0398] In some embodiments, the method provides therapeutic effect (e.g., as measured by reduction in Montgomery- Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)) within 14, 10, 4, 3, 2, or 1 days, or 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, or 8 hours or less. In some embodiments, the CNS- disorder is a depressive disorder, e.g, major depressive disorder. In some embodiments, the method of treating the depressive disorder, e.g, major depressive disorder provides a therapeutic effect within the second day of the treatment period. In some embodiments, the therapeutic effect is a decrease from baseline in MADRS score at the end of a treatment period (e.g., 14 days after administration).

[0399] A therapeutic effect for major depressive disorder can be determined by a reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score exhibited by the subject. For example, the MADRS score can be reduced within 4, 3, 2, or 1 days; or 96, 84, 72, 60, 48, 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, 8 hours or less. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is a ten-item diagnostic questionnaire (regarding apparent sadness, reported sadness, inner tension, reduced sleep, reduced appetite, concentration difficulties, lassitude, inability to feel, pessimistic thoughts, and suicidal thoughts) which psychiatrists use to measure the severity of depressive episodes in patients with mood disorders.

[0400] In some embodiments, the method provides therapeutic effect (e.g., as measured by reduction in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)) within 4, 3, 2, 1 days; 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, 8 hours or less. In some embodiments, the therapeutic effect is an improvement measured by the EPDS.

[0401] In some embodiments, the method provides therapeutic effect (e.g., as measured by reduction in Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7)) within 4, 3, 2, 1 days; 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, 8 hours or less.

Anxiety Disorders

[0402] Provided herein are methods for treating anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder). Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal and pathological fear and anxiety. Current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize a wide variety of anxiety disorders.

[0403] Generalized anxiety disorder is a common chronic disorder characterized by long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any one object or situation. Those suffering from generalized anxiety experience non-specific persistent fear and worry and become overly concerned with everyday matters. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder to affect older adults.

[0404] In panic disorder, a person suffers from brief attacks of intense terror and apprehension, often marked by trembling, shaking, confusion, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing. These panic attacks, defined by the APA as fear or discomfort that abruptly arises and peaks in less than ten minutes, can last for several hours and can be triggered by stress, fear, or even exercise; although the specific cause is not always apparent. In addition to recurrent unexpected panic attacks, a diagnosis of panic disorder also requires that said attacks have chronic consequences: either worry over the attacks' potential implications, persistent fear of future attacks, or significant changes in behavior related to the attacks. Accordingly, those suffering from panic disorder experience symptoms even outside of specific panic episodes. Often, normal changes in heartbeat are noticed by a panic sufferer, leading them to think something is wrong with their heart or they are about to have another panic attack. In some cases, a heightened awareness (hypervigilance) of body functioning occurs during panic attacks, wherein any perceived physiological change is interpreted as a possible life threatening illness (i.e. extreme hypochondriasis).

[0405] Obsessive compulsive disorder is a type of anxiety disorder primarily characterized by repetitive obsessions (distressing, persistent, and intrusive thoughts or images) and compulsions (urges to perform specific acts or rituals). The OCD thought pattern may be likened to superstitions insofar as it involves a belief in a causative relationship where, in reality, one does not exist. Often the process is entirely illogical; for example, the compulsion of walking in a certain pattern may be employed to alleviate the obsession of impending harm. And in many cases, the compulsion is entirely inexplicable, simply an urge to complete a ritual triggered by nervousness. In a minority of cases, sufferers of OCD may only experience obsessions, with no overt compulsions; a much smaller number of sufferers experience only compulsions.

[0406] The single largest category of anxiety disorders is that of phobia, which includes all cases in which fear and anxiety is triggered by a specific stimulus or situation. Sufferers typically anticipate terrifying consequences from encountering the object of their fear, which can be anything from an animal to a location to a bodily fluid.

[0407] Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD is an anxiety disorder which results from a traumatic experience. Post-traumatic stress can result from an extreme situation, such as combat, rape, hostage situations, or even serious accident. It can also result from long term (chronic) exposure to a severe stressor, for example soldiers who endure individual battles but cannot cope with continuous combat. Common symptoms include flashbacks, avoidant behaviors, and depression.

Women’s Health Disorders

[0408] Provided herein are methods for treating conditions or disorders related to women’s health. Conditions or disorders related to women’s health include, but are not limited to, gynecological health and disorders (e.g., premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)), pregnancy issues (e.g., miscarriage, abortion), infertility and related disorders (e.g., polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)), other disorders and conditions, and issues related to women’s overall health and wellness (e.g., menopause).

[0409] Gynecological health and disorders affecting women include menstruation and menstrual irregularities; urinary tract health, including urinary incontinence and pelvic floor disorders; and such disorders as bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, uterine fibroids, and vulvodynia. [0410] Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a women’s period. Symptoms vary but can include bleeding, mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, irritability, acne, and depression.

[0411] Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of PMS. The symptoms of PMDD are similar to PMS but more severe and may interfere with work, social activity, and relationships. PMDD symptoms include mood swings, depressed mood or feelings of hopelessness, marked anger, increased interpersonal conflicts, tension and anxiety, irritability, decreased interest in usual activities, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, change in appetite, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, sleep problems, physical problems (e.g., bloating, breast tenderness, swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain).

[0412] Pregnancy issues include preconception care and prenatal care, pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth), preterm labor and premature birth, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), breastfeeding, and birth defects.

[0413] Miscarriage refers to a pregnancy that ends on its own, within the first 20 weeks of gestation.

[0414] Abortion refers to the deliberate termination of a pregnancy, which can be performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy.

[0415] Infertility and related disorders include uterine fibroids, polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, and primary ovarian insufficiency.

[0416] Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) refers to an endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. PCOS is a set of symptoms resulting from an elevated male hormone in women. Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. Symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. PCOS may be associated with conditions including type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.

[0417] Other disorders and conditions that affect only women include Turner syndrome, Rett syndrome, and ovarian and cervical cancers.

[0418] Issues related to women’s overall health and wellness include violence against women, women with disabilities and their unique challenges, osteoporosis and bone health, and menopause.

[0419] Menopause refers to the 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period and marks the end of menstrual cycles. Menopause typically occurs in a woman’s 40s or 50s. Physical symptoms such as hot flashes and emotional symptoms of menopause may disrupt sleep, lower energy, or trigger anxiety or feelings of sadness or loss. Menopause includes natural menopause and surgical menopause, which is a type of induced menopause due to an event such as surgery (e.g., hysterectomy, oophorectomy; cancer). It is induced when the ovaries are gravely damaged by, e.g., radiation, chemotherapy, or other medications.

Epilepsy

[0420] The compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III- II), or pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a pharmaceutically acceptable composition thereof, can be used in a method described herein, for example in the treatment of a disorder described herein such as epilepsy, status epilepticus, or seizure.

[0421] Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by repeated seizures over time. Types of epilepsy can include, but are not limited to generalized epilepsy, e.g, childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile nyoclonic epilepsy, epilepsy with grand-mal seizures on awakening, West syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, partial epilepsy, e.g, temporal lobe epilepsy, frontal lobe epilepsy, benign focal epilepsy of childhood.

Epileptogenesis

[0422] The compounds and methods described herein can be used to treat or prevent epileptogenesis. Epileptogenesis is a gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy (a chronic condition in which seizures occur). Epileptogenesis results from neuronal damage precipitated by the initial insult (e.g., status epilepticus).

Status epilepticus (SE)

[0423] Status epilepticus (SE) can include, e.g, convulsive status epilepticus, e.g, early status epilepticus, established status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus, super-refractory status epilepticus; non-convulsive status epilepticus, e.g, generalized status epilepticus, complex partial status epilepticus; generalized periodic epileptiform discharges; and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Convulsive status epilepticus is characterized by the presence of convulsive status epileptic seizures, and can include early status epilepticus, established status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus, super-refractory status epilepticus. Early status epilepticus is treated with a first line therapy. Established status epilepticus is characterized by status epileptic seizures which persist despite treatment with a first line therapy, and a second line therapy is administered. Refractory status epilepticus is characterized by status epileptic seizures which persist despite treatment with a first line and a second line therapy, and a general anesthetic is generally administered. Super refractory status epilepticus is characterized by status epileptic seizures which persist despite treatment with a first line therapy, a second line therapy, and a general anesthetic for 24 hours or more.

[0424] Non-convulsive status epilepticus can include, e.g., focal non-convulsive status epilepticus, e.g, complex partial non-convulsive status epilepticus, simple partial non- convulsive status epilepticus, subtle non-convulsive status epilepticus; generalized non- convulsive status epilepticus, e.g, late onset absence non-convulsive status epilepticus, atypical absence non-convulsive status epilepticus, or typical absence non-convulsive status epilepticus.

[0425] The compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III- II) or pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a pharmaceutically acceptable composition thereof, can also be

administered as a prophylactic to a subject having a CNS disorder e.g, a traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus, e.g, convulsive status epilepticus, e.g, early status epilepticus, established status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus, super-refractory status epilepticus; non-convulsive status epilepticus, e.g, generalized status epilepticus, complex partial status epilepticus; generalized periodic epileptiform discharges; and periodic lateralized

epileptiform discharges; prior to the onset of a seizure.

Seizure

[0426] A seizure is the physical findings or changes in behavior that occur after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The term“seizure” is often used interchangeably with“convulsion.” Convulsions are when a person’s body shakes rapidly and uncontrollably. During convulsions, the person’s muscles contract and relax repeatedly.

[0427] Based on the type of behavior and brain activity, seizures are divided into two broad categories: generalized and partial (also called local or focal). Classifying the type of seizure helps doctors diagnose whether or not a patient has epilepsy.

[0428] Generalized seizures are produced by electrical impulses from throughout the entire brain, whereas partial seizures are produced (at least initially) by electrical impulses in a relatively small part of the brain. The part of the brain generating the seizures is sometimes called the focus.

[0429] There are six types of generalized seizures. The most common and dramatic, and therefore the most well-known, is the generalized convulsion, also called the grand-mal seizure. In this type of seizure, the patient loses consciousness and usually collapses. The loss of consciousness is followed by generalized body stiffening (called the "tonic" phase of the seizure) for 30 to 60 seconds, then by violent jerking (the "clonic" phase) for 30 to 60 seconds, after which the patient goes into a deep sleep (the "postictal" or after-seizure phase). During grand-mal seizures, injuries and accidents may occur, such as tongue biting and urinary incontinence.

[0430] Absence seizures cause a short loss of consciousness (just a few seconds) with few or no symptoms. The patient, most often a child, typically interrupts an activity and stares blankly. These seizures begin and end abruptly and may occur several times a day. Patients are usually not aware that they are having a seizure, except that they may be aware of "losing time."

[0431] Myoclonic seizures consist of sporadic jerks, usually on both sides of the body. Patients sometimes describe the jerks as brief electrical shocks. When violent, these seizures may result in dropping or involuntarily throwing objects.

[0432] Clonic seizures are repetitive, rhythmic jerks that involve both sides of the body at the same time.

[0433] Tonic seizures are characterized by stiffening of the muscles.

[0434] Atonic seizures consist of a sudden and general loss of muscle tone, particularly in the arms and legs, which often results in a fall.

[0435] Seizures described herein can include epileptic seizures; acute repetitive seizures; cluster seizures; continuous seizures; unremitting seizures; prolonged seizures; recurrent seizures; status epilepticus seizures, e.g., refractory convulsive status epilepticus, non- convulsive status epilepticus seizures; refractory seizures; myoclonic seizures; tonic seizures; tonic-clonic seizures; simple partial seizures; complex partial seizures; secondarily generalized seizures; atypical absence seizures; absence seizures; atonic seizures; benign Rolandic seizures; febrile seizures; emotional seizures; focal seizures; gelastic seizures;

generalized onset seizures; infantile spasms; Jacksonian seizures; massive bilateral myoclonus seizures; multifocal seizures; neonatal onset seizures; nocturnal seizures; occipital lobe seizures; post traumatic seizures; subtle seizures; Sylvan seizures; visual reflex seizures; or withdrawal seizures. In some embodiments, the seizure is a generalized seizure associated with Dravet Syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Rett Syndrome or PCDH19 Female Pediatric Epilepsy.

Movement Disorders

[0436] Also described herein are methods for treating a movement disorder. As used herein,“movement disorders” refers to a variety of diseases and disorders that are associated with hyperkinetic movement disorders and related abnormalities in muscle control. Exemplary movement disorders include, but are not limited to, Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism (defined particularly by bradykinesia), dystonia, chorea and Huntington’s disease, ataxia, tremor (e.g., essential tremor), myoclonus and startle, tics and Tourette syndrome, Restless legs syndrome, stiff person syndrome, and gait disorders.

Tremor

[0437] The methods described herein can be used to treat tremor, for example the compound of Formula (I-X, I-I, II-I, III-I or III- II) can be used to treat cerebellar tremor or intention tremor, dystonic tremor, essential tremor, orthostatic tremor, parkinsonian tremor, physiological tremor, psychogenic tremor, or rubral tremor. Tremor includes hereditary, degenerative, and idiopathic disorders such as Wilson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and essential tremor, respectively; metabolic diseases (e.g., thyroid-parathyroid-, liver disease and hypoglycemia); peripheral neuropathies (associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Roussy-Levy, diabetes mellitus, complex regional pain syndrome); toxins (nicotine, mercury, lead, CO, Manganese, arsenic, toluene); drug-induced (narcoleptics, tricyclics, lithium, cocaine, alcohol, adrenaline, bronchodilators, theophylline, caffeine, steroids, valproate, amiodarone, thyroid hormones, vincristine); and psychogenic disorders. Clinical tremor can be classified into physiologic tremor, enhanced physiologic tremor, essential tremor syndromes (including classical essential tremor, primary orthostatic tremor, and task- and position-specific tremor), dystonic tremor, parkinsonian tremor, cerebellar tremor, Holmes’ tremor (i.e., rubral tremor), palatal tremor, neuropathic tremor, toxic or drug-induced tremor, and psychogenic tremor.

[0438] Tremor is an involuntary, at times rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation that can involve oscillations or twitching of one or more body parts (e.g., hands, arms, eyes, face, head, vocal folds, trunk, legs).

[0439] Cerebellar tremor or intention tremor is a slow, broad tremor of the extremities that occurs after a purposeful movement. Cerebellar tremor is caused by lesions in or damage to the cerebellum resulting from, e.g, tumor, stroke, disease (e.g, multiple sclerosis, an inherited degenerative disorder).

[0440] Dystonic tremor occurs in individuals affected by dystonia, a movement disorder in which sustained involuntary muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive motions and/or painful and abnormal postures or positions. Dystonic tremor may affect any muscle in the body. Dystonic tremors occurs irregularly and often can be relieved by complete rest.

[0441] Essential tremor or benign essential tremor is the most common type of tremor. Essential tremor may be mild and nonprogressive in some, and may be slowly progressive, starting on one side of the body but affect both sides within 3 years. The hands are most often affected, but the head, voice, tongue, legs, and trunk may also be involved. Tremor frequency may decrease as the person ages, but severity may increase. Heightened emotion, stress, fever, physical exhaustion, or low blood sugar may trigger tremors and/or increase their severity. Symptoms generally evolve over time and can be both visible and persistent following onset.

[0442] Orthostatic tremor is characterized by fast ( e.g greater than 12 Hz) rhythmic muscle contractions that occurs in the legs and trunk immediately after standing. Cramps are felt in the thighs and legs and the patient may shake uncontrollably when asked to stand in one spot. Orthostatic tremor may occurs in patients with essential tremor.

[0443] Parkinsonian tremor is caused by damage to structures within the brain that control movement. Parkinsonian tremor is often a precursor to Parkinson’s disease and is typically seen as a“pill-rolling” action of the hands that may also affect the chin, lips, legs, and trunk. Onset of parkinsonian tremor typically begins after age 60. Movement starts in one limb or on one side of the body and can progress to include the other side.

[0444] Physiological tremor can occur in normal individuals and have no clinical significance. It can be seen in all voluntary muscle groups. Physiological tremor can be caused by certain drugs, alcohol withdrawal, or medical conditions including an overactive thyroid and hypoglycemia. The tremor classically has a frequency of about 10 Hz.

[0445] Psychogenic tremor or hysterical tremor can occur at rest or during postural or kinetic movement. Patient with psychogenic tremor may have a conversion disorder or another psychiatric disease.

[0446] Rubral tremor is characterized by coarse slow tremor which can be present at rest, at posture, and with intention. The tremor is associated with conditions that affect the red nucleus in the midbrain, classical unusual strokes.

[0447] Parkinson’s Disease affects nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine. Symptoms include muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech and gait. Parkinsonism is characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. Parkinsonism shares symptoms found in Parkinson’s Disease, but is a symptom complex rather than a progressive neurodegenerative disease.

[0448] Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive movements or postures. Dystonic movements can be patterned, twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. [0449] Chorea is a neurological disorder characterized by jerky involuntary movements typically affecting the shoulders, hips, and face. Huntington’s Disease is an inherited disease that causes nerve cells in the brain to waste away. Symptoms include uncontrolled movements, clumsiness, and balance problems. Huntington’s disease can hinder walk, talk, and swallowing.

[0450] Ataxia refers to the loss of full control of bodily movements, and may affect the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech, and eye movements.

[0451] Myloclonus and Startle is a response to a sudden and unexpected stimulus, which can be acoustic, tactile, visual, or vestibular.

[0452] Tics are an involuntary movement usually onset suddenly, brief, repetitive, but non-rhythmical, typically imitating normal behavior and often occurring out of a background of normal activity. Tics can be classified as motor or vocal, motor tics associated with movements while vocal tics associated with sound. Tics can be characterized as simple or complex. For example simple motor tics involve only a few muscles restricted to a specific body part. Tourette Syndrome is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic.

[0453] Restless Legs Syndrome is a neurologic sensorimotor disorder characterized by an overwhelming urge to move the legs when at rest.

[0454] Stiff Person Syndrome is a progressive movement disorder characterized by involuntary painful spasms and rigidity of muscles, usually involving the lower back and legs. Stiff-legged gait with exaggerated lumbar hyperlordosis typically results.

Characteristic abnormality on EMG recordings with continuous motor unit activity of the paraspinal axial muscles is typically observed. Variants include“stiff-limb syndrome” producing focal stiffness typically affecting distal legs and feet.

[0455] Gait disorders refer to an abnormality in the manner or style of walking, which results from neuromuscular, arthritic, or other body changes. Gait is classified according to the system responsible for abnormal locomotion, and include hemiplegic gait, diplegic gait, neuropathic gait, myopathic gait, parkinsonian gait, choreiform gait, ataxic gait, and sensory gait.

Anesthesia / Sedation

[0456] Anesthesia is a pharmacologically induced and reversible state of amnesia, analgesia, loss of responsiveness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreased stress response, or all of these simultaneously. These effects can be obtained from a single drug which alone provides the correct combination of effects, or occasionally with a combination of drugs ( e.g hypnotics, sedatives, paralytics, analgesics) to achieve very specific combinations of results. Anesthesia allows patients to undergo surgery and other procedures without the distress and pain they would otherwise experience.

[0457] Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of a pharmacological agent, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.

[0458] Sedation and analgesia include a continuum of states of consciousness ranging from minimal sedation (anxiolysis) to general anesthesia.

[0459] Minimal sedation is also known as anxiolysis. Minimal sedation is a drug- induced state during which the patient responds normally to verbal commands. Cognitive function and coordination may be impaired. Ventilatory and cardiovascular functions are typically unaffected.

[0460] Moderate sedation/analgesia (conscious sedation) is a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which the patient responds purposefully to verbal command, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are usually necessary to maintain a patent airway. Spontaneous ventilation is typically adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

[0461] Deep sedation/analgesia is a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which the patient cannot be easily aroused, but responds purposefully (not a reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus) following repeated or painful stimulation. Independent ventilatory function may be impaired and the patient may require assistance to maintain a patent airway. Spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

[0462] General anesthesia is a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which the patient is not arousable, even to painful stimuli. The ability to maintain independent ventilatory function is often impaired and assistance is often required to maintain a patent airway. Positive pressure ventilation may be required due to

depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular

function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.

[0463] Sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU) allows the depression of patients' awareness of the environment and reduction of their response to external stimulation. It can play a role in the care of the critically ill patient, and encompasses a wide spectrum of symptom control that will vary between patients, and among individuals throughout the course of their illnesses. Heavy sedation in critical care has been used to facilitate endotracheal tube tolerance and ventilator synchronization, often with neuromuscular blocking agents.

[0464] In some embodiments, sedation ( e.g. , long-term sedation, continuous sedation) is induced and maintained in the ICU for a prolonged period of time (e.g, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, 1 week, 2 week, 3 weeks, 1 month, 2 months). Long-term sedation agents may have long duration of action. Sedation agents in the ICU may have short elimination half-life.

[0465] Procedural sedation and analgesia, also referred to as conscious sedation, is a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows a subject to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function.

Examples

[0466] In order that the invention described herein may be more fully understood, the following examples are set forth. The synthetic and biological examples described in this application are offered to illustrate the compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods provided herein and are not to be construed in any way as limiting their scope.

Materials and Methods

[0467] The compounds provided herein can be prepared from readily available starting materials using the following general methods and procedures. It will be appreciated that where typical or preferred process conditions (i.e., reaction temperatures, times, mole ratios of reactants, solvents, pressures, etc.) are given, other process conditions can also be used unless otherwise stated. Optimum reaction conditions may vary with the particular reactants or solvent used, but such conditions can be determined by one skilled in the art by routine optimization.

[0468] Additionally, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art, conventional protecting groups may be necessary to prevent certain functional groups from undergoing undesired reactions. The choice of a suitable protecting group for a particular functional group as well as suitable conditions for protection and deprotection are well known in the art. For example, numerous protecting groups, and their introduction and removal, are described in T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis , Second Edition, Wiley, New York, 1991, and references cited therein.

[0469] The compounds provided herein may be isolated and purified by known standard procedures. Such procedures include (but are not limited to) column chromatography,

HPLC, or supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The following schemes are presented with details as to the preparation of representative oxysterols that have been listed herein.

The compounds provided herein may be prepared from known or commercially available starting materials and reagents by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis. Exemplary chiral columns available for use in the separation/purification of the

enantiomers/diastereomers provided herein include, but are not limited to, CHIRALPAK® AD-10, CHIRALCEL® OB, CHIRALCEL® OB-H, CHIRALCEL® OD, CHIRALCEL® OD-H, CHIRALCEL® OF, CHIRALCEL® OG, CHIRALCEL® OJ and CHIRALCEL® OK.

[0470] 1 H-NMR reported herein (e.g., for the region between d (ppm) of about 0.5 to about 4 ppm) will be understood to be an exemplary interpretation of the NMR spectrum (e.g., exemplary peak integratations) of a compound.

[0471] Exemplary general method for preparative HPLC: Column: Waters RBridge prep 10 pm C18, 19*250 mm. Mobile phase: acetonitrile, water (NH4HCO3) (30 L water, 24 g NH4HCO3, 30 mL ML.HiO). Flow rate: 25 mL/min.

[0472] Exemplary general method for analytical HPLC: Mobile phase: A: water (10 mM NH4HCO3), B: acetonitrile Gradient: 5%-95% B in 1.6 or 2 min Flow rate: 1.8 or 2 mL/min; Column: XBridge C18, 4.6*50mm, 3.5 pm at 45 C.

[0473] Exemplary general method for prep HPLC: Column Waters Xbridge 150*25 5u Condition water (lOmM NH4HC03)-ACN Begin B 85 End B 100 Gradient Time (min) 6.5 100%B Hold Time (min) 1 FlowRate(ml/min) 25 Injections 4).

[0474] Exemplary general method for SFC: Column: CHIRALPAK® AD CSP (250 mm

* 30 mm, 10 pm), Gradient: 45% B, A= NH3H2O, B= MeOH, flow rate: 60 mL/min. For example, AD_3_EtOH_DEA_5_40_25ML would indicate: "Column: Chiralpak AD-3 150x4.6mm I.D., 3um Mobile phase: A: C02 B:ethanol (0.05% DEA) Gradient: from 5% to 40% of B in 5 min and hold 40% for 2.5 min, then 5% of B for 2.5 min Flow rate: 2.5mL/min Column temp: 35°C".

[0475] Exemplary general method for Standard LC-ELSD 30-90AB_2min_E. (Mobile Phase: l .5mL/4L TFA in water (solvent A) and 0.75mL/4L TFA in acetonitrile (solvent B), using the elution gradient 30%-90% (solvent B) over 0.9 minutes and holding at 90% for 0.6 minutes at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min; Column: Xtimate C18 2. l *30mm, 3pm; Wavelength: UV 220 nm; Column temperature: 50°C; MS ionization: ESI; Detector: PDA&ELSD

[0476] Exemplary general method for SFC: Column: CHIRALPAK® AD CSP (250 mm

* 30 mm, 10 pm), Gradient: 45% B, A= NH 3 H 2 O, B= MeOH, flow rate: 60 mL/min. For example, AD_3_EtOH_DEA_5_40_25ML would indicate: "Column: Chiralpak AD-3 150x4.6mm I.D., 3um Mobile phase: A: C02 B:ethanol (0.05% DEA) Gradient: from 5% to 40% of B in 5 min and hold 40% for 2.5 min, then 5% of B for 2.5 min Flow rate: 2.5mL/min Column temp: 35°C".

Formula (I-X) or Formula (1-1) Abbreviations:

[0477] PE: petroleum ether; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; THF: tetrahydrofuran; PCC:

pyridinium chlorochromate; TLC: thin layer chromatography; PCC: pyridinium

chlorochromate; t-BuOK: potassium tert-butoxide; 9-BBN: 9-borabicyclo[3.3.l]nonane; Pd(/- BU 3 P) 2 : bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0); AcCl: acetyl chloride; z-PrMgCl:

Isopropylmagnesium chloride; TBSC1: tert-Butyl(chloro)dimethylsilane; (z-PrO) Ti: titanium tetraisopropoxide; BHT: 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide; Me: methyl; z-Pr: iso-propyl; I- Bu: tert-butyl; Ph: phenyl; Et: ethyl; Bz: benzoyl; BzCl: benzoyl chloride; CsF: cesium fluoride; DAST: Diethylaminosulfur trifluoride; DCC: dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; DCM: dichlorom ethane; DMAP: 4-dimethylaminopyridine; DMP: Dess-Martin periodinane;

EtMgBr: ethylmagnesium bromide; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; TEA: triethylamine; AlaOH:

alanine; Boc: t-butoxycarbonyl. Py: pyridine; TBAF: tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride; THF: tetrahydrofuran; TBS: t-butyldimethylsilyl; TMS: trimethyl silyl; TMSCF 3 :

(Trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane; Ts: p-toluenesulfonyl; Bu: butyl; Ti(OiPr) 4 :

tetraisopropoxytitanium; LAH: Lithium Aluminium Hydride; LDA: lithium

diisopropylamide; LiOH.H 2 0: lithium hydroxide hydrates; MAD: methyl aluminum bis(2,6- di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide); MeCN: acetonitrile; NBS: N-bromosuccinimide; Na 2 S0 : sodium sulfate; Na 2 S 2 0 3 : sodium thiosulfate; PE: petroleum ether; MeCN: acetonitrile;

MeOH: methanol; Boc: t-butoxycarbonyl; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; K-selectride: Potassium tri(s-butyl)borohydride.

[0478] EXAMPLE 1-1: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy- 3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)-2- (methyl(phenyl)amino)ethan-l-one (I-A2)

[0479] To a solution of DIPEA (78.9 mg, 0.611 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added N- methylaniline (100 mg, 0.94 mmol) at l0°C. After stirring at l0°C for 10 min, I-Al (200 mg, 0.47 mmol, described below in EXAMPLE 1-4) was added. The mixture was stirred at 40°C for 16 hours. The mixture was concentrated to give an oil, which was purified by HPLC to afford I-A2 (21 mg, 10%) as a solid.

[0480] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.24-7.15 (m, 2H), 6.75-6.70 (m, 1H), 6.65-6.55 (m, 2H), 4.13-3.93 (m, 2H), 3.00 (s, 3H), 2.63-2.54 (m, 1 H), 2.27-2.09 (m, 2 H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.53 (m, 6H), 1.50-1.42 (m, 6H), 1.38-1.32 (m, 5H), 1.24-1.11 (m, 4H), 1.06- 0.98 (m, 1H), 0.93 (s, 3H), 0.81 (s, 3H), 0.65 (s, 3H); LC ELSD purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 30 H 46 NO 2 [M+H] + 452, found 452.

[0481] EXAMPLE 1-2: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy- 3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)-2- (phenylamino)ethan-l-one (I-A3)

[0482] To a solution of DIPEA (78.9 mg, 0.611 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added aniline (100 mg, 0.94 mmol) at l0°C. After stirring at l0°C for 10 min, I-Al (200 mg, 0.47 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 40°C for 16 hours. The mixture was

concentrated to give a oil, which was purified by HPLC to afford I-A3 (5 mg, 2%) as a solid. [0483] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.23-7.16 (m, 2H), 6.75-6.70 (m, 1H), 6.63-6.58

(m, 2H), 4.00- 3.86 (m, 2H), 2.60-2.56 (m, 1H), 2.29 - 2.18 (m, 2H), 2.04-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.78- 1.71 (m, 2H), 1.52 - 1.43 (m, 7H), 1.42 - 1.38 (m, 2H), 1.36 (s, 4H), 1.29-1.23 (m, 3H), 1.20- 1.15 (m, 2H), 1.06-0.99 (m, 1H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.90 - 0.85 (m, 1H), 0.80 (s, 3H), 0.62 (s, 3 H); LC-ELSD purity 99%; MS ESI calcd. for C 29 H 44 NO 2 [M+H]+ 438, found 438. [0484] EXAMPLE 1-3: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy- 3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)ethan-l-one (I-B6)

[0485] Si(OEt) 4 (132 g, 636 mmol) and a catalytic amount of TsOH (4.91 g, 28.6 mmol) were added to a solution of progesterone (100 g, 318 mmol) in ethylene glycol (2 L). After stirring 25°C for 5 hrs, the reaction mixture was quenched with NaHC0 3 (aq. 1.5 L), filtered, washed by water (2 L x 3), filtered, dried in the air, and triturated with MTBE/PE (50 mL/2.5 L) to give I-Bl (95.0 g, 83%) as a solid.

[0486] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.72 (s, 1H), 4.05-3.80 (m, 4H), 2.45-2.25 (m, 4H), 2.10-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.57 (m, 5H), 1.56-1.40 (m, 3H), 1.29 (s, 3H), 1.22-1.13 (m, 5H), 1.10-0.85 (m, 4H), 0.81 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of I-B2 [0487] To a solution of I-Bl (10 g, 27.8 mmol) and nickel(2+) diacetylacetonate (1.42 g,

5.56 mmol) in THF (300 mL) was added dropwise AlMe 3 (41.7 mL, 83.4 mmol, 2M in toluene) at 0°C under N 2 . After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C for 2 hrs. The mixture was quenched with 50% NH 4 Cl (500 mL), diluted with EtOAc (300 mL), and then filtered. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (500 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated and purified by combi-flash (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give I-B2 (6 g, 57%) as a solid.

Synthesis of I-B3

[0488] To a suspension of MePh 3 PBr (17 g, 48 mmol) in THF (80 mL) was added t-

BuOK (5.37 g, 48 mmol). After stirring at 40°C for 20 minutes, a solution of I-B2 (6 g, 16 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added dropwise at 40°C. After addition, the mixture was quenched with 50% NH 4 Cl (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was dried over Na 2 S0 , filtered, concentrated and purified by combi-flash (0- 5% of EtOAc in PE) to give I-B3 (5 g, 83%) as a solid.

[0489] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 4.66-4.61 (m, 1H), 4.58-4.51 (m, 1H), 4.03-3.82 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.79 (m, 1H), 2.20-1.91 (m, 3H), 1.83-1.77 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.58 (m, 5H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.48-1.31 (m, 5H), 1.29 (s, 3H), 1.23-1.01 (m, 5H), 0.82-0.78 (m, 5H), 0.74 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of I-B4

[0490] To a solution of I-B3 (5 g, 13.4 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (9.27 g, 67 mmol) and w-CPBA (6.91 g, 40.1 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for 30 minutes, the reaction mixture was quenched with sat.Na 2 S 2 0 3 (300 mL). After stirring at 20°C for 10 minutes, the organic phase was separated, dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give I-B4 (5 g,) as a solid.

[0491] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 4.03-3.83 (m, 4H), 2.69-2.46 (m, 3H), 2.09-1.89 (m, 2H), 1.82-1.76 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.62 (m, 4H), 1.62-1.47 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.33 (m, 4H), 1.29 (s, 3H), 1.26-0.98 (m, 8H), 0.96-0.93 (m, 2H), 0.89-0.82 (m, 3H), 0.74 (s, 3H), 0.61-0.50 (m, 1H).

Synthesis of I-B5 & I-B8

[0492] To a solution of I-B4 (300 mg, 0.772 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added LiAlH 4 (293 mg, 7.72 mmol) in portions during 10 minutes. After stirring at 20°C for 30 minutes, the mixture was quenched with 50% NH 4 Cl (60 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with 50% NH Cl (100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated and purified by combi-flash (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give I-B5 (210 mg, 69%) and I-B8 (40 mg, 13%) as a solid. [0493] I-B5: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 4.04-3.81 (m, 4H), 2.11-2.00 (m, 2H),

1.84-1.58 (m, 5H), 1.52-1.39 (m, 3H), 1.39-1.34 (m, 2H), 1.33-1.29 (m, 4H), 1.28-1.23 (m, 3H), 1.22-1.16 (m, 4H), 1.16-1.02 (m, 7H), 1.00-0.87 (m, 2H), 0.83 (s, 3H), 0.73 (s, 3H).

[0494] I-B8: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 4.02-3.82 (m, 4H), 2.26-2.19 (m, 1H), 2.05-2.00 (m, 1H), 1.82-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.62 (m, 3H), 1.57-1.49 (m, 2H), 1.48-1.37 (m,

7H), 1.33 (s, 3H), 1.28 (s, 3H), 1.24-1.09 (m, 5H), 1.08-0.98 (m, 3H), 0.91 (s, 3H), 0.79 (s, 3H), 0.72 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of I-B6

[0495] To a solution of I-B5 (210 mg, 0.537 mmol) in MeOH (8 mL) was added HC1 (5.35 mL, 10.7 mmol, 2M in water). After stirring at 20°C for 5 minutes, the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL) and filtered, dried in vacuum to give I-B6 (150 mg, 80%) as a solid. Stereochemical assignment was confirmed by x-ray crystallography.

[0496] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 2.56-2.47 (m, 1H), 2.26-2.12 (m, 2H), 2.10 (s, 3H), 2.04-1.97 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.53 (m, 5H), 1.52-1.38 (m, 7H), 1.37-1.33 (m, 4H), 1.29-1.10 (m, 5H), 1.05-0.98 (m, 1H), 0.92 (s, 3H), 0.79 (s, 3H), 0.57 (s, 3H).

[0497] EXAMPLE 1-4: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3- hydroxy-3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]p henanthren-17-yl)-2- oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (I-A4)

Synthesis of I-AI

[0498] To a solution of I-B6 (1.2 g, 3.46 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) was added one drop of HBr (55.9 mg, 0.692 mmol) and Br 2 (829 mg, 5.19 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for lh, the mixture was quenched with 50% NaHC0 3 (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated to give I-AI (1.4 g, 95%) as a solid. [0499] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.95-3.85 (m, 2H), 2.85-2.77 (m, 1H), 2.27-2.12 (m, 2H), 1.96-1.88 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.68 (m, 2H), 1.56-1.39 (m, 10H), 1.35 (s, 3H), 1.34-1.11 (m, 6H), 1.06-0.99 (m, 1H), 0.93 (s, 3H), 0.79 (s, 3H), 0.61 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of I-A4 [0500] To a solution of I-AI (100 mg, 0.235 mmol) in acetone (2 mL) was added 1H- pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (32.7 mg, 0.352 mmol) and K 2 C0 3 (64.8 mg, 0.47 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for 16 hrs, the reaction mixture was filtered and purified by prep-HPLC to give I-A4 (46 mg, 45%) as a solid.

[0501] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H), 5.05-4.85 (m, 2H), 2.64-2.54 (m, 1H), 2.29-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.09-1.99 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.51-1.38 (m,

9H), 1.38-1.33 (m, 5H), 1.32-1.21 (m, 3H), 1.20-1.12 (m, 2H), 1.07-1.00 (m, 1H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.80 (s, 3H), 0.64 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD purity 99%; MS ESI calcd. for C 27 H 38 N 3 0 [M+H- H 2 0] + 420, found 420.

[0502] EXAMPLE 1-5: Synthesis of l-((3S,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy- 3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)ethan-l-one (I-A5)

[0503] To a solution of I-B8 (40 mg, 0.102 mmol) in MeOH (2 mL) was added HC1 (1.02 mL, 2M in water). After stirring at 20°C for 5 minutes, the mixture was diluted with water (20 mL) and filtered, dried in vacuum to give A5 (20 mg, 56%) as a solid.

[0504] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 2.57-2.48 (m, 1H), 2.20-1.98 (m, 6H), 1.74-1.57 (m, 4H), 1.56-1.42 (m, 5H), 1.41-1.30 (m, 5H), 1.21 (s, 3H), 1.20-1.13 (m, 2H), 1.13-1.03 (m, 6H), 0.98-0.92 (m, 1H), 0.83 (s, 3H), 0.58 (s, 3H).

[0505] EXAMPLE 1-6 & 1-7: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3- hydroxy-3, 5, 10, 13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-y l)-2- (2H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-2-yl)ethan-l-one (I-A6) & 1-

((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-3,5,10,13-tetram ethylhexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-2-(lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin -l-yl)ethan-l-one (I-A7)

[0506] To a mixture of I-AI (200 mg, 0.47 mmol) and K 2 C0 3 (129 mg, 0.94 mmol) in acetone (5 mL) was added lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (83.9 mg, 0.705 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 16 hrs, the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give product which was purified by prep. HPLC, and the eluents were washed with sat.NaHCO,, dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give I-A6 (25 mg, ) and I- A7 (40 mg, ) as a solid, which were further purified by prep-TLC (DCM: Acetone = 2:3) to give pure I-A6 (4 mg, 1.8%) and I-A7 (20 mg, 9%) as a solid.

[0507] I-A6: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 9.26 (s, 1H), 8.19-8.14 (m, 1H), 7.98 (s,

1H), 7.55-7.50 (m, 1H), 5.35-5.18 (m, 2H), 2.70-2.61 (m, 1H), 2.29-2.09 (m, 3H), 1.84-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.55-1.40 (m, 10H), 1.38-1.35 (m, 4H), 1.31-1.22 (m, 3H), 1.20-1.11 (m, 2H), 1.08-

1.00 (m, 1H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.81 (s, 3H), 0.70 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD purity 99%; MS ESI calcd. for C 29 H 42 N 3 0 2 [M+H] + 464, found 464.

[0508] I-A7: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 8.79 (s, 1H), 8.36-8.31 (m, 1H), 8.09 (s,

1H), 7.67-7.62 (m, 1H), 5.31-5.19 (m, 2H), 2.70-2.62 (m, 1H), 2.29-2.11 (m, 3H), 1.81-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.64-1.60 (m, 1H), 1.53-1.39 (m, 9H), 1.36 (s, 3H), 1.35-1.21 (m, 4H), 1.20-1.13

(m, 2H), 1.08-1.01 (m, 1H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.82 (s, 3H), 0.72 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD purity 99%; MS ESI calcd. for C 29 H 42 N 3 0 2 [M+H] + 464, found 464.

[0509] EXAMPLE 1-8 & 1-9: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3- hydroxy-3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]p henanthren-17-yl)-2- (5-methyl-lH-tetrazol-l-yl)ethan-l-one (I-A8) & l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3- hydroxy-3,5,10,13-tetramethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]p henanthren-17-yl)-2- (5-methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)ethan-l-one (I-A9)

[0510] To a mixture of I-AI (200 mg, 0.5 mmol) and K 2 C0 3 (129 mg, 0.9 mmol) in acetone (5 mL) was added 5-methyl-2H-l,2,3,4-tetrazole (59.2 mg, 0.7 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at the l5°C for 16 hrs. The reaction mixture was quenched by water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give product which was purified by a flash column (EtOAc in PE, 50%~80%) to give I-A8 (65 mg, 32%) as a solid and I-A9 (45 mg, 22%) as a solid.

[0511] I-A8: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 5.21-4.97 (m, 2H), 2.68-2.59 (m, 1H), 2.47 (s, 3H), 2.30-2.03 (m, 3H), 1.86-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.65-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.53-1.38 (m, 9H), 1.37 (s,

3H), 1.32-1.11 (m, 5H), 1.08-1.01 (m, 1H), 0.95 (s, 3H), 0.81 (s, 3H), 0.66 (s, 3H); LC ELSD purity 99%; MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 39 N 4 0 [M+H-H 2 0] + 411, found 411.

[0512] I-A9: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 5.40-5.29 (m, 2H), 2.65-2.53 (m, 4H), 2.29-

2.15 (m, 2H), 2.12-2.04 (m, 1H), 1.84-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.66-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.52-1.39 (m, 7H), 1.39-1.33 (m, 5H), 1.29-1.11 (m, 5H), 1.07-0.99 (m, 1H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.81 (s, 3H), 0.69 (s,

3H); LC-ELSD purity 99%; MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 39 N 4 0 [M+H-H 2 0] + 411, found 411.

[0513] Formula II Abbreviations: PE: petroleum ether; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; THF: tetrahydrofuran; PCC: pyridinium chlorochromate; TLC: thin layer chromatography; PCC: pyridinium chlorochromate; t-BuOK: potassium tert-butoxide; 9-BBN: 9- borabicyclo[3.3. l]nonane; Pd(/-Bu 3 P) 2 : bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0); AcCl: acetyl chloride; z-PrMgCl: Isopropylmagnesium chloride; TBSC1: tert- Butyl(chloro)dimethylsilane; (7-PrO ) 4 Ti : titanium tetraisopropoxide; BHT: 2,6-di-t-butyl-4- methylphenoxide; Me: methyl; z-Pr: iso-propyl; /-Bu: tert-butyl; Ph: phenyl; Et: ethyl; Bz: benzoyl; BzCl: benzoyl chloride; CsF: cesium fluoride; DCC: dicyclohexylcarbodiimide;

DCM: dichloromethane; DMAP: 4-dimethylaminopyridine; DMP: Dess-Martin periodinane; EtMgBr: ethylmagnesium bromide; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; TEA: triethylamine; AlaOH: alanine; Boc: t-butoxycarbonyl. Py: pyridine; TBAF: tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride; THF: tetrahydrofuran; TBS: t-butyldimethylsilyl; TMS: trimethyl silyl; TMSCF 3 :

(Trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane; Ts: p-toluenesulfonyl; Bu: butyl; Ti(OiPr) 4 :

tetraisopropoxytitanium; LAH: Lithium Aluminium Hydride; LDA: lithium

diisopropylamide; LiOH.H 2 0: lithium hydroxide hydrates; MAD: methyl aluminum bis(2,6- di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide); MeCN: acetonitrile; NBS: N-bromosuccinimide; Na 2 S0 4 : sodium sulfate; Na 2 S 2 0 3 : sodium thiosulfate; PE: petroleum ether; MeCN: acetonitrile; MeOH: methanol; Boc: t-butoxycarbonyl; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; K-selectride: Potassium tri (s-butyl )b orohy dri de . General Schemes

Scheme II- 1

Scheme II-3

Scheme II-6

double bond or single bond

X = N or C

[0514] Example II-l: Synthesis of ((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)((S)-3- phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)methanone (II-l)

[0515] The experimental of intermediate II-G2 could be found in Example II- 10.

A solution of II-G2 (50 mg, 0.143 mmol), EDCI (54.9 mg, 0.287 mmol) and (3S)-3- phenylpyrrolidine (25.3 mg, 0.172 mmol) in pyridine (2 mL) was stirred at 35°C for 18 hrs. The mixture was treated with water (5 mL), extracted with EtOAc (2 x 8 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine (2 x 10 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum to give oil (35 mg). The product was purified by prep-HPLC (Instrument: BF; Column: Agela DuraShell l50mm_25mm_5um; Condition: water (0.225%FA)-ACN, Begin B: 69, End B: 99, Gradient Time (min): 8.5, 100%B Hold Time (min): 2; Flow Rate (ml/min): 30; Injections: 7) to give II-l (20 mg, 29%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.37-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.26-7.19 (m, 3H), 4.11-3.97 (m, 1H), 3.94-3.85 (m, 0.5H), 3.81-3.71 (m, 0.5H), 3.58-3.26 (m, 3H), 2.60-2.48 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.16 (m, 2H), 2.09-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.87-1.61 (m, 6H), 1.59-1.47 (m, 4H), 1.45-1.28 (m, 8H), 1.27- 1.09 (m, 8H), 0.85-0.72 (m, 6H)

LC-ELSD/MS Rt = 1.252 min in 2 min chromatography, 30-90AB_2MIN_E.M, purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 32 H 48 NO 2 [M+H] + 478, found 478.

(Mobile Phase: 1.5ML/4LTFA in water (solvent A) and 0.75ML/4LTFA in acetonitrile (solvent B), using the elution gradient 30%-90% (solvent B) over 0.9 minutes and holding at 90% for 0.6 minutes at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min; Column: Xtimate C18 2. l *30mm, 3um; Wavelength: UV 220 nm; Column temperature: 50°C; MS ionization: ESI; Detector:

PDA&ELSD)

[0516] Example II-2: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-

3,13-dimethyl-10-vinylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phena nthren-17-yl)ethan-l-one

[0517] Synthesis of II-A2

To a suspension of methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (l6.27g, 45.45 mmol) in dry THF (30mL) was added KOtBu (5. l5g, 45.9mmol) under N 2 atmosphere. The mixture was heated at reflux for 1 hour. Then compound II-A1 (5.0g, l5. l5mmol) in dry THF (15 mL) was added to the above refluxing solution and stirred at reflux for 3 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solution was poured into brine (lOOmL). The aqueous solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (50mL x 3). The extracts were washed with brine (50mL x 2), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel

(petroleum ether / ethyl acetate from 20/1 to 10/1) to get 3.82g (1 l .65mmol, yield 76.90%) of II-A2 as a solid.

Compound II- A2:

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 5.88 (1H, dd, J=l l .0Hz, J=l7.0Hz), 5.33 (1H, dd, J=l .5Hz, J=l l .5Hz), 5.10 (1H, txd, J=2.0Hz, J=7.5Hz), 5.00 (1H, dd, J=l .5Hz, J=l l .5Hz), 1.63 (3H, txd, J=2.0Hz, 7.0Hz), 1.15 (3H,s), 0.78 (3H, s).

[0518] Synthesi s of II- A3 To a solution of compound II-A2 (3.82g,l l.65mmol) in dry THF (50mL) was added borane- tetrahydrofuran complex (l5mL of 1.0 M solution in THF) and the reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3h, and 10 % aqueous NaOH (5mL) was slowly added. The mixture was cooled in ice and 30% aqueous solution of H 2 0 2 (lOmL) was slowly added. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour and then extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (3 x 50 mL). The combined CH 2 Cl 2 extracts were washed with 10% aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (2 x

20mL), then were directly used in the next step without further purification.

[0519] Synthesis of II-A4

The compound II- A3 from the last step was dissolved in 100 mL of dichloromethane cooled to 0°C and 4.0g of PCC was added at 0°C. Then the mixture was stirred for 6h. The mixture was filtered, concentrated, and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel using

(petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 12/1-6/1) elution to give 3.15g (9.l5mmol,78.54%, two steps) of compound II-A4 as a solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 5.85QH, dd, J=l l.5Hz, J=l7.5Hz), 5.32QH, dd, J=2.0Hz, J=l l.5Hz), 4.98QH, dd, J=2.0Hz, J=l l.5Hz), 2.51 (1H, t, J=9.5 Hz), 2. lO(3H,s),

1.15 (3H, s), 0.51 (3H, s). LC-MS: rt=l.88min, m/z=327.0 [M -H 2 0+H] + ,m/z=345.l [M +H] +

[0520] Example II-3: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3, 13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)e than-l-one

(II-A5)

Compound II-A4 (l.Og, 2.91 mmol) was dissolved in 20 mL of dry MeOH and lOOmg of Pd/C was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature under balloon H 2 atmosphere overnight, filtered, resulting solution was concentrated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel (petroleum ether / ethyl acetate from 12/1 to 6/1) to give 896mg (2.59 mmol, yield 89.0%) of Compound II-A5 as a solid

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 2.52(lH,t, J=8.5Hz), 2.1 l(3H,s),l.20(3H,s),

0.93(3H,t, J=7.0Hz), 0.63 (3H, s). [0521] Example II-4: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)-2-(lH- pyrazol-l-yl)ethan-l-one (II-A7)

[0522] Synthesis of II-A6:

Compound H-A5 (lOOmg, 0.29 mmol) was dissolved in 10 mL of dry MeOH and 3 drops of Br 2 and 2 drops of HBr aq. were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature three hours, then the solution was poured into iced water (30mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (20mL x 2). The extracts were dried over MgS0 4 , filtered, concentrated give 94mg of Compound II-A6 as a solid.

[0523] Synthesis of II-A7

64 mg (0.15mmol) of compound II-A6 was dissolved in 8 mL dry THF and lOOmg

(0.77mmol) of K 2 C0 3 , lOOmg (l.47mmol) of pyrazole was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The solution was then diluted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The resulting solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified with reverse phase prep-HPLC to give 20 mg (0.05mmol, 32.36%) of Compound 11- A 7 as a solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 7.54 (lH,d, J=2.0Hz), 7.40 (lH,d, J=2.0Hz), 6.33 (lH,t, J=2.0Hz), 4.95(lH,AB, J=l8.0 Hz), 4.87(lH,AB, J=l7.5 Hz), 2.57(lH,t, J=9.0 Hz), l.20(3H,s),0.93(3H,t, J=7.5Hz), 0.70 (3H, s).

[0524] Example II-5: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3, 13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)- 2-(lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl)ethan-l-one (II-A8) and l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- h droxy-3, 13-dimethylhexadecah dro- lH-cyclopenta [a] phenanthren- 17-yl)-2-(2H-

1.2.3-triazol-2-yl)ethan- 1-one (II-A8a)

To 0-A6 (120 mg, 0.28mol) dissolved THF (8 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (200mg l .54mmol) and 1H-1, 2, 3-triazole (0.5mL, 8.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room

temperature overnight. The solution was then diluted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The resulting solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and

concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified with reverse phase prep-HPLC to give II-A8 (24 mg, 0.06mmol, 20.75 yield%) and 0-A8a (23 mg, 0.06mmol, 19.89% yield) as solids. II-A8:

1HNMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) 5(ppm): 7.75(lH,s), 7.64(lH,s), 5.26(lH,AB,J=l8.0Hz), 5. l3(lH,AB,J=l8.0Hz), 2.64 (lH,t,J=8.5Hz), l .2l(3H,s), 0.94(3H,t,J=7.5Hz), 0.69(3H, s);

LC-MS: rt=2.25min, m/z=4l4.4 [M +H] +

II~A8a:

1HNMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 7.68 (2H,s),5.25(lH,AB,J=l7.0Hz),5.2l(lH,AB, J=l7.5Hz), 2.57 (lH,t, J=9.0Hz), l .2l(3H,s),0.94(3H,t, J=7.5Hz), 0.73(3H, s); LC-MS:

rt=2.40min, m/z=4l4.4 [M +H] +

[0525] Example II-6: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- h droxy-3, 13-dimethylhexadecah dro- lH-cyclopenta [a] phenanthren- 17-yl)-2- morpholinoethan-l-one (P-A9)

To compound 0-A6 (90 mg, 0.21 mmol) dissolved inTHF (8 mL) were added K 2 C0 3 (lOOmg, 0.77mmol) and morpholine (0.5 mL, 5.74mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The solution was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The resulting solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified with reverse phase prep-HPLC to give 50mg (0.1 lmmol, 55.24%) product ΪΪ-A9 as a solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) d H (ppm): 3.75(4H,t, J=4.5Hz), 3.18 (IH,AB, J=l7.5Hz), 3.17 (IH,AB, J=l7.5Hz), 2.56(lH,t,J=8.5Hz), 2.5 l-2.45(4H,m), l .20(3H,s),0.93 (3H,t, J=7.5Hz), 0.64(3H, s); LC-MS: rt=2.40min, m/z=432.4 [M +H] + [0526] Example II-7: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)-2-(4- (methylsulfonyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethan-l-one (O-AIO)

To compound II- A6 (150 mg, 0.35 mmol) dissolved in THF (8 mL) were added K 2 C0 3 (l60mg, l . l5mmol) and l-(Methylsulfonyl)piperazine (150 mg, 0.92mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The solution was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 mL) and the resulting solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified with reverse phase prep- HPLC to give 33mg (0.06mmol, 18.56%) product II-A10 as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 3.30(4H,t, J=4.0Hz), 3.25(2H, s), 2.78(3H, s),2.64~2.57 (4H,m), 2.5 l(lH,t, J=9.2Hz),l .2l(3H,s),0.93(3H,t,J=7.2Hz), 0.64(3H, s); LC- MS: rt=2.33min, m/z=509.4 [M +H] +

[0527] Example II-8: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3, 13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)- 2- hydroxyethan-l-one (11-All)

To compound II-A6 (300 mg, 0.71 mmol) dissolved in THF (8 mL) were added triethylamine (1 mL) and 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid (0.5 mL). The mixture was heated at reflux forl hour, then 400 mg (2.9mmol) of sodium 2,2,2-trifluoroacetate was added, and the resulting solution was refluxed overnight, then the solution was poured into iced water (50mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (30mL x 2). The extracts were dried over MgS0 4 , and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified with reverse phase prep-HPLC to give 88 mg (0.24mmol, 34.23%) product II-Al l as a solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H (ppm): 4.20 (1H, AB X d, J=4.0 Hz, J=l9.0 Hz), 4.15 (1H, AB X d, J=4.0 Hz, J=l9.0 Hz), 3.28 (lH,t, J=4.0Hz), 2.44(lH,t, J=9.0Hz), 2.20 (lH,dd, J=l 1 0Hz,J=20.5Hz,), l.20(3H,s), 0.93 (3H,AB, J=7.5Hz), 0.68(3H, s).

[0528] Example II-9: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)ethan-l-one

(ΪI-E12)

[0529] Synthesis of P-E2

To a solution of II-E1 (226 g, 742 mmol) in DCM (1000 mL) was added lH-imidazole (125 g, 1.85 mol) and tert-butylchlorodimethylsilane (200 g, 1.33 mol) at 25°C under N 2. After stirring at 25°C for 4 hrs, the mixture was quenched with water (500 mL). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 300 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (500 mL), dried with anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (PE/EtOAc = 100/1 to 20/1) to give product P-E2 (240 g, 77%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.80-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.60-3.50 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.50 (m, 1H), 2.48-2.40 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.25 (m, 3H), 2.20-1.65 (m, 7H), 1.65-1.10 (m, 9H), 0.81-0.80 (m, 13H), 0.00 (m, 6H).

[0530] Synthesis of P-E3

To a solution of BHT (753 g, 3.42 mol) in toluene (2000 mL) under nitrogen at 0°C was added trimethyl aluminum (855 mL, 2 M,l.7l mol) dropwise. After stirring at 0°C for 30 min, the solution was cooled to -78°C, followed by adding a solution of P-E2 (240 g, 573 mmol) in toluene (500 mL) dropwise at -78°C. After stirring at the -78°C for 1 h, MeMgBr (476 mL, 1.43 mol, 3M in ethyl ether) was added dropwise at -78°C. The resulting solution was stirred at -78°C to -60°C for 2 hrs. The reaction mixture was poured into saturated citric acid (3000 mL) at -60°C. After stirring at 25°C for 25 mins, the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 1000 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated in vacuum to give a oil, which was purified by a silica gel column (PE: EtOAc =50: 1, 30: 1, 15: 1, 10: 1, 5: 1) to give II-E3 (60 g, 24%) as a solid and II-E3 (1.2 kg,).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.80-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.35 (m, 1H), 2.55-2.40 (m, 1H), 2.25-1.65 (m, 7H), 1.65-1.35 (m, 6H), 1.35-1.15 (m, 12H), 0.90-0.75 (m, 12H), 0.05 (m, 6H).

[0531] Synthesis of ΪΪ-E4

To a suspension of MePPh 3 Br (170 g, 460 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added /-BuOK (51.6 g, 460 mmol) at 25°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was heated to 45°C and stirred for 1 hour. Then a solution of 0-E3 (50 g, 115 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 45°C for 16 h. The mixture was treated with NH 4 Cl (100 mL, sat. aq.). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (2 x 50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-10% of EtOAc in PE) to give IΪ-E4 (48 g, 93%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 5.25-5.05 (m, 1H), 3.80-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.35 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.35 (m, 1H), 2.35-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.00-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.35 (m, 13H), 1.35-1.05 (m, 11H), 0.95-0-80 (m, 9H), 0.80-0.75 (m, 3H),0.05 (m, 6H).

[0532] Synthesis of 0-E5

To a solution of II-E4 (48 g, 107 mmol) in THF (500 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (104 g, 428 mmol) at 0°C under N 2 . The solution was stirred at 65°C for 2 hrs. After cooling to 0°C, EtOH (49.2 g, 1.07 mol) was added. Then a solution of NaOH (214 mL, 5M, 1.07 mol) was added very slowly. After addition, H 2 0 2 (121 g, 1.07 mol, 30% in water) was added slowly and the inner temperature was maintained below l0°C. The mixture was stirred at 75°C under N 2 for 1 hour. The mixture was re-cooled to 25°C. Then water (300 ml) was added. The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was triturated from THF/H 2 0 (l00mL/l500 mL) at 25°C and purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II- E5 (45 g, 82%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.80-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.75-3.55 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.35 (m, 1H), 2.04 (s, 4H), 2.01-1.75(m, 4H), 1.75-1.55 (m, 3H), 1.55-1.25 (m, 12H), 1.25-1.05 (m, 8H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.63 (s, 3H), 0.05-0.01 (m, 6H).

[0533] Synthesis of P-E6

To a solution of IΪ-E5 (15 g, 32.2 mmol) in pyridine (200 mL) was added benzoyl chloride (22.6 g, 161 mmol) and DMAP (392 mg, 3.22 mmol). After stirring at 80°C for 4 hrs, the reaction mixture was poured into water (1000 mL). The mixture was stirred 10 mins, filtrated and the filter cake was solved in EtOAc (200 mL). The solution was washed with brine (2 x 50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-10% of EtOAc in PE) to give IΪ-E6 (19 g, 84%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 8.05-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.50 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.35 (m, 4H), 5.25-5.15 (m, 1H), 3.80-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.35 (m, 1H), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.75 (m, 4H), 1.75-1.25 (m, 5H), 1.25-1.00 (m, 13H), 0.95-0.75 (m, 13H), 0.70 (s, 3H), 0.06 (m, 6H).

[0534] Synthesis of II-E7

To a solution P-E6 (18.9 g, 28.0 mmol) in acetone (200 mL) /?-TsOH (10.4 g, 56.0 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25°C and after 5 hrs, quenched with water (200) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The combined organics were washed with NaHC0 3 (50 mL, 10%) and brine (50 mL) and dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give II-E7 (15 g, ) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 8.05-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.50 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.35 (m, 4H), 5.25-5.15 (m, 1H), 4.00-3.90 (m, 1H), 3.65-3.50 (m, 1H), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H), 2.20-1.75 (m, 7H), 1.75-1.25 (m, 6H), 1.25-1.05 (m, 12H), 0.91 (s, 4H) 0.70 (s, 3H).

[0535] Synthesis of II-E8

To a solution of ΪI-E7 (15 g, 26.8 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) was added PCC (11.5 g, 53.6 mmol) and silica gel (10 g) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 2 hrs, the reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with anhydrous DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-10% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-E8 (7 g, 58%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 0.97 (s, 1H) 8.05-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.50 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.35 (m, 4H), 5.25-5.15 (m, 1H), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H), 2.20-1.75 (m, 12H), 1.75-1.01 (m, 14H), 1.01-0.80 (m, 4H) 0.78 (s, 3H).

[0536] Synthesis of II-E9 To a suspension of PPh 3 EtBr (17.9 g, 30.8 mmol) in THF (lOOmL) was added /-BuOK (3.45 g, 30.8 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 45°C for 1 hour, a solution of II -E 8 (7 g, 15.4 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added at 40°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 40°C for 10 min and treated with saturated NH 4 Cl solution (50 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was separated and the water phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (2 x 30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II- E9 (4.8 g, 90%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 8.05-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.50 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.35 (m, 4H), 6.40-6.25 (m, 1H), 5.20-4.95 (m, 3H), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H), 2.15-1.75 (m, 9H), 1.75-1.05 (m, 15H), 1.05-0.80 (m, 4H),0.69 (s, 3H).

[0537] Synthesis of II-E10

To a solution of II-E9 (2.5 g, 4.50 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added Pd-C (dry, 10%, 0.2 g) under N 2 . The suspension was degassed under vacuum and purged with H 2 for three times. The mixture was stirred under H 2 (30 psi) at 25°C for 16 hrs to give a suspension. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with THF (3 x 20 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to give II-E10 (2.4 g, 96%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 8.05-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.50 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.35 (m, 4H), 5.20-5.10 (m, 1H), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H), 2.10-1.75 (m, 6H), 1.75-1.30 (m, 13H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 11H), 0.85-0.75 (m, 3H),0.70 (s, 3H).

[0538] Synthesis of P-E11

To a solution of II-E10 (2.4 g, 0.875 mmol) in THF (10 mL) and MeOH (10 mL) was added NaOH (1.72 g, 43.1 mmol) and H 2 0 (4 mL) at 25°C. The solution was stirred at 25°C for 48 hrs. The residue was poured into water (30 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give product which was triturated with MeCN (10 mL) to give desired product II- Ell (1.6 g, ) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.75-3.65 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.75 (m, 4H), 1.75-1.35 (m, 13H), 1.35-1.05 (m, 16H), 0.85-0.75 (m, 3H),0.64 (s, 3H).

[0539] Synthesis of H-E 12

To a solution of II-E11 (1.6 g, 4.59 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added PCC (1.97 g, 1.51 mol) and silica gel (1 g) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 3 hrs, the reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with anhydrous DCM (2 x 10 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-50% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-E12 (1.4 g, 88%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 2.60-2.50 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.05-1.90 (m, 2H), 1.80-1.65 (m, 6H), 1.65-0.30 (m, 8H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 11H), 0.85-0.70 (m, 3H), 0.59 (s, 3H). LC-ELSD/MS Rt = 1.223 min in 2 min chromatography, 30-90AB_2MIN_E, purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 37 O [M+H-H 2 0] + 329, found 329.

(Mobile Phase: 1.5ML/4LTFA in water (solvent A) and 0.75ML/4LTFA in acetonitrile (solvent B), using the elution gradient 30% - 90% (solvent B) over 0.9 minutes and holding at 90% for 0.6 minutes at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min; Column: Xtimate C18 2.l*30mm,3um; Wavelength: ETV 220nm; Column temperature: 50°C; MS ionization: ESI; Detector: PDA & ELSD).

[0540] Example 11-10: Synthesis of (3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethyl-N-phenylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a] phenanthrene-17- carboxamide (II-G3)

[0541] The experimental of II-E12 could be found in Example II-8.

[0542] Synthesis of II-G2

Liquid bromine (2.28 g, 14.3 mmol) was added slowly to a vigorously stirred sodium hydroxide aqueous (5.73 mL, 3 M, 17.2 mmol) at 0°C. When all the bromine was dissolved, the mixture was diluted with cold dioxane (10 mL) and was added slowly to a stirred solution of II-E12 (500 mg, 1.44 mmol) in dioxane (10 mL) and water (10 mL) and a precipitate was formed, and the reaction mixture was stirred at 20°C for 16 hours. The remaining oxidizing reagent was quenched by Na 2 S 2 0 3 aqueous (20 mL) and the mixture was then heated at 80°C until the solid material was dissolved. Acidification of the solution with hydrochloride acid (3 N) furnished a precipitate. The solid was filtered and washed with water (3 x 20 mL) to give a solid, which was dried under vacuum to afford II-G2 (450 mg, ) as a solid. [0543] Synthesis of D-G3

To a solution of II-G2 (100 mg, 0.2869 mmol) in pyridine (5 mL) was added EDCI (82.4 mg, 0.4303 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for 10 mins, aniline (29.3 mg, 0.3155 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 20°C for 16 hrs. To the reaction mixture was added water (20 mL) and stirred 30 mins. The suspension was filtrated and triturated from MeCN (5 mL) at 20°C to give II-G3 (63 mg, 52 %) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.60-7.45 (m, 2H), 7.35-7.27 (m, 2H), 7.20-7.05 (m, 1H), 6.93 (s, 1H), 2.35-2.25 (m, 2H), 2.10-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.50 (m, 6H), 1.50-1.05 (m, 19H), 0.85-0.75 (m, 3H), 0.73 (s, 3H).

LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 28 H 42 NO 2 [M+H] + 424, found 424.

[0544] Example II-ll: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)-2-(6- methoxy-lH-benzo[d][l,2,3]triazol-l-yl)ethan-l-one (II-M2), 1- ((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-3,13-dimet hylhexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-2-(5-methoxy-lH-benzo[d][l,2 ,3]triazol-l-yl)ethan-l- one (II-M2a) & l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-3,13- dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-2-( 5-methoxy-2H- benzo[d] [l,2,3]triazol-2-yl)ethan-l-one (II-M2b)

[0545] The experimental of II-E12 could be found in Example II-8. Synthesis of O-Ml

[0546] To a solution of P-E12 (500 mg, 1.44 mmol) in MeOH (10 ml) was added HBr (58.2 mg, 0.288 mmol, 40% in water) and Br 2 (241 mg, 1.51 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 2 hrs, the mixture was quenched by sat.aq NaHC0 3 (20 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum to afford P-M1 (610 mg, ) as a solid which was used directed in the next step.

Synthesis of P-M2, I I-M2a, II~M2b

[0547] To a solution of II-M1 (510 mg, 1.19 mmol) in Acetone (10 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (245 mg, 1.78 mmol) and 5-methyl-2H-tetrazole (211 mg, 1.42 mmol) at 20°C. The mixture was stirred at 20°C for 16 hrs. The reaction mixture was treated with water (20 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by HPLC (Column: YMC-Actus Triart C18 l00*30mm*5um), gradient: 75-95% B (water (0.05%HCl)-ACN), flow rate: 25 mL/min) to afford the mixture II-M2 and II-M2a (Peak 1, 320 mg, ) as a solid and IJ~M2b (Peak 2, 50 mg, ) as a solid.

The mixture II-M2 and II~M2a (320 mg, ) was purified by SFC (column: DAICEL

CHIRALCEL OJ-H(250mm*30mm,5um)), gradient: 35-35% B (0. l%NH 3 H 2 O, B= EtOH ), flow rate: 200 mL/min) to afford II-M2 (Peak 1, 49 mg, 8 %) as a solid and II-M2a (Peak 2, 62 mg, 10 %) as a solid.

The residue II-M2b (50 mg, ) was dissolved in MeCN (5 mL) at 25°C and concentrated in vacuum to II~M2b (45 mg, 8 %) as a solid.

D M2:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.90-7.80 (m, 1H), 7.05-6.95 (m, 1H), 6.75-6.55 (m, 1H), 5.45-5.25 (m, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 2.75-5.60 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.05 (m, 2H), 2.01-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.50 (m, 6H), 1.50-1.05 (m, 19H), 0.80-0.75 (m, 3H), 0.72 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 30 H 44 N 3 O 3 [M+H] + 494, found 494.

II-M2a:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.40-7.35 (m, 1H), 7.25-7.15 (m, 1H), 7.15-7.05 (m, 1H), 5.40-5.30 (m, 2H), 3.89 (m, 3H), 2.65-2.55 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.05 (m, 3H), 2.05-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.50 (m, 7H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 10H), 0.85-0.75 (m, 3H), 0.70 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 30 H 44 N 3 O 3 [M+H] + 494, found 494.

II-M2b: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 75-7.70 (m, 1H), 7.15-7.05 (m, 2H), 5.55-5.35 (m, 2H), 3.88 (m, 3H), 2.65-2.55 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.05 (m, 2H), 2.05-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.50 (m, 7H), 1.50- 1.30 (m 8H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 10H), 0.85-0.75 (m, 3H), 0.72 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 30 H 44 N 3 O 3 [M+H] + 494, found 494.

[0548] Example 11-12- 11-14

The following examples were made from Il-Ml as in Example II-11 replacing 5-methyl-2H- tetrazole with the listed nucleophile.

[0549] Example 11-20- 11-22

[0550] The following examples were made from II-G2 as in Example II-1 replacing (3S)- 3-phenylpyrrolidine with the listed nucleophile (amine).

[0551] Example 11-30: Synthesis of ((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthr en-17-yl)(o-

Synthesis of II-G4

[0552] To a solution of II-G2 (100 mg, 0.3 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) was added HATU

(163 mg, 0.4 mmol), TEA (57.9 mg, 0.6 mmol) and N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine

hydrochloride (26.2 mg, 0.4 mmol) at 25°C. The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 16 hrs. The reaction was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to afford product, which was washed with LiCl (2 x 50 mL), brine (2 x 20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated and was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give (95 mg, 95%) as a II-G4 a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) 5 H 3.67 (s, 3H), 3.19 (s, 3H), 1.92 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 1.55-1.45 (m, 7H), 1.45-1.10 (m, 18H), 0.90-0.80 (m, 3H), 0.78 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 3H), 0.72 (s, 3H).

[0553] Synthesis of II-G5

To a solution of l-bromo-2-methylbenzene (700 mg, 4.1 mmol) in THF (2 mL) was added t- BuLi (5.53 mL, 1.3 M, 7.2 mmol) at -70°C. A suspension was obtained. The resulting mixture was stirred at -70°C for 15 min. To the suspension of (2-methylphenyl)lithium was added II-G4 (80 mg, 0.2 mmol) in THF (2 mL) was added at-70°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C for 10 min. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give a solid (95 mg). The material (20 mg, ) was purified by prep-HPLC to give II-G5 (12 mg, 0.028 mmol) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.47 (d, 1H), 7.40-7.30 (m, 1H), 7.25-7.20 (m, 2H), 3.30 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 2.39 (s, 3H), 2.35-2.25 (m, 1H), 1.91 (t, j = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 1.75-1.05 (m, 26H), 0.76 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 3H), 0.64 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C29H4302 [M+H]+ 423, found 423.

[0554] EXAMPLE 11-35: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopen ta[a]phenanthren- 17-yl)ethan-l-one (II-B9)

Synthesis of II-B2

[0555] To a suspension of PPh 3 MeBr (548 g, 1536 mmol) in THF (1000 mL) was added /-BuOK (172 g, 1536 mmol) at l5°C. After stirring at 45°C for 1 hour, a solution of II-B1 (200 g, 512 mmol, reported in patent‘W02016/134301, 2016, A2’) in THF (500 mL) was added at 45°C and the reaction mixture was stirred at 45°C for 10 min. The mixture was added saturated NH 4 Cl solution (500 mL) and EtOAc (500 mL). The organic layer was separated, and the water phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 300 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (2 x 300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated and triturated from MeOH/H 2 0 (lOOOmL/lOOO mL) at l5°C and purified by silica gel chromatography (PE/EtOAc = 50/1 to 20/1) to give II-B2 (137 g, 69%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 6.40-6.25 (m, 1H), 5.15-5.00 (m, 2H), 3.95-3.75 (m, 9H), 2.10-1.65 (m, 9H), 1.65-1.25 (m, 5H), 1.25-1.05 (m, 6H), 0.85-0.75 (m, 4H).

Synthesis of II-B3

[0556] To a solution of II-B2 (70 g, 180 mmol) in THF (1000 mL) was added Pd-C (dry, 10%, 10 g) under N 2 . The suspension was degassed under vacuum and purged with H 2 for three times. The mixture was stirred under H 2 (30 psi) at 25°C for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with THF (3 x 500 mL). The filtrate was concentrated with a 2 nd batch (70g II-B2) to give II-B3 (141 g) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d 3.95-3.75 (m, 9H), 2.10-1.90 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.65 (m, 8H), 1.65-1.25 (m, 4H), 1.25-1.05 (m, 8H), 0.80-0.45 (s, 7H).

Synthesis of II-B4

[0557] To a soultion of II-B3 (141 g, 361 mmol) in THF (1000 mL) was added aq.HCl (361 mL, 4M, 1444 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was poured into water (500 mL). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous was extracted with EA (2 x 300 ml). The combined organic solutions was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCCL (500 mL), H 2 0 (2 x 300 mL), brine (200 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum and triturated from PE (300 mL) at l5°C to give II-B4 (82 g, 73 %) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d 2.80-2.70 (m, 1H), 2.55-2.45 (m, 3H), 2.45-2.15 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.00 (m, 3H), 2.00-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.65 (m, 6H), 1.65-1.30 (m, 2H), 1.30-1.10 (m, 7H), 0.88 (s, 3H), 1.85-0.75 (m, 3H).

Synthesis of II-B5

[0558] To a stirred solution of Trimethyl sulfonium iodide (22.2 g, 109 mmol) in

DMSO/THF (100 mL/500mL) was aded NaH (4.35 g, 109 mmol, 60 % in oil) at 0°C for 1 h under N 2 . The mixture was added to a solution of II-B4 (30 g, 99.1 mmol) in DMSO (100 mL) at l5°C for 4 hrs. The reaction was treated with water (200 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with water (2 x 100 mL), brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give II-B5 (35 g,) as anoil.

Synthesis of II-B6

[0559] To anhydrous methanol (300 mL) was added Na (9.83 g, 410 mmol) at l5°C in ten portions. The reaction mixture was stirred at 65°C for 1 h. To a suspension of

methoxysodium was added II-B5 (13 g, 41.0 mmol) in anhydrous methanol (50 mL) at 65°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 65°C for 16 hrs. Water (500ml) was added. The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove most of the solvent. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (2 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-B6 (7 g,) as an oil and II-B6a.

II-B6:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.45-3.30 (m, 5H), 2.50-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.15-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.80-1.50 (m, 5H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 8H), 0.90-0.65 (m, 6H).

Synthesis of II-B7

[0560] To a suspension of bromo(ethyl)triphenylphosphorane (29.6 g, 80.0 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added /-BuOK (8.96 g, 80.0 mmol) at l5°C under N 2 . The mixture was heated to 45°C and stirred for 1 h. A solution of II-B6 (7 g, 20.0 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred at 45°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was treated with NH 4 Cl (100 mL). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (2 x 30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum. The residue was triturated from MeOH/H 2 0 (50mL/50 mL) at l5°C to give II-B7 (7.5 g,) as a solid.

Synthesis of II-B8

[0561] To a solution of II-B7 (5 g, 13.8 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (6.73 g, 27.6 mmol) at l5°C. The mixture was stirred at l5°C for 48 hrs. After cooling to 0°C, to the reaction mixture was added ethanol (6.34 g, 138 mmol) and NaOH (27.6 mL, 5 M, 138 mmol) very slowly. After the addition was completed, H 2 0 2 (13.8 mL, 138 mmol, 30%) was added slowly and the inner temperature was maintained below l5°C. The resulting solution was stirred at 75°C for 1 hrs. Saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (50 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at 0°C for another 1 hour. The reaction was checked by potassium iodide- starch test paper to confirm excess H 2 0 2 was destroyed. The mixture was cooled and added to Water (500 mL). The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give II-B8 (7 g,) as an oil.

Synthesis of II-B9

[0562] To a solution of II-B8 (7 g, 18.4 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) was added PCC (7.91 g, 36.8 mmol) and silica gel (8 g) at l5°C. The solution was stirred at l5°C for 3 hrs. The reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with anhydrous DCM (2 x 100 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-50% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-B9 (3.8 g, 55 %) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.45-3.30 (m, 5H), 2.63 (s, 1H), 2.60-2.45 (m, 1H), 2.20-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.05-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.80-1.50 (m, 7H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 7H), 0.80- 0.65 (m, 3H), 0.58 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 24 H 39 0 2 [M+H-H 2 0] + 359, found 359.

[0563] Example 11-36: Synthesis of ((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopen ta[a]phenanthren- 17-yl)((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)methanone (II-B11)

Synthesis of II-B10

[0564] Liquid bromine (1.05 g, 6.60 mmol) was added slowly to a vigorously stirred sodium hydroxide aqueous (5.26 mL, 3 M, 15.8 mmol) at 0°C. When all the bromine was dissolved, the mixture was diluted with cold dioxane (5 mL) and was added slowly to a stirred solution of II-B9 (500 mg, 1.32 mmol) in dioxane (10 mL) and water (5 mL) and a precipitate was formed, and the reaction mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hours. The remaining oxidizing reagent was quenched by Na 2 S0 3 aqueous (30 mL) and the mixture was then heated at 80°C until the solid material was dissolved. Acidification of the solution with hydrochloride acid (3 N) furnished a precipitate. The suspension was added EtOAc (20 mL). The organic phase was separated. The aqueous was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum to afford II-B10 (550 mg, ) as a solid. Synthesis of II-B11

[0565] To a solution of II-B10 (500 mg, 1.32 mmol) in pyridine (10 mL) was added EDCI (1.01 g, 5.28 mmol) and stirred at 25°C for 10 mins. (2S)-2-methylpiperidine (143 mg, 1.45 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 16 hrs. To the reaction mixture was added water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (2 x 10 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated and purified by HPLC ((column: YMC-Actus Triart C18 l00*30mm*5um), gradient: 85-100% B (A= water (0.05% HCl)-ACN), B= MeCN), flow rate: 25 mL/min) to give II-B11 (l36mg, 22 %) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 5.00-4.80 (m, 0.7H), 4.65-4.45 (m, 0.3H), 4.35-4.25 (m,

0.3H), 3.80-3.70 (m, 0.7H), 3.40-3.25 (m, 5H), 3.10-2.95 (m, 1H), 2.75-2.60 (m, 2H), 2.35- 2.15 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.55 (m, 12H), 1.55-1.30 (m, 8H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 11H), 0.80-0.65 (m, 6H); MS ESI calcd. for C 29 H 5 oN0 3 [M+H] + 460, found 460. [0566] Example 11-40: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3-

(ethoxymethyl)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-13-methylhexadecahydro- lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)ethan-l-one (II-C4)

Synthesis of II-C1

[0567] To anhydrous EtOH (200 mL) was added Na (25.4 g, 1107 mmol) at l5°C in ten potions. The reaction mixture was stirred at 75°C forl h. To the suspension of ethoxysodium was added II-B5 (22 g, 69.5 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (50 mL) at 75°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 75°C for 16 hrs. Water (500ml) was added at l5°C. The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove most of the solvent. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (2 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-C1 (12 g, ) as an oil and II-Cla (7 g, 28 %) as a solid.

II-C1:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.60-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.45-3.30 (m, 2H), 2.45-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.10-1.90 (m, 4H), 1.90-1.55 (m, 5H), 1.55-1.30 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.10 (m, 11H), 0.90-0.80 (m, 3H), 0.80-0.60 (m, 3H).

II-Cla:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.55-3.46 (m, 2H), 3.25-3.15 (m, 2H), 2.47-2.35 (m, 1H), 2.10-1.95 (m, 4H), 1.95-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.60 (m, 5H), 1.55-1.35 (m, 6H), 1.35-1.15 (m, 11H), 0.90-0.80 (m, 6H)

Synthesis of II-C2

[0568] To a suspension of bromo(ethyl)triphenylphosphorane (48.9 g, 132 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added /-BuOK (14.7 g, 132 mmol) at l5°C under N 2 . The mixture was heated to 45°C and stirred for 1 h. A solution of II-C1 (12 g, 33.0 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added at 45°C. The mixture was stirred at 45°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was treated with NH 4 Cl (100 mL). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (2 x 40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum. The residue triturated from MeOH/H 2 0 (50mL/50 mL) at 20°C to give II-C2 (17 g,) as an oil.

Synthesis of II-C3

[0569] To a solution of II-C2 (17 g, 45.3 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (22.1 g, 90.6 mmol) at l5°C. The mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hrs. After cooling to 0°C, to the reaction mixture was added ethanol (20.8 g, 453 mmol) and NaOH (90.6 mL, 5 M, 453 mmol) very slowly. After the addition was completed, H 2 0 2 (45.3 mL, 453 mmol, 30%) was added slowly and the inner temperature was maintained below l5°C. The resulting solution was stirred at 75°C for 1 hrs. Saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (100 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for another 1 hour. The reaction was checked by potassium iodide-starch test paper to confirm excess H 2 0 2 was destroyed. The mixture was cooled and added to Water (2 L). The mixture was filtered. The combined filter oil was dissolved in EtOAc (200 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give II-C3 (18 g,) as an oil.

Synthesis of II-C4

[0570] To a solution of II-C3 (18 g, 45.8 mmol) in DCM (200 mL) was added PCC (19.6 g, 91.6 mmol) and silica gel (15 g) at l5°C. The solution was stirred at l5°C for 3 hrs. The reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with anhydrous DCM (2 x 100 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-C4 (8 g, 45%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.60-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.50-3.30 (m, 2H), 2.74 (s, 1H), 2.60- 2.45 (m, 1H), 2.20-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.05-1.75 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.50 (m, 7H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 10H), 0.80-0.65 (m, 3H), 0.59 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 4i 0 2 [M+H-

H 2 0] + 373, found 373.

Example 11-43- 11-51

[0571] The following examples were made from II-C5 as in Example 11-41 replacing 1,3- dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-5-amine with the listed amine and an appropriate coupling agent (oxalic dichloride, EDCI, E1ATEG, etc).

[0572] Example 11-61: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3- (ethoxymethyl)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)ethan-l-one (II-D9)

Synthesis of II-D2

[0573] To a suspension of MePPh 3 Br (50.3 g, 141 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added t- BuOK (15.8 g, 141 mmol) at l5°C. After stirring at 45°C for 0.5 hour, a solution of II-D1 (18.5 g, 47.3 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added at 45°C and the reaction mixture was stirred at 45°C for 1 h. Saturated NH 4 Cl solution (200 mL) was added to the mixture and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (200 mL), filtered and

concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtO Ac= 10/1 -4/ 1 ) to afford II-D2 (13.6 g, 74.3%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.88 (dd, J= 10.8, 17.6 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (dd, J= 11.2 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (dd, J = 1.2, 18.0 Hz, 1H), 4.00-3.82 (m, 8H), 2.20-2.12 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.12 (m, 18H), 1.07-0.92 (m, 1H), 0.90-0.80 (m, 1H), 0.74 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-D3

[0574] To a solution of II-D2(l3.6 g, 35.0 mmol) in THF (80 mL) was added 12M HC1 (29.1 mL, 350 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hours t. The reaction mixture was diluted with H 2 0 (50 mL) and adjust to pH = 9 with solid Na 2 CO, (20 g). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give the product (10.5 g). The product was purified by flash column (15-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-D3(8.0 g, 76.9%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 6.03 (dd, J = 11.2, 18.0 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (d, J = 11.2 Hz, 1H), 5.20 (d, J = 18.0 Hz, 1H), 2.55-2.40 (m, 3H), 2.32-1.55 (m, 13H), 1.55-1.15 (m, 4H), 1.10- 0.95 (m, 1H), 0.93-0.83 (m, 1H), 0.80 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-D4

[0575] To a mixture of II-D3 (8.0 g, 26.6 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added Pd-C (wet, 50%, 2.0 g) under Ar. The suspension was degassed under vacuum and purged with H 2 for three times. 30 psi of hydrogen at 25°C for 16 hrs was applied to the resulting solution. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with THF (2 x 200 mL).

The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The product was purified by flash column (15-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-D4 (8.0 g, 99.5%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 2.55-2.25 (m, 5H), 2.15-1.15 (m, 17H), 1.10 (t, j = 8.0 Hz, 3H), 1.05-0.95 (m, 1H), 0.91 (s, 3H), 0.85-0.65 (m, 1H); MS ESI calcd. for C 20 H 31 O 2 [M+H] + 303, found 303.

Synthesis of II-D5

[0576] To a stirred solution of Me 3 SIO (4.35 g, 19.8 mmol) in DMSO (30 mL) and THF (30 mL) was aded NaH (791 mg, 19.8 mmol, 60 % in oil) at 0°C in portions. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h under N 2 . The mixture was added to a solution of II-D4 (5.0 g,

16.5 mmol) in DMSO (30 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hrs. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (300 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with water (2 x 100 mL) and brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give the product II-D5 (5.0 g,) as an oil (yielding the equatorial methylene selectively).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 2.61 (s, 2H), 2.42 (dd, J = 8.8, 19.6 Hz, 1H), 2.15-1.40 (m, 11H), 1.35-1.05 (m, 8H), 1.02-0.70 (m, 10H).

Synthesis of II-D6

[0577] To a fresh prepared solution of ethoxysodium (31.5 mL, 31.5 mmol, 1M in EtOH) was added II-D5 (1.0 g, 3.15 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (20 mL) at 75°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 75°C for 16 hrs. Water (50 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove most of the solvent. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-D6 (512 mg, 44.9%) as an oil.

II-D6:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.52 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 2.42 (dd, J = 8.8, 19.6 Hz, 1H), 2.15-1.50 (m, 9H), 1.50-1.10 (m, 15H), 1.05-0.99 (m, 1H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 0.90-0.65 (m, 4H); MS ESI calcd. for C 2 3H 3 80 3 Na [M+Na] + 385, found 385.

[0578] Synthesis of II-D7

To a suspension of bromo(ethyl)triphenylphosphorane (22.4 g, 60.4 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added t-BuOK (6.76 g, 60.4 mmol) at l5°C under N 2 . The mixture was heated to 45°C and stirred for 1 h. A solution of II-D6 (5.5 g, 15.1 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added at 45°C. The mixture was stirred at 45°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was treated with NH 4 Cl (300 mL). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 150 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (2 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-D7 (5.0 g, 88%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.15-5.05 (m, 1H), 3.52 (q, j = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 2.40-2.10 (m, 4H), l.85-l .75(m, 1H), 1.70-1.40 (m, 7H), 1.35-1.10 (m, 14H), 1.10-0.80 (m, 11H).

[0579] Synthesis of II-D8

To a solution of II-D7 (3.0 g, 8.0 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (3.90 g, 16.0 mmol) at l5°C. The mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hrs. After cooling to 0°C, the mixture was added ethanol (3.68 g, 80.0 mmol) and NaOH (16 mL, 5 M, 80.0 mmol) very slowly. After the addition was complete, H 2 0 2 (8.01 mL, 80.0 mmol, 30%) was added slowly and the inner temperature was maintained below l5°C. The resulting solution was stirred at 75°C for 1 hrs. The solution was workup and purified together with another batch done in similar manner. Saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (300 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at 0°C for another 1 hour. The reaction was checked by potassium iodide-starch test paper to confirm excess H 2 0 2 was destroyed. The mixture was cooled and added to water (200 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3x100 mL), washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give II-D8 (5.0 g,) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.75-3.65 (m, 1H), 3.51 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.20 (s, 2H), 1.95-1.75 (m, 12H), 1.74-1.40 (m, 13H), 1.39-0.95 (m, 8H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 0.66 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-D9

[0580] To a solution of II-D8 (0.8 g, 2.0 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added PCC (872 mg, 4.1 mmol) and silica gel (1 g) at l8°C. The solution was stirred at l8°C for 3h. The reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with anhydrous DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-D9 (0.75 g, 94.6%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 3.52 (q, j = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 2.52 (t, j = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.25-2.10 (m, 5H), 2.05-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.65 (m, 4H), 1.55-1.05 (m, 18H), 1.00-0.80 (m, 5H), 0.62 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 41 O 2 [M-H 2 0+H] + 373, found 373.

[0581] Example 11-62: Synthesis of ((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3- (ethoxymethyl)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)m ethanone (II-D11)

Synthesis of II-D10

[0582] Liquid bromine (1.22 g, 7.7 mmol) was added slowly to a vigorously stirred aqueous sodium hydroxide (10.2 mL, 3 M, 30.7 mmol) at 0°C. When all the bromine was dissolved, the mixture was added slowly to a stirred solution of II-D9 (1.0 g, 2.6 mmol) in dioxane (18 mL) and water (6 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 15 °C for 16 hours.

The remaining oxidizing reagent was quenched by aqueous Na 2 SC> 3 solution (30 mL). The solution with hydrochloride acid (3 N) furnished a precipitate. To the suspension was added EtOAc (50 mL). The organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give II-D10 (0.8 g, 80%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.71 (s, 1H), 3.52 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 2.37 (t, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 2.15-2.00 (m, 3H), 1.90-1.70 (m, 2H), 1.60-1.10 (m, 20H), 1.00-0.65 (m, 5H), 0.74 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-D11

[0583] To a solution of II-D10 (200 mg, 0.5 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) were added HATEG

(382 mg, 1.0 mmol), TEA (256 mg, 2.5 mmol) and (2S)-2-methylpiperidine (100 mg, 1.0 mmol) at 20°C. The mixture was stirred at 20°C for 16 hrs to give brown solution. The reaction was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (2 x 20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column

(10-20% of EtOAc in PE) to afford the product. The product was purified by prep-HPLC (Column: Agela DuraShell 150mm_25mm_5pm; Condition: water (lOmM NH 4 HC0 3 )-ACN; Begin B: 83; End B: 99; Gradient Time (min): 8.5; 100%B Hold Time (min): 2) to afford II- Dll (53.3 mg, 22%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.00-4.90 (m, 1H), 4.60-4.25 (m, 1H), 3.82 (d, j = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 3.03 (t, J= 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.63 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.40-2.15 (m, 1H), 2.12 (s, 1H), 1.90-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.65-1.60 (m, 5H), 1.58-1.40 (m, 10H), 1.38-1.00 (m, 15H), 0.95-0.65 (m, 8H); MS ESI calcd. for C30H52NO3 [M+H] + 474, found 474.

The following example was made from II-D10 as in Example 11-62 replacing (2S)-2- methylpiperidine with the listed amine and an appropriate coupling agent (oxalic dichloride, ED Cl, HATU, etc).

[0584] Example 11-70: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopen ta[a]phenanthren- 17-yl)ethan-l-one (II-E4)

Synthesis of II-E1

[0585] Fresh Na (1.45 g, 63 mmol) was carefully added to MeOH (63 mL) in portions at 0°C. After stirring at 20°C for 3h, Na was dissolved completely. To a solution of MeONa (63 mL, 63.0 mmol, 1M in MeOH) was added II-D5 (2.0 g, 6.3 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (40 mL) at 65°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 65°C for 2 hrs. Water (100 mL) was added to the above mixture. The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove most of the solvent. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and

concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash column (15-20% EtOAc in PE) to afford II-E1 (0.8 g, 37%) as an oil and II-Ela.

II-E1:

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.43 (dd, J = 8.4, 19.2 Hz, 1H), 2.15-1.86 (m, 4H), 1.85-1.75 (m, 3H), 1.75-1.45 (m, 6H), 1.44-1.13 (m, 10H), 1.12-0.93 (m, 4H), 0.92-0.82 (m, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E2

[0586] To a suspension of bromo(ethyl)triphenylphosphorane (3.4 g, 9.2 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added t-BuOK (1.0 g, 9.2 mmol) at l5°C under N 2 . The mixture was heated to 60°C and stirred for lh. A solution of II-E1 (0.8 g, 2.3 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added at 60°C. The mixture was stirred at 60°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was treated with NH 4 Cl (20 mL). The organic layer was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-E2 (630 mg, 76%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.12 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.45-2.12 (m, 3H), 1.88 (d, j = 12.8 Hz, 1H), 1.77-1.40 (m, 12H), 1.39-1.08 (s, 11H), 0.95 (t, j = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 0.93-0.80 (m, 4H).

Synthesis of II-E3

[0587] To a solution of II-E2 (630 mg, 1.7 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (849 mg, 3.5 mmol) at l5°C. The mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hrs. After cooling to 0°C, ethanol (800 mg, 17.4 mmol) and 5M NaOH (3.47 mL, 17.4 mmol) were added slowly to the mixture. After the addition was complete, H 2 0 2 (1.74 mL, 17.4 mmol, 30%) was added slowly and the inner temperature was maintained below l5°C. The resulting solution was stirred at 75°C for 1 hrs. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with saturated brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash column (30%~50% EtOAc in PE) to afford II-E3 (540 mg, 82%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 3.77-3.15 (m, 1H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 1.95-1.80 (m, 3H), 1.70-1.40 (m, 11H), 1.40-1.00 (m, 15H), 0.98-0.90 (m, 3H), 0.89-0.77 (m, 1H), 0.76 (s, 1H), 0.64 (s, 2H).

Synthesis of II-E4

[0588] To a solution of II-E3 (0.54 g, 1.4 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added PCC (610 mg, 2.8 mmol) and silica gel (1 g) at l8°C. The solution was stirred at l8°C for lh. The reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford II-E4 (534 mg) as an oil. Purification by chromatography yield pure II-E4.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.52 (t, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.20-2.08 (m, 4H), 2.05-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.83 (m, 1H), 1.77-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.54-1.08 (m, 15H), 1.05- 0.82 (m, 5H), 0.62 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C^oOsNa [M+Na] + 399, found 399. [0589] Example 11-71: Synthesis of (3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-N-(4-cyano-2- methylphenyl)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)-13-methyl hexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-17-carboxamide (II-E6)

Synthesis of II-E5

[0590] Liquid bromine (127 mg, 0.8 mmol) was added slowly to a vigorously stirred aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (1.05 mL, 3M, 3.2 mmol) at 0°C. When all the bromine was dissolved, the mixture was added slowly to a stirred solution of II-E4 (100 mg, 0.3 mmol) in dioxane (6 mL) and water (2 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hours. The remaining oxidizing reagent was quenched by aqueous Na 2 SO, solution (3 mL), and the solution with hydrochloride acid (5 mL, 3 N) furnished a precipitate. To the suspension was added EtOAc (10 mL). The organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give II- E5 (120 mg,) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.37 (t, J= 9.2Hz, 1H), 2.12-1.99 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.64 (m, 5H), 1.62-1.40 (m, 5H), 1.36-1.09 (m, 11H), 1.07-0.79 (m, 6H), 0.73 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E6

[0591] To a solution of II-E5 (110 mg, 0.3 mmol) in pyridine (5 mL) was added EDCI (167 mg, 0.9 mmol) and stirred for 10 mins. 4-amino-3-methylbenzonitrile (76.7 mg, 0.6 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 80°C for 16 hrs to give a brown solution. The reaction mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine (2 x 20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% of EtOAc in PE) to give the product II-E6 (51.1 mg, 36%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 8.35 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.53-7.48 (m, 1H), 7.45 (s, 1H), 6.95 (s, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.19 (s, 2H), 2.36-2.23 (m, 5H), 2.06-1.99 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.67 (m, 5H), 1.65-1.56 (m, 2H), 1.53-1.41 (m, 3H), 1.36-1.13 (m, 10H), 1.02-0.85 (m, 5H), 0.76 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 31 H 45 N 2 O 3 [M+H] + 493, found 493.

Example 11-72: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-3- (methoxymethyl)-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phena nthren-17-yl)-2- oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile (II-E8)

Synthesis of II-E7

[0592] To a solution of II-E4 (100 mg, 0.27 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was added HBr

(10.7 mg, 0.05 mmol, 40%) and Br 2 (46.6 mg, 0.3 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at l5°C for 1 hours. Saturated NaHC0 3 (10 mL) and saturated Na 2 S0 3 solution (10 mL) were added to the mixture. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL).

The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (10 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give II-E7 (120 mg,) as an oil.

Synthesis of II-E8

[0593] To a solution of II-E7 (120 mg, 0.26 mmol) in acetone (3 mL) were added K 2 CO 3 (54.6 mg, 0.4 mmol) and lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (36.7 mg, 0.4 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at l5°C for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by flash column (20-40% of EtOAc in PE) to afford II-E8 (46 mg, 39%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.46 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (dd, J = 18.0, 42.8 Hz, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 2H), 2.58 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.24-2.00 (m, 3H), 1.86 (d, J= 12.4 Hz, 1H), 1.80-1.43 (m, 9H), 1.42-1.10 (m, 10H), 1.05-0.85 (m, 5H), 0.66 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 28 H 4i N 3 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 490, found 490.

[0594] Example 11-73: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3- (ethoxymethyl)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-3-ca rbonitrile (II-D13)

Synthesis of II-D12

[0595] To a solution of II-D5 (150 mg, 0.38 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was added HBr (15.3 mg, 0.077 mmol, 40%) and Br 2 (67.5 mg, 0.42 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at l5°C. The reaction mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (20 mL), then extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give II-D12 (165 mg,) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 4.00-3.85 (m, 2H), 3.52 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 2.80 (t, j= 9.2 Hz, 1H), 2.25-2.10 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.40 (m, 10H), 1.40-1.10 (m, 12H), 1.00-0.80 (m, 6H), 0.65 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-D13

[0596] To a solution of II-D12 (165 mg, 0.4 mmol) in acetone (5 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (96.9 mg, 0.7 mmol) and lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (65.4 mg, 0.7 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at l5°C. The reaction mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (20 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give product. The residue was purified by combi flash (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-D13 (74.6 mg, 44.1%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.47 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.72 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (dd, J = 17.6, 51.2 Hz, 2H), 3.52 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.21 (s, 2H), 2.59 (t, J = 8.8, 1H), 2.25-2.10 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.60 (m, 6H), 1.55-1.10 (m, 18H), 1.05-0.80 (m, 5H), 0.68 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 29 H 42 N 3 0 2 [M-H 2 0+H] + 464, found 464.

[0597] Example 11-74: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3- (ethoxymethyl)-10-ethyl-3-hydroxy-13-methylhexadecahydro-lH- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-4-ca rbonitrile (II-C8)

Synthesis of II-C7

[0598] To a solution of II-C4 (500 mg, 1.3 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added HBr (10 mg, 40%) and Br 2 (224 mg, 1.4 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at l5°C. The reaction mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give II- C7 (220 mg,) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.95-3.88 (m, 2H), 3.54 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.41 (q, 7= 11.2 Hz, 2H), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.74-2.60 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.10 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.78- 1.59 (m, 9H), 1.38-1.10 (m, 13H), 0.98-0.78 (m, 2H), 0.78 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.62 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-C8

[0599] To a solution of II-C7 (70 mg, 0.15 mmol) in acetone (5 mL) were added K 2 C0 3 (41 mg, 0.3 mmol) and lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (28 mg, 0.3 mmol) at l5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at l5°C. The reaction mixture was added into saturated NH 4 CI (50 mL), and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give product. The residue was purified by combi flash (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give II-C8 (45 mg, 63%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H), 5.02 (d, 7= 18.0 Hz, 2H), 4.89 (d, J= 18.0 Hz, 2H), 3.54 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.41 (q, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 2.75 (s, 1H), 2.63-2.53 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.10 (m, 1H), 2.09-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.80-1.58 (m, 7H), 1.51-1.25 (m, 11H), 1.24- 1.10 (m, 6H), 0.78 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 3H), 0.64 (s, 3H); MS ESI calcd. for C 29 H 42 N 3 0 2 [M+H- H 2 0] + 464, found 464.

Examples 11-75 to 11-79 Examples II-75-II-76 were made from a-halo ketone (II-C7), examples II-77-II-70 were made from a-halo ketone II-D12) as in Examples 11-72 to 11-74 replacing lH-pyrazole-4- carbonitrile with the listed nucleophile.

EXAMPLE 11-80: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-10-((R)-l- methoxyethyl)-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phe nanthren-17-yl)ethan- 1-one (II-E10)

Synthesis of II-E2

[0600] To a solution of II-E2 (6 g, 19.7 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) were added pyridine hydrochloride (453 mg, 3.94 mmol) and ethane- 1 ,2-diol (6.1 g, 98.4 mmol). After stirring at l30°C for 16 h, the mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column eluted with (PE/EtOAc = 5/1) to afford II-E2 (5.4 g, 66%) as a solid. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d 3.98-3.80 (m, 9H), 3.58-3.55 (m, 1H), 2.10-2.01 (m, 1H), 1.99-1.91 (m, 2H), 1.84-1.60 (m, 5H), 1.59-1.33 (m, 10H), 1.30-1.17 (m, 4H), 1.15-1.02 (m, 1H), 0.82 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E3

[0601] To a solution of II-E2 (5.3 g, 13.5 mmol) in DCM (60 mL) was added PCC (4.34 g, 20.2 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 30 min, the solution was filtered, and the filtered cake was washed with DCM (2 x 100 mL). The combined filtrate was washed with saturated NaHC0 3 (100 mL) and brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and

concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column eluted with

(PE/EtOAc = 8/1) to afford II-E3 (3.1 g, 53%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d 9.58 (s, 1H), 4.00-3.84 (m, 8H), 2.25-2.15 (m, 1H), 2.03-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.84-1.59 (m, 7H), 1.56- 1.32 (m, 10H), 1.30-1.17 (m, 1H), 1.13-0.99 (m, 1H), 0.92 (s, 3H). Synthesis of II-E4 [0602] To a solution of II-E4 (3 g, 7.68 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added MeMgBr (5.1 mL, 15.3 mmol, 3M in ethyl ether) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the reaction was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to afford II-E4 (2.8 g, 81%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 4.42 (m, 1H), 3.97-3.81 (m, 8H), 2.03-1.92 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.74 (m, 5H), 1.71-1.64 (m, 1H), 1.60-1.34 (m, 9H), 1.30-1.22 (m, 4H), 1.21-1.11 (m, 5H), 0.87 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E5 [0603] To a solution of II-E4 (2.7 g, 6.64 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was added NaH (795 mg, 19.9 mmol, 60%) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for 30 min, Mel (2.82 g, 19.9 mmol) was added dropwise to the reaction. After stirring at 50°C for 2 h, additional Mel (2.82 g,

19.9 mmol) was added dropwise. After stirring at 50°C for 1 h, the mixture was poured into ice water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 60 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried with anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (PE/EtOAc = 10/1) to afford II-E5 (2 g, 64%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d 3.97-3.83 (m, 8H), 3.79-3.74 (m, 1H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.08-1.93 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.75 (m, 3H), 1.73-1.57 (m, 3H), 1.54-1.36 (m, 8H), 1.31-1.05 (m, 9H), 0.88 (s, 3H). Synthesis of II-E6

[0604] To a solution of II-E5 (2 g, 4.75 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added aq. HC1 (4.75 mL, 4M, 19 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 16 h, the mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 and concentrated in vacuum to afford II-E6 (1.4 g, 80%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.86-3.82 (m, 1H), 3.31 (s, 3H), 2.77-2.67 (m, 1H), 2.54-2.43 (m, 1H), 2.32-2.19 (m, 3H), 2.16-1.94 (m, 4H), 1.91-1.78 (m, 3H), 1.75-1.60 (m, 4H), 1.55-1.35 (m, 2H), 1.30-1.16 (m, 4H), 1.10-1.05 (m, 3H), 0.93 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E7 [0605] To a solution of BHT (5.56 g, 25.2 mmol) in toluene (50 mL) was added dropwise AlMe 3 (6.3 mL, 12.6 mmol, 2 M in toluene) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for 1 h, a solution of II-E6 (1.4 g, 4.21 mmol) in toluene (20 mL) was added dropwise to the mixture at -65°C. After stirring at -65°C for 1 h, MeMgBr (4.19 mL, 12.6 mmol, 3M in ethyl ether) was added dropwise at -65°C. After stirring at -65°C for 3 h, the reaction was quenched by saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (50 mL) at -65°C. After stirring at 25°C for 0.5 h, the resulting mixture was filtered through a celite pad and the pad was washed with EtOAc (100 mL). The combined organic solution was separated, washed with brine (2 x 100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column eluted with PE/EtOAc = 5/1 to give II-E7 (1.1 g, 68%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.80- 3.75 (m, 1H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.48-2.41 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.02 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.77 (m, 4H), 1.74- 1.63 (m, 4H), 1.57-1.33 (m, 7H), 1.29-1.13 (m, 9H), 1.08 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.89 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. For C 21 H 31 O [M+H-H 2 0-MeOH] + 299, found 299.

Synthesis of II-E8

[0606] To a solution of PPh 3 EtBr (3.18 g, 8.58 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added t- BuOK (962 mg, 8.58 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 60°C for 1 h, a solution of II-E7 (1 g, 2.86 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added dropwise. After stirring at 60°C for 16 h, the mixture was poured into ice-water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 and filtered,

concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column eluted with PE/EtOAc = 15/1 to afford II-E8 (1 g, 78%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 5.18-4.99 (m,

1H), 3.83-3.71 (m, 1H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 2.45-2.09 (m, 3H), 2.01-1.81 (m, 3H), 1.68-1.58 (m, 6H), 1.58-1.37 (m, 7H), 1.31-1.12 (m, 10H), 1.08-1.03 (m, 3H), 0.91 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E9

[0607] To a solution of II-E8 (1 g, 2.77 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added dropwise a solution of BH 3 -Me 2 S (2.77 mL, 27.7 mmol) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for 16 h, the solution was cooled to 0°C and NaOH (9.23 mL, 3M) was added very slowly. After the addition was complete, H 2 0 2 (4.5 mL, 33%) was added slowly and the inner temperature was maintained below l0°C. After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the resulting solution was extract with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (2 x 50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give II-E9 (0.9 g) as a solid, which used for the next step without further purification.

Synthesis of II-E10

[0608] To a solution of II-E9 (800 mg, 2.11 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added PCC (907 mg, 4.22 mol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the solution was filtered and the filter cake was washed with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column eluted with (PE/EtOAc = 5/1) to afford II-E10 (600 mg, 68%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.78-3.74 (m, 1H), 3.27 (s, 3H), 2.56-2.51 (m, 1H), 2.22-2.16 (m, 1H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 2.06-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.91- 1.79 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.61 (m, 6H), 1.50-1.32 (m, 6H), 1.29-1.10 (m, 10H), 1.06 (d, J= 6.0 Hz,

3H), 0.64 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. For C 23 H 35 0 [M+H-H 2 0- MeOH] + 327, found 327.

EXAMPLE 11-81: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-10-((R)-l- methoxyethyl)-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phe nanthren-17-yl)-2-(5- methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)ethan-l-one (II-E12) & l-((3R,5R,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3- hydroxy-10-((R)-l-methoxyethyl)-3,13-dimethylhexadecahydro-l H- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-2-(5-methyl-lH-tetrazol-l-yl )ethan-l-one (II-E13)

Synthesis of II-E 11

[0609] To a solution of II-E10 (300 mg, 0.796 mmol) and HBr (0.1 mL, 48% in water) in MeOH (5 mL) was added dropwise bromine (190 mg, 1.19 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 (20 mL) and the pH was adjusted to 7~8. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column eluted with (PE/EtOAc = 8/1) to afford II-E 11 (240 mg, 60%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.98-3.86 (m, 2H),

3.77-3.73 (m, 1H), 3.26 (s, 3H), 2.85-2.83 (m, 1H), 2.27-2.13 (m, 1H), 2.02-1.83 (m, 3H), 1.77-1.61 (m, 5H), 1.54-1.33 (m, 7H), 1.31-1.11 (m, 8H), 1.08-1.02 (m, 3H), 0.91-0.80 (m, 2H), 0.67 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of II-E12 & II-E13

[0610] To a solution of II-E11 (120 mg, 0.263 mmol) in acetone (3 mL) were added K 2 C0 3 (72.5 mg, 0.526 mmol) and 5 -methyl -2H-tetrazole (44.2 mg, 0.526 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 16 h, the mixture was poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC separation (column: Boston Green ODS 150*30 5u, gradient: 60-90% B (A= 0.05%HCl- ACN, B= acetonitrile), flow rate: 25 mL/min) to give II-E12 (15 mg, 12%) and II-E12 (32 mg, 27%) both as solids.

II-E12: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d 5.43-5.29 (m, 2H), 3.79-3.74 (m, 1H), 3.27 (s, 3H), 2.65-2.60 (m, 1H), 2.57 (s, 3H), 2.30-2.16 (m, 1H), 2.11 -2.08 (m, 1H), 2.01-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.76-1.65 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.63 (m, 6H), 1.52-1.34 (m, 6H), 1.33-1.10 (m, 10H), 1.07 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.74 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 26 H 4i N 4 0 2 [M+H- H 2 0] + 441, found 441.

II-E13: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 5.21-5.02 (m, 2H), 3.79-3.74 (m, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3H), 2.71-2.61 (m, 1H), 2.48 (s, 3H), 2.29-2.17 (m, 1H), 2.09-2.06 (m, 1H), 2.03-1.93 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.87 (m, 1H), 1.83-1.62 (m, 6H), 1.53-1.41 (m, 6H), 1.39-1.11 (m, 10H), 1.07 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.71 (s, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 26 H 4i N 4 0 2 [M+H- H 2 0] + 441, found 441.

[0611] Formula III Abbreviations: PE: petroleum ether; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; THF: tetrahydrofuran; PCC: pyridinium chlorochromate; TLC: thin layer chromatography; PCC: pyridinium chlorochromate; t-BuOK: potassium tert-butoxide; 9-BBN: 9- borabicyclo[3.3. l]nonane; Pd(/-Bu 3 P) 2 : bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0); AcCl: acetyl chloride; z-PrMgCl: Isopropylmagnesium chloride; TBSC1: tert- Butyl(chloro)dimethylsilane; (z-PrO) Ti: titanium tetraisopropoxide; BHT: 2,6-di-t-butyl-4- methylphenoxide; Me: methyl; z-Pr: iso-propyl; Z-Bu: tert-butyl; Ph: phenyl; Et: ethyl; Bz: benzoyl; BzCl: benzoyl chloride; CsF: cesium fluoride; DCC: dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; DCM: dichloromethane; DMAP: 4-dimethylaminopyridine; DMP: Dess-Martin periodinane; EtMgBr: ethylmagnesium bromide; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; TEA: triethylamine; AlaOH: alanine; Boc: t-butoxycarbonyl. Py: pyridine; TBAF: tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride; THF: tetrahydrofuran; TBS: t-butyldimethylsilyl; TMS: trimethyl silyl; TMSCF 3 :

(Trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane; Ts: p-toluenesulfonyl; Bu: butyl; Ti(OiPr) 4 :

tetraisopropoxytitanium; LAH: Lithium Aluminium Hydride; LDA: lithium

diisopropylamide; LiOH.H 2 0: lithium hydroxide hydrates; MAD: methyl aluminum bis(2,6- di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide); MeCN: acetonitrile; NBS: N-bromosuccinimide; Na 2 S0 4 : sodium sulfate; Na 2 S 2 0 3 : sodium thiosulfate; PE: petroleum ether; MeCN: acetonitrile; MeOH: methanol; Boc: t-butoxycarbonyl; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; K-selectride: Potassium tri(s-butyl)borohydride.

[0612] EXAMPLE III-l: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17 -yl)ethan-l-one (III- A8)

Synthesis of III-A2

[0613] To a solution of III-A1 (described in WO 2013056181) (14 g, 45.9 mmol), TsOH (787 mg, 4.6 mmol) and ethane- l,2-diol (28.4 g, 458 mol) was added to toluene (200 mL) at 25°C under N 2. The mixture was stirred at l20°C for 4 hours. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (5-10% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A2 (8 g, 50%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.76-3.63 (m, 1H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.93- 1.80 (m, 4H), 1.64-1.58 (m, 3H), 1.56-1.48 (m, 2H), 1.44-1.30 (s, 6H), 1.27-0.95 (m, 12H), 0.66 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A3

[0614] To a solution of III-A2 (2 g, 5.7 mmol) in cyclohexane (100 mL) stirred under N 2 were added CaC0 3 (1.71 g, 17.1 mmol), Pb(OAc) 4 (7.58 g, 17.1 mmol), and I 2 (2.89 g, 11.4 mmol) and irradiated with a high intensity tungsten lamp for 130 min. The solvent was refluxed during irradiation. The reaction was allowed cooled to 25°C, filtered and the cyclohexane solution washed with 10% aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (30 mL), brine (50 mL), dried Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give III- A3 (900 mg, 39%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 5.95 (s, 1H), 4.36-4.27 (m, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 2.38-2.35 (m, 1H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.05-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.73 (m, 4H), 1.70-1.60 (m, 2H), 1.41-1.32 (m, 4H), 1.31-1.19 (m, 7H), 1.18-0.98 (m, 4H), 0.89-0.80 (m, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A4

[0615] To a solution of PPh 3 MeBr (5.28 g, 14.8 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added t- BuOK (1.66 g, 14.8 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for 1 h, a solution of III-A3 (600 mg, 1.48 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added drop wise at 50°C. After stirring at 50°C for 3 h, the mixture was poured into saturated NH Cl (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 and filtered, concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-30% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A4 (420 mg, 79%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 5.84-5.70 (m, 1H), 5.34-5.23 (m, 1H), 5.18-5.13 (m, 1H), 3.94 (s, 4H), 3.87-3.75 (m, 1H), 2.39-2.34 (m, 1H), 2.03-1.93 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.73 (m, 5H), 1.63-1.56 (m, 4H), 1.44-1.21 (m, 10H), 1.14-1.09 (m, 4H), 1.16-1.09 (m, 1H), 0.90-0.86 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-A5 [0616] To a solution of III-A4 (420 mg, 1.2 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added Pd/C (200 mg, <1% water). Then the solution was hydrogenated under 15 psi of hydrogen at 25°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give III-A5 (420 mg, 100%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 5 H 3.94 (s, 4H), 3.85-3.82 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.11 (m, 1H), 2.03- 1.97 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.84 (m, 3H), 1.65-1.51 (m, 10H), 1.45-1.31 (m, 6H), 1.28-1.26 (m, 3H), 1.18-1.06 (m, 3H), 0.98-0.89 (m, 2H), 0.84 (t, J= 8 Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A6

[0617] To a solution of III-A5 (420 mg, 1.2 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added aq. HC1 (1.15 mL, 4M, 4.6 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 ml). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 and

concentrated in vacuum to afford III-A6 (240 mg, 66%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 3.87-3.84 (m, 1H), 2.60 (t, J= l6Hz, 1H), 2.29-2.14 (m,

4H), 2.11-2.03 (m, 1H), 1.92-1.84 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.64 (m, 4H), 1.61-1.56 (m, 3H), 1.54-1.45 (m, 2H), 1.45-1.31 (m, 4H), 1.29-1.26 (m, 3H), 1.24-1.09 (m, 5H), 1.07-0.92 (m, 2H), 0.87 (t, J= 8Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A7

[0618] To a solution of BHT (1.65 g, 7.52 mmol) in toluene (10 mL) was added dropwise AlMe 3 (2 M in toluene, 1.88 mL, 3.76 mmol) under nitrogen at 0°C. The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 1 h. III-A6 (240 mg, 0.75 mmol) in toluene (5 mL) was added drop wise to the solution at -65°C. After stirring at -65°C for 1 h, MeMgBr (1 mL, 3.0 mmol, 3M in ethyl ether) was added drop wise at -65°C. The resulting solution was stirred at -65°C for 1 h. The reaction was quenched by saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (50 mL) at -65°C. After stirring at 25°C for 0.5 h, the resulting mixture was filtered through a celite pad and the pad was washed with EtOAc (20 mL). The combined organic layer was separated, washed with brine (2 x 20 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-30% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A7 (215 mg, 86%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 3.85-3.81 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.11 (m, 1H), 1.92-1.76 (m, 4H), 1.64-1.61 (m, 1H), 1.48-1.18 (m, 20H), 1.11-1.04 (m, 4H), 0.98-0.88 (m, 1H), 0.87-0.79 (m, 4H). Synthesis of III-A8

[0619] To a solution of III-A7 (215 mg, 0.64 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added DMP

(542 mg, 1.28 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 30°C for 30 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with saturated NaHC0 3 aqueous (50 mL) until pH of the aqueous layer became about pH 9 and filtered. The DCM layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (10 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 aqueous (2 x 20mL), sat. NaHC0 3 (40 mL), brine (40 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-30% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A8 (138 mg, 65%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 2.46 (t, J= 8Hz, 1H), 2.33-2.21 (m, 2H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.87- 1.80 (m, 3H), 1.74-1.59 (m, 4H), 1.52-1.33 (m, 7H), 1.32-1.04 (m, 12H), 0.96-0.81 (m, 1H), 0.62 (t, j= 8Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 22 H 35 0 [M-H 2 0+H] + 315, found 315. [0620] EXAMPLE III-2: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5R,8R, 9R,10S,13S,14S, 17S)-13- ethyl-3-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenan thren-17-yl)-2- oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (III-A10)

Synthesis of III-A9

[0621] To a solution of III-A8 (107 mg, 0.32 mmol) and concentrated HBr (0.1 mL, 48% in water) in MeOH (2 mL) was added bromine (61.5 mg, 0.39 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 25°C for 2 hrs. The reaction was quenched by saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 and the pH was adjusted to 7~8 and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 (50 mL) and brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to afford III-A9 (130 mg, ) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 4.01-3.91 (m, 2H), 2.67 (t, J= 8 Hz 1H), 2.26-2.13 (m, 2H), 1.79-1.71 (m, 4H), 1.67-1.56 (m, 4H), 1.43-1.29 (m, 8H), 1.22-1.08 (m, 10H), 0.86-0.73 (m, 1H), 0.52 (t, J= 8Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A10 [0622] To a solution of III-A9 (130 mg, 0.32 mmol) in acetone (3 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (108 mg, 0.79 mmol) and lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (43.9 mg, 0.47 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 3 hours. The mixture was poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (15-35% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A10 (43 mg, 32%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H), 5.20-4.88 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.46 (m, 1H), 2.36-2.25 (m, 2H), 1.89-1.62 (m, 7H), 1.51-1.33 (m, 10H), 1.29-1.07 (m, 9H), 0.98-0.85 (m, 1H), 0.61 (t, J= 8Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 26 H 37 N 3 0 2 Na [M+Na] + 446, found 446.

[0623] EXAMPLE III-3: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phena nthren-17-yl)ethan-

1-one (III-A20)

Synthesis of III-A12

[0624] A stirred solution of trimethyl sulfoxonium iodide (880 mg, 4.00 mmol) and t- BuOK (448 mg, 4.00 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) was heated at 40°C for 1 h under N 2 . The reaction mixture was added to Ill-All (1 g, 3.64 mmol, CAS# 5696-58-2) in DMSO (10 mL) and stirred at 40°C. After 10 min, the reaction was treated with water (100 mL), extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with water (lOOmL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, and concentrated in vacuum to afford III-A12 (1.8 g, ) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 2.43 (dd, =8.3, 19.3 Hz, 1H), 2.13 - 2.05 (m, 1H), 2.00 - 1.73 (m, 5H), 1.66 - 1.28 (m, 6H), 1.22 - 0.98 (m, 4H), 0.91 - 0.72 (m, 4H).

Synthesis of III-A13

[0625] To a suspension of III-A12 (1.8 g, 6.24 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added methoxysodium (1.34 g, 24.9 mmol) at 25°C under N 2 . After refluxing for 16 h, the mixture was quenched with H 2 0 (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (2 x 200 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated to give a residue. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A13 (900 mg, 45.2 %) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.19 (s, 2H), 2.52 - 2.32 (m, 1H), 2.16 - 2.00 (m, 2H), 1.98 - 1.85 (m, 2H), 1.84 - 1.70 (m, 4H), 1.68 - 1.62 (m, 2H), 1.55 - 1.41 (m, 2H), 1.37 - 1.18 (m, 5H), 1.15 - 0.96 (m, 4H), 0.87 (s, 3H), 0.81 - 0.67 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-A14

[0626] To a solution of PPh 3 EtBr (20.7 g, 56 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added t-BuOK (6.28 g, 56 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for 1 h, a solution of III-A13 (9 g, 28 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added drop wise at 50°C. After stirring at 50°C for 16 h, the mixture was poured into saturated NH Cl (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 and filtered, concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-30% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A14 (8.5 g, 91.2%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 5.14-5.07 (m, 1H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.38-2.29 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.12 (m, 2H), 1.86-1.67 (m, 3H), 1.60-1.49 (m, 4H), l .33-0.95(m, 12H), 0.89-0.83 (m, 6H), 0.75-0.65 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-A15

[0627] To a solution of III-A14 (7.5 g, 22.5 mmol) in DMF (100 mL) was added NaH (2.68 g, 67.5 mmol, 60% in mineral oil) in three portions at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 30 min, BnBr (11.5 g, 67.5 mmol) was added to the solution. After stirring at 25°C for 16 h, the mixture was poured into ice-water (500 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic solutions were washed with brine (200 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (5- 10% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A15 (8 g, ) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.30-7.18 (m, 5H), 5.06-5.01 (m, 1H), 4.50 (s, 1H), 4.44- 4.38 (m, 2H), 3.32-3.24 (m, 5H), 2.31-2.25 (m, 1H), 2.17-1.92 (m, 3H), 1.80-1.52 (m, 9H), 1.45-0.88 (m, 9H), 0.79-0.76 (m, 4H), 0.67-0.65 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-A16

[0628] A solution of III-A15 (8.0 g, 18.9 mmol) in THF (150 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (9.22 g, 37.8 mmol) and stirred at 25°C for 12 hours. To the resulting mixture was added ethanol (50 mL) at l5°C, followed by NaOH aqueous (37.8 mL, 5.0 M, 189 mmol) at 0°C. Hydrogen peroxide (18.9 mL, 10 M, 189 mmol) was added drop-wise at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 78°C for 1 hour. After cooled to l5°C, the mixture was added to the water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with Na 2 S 2 0 3 (2 x 100 mL) and brine (200 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column (0-15% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A16 (8.2 g, ) as an oil. The III-A16 (8 g, ) was repurified by flash column (0-5% EtOAc in PE) to give III-A16 (5.6 g, 70%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 7.39-7.29 (m, 4H), 7.26-7.21 (m, 1H), 4.50-4.45 (m, 2H), 3.75-3.66 (m, 1H), 3.40-3.30 (m, 5H), 2.03-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.93-1.79 (m, 3H), 1.77-1.60 (m, 6H), 1.42-1.18 (m, 8H), 1.17-0.91 (m, 9H), 0.75-0.69 (m, 1H), 0.66 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A17

[0629] To a solution of III-A16 (1 g, 2.26 mmol) in cyclohexane (100 mL) were added CaC0 3 (677 mg, 6.77 mmol), PhI(OAc) 2 (2.18 g, 6.77 mmol), I 2 (1.14 mg, 4.52 mmol) at 25°C. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux (80°C) by irradiation with infrared lamp (250 W) for 15 min under N 2 atmosphere, then cooled to ambient. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S04, concentrated below 35°C to give III-A17 (1.1 g, ) as an oil and used directly for the next step.

Synthesis of III-A18

[0630] To a mixture of MePPhsBr (15.7 g, 44.2 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added t- BuOK (4.95 g, 44.2 mmol) at 25°C under N 2 . After stirring at 50°C for 30 min, III-A17 (2.2 g, 4.42 mmol) was added in portions below 50°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 50°C for 16 hours to give a suspension. The reaction mixture was quenched with 10% NH 4 Cl aqueous (500 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 300 mL) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine (150 mL), dried over Na 2 S04, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-10% of EtOAc in PE) to give III- A18 (1.3 g, 65%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.38-7.30 (m, 4H), 7.26-7.21 (m, 1H), 5.78 (dd, =l l .2, 18.4 Hz, 1H), 5.32-5.12 (m, 2H), 4.47 (s, 2H), 3.86-3.77 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.29 (m, 5H), 2.40-2.31 (m, 1H), 2.01-1.94 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.65 (m, 5H), 1.56-1.23 (m, 9H), 1.22-0.93 (m, 10H), 0.78- 0.62 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-A19

[0631] To a solution of III-A18 (220 mg, 0.49 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added Pd/C (500 mg) (10% Pd, 50% water), the mixture was stirred at 25°C under H 2 (15 psi) for 15 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with MeOH (3 x 10 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to give III-A19 (170 mg, 96%) as a solid. The solid (170 mg) was purified by flash column (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A19 (140 mg) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.87-3.78 (m, 1H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.15-2.08 (m, 1H), 1.93-1.69 (m, 5H), 1.64-1.58 (m, 5H), 1.46-1.30 (m, 4H), 1.26 (d, =6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.24- 1.15 (m, 3H), 1.13-1.05 (m, 3H), 1.03-0.87 (m, 5H), 0.84 (t, J=8.0 Hz, 3H), 0.75-0.63 (m, 2H).

LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 37 0 [M-2H 2 0+H] + 329.3, found 329.3.

Synthesis of III-A20

[0632] To a solution of III-A19 (1 g, 2.74 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added DMP (2.32 g, 5.48 mmol), the mixture was stirred at 25°C for 2 hours. The mixture was quenched by saturated NaHC0 3 aqueous (150 mL) and Na 2 S 2 0 3 aqueous (150 mL), The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (200 mL), dried over Na 2 S04, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A20 (840 mg, 84.5%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.46 (t, =8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.36-2.20 (m, 2H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.87-1.60 (m, 7H), 1.58-1.08 (m, 11H), 1.05-0.86 (m, 4H), 0.81-0.66 (m, 2H), 0.62 (t, J=7.6 Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 37 0 2 [M- H 2 0+H] + 345.3, found 345.3. [0633] EXAMPLE III-4: Synthesis of l-((3R,5S,8R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phena nthren-17-yl)-2-(5- methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)ethan-l-one (III-A22) & 1-((3R,5S,8R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13- ethyl-3-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta [a]phenanthren-17- yl)-2-(5-methyl-lH-tetrazol-l-yl)ethan-l-one (III-A23)

Synthesis of III-A21

[0634] To a solution of III-A20 (150 mg, 0.41 mmol) in MeOH (2 mL) was added HBr

(16.7 mg, 0.08 mmol, 40% in water) and Br 2 (66.1 mg, 0.41 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the mixture was quenched by saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 (10 mL), treated with water (30 mL), extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S04, filtered, concentrated to give III-A21 (180 mg, ) as an oil and used directly for the next step.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 4.01 (s, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 2H), 2.74 (t, =8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.32-2.17 (m, 2H), 1.87-1.69 (m, 4H), 1.61-1.54 (m, 1H), 1.47-1.15 (m, 13H), 0.96-0.65 (m, 6H), 0.59 (t, J=1.6 Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of III-A22 & III-A23

[0635] To a solution of III-A21 (180 mg, 0.41 mmol) in THF (3 mL) was added K 2 C0 3

(168 mg, 1.22 mmol) and 5-methyl-2iT-l,2,3,4-tetrazole(52 mg, 0.62 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 14 h, the mixture was added water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over Na 2 S04, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (5-90% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A22 (50 mg, ) and III-A23 (50 mg, ).

III-A22 (50 mg, ) was purified by HPLC to give III-A22 (4 mg, 2.2%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 5.54-5.32 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.19 (s, 2H), 2.60-2.47 (m, 4H), 2.41-2.23 (m, 2H), 2.09-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.94-1.61 (m, 7H), 1.49-1.17 (m, 9H), 1.07-0.90 (m, 4H), 0.84-0.67 (m, 5H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 4 oN 4 0 3 [M+H] + 445.3, found 445.3.

III-A23 (50 mg, ) was purified by HPLC to give III-A23 (4 mg, 2.2%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.48-4.89 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.19 (s, 2H), 2.45 (t, =8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.49 (s, 3H), 2.43-2.36 (m, 1H), 2.32-2.22 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.64 (m, 8H), 1.48-1.18 (m, 8H), 1.11-0.67 (m, 7H), 0.63 (t, =7.6 Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C25H40N4O3 [M+H] + 445.3, found 445.3.

[0636] EXAMPLE III-6: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3, 10-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)e than-l-one (III-A30)

Synthesis of III-A25

[0637] To a solution of III-A24 (1.0 g, 2.3 mmol) in cyclohexane (100 mL) were added CaCC>3 (688 mg, 6.89 mmol), PhI(OAc) 2 (2.21 g, 6.89 mmol), I 2 (1.16 g, 4.6 mmol) at 25°C. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux (80°C) by irradiation with infrared lamp (250 W) for 15 min under N 2 atmosphere. Then the reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 (100 mL) and separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2x50 mL) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 S04, concentrated below 40°C to give III-A25 (2.5 g, ) as a solid and used directly for the next step. Synthesis of III-A26

[0638] To a mixture of MePPh 3 Br (9.07 g, 25.4 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added t- BuOK (2.85 g, 25.4 mmol) at 25°C under N 2 . After stirring at 50°C for 30 min, III-A25 (2.5 g, 5.09 mmol) was added in portions below 50°C. After stirring at 50°C for 14 h, the reaction mixture was quenched with 10% NH 4 Cl aqueous (100 mL) at l5°C. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over Na 2 S04, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-10% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A26 (410 mg, 18.0%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.73-5.57 (m, 1H), 5.36-5.25 (m, 1H), 5.23-5.12 (m, 1H), 3.70-3.48 (m, 2H), 2.54-2.43 (m, 1H), 1.87-1.66 (m, 5H), 1.61-1.44 (m, 6H), 1.40-1.30 (m, 8H), 1.28-1.13 (m, 4H), 1.12-1.08 (m, 3H), 0.90-0.80 (s, 12H), 0.06 (s, 6H)

Synthesis of III-A27

[0639] To a solution of III-A26 (560 mg, 1.25 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added Pd/C (500 mg, 10%, 50% water wet). The solution was hydrogenated under 15 psi of hydrogen at 25°C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with THF (3 x 50 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to give III-A27 (600 mg, ) as a solid used directly for the next step.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.81-3.71 (m, 1 H), 3.64-3.53 (m, 1H), 2.33-2.18 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.71 (m, 3H), 1.70-1.58 (m, 2H), 1.54-1.14 (m, 14H), 1.14-1.11 (m, 3H), 1.10-1.01 (m, 3H), 1.00-0.92 (m, 5H), 0.91-0.88 (m, 12H), 0.06 (s, 6H).

Synthesis of III-A28

[0640] TTT-A27 (562 mg, 1.25 mmol) was dissolved in TBAF (6.26 mL, 6.26 mmol, 1M in THF). The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 16 hrs. The mixture was quenched with lO%NH 4 Cl (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with 10% NH 4 Cl (3 x 20 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-A28 (400 mg, ) as an oil.

Synthesis of III-A29

[0641] To a solution of III-A28 (300 mg, 0.89 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added Dess- martin (1.14 g, 2.69 mmol) at 30 °C. After stirring at 30 °C and stirred for 10 min, the mixture was quenched by saturated NaHC0 3 /Na 2 S 2 0 3 aqueous (1 : 1, 50 mL) at 25 °C. The organic phase was separated and washed with saturated NaHC0 3 /Na 2 S 2 0 3 aqueous (1 : 1, 50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give III-A29 (230 mg) as a solid and used directly for the next step.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 2.74-2.62 (m, 1 H), 2.52-2.43 (m, 1H), 2.41-2.23 (m, 3H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.09-0.99 (m, 2H), 1.96-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.72-1.58 (m, 3 H), 1.55-1.47 (m, 3H), 1.47-1.37 (m, 1H), 1.37-1.05 (m, 9H), 1.02 (s, 3H), 0.65 (t, =7.6Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 22 H 34 0 2 [M+H] + 33 L2, found 331.2.

Synthesis of III-A30 [0642] To a MAD (3.38 mmol in 3 mL toluene) solution was added a solution of III- A29 (280 mg, 0.85 mmol) in DCM (2 mL) dropwise at -70°C. After stirring at -70°C for 1 h under N 2 , MeMgBr (0.85 mL, 2.55 mmol, 3M in ethyl ether) was added drop wise at -70°C. The resulting solution was stirred at -70°C for another 4 hrs. The reaction mixture was poured into saturated aqueous citric acid (50 mL) at below l0°C and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by a silica gel column (PE/EtOAc= 0-20%) to give III- A30 (110 mg) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 2.49-2.39 (m, 1H), 2.36-2.21 (m, 2H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 2.01- 1.92 (m, 1H), 1.91-1.79 (m, 1H), 1.79-1.70 (m, 1H), 1.68-1.57 (m, 3H), 1.53-1.32 (m, 9H), 1.31-1.19 (m, 11H), 1.14-1.00 (m, 3H), 0.93 (s, 3H), 0.62 (t, =7.6Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 38 0 2 [M+H] + 329.3, found 329.3.

[0643] EXAMPLE III-7 & III-8: Synthesis of 1-((3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13- ethyl-3-hydroxy-3,10-dimethylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]p henanthren-17-yl)-2- (5-methyl-lH-tetrazol-l-yl)ethan-l-one (III-A32) & 1-((3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)- 13-ethyl-3-h droxy-3, 10-dimethylhexadecah dro- IH-cy clopenta [a] phenanthren- 17-yl)- 2-(5-methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)ethan-l-one (III-A33)

Synthesis of III-A31

To a solution of III-A30 (99 mg, 0.28 mmol) in MeOH (2 mL) was added HBr (0.01 mL, 40% in water) and Br 2 (54.7 mg, 0.3427 mmol) at 25 °C. After stirring at 25 °C for 2 h, the mixture was quenched by sat.aq NaHC0 3 (10 mL), extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated in vacuum to afford III-A31 (100 mg, ) as a solid and used directly for the next step.

Synthesis of III-A32 & III-A33

[0644] To a solution of III-A31 (100 mg, 0.23 mmol) in acetone (3 mL) was added 1H- pyrazole-4-carbonitrilev (23.7 mg, 0.282 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (60.2 mg, 0.47 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 14 hours, the mixture was added water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (20-50% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-A32 (20 mg, 19.9%) and III-A33 (16.5 mg, 16.5%) as a solid.

III-A32: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.36 (d, =l8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (d, =l8.0 Hz, 1H), 2.57-2.50 (m, 1H), 2.49 (s, 3H), 2.44-2.17 (m, 2H), 2.03-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.62 (m, 3H), 1.51-1.40 (m, 5H), 1.39-1.22 (m, 12H), 1.22-0.99 (m, 4H), 0.95 (s, 3H), 0.63 (t, =7.6Hz,

3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C25H40N4O2 [M-H 2 0 +H] + 4l l .3, found 411.3.

III-A33: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 5.48 (d, =l7.6Hz, 1H) 5.37 (d, =l7.6Hz, 1H), 2.56 (s, 3H), 2.54-2.47 (m, 1H), 2.41-2.20 (m, 2H), 2.06-1.79 (m, 2H), 1.79-1.63 (m, 3H), 1.52-1.39 (m, 6H), 1.39-1.20 (m, 14H), 1.19-0.99 (m, 4H), 0.95 (s, 3H), 0.71 (t, =7.6Hz,

3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C25H40N4O2 [M-H 2 0 +H] + 4l l .3, found 411.3.

EXAMPLE III-9: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13-ethyl-3-hydroxy-3- (methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17- yl)ethan-l-one (III- B15)

Synthesis of III-B2 [0645] To a suspension of bromo(ethyl)triphenylphosphorane (160 g, 432 mmol) in THF

(300 mL) was added t-BuOK (48.3 g, 432 mmol) at 25°C under N 2 . After stirring at 45°C and for 1 h, a solution of III-B1 (30 g, 108 mmol, CAS: 33036-33-8) in THF (100 mL) was added at 45°C. After stirring at 45°C for 16 h, the mixture was cooled, diluted with saturated NH 4 Cl solution (1000 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 250 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (2 x 250 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated (30 g) and purified together with another two batches (from 20 g & 30 g). The residue (80 g) was purified by flash column (0-25% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-B2 (50 g, 63%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 5.20-5.05 (m, 1H), 3.70-3.60 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.10 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.40 (m, 12H), 1.40-1.05 (m, 11H), 0.87 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-B3

[0646] To a solution of III-B2 (15 g, 51.9 mmol) in DMF (100 mL) was added NaH (6.18 g, 155 mmol, 60% in oil) in portions at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 30 mins, BnBr (26.5 g, 155 mmol) was added. After stirring at 25°C for 3 h, the mixture was poured into ice- water (500 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (PE) to give III- B3 (19 g) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 7.43-7.26 (m, 5H), 5.20-5.05 (m, 1H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 3.45-3.35 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.10 (m, 4H), 2.00-1.93 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.55 (m, 8H), 1.50-1.00 (m, 13H), 0.88 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-B4

[0647] To a solution of III-B3 (10 g, 26.4 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (12.8 g, 52.8 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 12 h, the reaction was cooled to 0°C and ethanol (12.1 g, 264 mmol) and NaOH (52.8 mL, 5 M, 264 mmol) were added very slowly. After the addition was complete, H 2 0 2 (26.4 mL, 264 mmol, 30%) was added slowly maintaining the inner temperature below l5°C. After stirring at 75°C for 1 h, saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0 3 solution (500 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at 0°C for another 1 hour. The mixture was diluted with water (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated (10 g, ) and purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-B4 (8 g, 80%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCf) d H 7.42-7.20 (m, 5H), 4.56 (s, 2H), 3.90-3.80 (m, 2H), 3.75-3.65 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.30 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.75 (m, 9H), 1.70-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.40-0.95 (m, 13H), 0.66 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-B5 [0648] To a suspension of III-B4 (2.5 g, 6.3 mmol), PhI(OAc) 2 (6.08 g, 18.9 mmol) and CaC0 3 (1.89 g, 18.9 mmol) in cyclohexane (250 mL) was added diiodine (3.19 g, 12.6 mmol) at 25°C. After heating to 80°C by irradiation with infrared lamp (275 W) for 10 min, the mixture was added into saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 solution (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-B5 (2.85 g) as am oil, which was used directly to the next step without further purifiaction.

Synthesis of III-B6 & III-B7

[0649] After stirring at 50°C for lh, a suspension of PPh 3 MeBr (11.2 g, 31.4 mmol) and t-BuOK (3.51 g, 31.4 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added a solution of III-B7 (2.85 g, 6.29 mmol) in THF (20 mL). After stirring at 50°C for 12 h, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and

concentrated (2.5 g) as an oil, which was purified together with other three batches (from 2.85 g & 2.85g & 2.35 g). The residue (9.5 g) was purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give mixture of III-B6 & III-B7 (~l : 1) (5 g) as an oil.

Synthesis of III-B8

[0650] To a solution of III-B6 & III-B7 (~l : l) (5.0 g, 12.2 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) were added imidazole (2.48 g, 36.5 mmol) and TBSC1 (5.50 g, 36.5 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 12 h, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The product was dissolved in DCM (70 mL), washed with saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (50 mL), saturated brine (50 mL). The organic solution was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated and purified by flash column (0-15% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-B8 (3.5 g, 55%) and III-B7 (2 g, 40%) both as oils.

III-B8: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.40-7.20 (m, 5H), 5.57 (dd, J= 11.2, 17.6 Hz, 1H), 5.18 (dd, J= 1.6, 12.8 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (dd, J= 1.6, 18.0 Hz, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 3.50-3.30 (m, 2H), 2.40-2.25 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.75 (m, 3H), 1.55-1.00 (m, 14H), 0.95-0.75 (m, 12H), 0.02 (s, 3H), 0.01 (s, 3H).

III-B7: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.40-7.20 (m, 5H), 5.04 (s, 1H), 4.56 (s, 2H), 4.45- 4.35 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.30 (m, 1H), 2.55-2.30 (m, 2H), 2.00-1.45 (m, 15H), 1.44-0.95 (m, 12H). Synthesis of III-B9

[0651] To a solution of III-B8 (3.5 g, 6.7 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) was added Pd/C (1 g, 10% Pd, 50% water). After stirring at 25°C under ¾ (15 psi) for 12 h, the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with MeOH (3 x 10 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to give III-B9 (2.50 g, 86%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.80- 3.73 (m, 1H), 3.65-3.55 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.05 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.70 (m, 6H), 1.55-1.35 (m, 6H), 1.30-0.95 (m, 15H), 0.90-0.75 (m, 14H), 0.05 (s, 3H), 0.04 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-B10

[0652] To a solution of III-B9 (2.5 g, 5.8 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added PCC (2.47 g, 11.5 mmol) and silica gel (5 g) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 1 h, the reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was washed with anhydrous DCM (2 x 20 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give III-B10 (2.2 g, 88%) as a solid. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 3.85-3.75 (m, 1H), 2.61 (t, J= 14.0 Hz, 1H), 2.30-2.10 (m, 6H), 1.95-1.83 (m, 1H), 1.78-1.60 (m, 2H), 1.50-1.25 (m, 7H), 1.25-0.95 (m, 11H), 0.90-0.80 (m, 13H), 0.05 (s, 3H), 0.04 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-B11

To a stirred solution of Me 3 SI (1.24 g, 6.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) and THF (10 mL) was aded NaH (243 mg, 6.1 mmol, 60 % in oil) at 0°C. After stirring for 1 h under N 2 , the mixture was added to a solution of III-B10 (2.2 g, 5.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL). After stirring at 25°C for 16 h, the reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with water (2 x 50 mL) and brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give III-B11 (2 g) as an oil, which was used directly for the next step without further purification. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.80-3.70 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.50 (m, 2H), 2.30-2.05 (m, 2H), 2.00-1.80 (m, 3H), 1.55-1.30 (m, 12H), 1.30-0.75 (m, 24H), 0.05 (s, 3H), 0.04 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-B12

Fresh Na (1.02 g, 44.7 mmol) was carefully added to MeOH (44.7 mL) in portions. After stirring at 25°C for 3h, a solution of III-B11 (2 g, 4.47 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (30 mL). After stirring at 75°C for 16 h, the reaction was diluted with water (50 mL), concentrated to remove most of the solvent and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give the product III-B12 (2 g, 93%) as an oil.

Synthesis of III-B13 & III-B14 [0653] To a solution of III-B12 (2 g, 4.2 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added TBAF.3H 2 0

(1.95 g, 6.3 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 55°C for 12 h, the mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The organic solution was washed with saturated brine (2 x 20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-B13 (620 mg, 42%) and III-B14 (570 mg, 38%) both as oils.

III-B13: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.93-3.76 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.35 (m 5H), 2.58 (s, 1H), 2.17-2.08 (m, 1H), 1.93-1.60 (m, 8H), 1.55-1.02 (m, 19H), 1.00-0.78 (m, 5H); LC- ELSD/MS purity 99%, 100% de based on H-NMR. MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 37 0 [M-H 2 0- H 2 0+H] + 329.3, found 329.3. III-B14: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.93-3.76 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.20 (s, 2H), 3.18- 3.10 (m 2H), 2.00 (s, 1H), 1.95-1.82 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.58 (m, 5H), 1.54-0.85 (m, 25H); LC- ELSD/MS purity 99%, 100% de based on H-NMR. MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 37 0 [M-H 2 0- H 2 0+H] + 329.3, found 329.3.

Synthesis of III-B15 [0654] To a solution of III-B13 (600 mg, 1.6 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) were added silica gel (1.5 g) and PCC (1.05 g, 4.9 mmol) in portions at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 0.5 h, the mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with DCM (30 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-B15 (550 mg, 93%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.45-2.35 (m, 5H), 2.61 (s, 1H), 2.53-2.42 (m, 1H), 2.35-2.18 (m, 5H), 1.85-1.10 (m, 22H), 0.96-0.82 (m, 1H),

0.62 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 23 H 37 0 2 [M- H 2 0+H] + 345.3, found 345.3. EXAMPLE III-10: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-13-ethyl-3- hydroxy-3-(methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phena nthren-17-yl)-2- oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (III-B17)

Synthesis of III-B16

[0655] To a solution of III-B15 (80 mg, 0.22 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was added HBr

(8.80 mg, 0.044 mmol) and Br 2 (35.2 mg, 0.22 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring for 2 h at 25°C, the reaction mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (10 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-B16 (90 mg) as an oil, which was used directly to the next step without further purification.

Synthesis of III-B17

[0656] To a solution of III-B16 (90 mg, 0.2 mmol) and lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (37.9 mg, 0.4 mmol) in acetone (5 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (56.2 mg, 0.4 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 2 h, the reaction mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-30% of EtOAc in PE) and then by

Prep-HPLC (Column: Waters Xbridge Prep OBD C18 150*30 5 pm; Condition: water (10 mM NH 4 HC0 3 )-ACN; Begin B: 70; End B: 90; Gradient Time(min): 7; 100%B Hold

Time(min): 1) to give III-B17 (32.6 mg, 53%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H), 5.04 (dd, J= 18.0, 95.6 Hz, 2H), 3.45-3.33 (m, 5H), 2.50 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 2.40-2.23 (m, 2H), 1.88-1.10 (m, 23H), 1.00-0.83 (m, 1H), 0.60 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 27 H 38 N 3 0 2 [M-H 2 0+H] + 436.3, found 436.3. EXAMPLE III-ll: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13R,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-13- (methoxymethyl)-3-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenan thren-17-yl)ethan-l- one (III-C11)

Synthesis of III-C2

[0657] To a mixture of EtPh 3 PBr (63.4 g, 171 mmol) in THF (400 mL) was added t- BuOK (19.1 g, 171 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for 30 min, III-C1 (20 g, 68.8 mmol) was added. After stirring at 50°C for 2 h, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (400 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and

concentrated. The residue was triturated from MeOH/water (700 mL, 1 : 1) to give III-C2 (25 g, ) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 5.25-5.05 (m, 1H), 2.42-2.10 (m, 3H), 1.92- 1.55 (m, 7H), 1.53-1.25 (m, 14H), 1.24-1.06 (m, 6H), 0.87 (s, 3H). Synthesis of III-C3

[0658] To a mixture of III-C2 (25 g, 82.6 mmol) in DMF (300 mL) was added NaH (8.23 g, 206 mmol, 60%) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for lh, BnBr (35.2 g, 206 mmol) was added. After stirring at 60°C for 20 h, the mixture was added into water (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with LiCl (2 x 500 mL. 4% in water), saturated brine (500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (100% of PE) to give III-C3 (30 g, 93%) as a solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 7.40-7.27 (m, 5H), 5.15-5.05 (m, 1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 2.40- 2.10 (m, 3H), 1.99-1.59 (m, 9H), 1.52-1.34 (m, 6H), 1.33 (s, 3H), 1.32-1.05 (m, 8H), 0.87 (s, 3H). Synthesis of III-C4

[0659] To a solution of III-C3 (28 g, 71.3 mmol) in THF (300 mL) was added 9-BBN dimer (34.3 g, 142 mmol) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for 1 h, ethanol (200 mL) at 25°C and then NaOH aqueous (142 mL, 5 M, 713 mmol) was added at 0°C followed by H 2 0 2 (121 g, 30%, 1069 mmol) dropwise. After stirring at 70°C for 1 h, the reaction was diluted with water (300 mL) and stirred at 25°C for 1 h. The solid was filtered and washed with water (2 x 300 mL), dried under vacuum to give III-C4 (19.1 g, 65%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.45-7.28 (m, 5H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 3.75-3.62 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.59 (m, 12H), 1.52-1.32 (m, 10H), 1.31-1.00 (m, 9H), 0.67 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-C5

[0660] To a solution of III-C4 (3 g, 7.3 mmol) in cyclohexane (300 mL) at 25°C under N 2 were added CaC0 3 (2.19 g, 21.9 mmol), PhI(OAc) 2 (7.05 g, 21.9 mmol), I 2 (3.70 g, 14.6 mmol). After heating to reflux (80°C) by irradiated with infrared lamp (250 W) for 30 min, the mixture was added into saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0- 5% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-C5 (4.0 g) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d H 7.40- 7.20 (m, 4H), 7.25-7.20 (m, 1H), 6.00 (s, 1H), 5.07 (s, 1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 4.40-4.25 (m, 2H), 2.20-2.08 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.65 (m, 13H), 1.50-1.40 (m, 10H), 1.25-0.95 (m, 5H), 0.85-0.70 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-C6

[0661] To a solution of MePh 3 PBr (30.5 g, 85.7 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added t- BuOK (9.59 g, 85.7 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for lh, a solution of III-C5 (4 g,

8.6 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added. After stirring at 50°C for 16 h, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was triturated from MeOH/water (400 mL, 1 : 1) at 25°C to give III-C6 (3.6 g) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.42-7.27 (m, 5H), 5.85-5.70 (m, 1H), 5.35-5.25 (m, 1H), 5.20-5.10 (m, 1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 3.90-3.75 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.60 (m, 9H), 1.55-1.30 (m, 14H), 1.28-0.90 (m, 7H).

Synthesis of III-C7 [0662] To a solution of III-C6 (3.6 g, 8.5 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was added NaH (1.70 g, 42.5 mmol, 60% in oil) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for lh, BnBr (4.36 g, 25.5 mmol) was added. After stirring at 60°C for 16 h, the mixture was added into water (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with LiCl (2 x 100 mL, 4% in water), saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-2% of EtOAc in PE) to give III- C7 (1 g, 23%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.45-7.28 (m, 10H), 5.70-5.55 (m, 1H), 5.25-5.15 (m, 1H), 5.05-4.95 (m, 1H), 4.57-4.45 (m, 3H), 4.33-4.25 (m, 1H), 3.27-3.15 (m, 1H), 2.41-2.32 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.05 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.59 (m, 7H), 1.52-1.25 (m, 11H), 1.20- 0.80 (m, 10H).

Synthesis of III-C8

[0663] To a solution of III-C7 (1 g, 1.9 mmol) in DCM/MeOH (10 mL/l0 mL) were added NaHC0 3 (1 g, 11.9 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring under 0 3 (1 atm) for 20 minutes at - 70°C, NaBH 4 (296 mg, 7.8 mmol) was added to the mixture at 0°C. After stirring for lh at 70°C, the mixture was added into saturated NH Cl (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated to give III-C8 (300 mg, ) as an oil, which was used for next step directly.

Synthesis of III-C9

[0664] To a solution of III-C8 (300 mg, 0.58 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added NaH (92.6 mg, 2.3 mmol, 60%) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for lh, Mel (329 mg, 2.3 mmol) was added. After stirring at 25°C for lh, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-2% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-C9 (200 mg) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d H 7.45-7.28 (m, 8H), 7.25-7.21 (m, 2H), 4.65-4.55 (m,

1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 4.40-4.30 (m, 1H), 3.55-3.43 (m, 1H), 3.40-3.30 (m, 1H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 3.15-3.05 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.20-1.59 (m, 11H), 1.52-1.20 (m, 11H), 1.18-0.80 (m, 7H).

Synthesis of III-C10 [0665] To a solution of III-C9 (200 mg, 0.38 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was added Pd/C (50 mg, 10% in water) at 25°C. After stirring at rt for 16 h under H 2 (50 psi), the mixture was filtered and the mother liquor was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0- 30% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-C10 (50 mg, 38%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 4.20-4.11 (m, 1H), 4.10-4.00 (m, 1H), 3.40-3.25 (m, 5H), 2.35-2.25 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.80 (m, 4H), 1.78-1.59 (m, 4H), 1.52-1.35 (m, 5H), 1.33-1.23 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.00 (m, 6H), 0.98- 0.80 (m, 4H).

Synthesis of III-C11

[0666] A solution of III-C10 (50 mg, 0.14 mmol) and DMP (120 mg, 0.29 mmol) in DCM (2 mL) was stirred at 25°C for lh. The mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated Na 2 S 2 03 (2 x 50 mL), saturated brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-30% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-C11 (30 mg, 60%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d H 3.48-3.40 (m, 1H), 3.09 (s, 3H), 2.88-2.80 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.55 (m, 1H), 2.50-2.40 (m, 1H), 2.38-2.28 (m, 1H),

2.15 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.59 (m, 7H), 1.52-1.25 (m, 13H), 1.24-1.00 (m, 5H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 22 H 37 03 [M+H] + 349.3, found 349.3.

EXAMPLE III-12: Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13R,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-13- (methoxymethyl)-3-methylhexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phenan thren-17-yl)-2- oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (III-C13)

Synthesis of III-C12 [0667] To a solution of III-C11 (25 mg, 0.072 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) were added HBr

(2 mg, 40%) at 25°C and then Br 2 (11.4 mg, 0.072 mmol) at 0°C. After stirring at 25°C for 5 h, the mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-C12 (40 mg) as an oil ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 4.05-3.95 (m, 2H), 3.55-3.45 (m, 1H), 3.06 (s, 3H), 2.85-2.75 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.38 (m, 2H), 1.92-1.59 (m, 5H), 1.52-1.30 (m, 12H), 1.27 (s, 3H), 1.25-0.80 (m, 5H).

Synthesis of III-C13

[0668] A solution of III-C12 (40 mg, 0.094 mmol), K 2 C0 3 (17.4 mg, 0.19 mmol) and lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (25.8 mg, 0.19 mmol) was stirred at 25°C for 2 hours. The mixture was added into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with water (2 x 100 mL), saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-50% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-C13 (5 mg, 12%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 5.28-5.20 (m, 1H), 4.92-4.85 (m, 1H), 3.55-3.45 (m, 1H), 3.02 (s, 3H), 2.92-2.82 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.35 (m, 3H), 1.90-1.59 (m, 7H), 1.52-1.30 (m, 11H), 1.28 (s, 3H), 1.25-1.02 (m, 4H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 26 H 38 N 3 0 3 [M+H] + 440.3, found 440.3.

EXAMPLE III-13: Synthesis of l-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13R,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-13- isobutyl-3-(methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phen anthren-17-yl)ethan- 1-one (III-D20)

Synthesis of III-D2

[0669] To a solution of III-D1 (300 g, 1093 mmol) in MeOH (2 L) was added 4- methylbenzenesulfonic acid (18.7 g, 109 mmol) at 25°C. After stirring at 65°C for lh, the reaction mixture was cooled, and the precipitate was collected by filtration and washed with methanol (2 x 300 mL) to give III-D2 (230 g) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.19 (s, 3H), 3.14 (s, 3H), 2.60-2.39 (m, 2H), 2.25-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.97-1.90 (m, 2H), 1.86- 1.75 (m, 6H), 1.70-1.60 (m, 5H), 1.56-1.49 (m, 4H), 1.47-1.35 (m, 10H), 1.30-1.22 (m, 5H), 1.15-1.00 (m, 2H), 0.86 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-D3

[0670] To a suspension of EtPPh 3 Br (798 g, 2.15 mol) in THF (1.5 L) was added t-BuOK (241 g, 2.15 mol) at 25°C under N 2 . After stirring at 50°C for 30 min, a solution of III-D2 (230 g, 717 mmol) in THF (500 mL) was added at 50°C. After stirring at 50°C for 16 h, the reaction was cooled to 25°C, diluted with sat NH 4 Cl (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 500 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (2 x 500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was triturated from methanol (1 L) and water (1 L) to yield III-D3 (290 g) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.19 (s, 3H), 3.14 (s, 3H), 2.40-2.10 (m, 4H), 1.95-1.35 (m, 13H), 1.33-1.05 (m, 10H), 0.87 (s, 3H). Synthesis of III-D4

[0671] To a solution of III-D3 (275 g, 826 mmol) in THF (2 L) was added 9-BBN dimer (402 g, 1.65 mol) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for 2 h, the reaction was cooled to 0°C and ethanol (379 g, 8.26mol) and NaOH (1.65 L, 5 M, 8.26mol) were added very slowly. After the addition was complete, H 2 0 2 (825 mL, 8.26 mol, 30%) was added slowly maintaining the inner temperature below l5°C. After stirring at 75°C for 1 h, the reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous Na 2 S 2 0, (260 mL) and stirred at 0°C for 1 h. The mixture was diluted with water (2 L) and filtered. The filter cake was washed with water (3 x 700 mL), dried under vacuum to give III-D4 (285 g) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.17-3.09 (m, 6H), 1.96-1.77 (m, 8H), 1.64-1.29 (m, 11H), 1.24-0.91 (m, 10H), 0.63 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-D5

[0672] To a solution of III-D4 (285 g, 813 mmol) in THF (3 L) was added aq HC1 (1.62 L, 1.62 mol, 1 M) at 20°C. After stirring for 1 h, the mixture was diluted with water (700 mL) and extracted with DCM (2 x 500 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (2 x 500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered, concentrated to afford III-D5 (280 g) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.75-3.65 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.55 (m, 1H), 2.30-2.10 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.80 (m, 5H), 1.75-1.42 (m, 10H), 1.40-1.28 (m, 4H), 1.29-1.15 (m, 7H), 0.66 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-D6

[0673] To a solution of III-D6 (14 g, 45.9 mmol) toluene (200 mL) were added, TsOH (787 mg, 4.6 mmol) and ethane- l,2-diol (28.4 g, 458 mol) at 25°C under N 2 . After stirring at l20°C for 4 h, the mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by flash

chromatography (5-10% EtOAc in PE) to give III-D6 (8 g, 50%) as a solid. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) d H 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.76-3.63 (m, 1H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.93-1.80 (m, 4H), 1.64-1.58 (m, 3H), 1.56-1.48 (m, 2H), 1.44-1.30 (s, 6H), 1.27-0.95 (m, 12H), 0.66 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of III-D7

[0674] To a solution of III-D6 (2.0 g, 5.7 mmol), PhI(OAc) 2 (5.50 g, 17.1 mmol) and CaC0 3 (1.71 g, 17.1 mmol) in cyclohexane (200 mL) was added I 2 (2.89 g, 11.4 mmol) at 25°C. The mixture was heated to 80°C by irradiation with infrared lamp (200 W) for 10 minutes. The mixture was purified together with another similar reaction (2 g). The mixture was added into saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 (1000 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 300 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (1000 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-D7 (4.6 g) as an oil. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.95 (s, 1H), 4.35-4.40 (m, 1H), 3.92 (s, 4H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.05 (m,

3H), 2.00-1.70 (m, 12H), 1.50-1.35 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.00 (m, 6H), 0.90-0.70 (m, 1H).

Synthesis of III-D8

[0675] To a solution of PPh 3 MeBr (20.2 g, 56.8 mmol) and t-BuOK (6.36 g, 56.8 mmol) in THF (30 mL) stirred for lh at 50°C was added a solution of III-D7 (2.3 g, 5.7 mmol) in THF (20 mL). After stirring for 12 hours at 50°C, the solution was purified together with another batch (from 2.3 g). The mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D8 (2.3 g) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 5.77 (dd, J= 11.2, 18.0 Hz, 1H), 5.28 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (d, J= 18.0 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.90-3.85 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.65 (m, 6H), 1.60-1.50 (m, 3H), 1.50-1.40 (m, 1H), 1.35-0.80 (m, 16H).

Synthesis of III-D9

[0676] To a solution of III-D8 (2.0 g, 5.5 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was added NaH (438 mg, 11.0 mmol, 60% in mineral oil) at 0°C. After stirring at 20°C for 1 h, BnBr (2.36 g, 13.8 mmol) was added into the mixture at 20°C. After stirring at 60°C for 10 h, the mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine (3 x 50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-40% of EtOAc in PE) to give III- D9 (2.0 g, 80.3%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.34-7.25 (m, 5H), 5.66-5.56 (m, 1H), 5.27-5.17 (m, 1H), 5.08-5.01 (m, 1H), 4.57-4.26 (m, 2H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.27-3.14 (m, 1H), 2.39-2.34 (m, 1H), 1.96 (s, 2H), 1.90-1.78 (m, 3H), 1.61-1.54 (m, 4H), 1.48-1.34 (m, 10H), 1.20-1.14 (m, 5H), 1.06-0.99 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of III-D10 [0677] To a solution of III-D9 (2.0 g, 4.4 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added BH 3 .Me 2 S (2.21 mL, 10 M, 22.1 mmol). After stirring at 25°C for 16 h, EtOH (2.55 mL, 44.3 mmol) followed by aq. NaOH (1.77 g in 8.86 mL water, 44.3 mmol) and aq. H 2 0 2 (4.43 mL, 10 M, 44.3 mmol) were added slowly. After stirring at 70°C for 1 h, the mixture was quenched by Na?SO, (80 mL, 10%) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic solution was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated and purified by flash column (0-30% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D10 (1.4 g, 67.6%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.37-7.31 (m, 4H), 7.28-7.24 (m, 1H), 4.66 (d, J=l l .2 Hz, 1H), 4.32 (d, J=l l .2 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.68-3.46 (m, 3H), 2.02-1.74 (m, 6H), 1.70-1.57 (s, 5H), 1.52-1.33 (m, 9H), 1.28-1.23 (m, 2H), 1.21-1.03 (m, 5H), 1.02-0.92 (m, 3H)

Synthesis of Ill-Dll

[0678] To a solution of III-D10 (1.4 g, 2.98 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was added DMP (2.52 g, 5.96 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for lh, the mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (200 mL). and extracted with DCM (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 (2 x 200 mL), saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give Ill-Dll (1.4 g) as an oil. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 9.66 (s, 1H), 7.40-7.27 (m, 4H), 7.25-7.15 (m, 1H), 4.56 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.80-3.70 (m, 1H), 2.55-2.40 (m, 2H), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H), 2.10-1.60 (m, 9H), 1.52-1.25 (m, 8H), 1.22 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.20-0.92 (m, 6H).

Synthesis of III-D12

[0679] To a solution of Ill-Dll (1.4 g, 3.0 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added MeMgBr (5 mL, 3 M in Et 2 0, 15.0 mmol) at 0°C. After stirring at 20°C for lh, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated to give III-D12 (1.3 g) as an oil. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) dp 7.35-7.28 (m, 4H), 7.25-7.16 (m, 1H), 4.61 (d, J= 12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.91-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.54-3.40 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.25 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.60 (m, 8H), 1.52-1.20 (m, 14H), 1.18-0.80 (m, 10H).

Synthesis of III-D13

[0680] To a solution of III-D12 (1.8 g, 3.7 mmol) in DCM (40 mL) was added Dess- Martin periodinane (DMP) (3.15 g, 7.4 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for lh, the mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (300 mL) and extracted with DCM (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 (2 x 300 mL), saturated brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-D13 (1.8 g) as an oil. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.40-7.28 (m, 4H), 7.25-7.16 (m, 1H), 4.51 (d, J= 12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (d, J= 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.13-3.02 (m, 1H), 2.44 (d, J= 18.4 Hz, 1H), 2.29 (d,

J= 19.2 Hz, 1H), 2.10-1.78 (m, 8H), 1.76 (s, 3H), 1.52-1.11 (m, 15H), 1.10-0.75 (m, 4H).

To a solution of MePh 3 PBr (6.67 g, 18.7 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added t-BuOK (2.09 g, 18.7 mmol) at 20°C. After stirring at 50°C for lh, a solution of III-D13 (1.8 g, 3.7 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added to the reaction below 50°C. After stirring at 50°C for 16 h, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0- 5% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D14 (1.2 g, 67%) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.40-7.28 (m, 4H), 7.25-7.16 (m, 1H), 4.77 (s, 1H), 4.71 (s, 1H), 4.57 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (d, 7= 11.2 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 4H), 3.90-3.75 (m, 1H), 2.36 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.20-

1.80 (m, 9H), 1.78-1.59 (m, 4H), 1.52-1.25 (m, 9H), 1.23-1.19 (m, 3H), 1.15-0.80 (m, 6H).

Synthesis of III-D15 & III-D15a

III-D14 III-D15a III-D15

To a solution of III-D14 (1.2 g, 2.5 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added Pd/C (200 mg, 10% in water) at 25°C. After stirring at 25°C for 16 h under H 2 (50 psi), the mixture was filtered and the mother liquor was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-10% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D15a (400 mg, 41%) and III-D15 (300 mg, 31%) both as oils.

To a solution of III-15a (400 mg, 1.0 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added Pd/C (100 mg, 10% in water) at 25°C. After stirring at 50°C for 16 h under H2 (50 psi), the mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with MeOH (3 x 30 mL). The mother liquor was concentrated to give III-D15 (300 mg) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.93 (s,

4H), 3.84-3.71 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.15 (m, 1H), 2.08-1.60 (m, 8H), 1.52-1.33 (m, 9H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.28-1.02 (m, 10H), 0.97 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of III-D16

[0681] A solution of III-D15 (600 mg, 1.5 mmol) and aq. HC1 (3 mL, 2 M, 6.0 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was stirred at 20°C for lh. The mixture was added into saturated NaHCO, (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (150 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III- D16 (500 mg) as an oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.90-3.75 (m, 1H), 2.59 (t, J= 14.0 Hz, 1H), 2.35-2.05 (m, 6H), 2.00-1.60 (m, 5H), 1.50-1.35 (m, 4H), 1.32 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 3H), 1.30-1.03 (m, 12H), 1.00 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of III-D17

[0682] To a solution of t-BuOK (581 mg, 5.2 mmol) and Me 3 SI (1.05 g, 5.2 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added III-D16 (600 mg, 1.7 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for lh, the reaction was diluted with water (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated to give III-D17 (540 mg) as an oil. ' H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI 3 ) d H 3.85-3.70 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.55 (m, 2H), 2.30-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.03-1.59 (m, 9H), 1.52- 1.35 (m, 5H), 1.32 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.30-1.02 (m, 10H), 0.99 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.93 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.91-0.80 (m,2H).

Synthesis of III-D18 & III-D19

[0683] Na (716 mg, 29.8 mmol) was added into MeOH (30 mL) at 20°C. After stirring at 70°C for 3 h, a solution of III-D17 (540 mg, 1.5 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added. After stirring at 70°C for 5 h, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (150 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-25% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D18 (150 mg, 26%) and III-D19 (250 mg, 43%, ) both as oils. The stereochemistry of C3 was assigned based on H-NMR.

III-D18: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.90-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.20 (s, 2H), 2.25- 2.10 (m, 2H), 1.99 (s, 1H), 1.98-1.58 (m, 8H), 1.52-1.34 (m, 6H), 1.31 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.28-1.02 (m, 12H), 0.98 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H).

III-D19: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.88-3.72 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.30 (m, 5H), 2.57 (s, 1H), 2.19 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 1H), 2.00-1.60 (m, 8H), 1.50-1.34 (m, 6H), 1.31 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 3H), 1.28-1.02 (m, 12H), 0.98 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.90-0.85 (m, 1H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, 100% de based on H-NMR; MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 4I O [M- 2H 2 0+H] + 357.3, found 357.3.

Synthesis of III-D20 [0684] To a solution of III-D19 (230 mg, 0.59 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added DMP

(496 mg, 1.2 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for lh, the mixture was added into saturated NaHCO, (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated Na 2 S 2 0 3 (2 x 100 mL), saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0- 25% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D20 (132 mg, 58%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 3.45-3.35 (m, 5H), 2.61 (s, 1H), 2.48-2.36 (m, 2H), 2.30-2.15 (m, 4H), 1.90-1.59 (m, 8H), 1.52-1.32 (m, 7H), 1.30-1.05 (m, 9H), 0.93 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.78 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H); LC- ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C 25 H 4i 0 2 [M-H 2 0+H] + 373.3, found 373.3.

EXAMPLE III-14 Synthesis of l-(2-((3R,5R,8R,9R,10S,13R,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-13- isobutyl-3-(methoxymethyl)hexadecahydro-lH-cyclopenta[a]phen anthren-17-yl)-2- oxoethyl)-lH-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (III-D22)

Synthesis of III-D21

[0685] To a solution of III-D21 (117 mg, 0.3 mmol) and HBr (11.9 mg, 0.06 mmol, 40%) in MeOH (5 mL) was added Br 2 (47.9 mg, 0.3 mmol) at 0°C. After stirring at 20°C for 3 h, the mixture was added into saturated NaHC0 3 (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 , filtered and concentrated to give III-D21 (180 mg) as an oil, which was used as is.

Synthesis of III-D22 [0686] To a solution of III-D22 (180 mg, 0.38 mmol) in acetone (5 mL) were added 1H- pyrazole-4-carnonotrile (106 mg, 1.1 mmol) and K 2 C0 3 (157 mg, 1.1 mmol). After stirring at 20°C for 16 h, the mixture was added into saturated NH 4 Cl (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with water (2 x 100 mL), saturated brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column (0-40% of EtOAc in PE) to give III-D2 (24.5 mg, 13%) as a solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d H 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 5.22 (d, j= 18.0 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (d, J= 17.6 Hz, 1H), 3.48-3.35 (m, 5H), 2.50-2.40 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.22 (m, 1H), 1.95-1.55 (m, 13H), 1.53-1.00 (m, 12H), 0.95 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.67 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H); LC-ELSD/MS purity 99%, MS ESI calcd. for C^H^N^ [M-H 2 0+H] + 464.3, found 464.3.

Steroid Inhibition of TBPS Binding

[0687] [ 35 S]-t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding assays using rat brain cortical membranes in the presence of 5 mM GABA has been described (Gee et al, J

Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987, 241, 346-353; Hawkinson et al, Mo/. Pharmacol. 1994, 46, 977-985; Lewin, A.H et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 1989, 35, 189-194 ).

[0688] Briefly, cortices are rapidly removed following decapitation of carbon dioxide- anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g). The cortices are homogenized in 10 volumes of ice-cold 0.32 M sucrose using a glass/teflon homogenizer and centrifuged at 1500 x g for 10 min at 4 °C. The resultant supernatants are centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 20 min at 4 °C to obtain the P2 pellets. The P2 pellets are resuspended in 200 mM NaCl/50 mM Na-K phosphate pH 7.4 buffer and centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 10 min at 4 °C. This washing procedure is repeated twice and the pellets are resuspended in 10 volumes of buffer. Aliquots (100 mL) of the membrane suspensions are incubated with 3 nM [ 35 S]-TBPS and 5 mL aliquots of test drug dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (final 0.5%) in the presence of 5 mM GABA. The incubation is brought to a final volume of 1.0 mL with buffer.

Nonspecific binding is determined in the presence of 2 mM unlabeled TBPS and ranged from 15 to 25 %. Following a 90 min incubation at room temp, the assays are terminated by filtration through glass fiber filters (Schleicher and Schuell No. 32) using a cell harvester (Brandel) and rinsed three times with ice-cold buffer. Filter bound radioactivity is measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Non-linear curve fitting of the overall data for each drug averaged for each concentration is done using Prism (GraphPad). The data are fit to a partial instead of a full inhibition model if the sum of squares is significantly lower by F-test. Similarly, the data are fit to a two component instead of a one component inhibition model if the sum of squares is significantly lower by F-test. The concentration of test compound producing 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of specific binding and the maximal extent of inhibition (Imax) are determined for the individual experiments with the same model used for the overall data and then the means + SEM.s of the individual experiments are calculated. Picrotoxin serves as the positive control for these studies as it has been demonstrated to robustly inhibit TBPS binding.

[0689] Various compounds are or can be screened to determine their potential as modulators of [ 35 S]-TBPS binding in vitro. These assays are or can be performed in accordance with the above.

[0690] Example 1-10: TBPS Binding

[0691] In Table 1-1 below, A indicates a TBPS IC50 (mM) < 0.01 mM, B indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 0.01 mM to < 0.1 mM, C indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 0.1 mM to < 1.0 mM, D indicates a TBPS IC50 (mM) of 1.0 mM to < 10 mM, and E means > 10 mM. [0692] Table 1-1. TBPS binding of the exemplary compounds.

EXAMPLE 11-82:

[0693] In Table II-2 below, A indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) < 0.01 mM, B indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 0.01 mM to < 0.1 mM, C indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 0.1 mM to < 1.0 mM, D indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 1.0 mM to < 10 mM, and E means > 10 mM.

Table II-2

[0694] EXAMPLE III- 14 : Biological Data

[0695] In Table III-l below, A indicates a TBPS IC50 (mM) < 0.01 mM, B indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 0.01 mM to < 0.1 mM, C indicates a TBPS IC 50 (mM) of 0.1 mM to < 1.0 mM, D indicates a TBPS IC50 (mM) of 1.0 mM to < 10 mM, and E means > 10 mM.

Table III-l:

Equivalents and Scope

[0696] In the claims articles such as“a,”“an,” and“the” may mean one or more than one unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. Claims or descriptions that include“or” between one or more members of a group are considered satisfied if one, more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. The invention includes embodiments in which exactly one member of the group is present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process. The invention includes embodiments in which more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process.

[0697] Furthermore, the invention encompasses all variations, combinations, and

permutations in which one or more limitations, elements, clauses, and descriptive terms from one or more of the listed claims is introduced into another claim. For example, any claim that is dependent on another claim can be modified to include one or more limitations found in any other claim that is dependent on the same base claim. Where elements are presented as lists, e.g ., in Markush group format, each subgroup of the elements is also disclosed, and any element(s) can be removed from the group. It should it be understood that, in general, where the invention, or aspects of the invention, is/are referred to as comprising particular elements and/or features, certain embodiments of the invention or aspects of the invention consist, or consist essentially of, such elements and/or features. For purposes of simplicity, those embodiments have not been specifically set forth in haec verba herein. It is also noted that the terms“comprising” and“containing” are intended to be open and permits the inclusion of additional elements or steps. Where ranges are given, endpoints are included. Furthermore, unless otherwise indicated or otherwise evident from the context and understanding of one of ordinary skill in the art, values that are expressed as ranges can assume any specific value or sub-range within the stated ranges in different embodiments of the invention, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit of the range, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. [0698] This application refers to various issued patents, published patent applications, journal articles, and other publications, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. If there is a conflict between any of the incorporated references and the instant specification, the specification shall control. In addition, any particular embodiment of the present invention that falls within the prior art may be explicitly excluded from any one or more of the claims. Because such embodiments are deemed to be known to one of ordinary skill in the art, they may be excluded even if the exclusion is not set forth explicitly herein. Any particular embodiment of the invention can be excluded from any claim, for any reason, whether or not related to the existence of prior art.

[0699] Those skilled in the art will recognize or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation many equivalents to the specific embodiments described herein. The scope of the present embodiments described herein is not intended to be limited to the above Description, but rather is as set forth in the appended claims. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that various changes and modifications to this description may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the present invention, as defined in the following claims.